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W. Yi

COADE, Inc., Houston, TX 77070 Mem. ASME

C. Basavaraju

Division of Engineering, Bechtel Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Mem. ASME

Cylindrical Shells Under Partially Distributed Radial Loading

to the fundamental problem of a cylindrical shell subjected to a

symmetric, partially distributed, and self-balanced radial pressure loading acting on the external surface is obtained under plane strain condition. A dual series approach based on Airy's stress functions is employed yielding an exact solution to an auxiliary composite cylindrical assembly problem. The solution for the problem under study is then derived as a limit case of the auxiliary composite cylinder problem. It is proven that the more generalized solution presented here may be used to recover several well-known classical results. The solutions also agree very well with the

numerical results obtained from a finite element analysis performed for one sample hollow shell problem. The rigorous expressions found in this analysis for the stress and displacement fields are applicable to both thin and thick-walled shells, including piping.

The elastic solution

Introduction The problems involving solid cylinder shell under external loading have been treated extensively in the past due to their wide application in pressure vessel design (Filon, 1902; Bonnie, 1941; Wood, 1958). Cylindrical shell problems may be studied by several different approaches. If the solution of thin shell is of interest, the elastic theory considering the so-called "membrane stresses" can be applied. It essentially neglects the bending stresses during the formulation of the problem, while the aver- age stress components are assumed to act tangentially to the shell surface. The thin shell model is useful when the thickness of the shell is very small when compared with other characteris- tic lengths, such as the radius of the shell. When the thickness of the cylindrical vessel becomes relatively large, the variation in the stress from the inner surface to the outer surface may be appreciable, and the membrane formulas will no longer provide satisfactory indication of the stress levels inside the shell. To this end, the bending effects may become significant, and it must be included in the formulation. However, in the case of plane strain, the formulation of the shell problem can be greatly simplified into a two-dimensional one. By using Airy's stress function approach, the problem may be formulated in the polar coordinates using a dual series approach (Timoshenko and Goo- dier, 1970). Comprehensive studies of shell structures can be found in the book by Fliigge (1973), while thorough theoretical formula- tions for cylindrical shells subjected to uniform external and/ or internal pressures are available in literature (Harvey, 1985; Young, 1989). However, there is yet no report on the subject of long cylindrical shells subject to symmetric, partially distrib- uted, and self-balanced radial pressure loading applied on the outer surface of the shells. This paper is aimed at providing such an analytical solution. In the present analysis, the problem of a composite cylindrical assembly subjected to external loading is first formulated, which then leads to the solution of the cylindrical shell problem in a limit case. The analytical results reveal that the methodology adopted in the present formulation agrees very well with theoret- ical solutions as well as finite element analysis. Furthermore, the expressions developed in this paper may also be used for hollow, thin or thick-walled shells, including piping.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessels and Piping Division and presented at the Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, June 19-23,

1994,

of

TH E AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. Manuscript

re-

ceived by the PVP Division, April 5, 1994; revised manuscript received May 8,

1995.

Technical Editor: S. Y. Zamrik.

104 / Vol. 118, FEBRUARY 1996

Formulation

Consider a cylindrical core embedded in a coaxial cylindrical outer shell, as shown in Fig. 1(a). The radius of the cylindrical core is a, and that of the outer shell is b. Both the core and outer shell materials are considered to be homogeneous, isotropic, and linear elastic, with shear moduli G and G, Poisson's ratios V and v, respectively. The cylindrical shell is subjected to a pair of self-balanced, partially distributed radial loading p acting on its outer surface, symmetrically spanning in an arbitrary angle a with respect to x-axis. If the composite cylindrical assembly can be considered as infinitely long in its longitudinal direction, the problem under consideration can then be treated as a plane strain case. It is well known that by using Airy's stress function tp(r, 0), the compatibility equation can be put into a biharmonic form, namely,

V

= o

(i)

with the corresponding stress components, in polar coordinates, given by

°

r ~

= _1<V r dr +

<Jr6

1

d 2 <p

r 2 Q0 2

dr[r

a 9

=

86

1 d 2 <p

,.2

df .2

(2)

Equations (1) , (2) are valid for both the core and the outer shell materials. In what follows, the barred notations will be used to represent those expressions associated with the core, and the unbarred ones for those of the outer shell. The solutions to (1) can be expressed in the following series form (Timoshenko and Goodier, 1970):

 

p(r,

6)

= A 0 r 2

+

£

(P„r" + Q„r" +2 ) cos nO

(3a)

ip(r,

6)

=

C 0 r 2 + R 0 log r

 

+

S

(R n r n

+ S n r n+2 + U„r~" + V n r~" +2 ) cos nO

(3b)

where A 0 , C 0 , R 0 , P n , Qn, R„, S„, U„, and V„ are constant

coefficients

to be determined from the appropriate boundary

conditions. Here, the even order cosine functions are chosen

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-Core

Fig. 1 (a)

partially distributed, and self-balanced radial loads

A composite cylindrical assembly under a pair of symmetric,

Fig. 1 (fa)

and self-balanced radial loads

A solid cylinder under a pair of symmetric, partially distributed,

Fig. 1 (c)

outer surfaces

A cylindrical shell subjected to uniform pressure on inner and

because of the symmetry of the structure as well as loading conditions of the problem. Using (2), the stress components in the core and the shell can be expressed as

o

a

r

a

=

2A 0 -

=

2A 0 +

3V0=

I

X,

[n(n-

l)p"' 2 A„

 
 

+

(n

+

l)(n -

2)p"B„] cos

nO

I

[n(n

-

l)p" _2 A„

+

(n

+ 1)(» + 2)p"B„]

cos nO

n[(n-l)p"- 2 A„ + (n+l)p"B„]sin«0

(4a)

(4b)

(4c)

cr, = 2C 0

+ E 0 p~ 2

-

£

[n(n -

l)p"" 2 C„

 

(i=2,4

.

+

(n

-

2)(n +

l)p"D„

+

(n

-

+

n («

+

l)p""' 2 £„

l)(n + 2)p _ "F„] cos «6>

(5a)

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology

C7 e =

2C 0 -

£ 0 p~ 2 +

I

[n(n -

l)p"^ 2 C„

+

(n

+ \)(n

+ 2)p"D„

+ n (n

+

l)p~ n ~ 2 E„

S

-

 

+

(n

-

l)( n

-

2)p~"F„] cos

«0

(56)

n[(n -

l)p"- 2 C„ + (« +

l)p"D„

 

(n

+ \)p~"~ 2 E n

-

(n

-

l)p~"F„]

sin

n9

(5c )

r/a

and constants E 0 , A„, B„, C„, D„, E„, and F„

R 0 ,

A„ =

a"

P n ,

B„ = a"Q„,

C„ =

a"'

R„,

o rt =

where p =

are defined by

= a

E a

D„ = a n S n ,

E„ = a~"- 2 U,„

F„ = a~"V

(6)

The corresponding displacement fields may be expressed as

2Gu r /a = (K — l)pA 0

-

X

[np"~ l A„

+

(n-

R +

l)p" +1 fl„] cos n9

(la)

(1=2,4,

 

2G Uala

=

X

[np"~ l A n

+

(n

+

K

+ l)p" + 'B„ ]

sin «6»

(lb)

2Gw r /a

=

(K -

l)pC 0 -

E 0 p~ l

+

X

[-wp"~'C„

 

+ np-"-~ l E n

-

(n-

K +

l)p"

+[ D„

 

+

(n

+ K -

l)p~" +1 F„] cosnfl

(8a)

2Gu„/a =

 

X

[«p"~'C„

+

(n

+

K +

l)p n+1 D„

 

+ np-"~ l E n

+ (n

-

K -

l)p-" +{ F n ]

sin n9

(8b)

where K, /< are two material constants denned by

 
 

i<

= 3 -

4P, K

= 3 -

4v

(9)

The boundary conditions along the core/shell interface are as- sumed to be perfect, i.e., the following conditions hold:

a,(a,

9)

= a r (a,

0),

a rS (a,

9)

= a r6 (a,

8),

(10)

In addition to (10), the following traction boundary conditions are valid along the outer surface of the cylindrical shell:

u r (a,

9)

= u r (a,

8),

u e (a,

9)

= u s (a,

8)

Table 1

Comparison of present result with theoretical so-

lutions

Solid cylinder

(hydrostatic loading)

Hollow cylinder shell (external surface pressure)

 

a

= TT/2

 

a

= TT/2

 

=

1,

K

=

K,

B

=

0 ,

J] ==

1

r=l, K

=

3, /? =

1, 77 =

0, U =

0

 

£o =

 

0

y„

=

0, E'„

=

0

F' n =

0, ip„

=

0

 

a,

=

~p

a„ =

-p

Ore =

0

E 0 — — 2Co

1 -

\- 2

y„

= 0, C'„

= 0, D'„

= 0

E'„

= 0,F'„

= 0, i/>„ = 0

 

p

i>

_ ,

 

1 -

\-'

\p~

c 6

i

-

0,0

K- 2 W

=

0

+ 1

FEBRUARY 1996, Vol. 118/10 5

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<Wp

Exact

Exact

0.5 -.

FEA

FEA

0.0

b

-0.5

-1.0

<^r/P

<7*/P

— Exact

— Exact

— Exact

 

•• FEA

<r«/V

•• FEA

"

FEA

r/a

Fig. 2

tion at 0 = 0 deg

Comparisons of calculated stress components along radial sec-

r/a

Fig- 4

tion at 0 = 45 deg

Comparisons of calculated stress components along radial sec-

Letting

 

<J r6 (b, 0) =

0

 

(11a)

 

'

p,

—a

& 9 s,

a;

 

0,

a

<

9 <

it

— a;

 

ffr(*.

0)

=

I

—p,

7T — a<#<7 r

+

a;

(11*)

 

0,

7r +

a<0<-a .

 

A' n

= nA„,

 

B' n = {n

+

\)B n

 

C' n = «C„,

D;

=

+

1)D„

=

2)

E'„

= nE n ,

Fi = («-1)F .

 

(12)

and apply the boundary conditions (10) at the core/shell inter- face, it can be found that

 

2A 0 =

2C 0 +

£0,

 

(n

=

0)

(13a)

 

( R -

lMo = r[(ic -

l)C 0 -£o ]

 

(n

-

1)A ; +

(/»

-

2)fl i

=

(n

-

l)C i

+

( n

-

2)D

J

 
 

+

(ra +

1)£ ;

+

( n

+

2)F ;

 

(« -

1)A; + «iB^ =

(n -

l)C i

+ nD' n -

(n +

l) ^

- raF^

4.0

2.0

-

: _

0.0

-Z.0

:

: _

Exact Exact • • • •« FEA FEA

•^-^_^r/ P

<-Vp X x ,

1.0

1.2

1.4

r/a

1.6

1.6

2.0

Fig. 3

tion at 8 =

Comparisons of calculated stress components along radial sec-

15 deg

106 / Vol. 118, FEBRUARY 1996

A ; +

A'

+

i

n

1 + n

+

+

1

1

si

= r

[c; +

B' n =

T [CJ

+

i

- E'„

1 +

W

-

«

+

(

K

+

1

1

1

D:

-

n

-

£>;,

1

F'„]

+

EJ

+

I 1

»

-

1,

F' n ]

(ra £= 2 ) (13ft)

where T = G/G. Applying traction boundary conditions (11)

and noting \

= ft/a, the following equations can be obtained:

2C 0 + \~ 2 E 0

=

-

=£^. 2pa

=

0)

(14a)

(n

+

1)\"^ 2 F ^ +

n\-"F' n

= (n

-

\)\"- 2 C'„

+

n\"D' n

 

(n + l)k-"- 2 E' n

+

(n

+

2)\-"F'„

 
   

1)\"- 2 C ;

 

^

sin

 

=

-( n

-

-

(n

-

2)\."Z)i +

«7T

n a

 

(n

2= 2)

(14ft)

If constants /3 and 77 are denned as

 
 

a

K-TK

 

T{K

+

1)

P

=

-

r.

>

^

=

2 r

 

1

 

(15)

 

,

R + r

   

+

K -

 

With the aid of Eqs. (13a) and (14a), the unknown constants A 0 , Co, and E 0 can be determined as

C 0

=

pak 2 7T(\ 2 +

77-1 )

£0 =

2(77 -

,

A 0 = 77C0,

1)C 0

(16)

while constants Ai, B^, C,', D^, E'„, and F^ can be determined through the following equations:

F'„

D' n

= 4^ -

sin na ,

= y„ (C'„

+ D'„),

C'„=^D' n

E' n = n

+ 1 D'

F'

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o\>/p_ '

*

Fig. 5

Comparisons of calculated stress components along radial sec-

tion at 0 = 90 deg

K

A'„

= C'„

+ (n+

l)E' n

+

 

n

-

1

1

= Ul^Jl{_!^ D , +

E , +

F'

n

K

K

\n

+ 1

(17a)

where •)>„, £„, 77,,, ip„, and £„ (n > 2) are defined by

»7„ =

n\ "

-

/9X-"" 2 -

y„k~" [n -

(n

+

\)\~ 2 }

£, n

=

-( «

-

DV- 2 + y„\-"

[n~(n+

1)\- 2 ]

C„ =

x\i

^"- 2

n

+

= y„ [(«

+

2)\" "

-

(n

+

1)\-"" 2 ]

<A„ +

(n

-

2)V

 
 

+

[./,„

+

(« -

l)r~ 2 ] ^

(17fc)

The elastic solution for the composite cylindrical assembly can be readily found by substituting (16) - (17) into (4) - (8).

Results and Discussion Knowing the solution to the foregoing auxiliary composite cylindrical assembly problem, the problem of a cylindrical shell structure subjected to the same loading condition can be ap-

r/a=1.0,

Exact

r/a=1.5,

r/a=2.0,

Exact

Exact

•• r/a=1.0, FEA •" r/a=1.5, FEA • * r/a=2.0, FEA

-6. 0

1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111

0

10

30

30

i?

40

50

60

(deg.)

70

80

00

Fig. 6

direction

Comparisons of calculated displacement u, along circumferential

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology

3.0

r/a=1.0,

Exact

r/a=1.5,

Exact

r/a=2.0, Exact

 

r/a=1.0, FEA

v

r/a=1.5, FEA

\ •

r/a=2.0, FEA

i?

(deg.)

Fig. 7

direction

Comparisons of calculated displacement u „ along circumferential

proached by considering a composite assembly with a very "soft" core, i.e., by letting F < 1. That is to say, given the nature of the core material, the shell will not realize the exis- tence of the core when subjected to any external loading. The analytical solution obtained from this consideration can thus be used to describe the cylindrical shell problem. The exact solutions derived from this study are compared with three separate cases described as follows. First, a solid cylinder subjected to the same partially distributed radial load- ing, as depicted in Fig. 1(b), is solved independently using (5). It may be verified that the constants E Q , E'„ and F'„ vanish in the limit case where the core and shell materials are chosen to be identical, i.e., T = 1 and K = K. Under this condition, the solution obtained from the present analysis collapses exactly with the closed-form solutions derived for the solid cylinder using complex variable method (Yi and Basavaraju, 1994). In addition, the analytical results degenerate to the hydrostatic condition with a r = a 9 = -p and a re = 0 for the solid cylinder with pressure loading applied on the entire cylindrical surface. Next, the present solutions are compared with another limit case, i.e., a hollow cylinder (T = 0) subjected to uniform exter- nal and internal pressures, as shown in Fig. 1(c). For the case of a uniform pressure loading applied to the entire outer shell surface, it can be shown that the present solution also coincides with the exact solutions given by Timoshenko and Goodier (1970). The comparisons of the present solution and the classi- cal results are given in Table 1. Finally, the solution for a particular sample problem of a hollow cylinder under plane strain condition subjected to a par- tially distributed surface pressure is obtained using standard finite element code (ANSYS). The finite element model is constructed based on the STIF45 solid brick elements. The quar- ter-model employed in the analysis consists of 20 elements through the thickness in the radial direction, and the elements spanned 2.5 deg along the circumferential direction of the shell. In the sample case, the following material properties and loading conditions are selected:

E

=

27.9 X 10 6 psi,

v

=

0.3

a

=

10 in.,

bla

=

2.0

p

=

10000 psi,

a

= 30 deg

Numerical solutions for the stress distributions inside the shell are computed using both the present solution (Exact) and finite element analysis (FEA). Results for stress solutions are plotted along several radial sections of the shell, as shown in Figs. 2 - 5. Due to symmetry contained in the problem, only the first quarter of the cylindrical shell is considered. Directions 8 = 0,

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90 deg are chosen since they are the sections of symmetry. Two other sections, one contained inside the loading zone (9 = 15

deg < a) , another outside the loading

a) , are selected to examine the applicability of the theoretical solutions. Similarly, the corresponding results for displacement variations along the circumferential direction are plotted in Figs. 6-7. Excellent agreements between the theoretical approach

and the finite element analysis are found, thus confirming the validity of the formulas derived in this paper. It is also worth noting that the solution methodology also applies to the extreme case of 6 = a, since condition (lib) is enforced during the formulations.

zone (0 = 45 deg >

Conclusion Analytical expressions for stress and displacement fields are derived for a long cylindrical shell subjected to symmetric, partially distributed and self-balanced radial pressure loading under plane strain condition. The theoretical formulas may be considered to be general in scope and verifies several well- known classical results. It also provides excellent agreement in

108 / Vol. 118, FEBRUARY 1996

comparison with the results from finite element analysis. In addition, the composite assembly approach adopted in this anal- ysis implies that the results can be used in either thin or thick- walled shell problems, including piping.

References

Bonnie, A. M., 1941, "Axially Symmetrical Stress in a Thick Tube," Philo- sophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol. 32. Filon, L. N. J., 1902, "On The Elastic Equilibrium of Circular Cylinders Under Certain Practical Systems of Load," Philosophical Transactions, Royal Society of London, Series A, Vol. 198, pp. 147-233. FlUgge, W., 1973, Stresses in Shells, 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. Harvey, J. F„ 1985, Theory and Design of Pressure Vessels, 1st Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY. Sokolnikoff, I. S., 1983, Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Krieger Pub. Co., FL. Timoshenko, S., and Goodier, J. N., 1970, Theory of Elasticity, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Co., New York, NY. Wood, J. D., 1958, "The Flexure of a Uniformly Pressurized Circular, Cylindri- cal Shell," ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 80, pp. 453-458.

Partially Distrib-

Yi, W„ and Basavaraju, C , 1994, "Cylindrical Shells Under

uted Radial Loading," Proceedings, ASME PVP-Vol. 279, pp. 139-148. Young, W. C , 1989, Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill Co., New York, NY.

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