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Chem.

113C Homework Assignment #1 Due: Before class Monday, April 9, 2012 Problem 1 a) What is the possible number of microstates associated with tossing a coin N times and having it come up H times heads and T times tails? b) For a series of 1000 tosses, what is the total number of microstates associated with 50% heads and 50% tails? c) How less probable is the outcome that the coin will land 40% heads and 60% tails? Problem 2

Problem 3 Consider the case of 10 oscillators and eight quanta of energy. Determine the dominant configuration of energy for this system by identifying energy configurations and calculating the corresponding weights. What is the probability of observing the dominant configuration? Problem 4 A box of nails contains 90 straight nails and 10 nails too bent to be used. You randomly select 10 nails from the box. What is the probability that you removed 8 straight nails and 2 bent nails? To find the probability, first derive a general expression using the following notation:

where is the total number of nails in the box, and are the number of straight and bent nails, respectively, is the total number of nails removed from the box, and and are the number of straight and bent nails removed from the box, respectively.

Problem 5 A set of 13 particles occupies states with energies of 0, 100, and 200 cm-1.Calculate the total energy and number of microstates for the following configurations of energy: a) a0 = 8, a1 = 5, and a2 = 0 b) a0 = 9, a1 = 3, and a2 = 1 c) a0 = 10, a1 = 1, and a2 = 2 Do any of these configurations correspond to the Boltzmann distribution? Problem 6 Consider 25 players on a professional baseball team. At any point, 9 players are in the batting order. How many 9-player batting orders are there if the all-star centerfielder must bat in the 4th spot in the order? Problem 7 You play a slot machine in Las Vegas. For every \$1 coin you insert there are three outcomes: (1) you lose \$1, (2) you win \$1, so your profit is \$0, (3) you win \$5, so your profit is \$4. Suppose that you find that your average expected profit over many trials is \$0 (too bad!). Find the maximum entropy distribution for the probabilities P1, P2, and P3 for observing each of these three outcomes. Problem 8 Consider the following alternate definition of entropy for some integer

Note also that in this ensemble the subsystems all have the same energy (i.e.

).

a) Show that this definition is consistent with entropy being an extensive property. b) Using the above formula for entropy determine the set that maximizes subject to the constraint .