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MANUFACTURE

11.1 General
The following manufacturing standards and rules apply specifically to penstocks and penstock parts that are fabricated by welding and constructed of carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, or heat-treated steel. 11.1.1 Fabrication Standard Fabrication of penstocks must conform to the provisions of Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Code 1 and also the following specific requirements, additional requirements, and the special provisions for spiral seam penstocks given in Section 11.4.

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11.1.2 ANSVAWWA C200 Standard


The ANSI/AWWA C200 standard2 covers the manufacture of electrically butt-welded, straight-seam or spiral-seam pipe intended for water use. For quality assurance, this standard relies on production weld testing and shop hydrostatic testing of each section by stressing the pipe wall to 75% of the specified minimum yield of the steel used. The ANSI/AWWA standard also covers pipe end preparation and tolerances for field joints. Pipe manufactured to this standard has been used primarily in buried lines with O-ring joints to working pressures exceeding 250 psi, and bell-and-spigot field-welded and butt-welded joints to working pressures up to 400 psi. The allowable design stress on these lines usually has been limited to 21,000 psi. When carefully evaluated by the engineer, many penstock installations will fall within this service condition, and pipe fabrication conforming to the ANSI/AWWA C200 standard2 is acceptable. 11.1.3 Manufacturing Methods 11.1.3.1 Straight Seam Straight-seam penstocks may be shop or field fabricated. They are manufactured from plates that are edge-broken (crimped) and then rolled or formed, resulting in a continuous and uniform curvature using a plate bending roll or a U-ing and forming press. Several types of bending rolls are available, including: (1) pyramid bending rolls, (2) pinch bending rolls, and (3) initial pinch bending rolls (see Figure 11-1). For the pyramid and initial pinch bending rolls the plate edges must be crimped or edge-broken to the proper radius prior to rolling. Figure 11-2 shows U-ing and 0-ing presses used for forming. All plates for shell sections must be formed to the required shape by a process that will not unduly impair the physical properties of the material.

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PYRAMID TYPE

PINCH TYPE Figure 11-1 Bending Rolls

INITIAL PINCH TYPE

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U-shape plate

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U-ING PRESS
Figure 11-2 FormingPresses

Cylindrical
pipe

0-ING PRESS

Plates for penstock shells must be sized to minimize the number of longitudinal and circumferential seams inthe completed section. Penstock courses must be assembled with the longitudinal seams staggered a minimum of 15 degrees. 11.1.3.2 Spiral Seam
Spiral-seam penstocks are manufactured in the shop using steel in coiled form. Currently, wall thicknesses through 3/4 inch are available. The diameter of the penstock is determined by the angle of the coil feed to the axis of the penstock in relation to the width of the coil (see Figure 11-3). In this process, the coil is unrolled, the coil edges are prepared as required, and the coil is helically formed to a true circular shape and welded in a continuous operation. The penstock is cut to length as required by an automatic cut-off device.

Exterior weld

Figure 11-3 Process for Making Spiral-Seam Pipe

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11 Manufacture Pipe ends for the required field joints may need expansion or sizing to meet the tolerances specified in Section 11.3.3.1.

11.2 Qualification of Manufacturer


The manufacturer must demonstrate that it has the shop facilities and also has had fabrication experience with specialty work of similar size and type within the past 5 years, as well as an internal quality control system similar to the SPFA Plant Quality Certification Program.3

11.3 Manufacturing Specifications


Fabrication of the penstock and penstock parts must be performed in accordance with the provisions of the ASME Code,1 Section VIII, Division 1. However, hydrostatic testing is not mandatory. The fabricator is not required to stamp any part of the penstock with the official ASME Code symbol applicable to pressure vessels. Fabrication in accordance with the ASME Code may not be required for low-head or nontraditional penstocks. 11.3.1 Material Materials used for steel penstocks and penstock parts must be furnished in strict accordance with the proper ASTM standard and specifically in accordance with the requirements of ASTM 4 designations A6 and A20 5 as appropriate. 11.3.1.1 Material for Pressure Parts Material subject to stress due to pressure must conform to one of the specifications given in Section 2.4 or 2.5. 11.3.1.2 Material for Nonpressure Parts Material for nonpressure parts, such as supports, thrust rings, lugs, and clips, need not conform to the specifications for the material to which they are attached or to the material specifications described in Sections 2.4 and 2.5. However, ifnonpressure parts are attached to the penstock by welding, they must be of weldable quality. 11.3.2 Welding Welding of shells and assemblies classified as pressure parts must be in accordance with the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Part UW. The welding processes used in the construction of penstocks are restricted to those outlined in Section 11.3.2.1. No production welding can be undertaken until the welding procedures have been qualified. Only welders and welding operators who have been qualified in accordance with Section IXof the ASME Code 6 can be used in production.

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11 Manufacture 11.3.2.1 Welding Process


Arc-welding and gas-welding processes are restricted to shielded metal arc (SMAW), flux cored arc (FCAW), submerged arc (SAW), gas metal arc (GMAW), and gas tungsten arc (GTAW).

11.3.2.2 Welding Materials


Welding materials used for production must comply with the requirements of the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, and Section IX,and the applicable welding procedure specification.

11.3.2.3 Edge Preparation


Shell plate edges must be prepared for welding as required by the applicable welding procedure specification. Edges of plates prepared for welding must be examined visually for signs of lamination, shearing cracks, and other imperfections. Defects must be removed by mechanical means or by thermal gouging processes.

11.3.2.4 Preheating
The minimum preheating temperature for all welded joints is 50F (mandatory). A metallurgical or welding engineer should be consulted about mandatory or recommended preheat requirements. The nonmandatory guidelines of the ASME Code, Appendix R of Section VIII, also should be reviewed. The procedure specification for the material being welded specifies the minimum preheating temperature under the weld procedure qualification requirements of Section IXof the ASME Code.

11.3.2.5 Postweld Heat Treatment


6 Weld procedures must conform to Section IXof the ASME Code, including conditions for postweld heat treatment. All penstock sections and parts must be given a postweld heat treatment at temperatures not less than those specified in the ASME Code,1 Section VIII, Division 1 (Tables UCS-56, UCS-56.1, UHA-32, and UHT-56) when the nominal thickness of any welded joint in the penstock section or part exceeds the limits in those tables.

11.3.3 Field Joint Ends


Ends of supplied penstock sections must be of the type specified by the purchaser. ANSI/AWWA C2002 describes the following types of ends: (1) Plain-end pipe (2) Beveled ends for field butt welding (3) Ends fitted with flanges (4) Ends fitted with butt straps for field welding

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11 Manufacture (5) Ends for mechanical couplings (6) Lap-joint pipe ends for field welding (7) Bell-and-spigot ends with rubber gaskets. 11.3.3.1 Manufacturing Tolerances at Ends (1) Out-of-roundness The difference between the major and minor outside penstock shell diameters must not exceed 1%. Inaddition, the penstock shell must meet the requirements of UG-80(b) of the ASME Code 1 Section VIII, Division 1, with regard to plus-or-minus deviation from true circular form. (2) Outside diameter The outside diameter tolerance, based on circumferential measurement (7D), is 1/4 inch for the following: (a) Plain-end pipe (b) Beveled ends for field butt welding (c) Ends fitted with flanges (d) Ends fitted with butt straps for field welding (e) Ends for mechanical couplings (must have tolerances within the limits required by the coupling manufacturer) (f) Lap joints for field welding (circumferential difference between inside of bell and outside of spigot must not exceed 2/5 inch). (3) Squareness of ends for butt welding Ends of penstock sections must not vary by more than 1/16 inch at any point from a plane normal to the longitudinal axis and passing through the center of the section at the end. 11.3.4 Tolerances 11.3.4.1 Out-of-Roundness The difference between the major and minor outside diameters must not exceed 1%. In addition, the penstock shell must meet the requirements of UG-80(b) of the ASME Code,1 Section VIII, Division 1 with regard to plus-or-minus deviation from true circular form.

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11.3.4.2 Outside Diameter


The outside diameter tolerance, based on circumferential measurement (n[D), is 1/4 inch. 11.3.4.3 Alignment Using a 10-foot straight edge placed so that the ends are in contact with the pipe, alignment cannot exceed 1/8 inch. 11.3.4.4 Length Lengths must be within 1/2 inch of the specified length unless otherwise agreed upon by the manufacturer and purchaser. 11.3.4.5 Minimum Wall Thickness The wall thickness (in inches) at any point in the penstock must not be less than the specified nominal thickness minus 1/100 inch.

11.4 Supplemental Requirements for Spiral-Seam Penstocks


Spiral seam penstocks generally are manufactured in accordance with ANSI/AWWA C200 2 and ASTM Al 397 standards. Spiral-seam pipe for traditional penstocks must be manufactured in accordance with the requirements of Section 11.3, with the exception of the following special provisions. 11.4.1 Steel Coil Steel coils must be con-cast killed steel, with fine austenitic grain size, and must conform to one of the specifications given in Sections 2.4 and 2.5, including physical tests as supplemented by Section 2.2.2. 11.4.2 Forming The spiral-seam manufacturing process must be set up to the correct feed angle for the coil width used and the penstock diameter required. The forming process must be continuous. The initial start-up section up to the point at which diameter control has been obtained must be discarded. 11.4.3 Tolerances The mandatory pipe barrel circumference tolerance is 0.35%, but cannot exceed 3/4 inch from the nominal outside circumference based on the diameter specified. Pipe ends must be sized, if necessary, to meet field joint tolerances required by Section 11.3.3.1. All other tolerances must conform to those specified in Section 11.3.4.

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11.4.4 Weld Inspection


When design stresses exceed 21,000 psi, consideration must be given to weld inspection beyond the requirement of the manufacturing standards. Some manufacturers offer 100% continuous and uninterrupted ultrasonic inspection of helical weld seam and skelp-end weld seam in accordance with methods and acceptance criteria outlined in API Specification 5L,8 coupled with shop hydrostatic testing of all penstock sections at 75% of the material yield strength.

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References*

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1. Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. ASME, New York, NY. 2. Steel Water Pipe 6 Inches and Larger, ANSI/AWWA Standard C200. AWWA, Denver, CO. 3. SPFA Plant Quality Certification Program, Steel Plate Fabricators Association, Inc., Westchester, IL. 4. Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Steel Plates, Shapes, Sheet Piling, and Bars for Structural Use. ASTM Designation A6. ASTM, Philadelphia, PA. 5. Standard Specification for General Requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels. ASTM Designation A20. ASTM, Philadelphia, PA. 6. Qualification Standard for Welding and Brazing Procedures, Welders, Brazers, and Welding And Brazing Operators. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX.ASME, New York, NY. 7. Standard Specification for Electric-Fusion (Arc) Welded Steel Pipe (NPS 4 and Over). ASTM Designation Al 39. ASTM, Philadelphia, PA. 8. Specification for Line Pipe. API Specification 5L. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC.

* The

most current version of a standard, code, or specification should be used for reference.

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