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# ESP Math 427K WORKSHEET 16

Spring 1997

In the following problems, we consider a constant coecient linear second order dierential equation (1) ay + by + cy = g(x). The corresponding homogeneous equation is ay + by + cy = 0. 1. Suppose that the nonhomogenous part of the equation has the form g(x) = Pn (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 . Lets see if we can nd a solution of the form Y (x) = An xn + An1 xn1 + + A1 x + A0 . That is, we want to nd values for the n + 1 constants A0 , A1 , . . . , An that make Y (x) a particular solution to (1). a) Substitute Y (x), Y (x), Y (x), and g(x) into equation (1). b) By equating coecients on like powers of x, write down n + 1 equations involving the constants Ai , ai , a, b, and c. c) If c = 0, show that we can solve for the constants A0 , A1 , . . . , An so that Y (x) is a particular solution (1). d) If c = 0, what goes wrong? How would you modify your guess? In this case, show that y = k (a constant) is a solution to the homogeneous equation (2). Would there be any need to include a constant term in your guess for the particular solution? Is there a constant term in your modied guess? 2. Suppose that g(x) = ex . Let Y (x) = Aex be our guess for a particular solution. a) Substitute Y , Y , Y , and g into equation (1) and solve for A. b) When is it not possible to solve for A? Write down an equation that holds precisely in this case. c) Given the condition you wrote down in part b), let Y (x) = Axex be our revised guess. Substitute Y , Y , Y , and g into equation (1) and solve for A. d) When is it not possible to solve for A in this case? Write down an equation that holds precisely in this case. e) Given the condition you wrote down in part d), let Y (x) = Ax2 ex be an even further revised guess. Substitute Y , Y , Y , and g into equation (1) and solve for A. Can this always be done? Mike Oehrtman (2)

ESP Math 427K 3. Now consider the case that g(x) = sin kx.

Spring 1997

a) Find conditions on the constants a, b, and c for which there is a particular solution to (1) of the form Y (x) = A sin kx. b) Find conditions on the constants a, b, and c for which there is a particular solution to (1) of the form Y (x) = A cos kx. c) Let our guess for the particular solution be Y (x) = A sin kx + B cos kx. Give conditions for when this can be solved. d) Give the conditions for which Y (x) = A sin kx can be a solution to the homogeneous equation (2). 4. Suppose that g(x) is a solution to the homogeneous equation (2). a) Show that if y = xg(x) satises the nonhomogeneous equation (1), then g(x) = Ke
1b 2a x

b) If, on the other hand, y = xg(x) solves (2), nd g(x). c) Finally, if g(x), xg(x), and x2 g(x) all solve the homogeneous equation (2), then nd g(x).

Worksheet 16

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