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Review

Review of warm forming of aluminummagnesium alloys


Serkan Toros, Fahrettin Ozturk , Ilyas Kacar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde University, 51245 Nigde, Turkey

a r t i c l e
Article history:

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Aluminummagnesium (AlMg) alloys (5000 series) are desirable for the automotive industry due to their excellent high-strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and weldability. However, the formability and the surface quality of the nal product of these alloys are not good if processing is performed at room temperature. Numerous studies have been conducted on these alloys to make their use possible as automotive body materials. Recent results show that the formability of these alloys is increased at temperature range from 200 to 300 C and better surface quality of the nal product has been achieved. The purpose of

Received 31 October 2007 Received in revised form 11 March 2008 Accepted 31 March 2008

Keywords: Warm forming Aluminummagnesium (AlMg) alloys 5XXX series

this paper is to review and discuss recent developments on warm forming of AlMg alloys. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. 2. 3. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum for passenger vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Formability of aluminummagnesium sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1. The effects of blankholder force and drawbead geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2. The effects of temperatures and strain rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3. The effects of lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 5 5 6 10 10 10 10

4.

1.

Introduction

Aluminum alloys are produced and used in many forms such as casting, sheet, plate, bar, rod, channels and forgings in various areas of industry and especially in the aerospace

industry. The advantages of these alloys are lightweight, corrosion resistance, and very good thermal and electrical conductivity. The aforementioned factors plus the fact that some of these alloys can be formed in a soft condition and heat treated to a temper comparable to structural steel make

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 388 225 2254. E-mail address: fahrettin@nigde.edu.tr (F. Ozturk). 0924-0136/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.03.057

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it very attractive for fabricating various aircraft and missile parts. The present system utilized to identify aluminum alloys is the four digit designation system. The major alloy element for each type is indicated by the rst digit, i.e., 1XXX indicates aluminum of 99.00% minimum; 2XXX indicates that copper is the main alloying element. Manganese for 3XXX, silicon for 4XXX, magnesium for 5XXX, magnesium and silicon for 6XXX, zinc for 7XXX, lithium for 8XXX, and unused series for 9XXX are main alloying elements. In industry, low carbon steels have been commonly used for a long time due to their excellent formability at room temperature, strength, good surface nish, and low cost. However application of the aluminum and its alloys in this eld were ranked far behind steels because of cost and formability issues, despite their high-strength-to-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. For expanding use of aluminum alloys or replacing steels in many areas, however, there have been challenging formability problems for aluminum alloys to overcome. The formability of the aluminum alloys at room temperatures is generally lower than at both cryogenic and elevated temperatures. At cryogenic temperatures, the tensile elongation is signicantly increased for many aluminum alloys especially 5XXX series alloys and is related to the enhancement of work hardening, while at elevated temperatures it is mainly due to the increased strain rate hardening. Forming at cryogenic temperatures is technologically more challenging than at high temperatures. At hot forming temperatures, other issues should also be taken into consideration such as creep mechanisms which may affect the forming deformation and cavitations at grain boundaries which may induce premature failure at low strain rates.

Fig. 1 Average use of aluminum (International Aluminum Institute (IAI), 2002; Martchek, 2006; Mildenberger and Khare, 2000; Schwarz et al., 2001).

2.

Aluminum for passenger vehicles

Lightweight vehicles have become a key target for car manufacturers due to increasing concerns about minimizing environmental impact and maximizing fuel economy without sacricing the vehicle performance, comfort, and marketability (Cole and Sherman, 1995). Aluminum will probably play an important role in the future car generations. Its material properties give some advantages and open the way for new applications in the automotive industry (Carle and Blount, 1999). As a result of the developments in the aluminum industry, improving the mechanical properties of the aluminum alloys by adding various alloying elements increased the application area of these alloys in automotive and aerospace industries (Richards, 1900). Design of aluminum structures can also have a big inuence on the sustainability of a car. Some of the important design aspects of a car which inuence the environment are weight, aerodynamic and roll-resistance. DHV Environment and Transportation Final Report indicates that the material has a big inuence on the car weight. (DHV Environment and Transportation Final Report, 2005). Lightweight car consumes less material resources in the long run (300,000 km), although it would cost about 30% more than the conventional car. Therefore, its production would decrease employment in the car industry by about 4% over a decade while increasing the employment in the short term (Fuhrmann, 1979).

Aluminum alloys are effective materials for the reduction of vehicle weight and are expanding their applications. Fig. 1 illustrates the usage of aluminum for European and American vehicles over years. In addition to USA and Europe, Japan has recently increased their aluminum alloy usage. Analysts expect that the aluminum alloys usage in Japan Automotive Industry will reach 1.5 million tons by 2010. Assuming vehicle production holds steady at around 10 million units, the average yearly growth will be around 2.5% (McCormick, 2002). As shown in Fig. 1, the amount of aluminum used in 1960 is substantially low. The main reasons are forming difculties of aluminum alloys at that time and the smaller range of alloys available. The demand for aluminum alloys as light weight materials has increased in recent years. Fig. 2 demonstrates the amount of produced aluminum products in the world. In the past, the main aluminum products were produced by casting such as engines, wheels, exhaust decor; however nowadays wrought aluminum products are nding more applications in sheets including exterior panels such as hoods and heat insulators, in extrusions including bumper beams, and in forgings including suspension parts Fig. 2. One of the most important benets of using aluminum alloys in automotive industry is that every kg of aluminum, which replaces 2 kg of steel, can lead to a net reduction of 10 kg of CO2 equivalents over the average lifetime of a vehicle (Ungureanu et al., 2007). In Fig. 3, the effects of the car components on CO2 emissions are shown. CO2 emission is

Fig. 2 Aluminum products for automobile over years (Cole and Sherman, 1995; Inaba et al., 2005; Patterson, 1980; Miller et al., 2000; Turkish Statistical Institute, 2004).

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Fig. 3 Effect of technical measures on the CO2 emission (Mordike and Ebert, 2001).

Table 1 Saving in fuel consumption (Mordike and Ebert, 2001) Measure taken Potential saving (%) fuel Short-medium term
Light constructions Cw value Motor\gear control Resistance to rolling Motor preheating Equipment 35 2 5 12 2 2

Importance innovative materials Long term


1015 46 10 3 46 4 ++ + +

critical in terms of environmental pollution. Schwarz et al. (2001) inspected that the relationship between the usage of the aluminum products in new designs and the CO2 emission and emphasized that the CO2 emission ratio could be reduced by using lightweight materials such as aluminum in new transportation designs. Weight reduction of the cars components inuences fuel consumption considerably. In Table 1, the effect of weight reduction on fuel savings is seen. Fuel economy improvements of around 68% or as much as 2.5 extra miles per gallon can be realized for every 10% in weight reduction (Mordike and Ebert, 2001). Recyclability of alloys has also become an important issue in view of energy and resource conservation. For example, recycling potential of the aluminum products is much better than the ferrous metals. Martchek (2006) and Mildenberger and Khare (2000) investigated the recycling potential and necessary energy to reproduce the aluminum products. According to Martchek (2006), increasing the recycled metal usage in the aluminum production consumes less energy and emits less greenhouse gas to produce the aluminum ingots. Sillekens et al. (1997) investigated the formability of recycled aluminum

alloy 5017. In their study, they focused on changes in the amounts of alloying elements (particularly iron) to see how they affect the formability of products. It is observed that the change in the iron content does not lead to a dramatic degeneration in the performance of the material. Aluminum alloy sheets are widely used in the car, shipbuilding and aerospace industries as substitutes for steel sheets and ber reinforced plastic (FRP) panels, due to their excellent properties such as high-strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability (Naka et al., 2001). The features of the most used aluminummagnesium alloys in automotive application were summarized in Table 2. Figs. 4 and 5 illustrates aluminum and other materials usages in automotive and aerospace industry, respectively. Magnesium is one of the most effective and widely used alloying elements for aluminum, and is the principal element in the 5XXX series alloys. These alloys often contain small additions of transition elements such as chromium or manganese, and less frequently zirconium to control the grain or subgrain structure and iron and silicon impurities that are usually present in the form of intermetallic particles (ASM

Table 2 Comparison of several AlMg alloys Strength


Excellent Highest High Good 5454, 5652 5052 5456 5154, 5254

Formability
5005, 5050, 5083

Resistance to corrosion
5456 5005, 5050, 5083, 5254, 5652

Weldability
5454, 5652 5083, 5456 5154, 5254, 5557

Table 3 Properties of AlMg alloys in automotive structures and other materials (IMUA, 2006; Wendt and Wei, 2004; Beer and Johnston, 1992; Talbot and Talbot, 1998; Material Property Data, 19962007; Shernaz, 1991; Boyd et al., 1995) Material
Aluminium 5005 5052

(kg/m3 )

(MPa)

Strenght/density (Pa/(kg m3 ))
45925, 9 72014, 9

E (GPa)

G (GPa)

CTE (20 C)

Hardness

Applications in automotive
Trim, nameplates, appliques Interior panels and components, truck bumpers and body panels Inner body panels, splash guards, heat shields, air cleaner trays and covers, structural and weldable parts, load oors (sheet) Trim Various components, wheels, engine accessory brackets and mounts, welded structures (i.e. dump bodies, tank trucks, trailer tanks) Trim Trim Inner body panels, splash guards, heat shields, air cleaner trays and covers, structural and weldable parts, load oors Headlight housing, wheels and tires Seats, passenger restraints instruments and controls, case of seat belt Treadle of Bicycle Exhaust decor, exhaust system transmission or transaxle, clutch (if manual), drive line (rear-wheel drive) Differential, transfer case subframes, engine block Fuel storage system

Prices

2700 2680

124 193

68, 9 70, 3

25, 9 25, 9

23, 8 23, 8

25 25

BS: 28 BS: 47

1486

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5182

2650

275

103773, 6

69, 6

26

23, 9

21

BS: 74

5252 5454

2670 2690

180 248

67455, 7 92193, 3

69 70, 3

26 26

23, 8 23, 6

23 22

BS: 46 BS: 62

5457 5657 5754

2690 2690 2670

131 110 230

48698, 9 40892, 2 86142, 3

68, 9 69 68

26 26

23, 8 23, 8

22 25 22.6

BS: 32 BS: 28 HV: 55

Magnesium AZ80A-F AZ31B-F

1800 1770

340 260

188888, 8 146892, 7

45 45

17 17

26 26

7 15

BS: 67 BS: 49

1200

AZ91D-F AM50A-F AM60B-F

1810 1770 1800

230 228 241

127071, 8 128813, 5 133888, 9

45 45 45

17 17 17

26 26 26

3 15 13

BS: 63 BS: 60 BS: 65

WE54-T6 ZK60A-F Plastics Nylon 6/6

1850 1830

280 340

151351, 4 185792, 3

45 45

17 17

26 26

4 11

BS: 85 BS: 75

1140

75

65789, 5

2, 8

144

50

BS: 95

320

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5845 2323

400 380 520 250 120 130

Fig. 4 Al alloys and its application for automotive industry (Sherman, 2000; White, 2006).

BS: 115 Shore D:65 Shore D: 3082 Shore D: 7488 Shore A: 3090 110 150 500 2 40 600

10 4

BS: 334 BS: 90 Barcol:30 Barcol:32 Barcol:30

Fig. 5 Current material usages for Boing 757 (Moscovitch, 2005).


122 135 130 125 135 162 9, 5 16.9 3, 65 0, 29 1, 2 3, 65 0, 29

54166, 7 41044, 8 37500, 0 53398, 1 27777, 8 16483, 6

190274, 8 43771, 1 162500, 0 25625, 0 30219, 8 162500, 0 25625, 0

Metal Handbook, 1988). When magnesium is used as the major alloying element or combined with manganese, the result is a moderate to high-strength, non-heat-treatable alloy. Alloys in this series are readily weldable and have excellent resistance to corrosion, even in marine applications. Selection of suitable aluminum alloys, for several applications, requires a basic knowledge of heat treatment, corrosion resistance, and primarily, mechanical properties. Table 3 summarizes features and applications of AlMg alloys. Three different material groups, their properties and applications were compared for material selection.

2, 4 2, 4 0, 2 3, 1 3, 1 0, 5

120 120

235 44

3. Formability of aluminummagnesium sheets


3.1. The effects of blankholder force and drawbead geometry
Typical sheet metal forming processes are bending, deep drawing, and stretching. If a doubly curved product must be made from a metal sheet, the deep drawing process or the stretching process is used. The deep drawing process can reach production cycles of less than 10 s, and is hence a suitable process for mass production. In deep drawing and stretching, the stresses normal to the sheet are usually very small compared to the in-plane stresses and are therefore neglected. Two important failure modes limit the applicability of the deep drawing and stretching process: necking and wrinkling. Both are closely related to the material properties. The ability to accurately predict the occurrence of wrinkling is critical in the design of tooling and processing parameters (Xi and Jian, 2000) like sheet thickness, blankholder force,
900 390 260 41 55 260 41 Ti6Al4Vc Cu extruted Epoxy/glass SMC H254 polyester laminate Thermoset polyester Epoxy/glass SMC H254 polyester laminate 4730 8910 1600 1600 1820 1600 1600 Yield point. Elongation at break %. Heat-treatment.
b a c

Polycarbonate Polyester, PBT Polyester elastomer Adhesives Rubber, PVC Rubber

1200 1340 1200 1030 1440 910

65 55 45 55 40 15

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and the local curvature of the sheet (Hutchinson and Neale, 1985). Ahmetoglu et al. (1997) determined wrinkling and fracture limits and developed blank holding force (BHF) control to eliminate these defects, improve part quality and increase the formability. A computer simulation model was developed to control aforesaid parameters. Jinta et al. (2000) examined wrinkle behavior in 5XXX and 6XXX series aluminum alloys and compared the results with wrinkle behavior of steel. Their results indicate that aluminum alloys generally forms more wrinkles then steel, especially 6XXX series aluminum alloy has a tendency to more wrinkles than 5XXX series. Gavas and Izciler (2007) examined the effect of blank holder gap (BHG) on deep drawing of square cup in order to investigate wrinkling, tearing, and thickness distribution. As a result of their study, they observed that increasing of the BHG allows more material to be drawn into the die cavity without tearing or shape distortions. It is also noticed that it was impossible to use too large BHG because of excessive wrinkling and buckling at the straight sides which cause tearing. Lin et al. (2007) determined the drawing limit under constant and variable BHF. Drawbeads are directly related with wrinkling behavior of the materials. They are used to control the ow of sheet metal into the die cavity during the stretch forming of large panels. Beside that they reduce the BHF and minimize the blank size needed to make a part (Demeri, 1993). The shape and position of drawbead and the amount of force on it are very important in terms of part quality. Samuel (2002) investigated the inuence of drawbead geometry on the drawbead restraining force (DBRF) and BHF numerically and experimentally for aluminum alloy. In his study, two kinds of drawbead geometry which are square female and round female were investigated. As a result, it is obtained that the DBRF and BHF for the square female bead are higher than those for the rounded female bead. He emphasized that this discrepancy are occurred due to the sharp corners. It is also observed that the total equivalent plastic strain and von Mises stresses at upper and lower surfaces of square female drawbead are higher than those for the round female drawbead.

Fig. 6 A typical warm forming set-up (Palumbo and Tricarico, 2007).

3.2.

The effects of temperatures and strain rates

Although the aluminum alloys have high-strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance, the low formability of aluminum sheets limits their use in some products with complex shapes, such as automotive body parts. The warm forming process is intended to overcome this problem by using an elevated forming temperature which is below the recrystallization temperature (Tebbe and Kridli, 2004). A typical warm forming experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 6. In the warm forming set-up, dies and blank holders are heated to 200300 C. In order to heat dies and blank holders, electrical heating rods that are located in these parts are used but there is a risk of necking during heating and cooling. Warm forming was studied for many years, e.g. in the 1970s and 1980s by Shehata et al. (1978) and Wilson (1988) with increasing attention being dedicated to the subject in the last decade. The warm forming method improves the formability of the aluminum alloys. This improvement at the elevated temperatures is principal for the aluminum alloys such as 5082 and 5005 alloys due to the increased strain rate hardening

(Shehata et al., 1978). Schmoeckel (1994) and Schmoeckel et al. (1995) investigated the drawability of 5XXX series alloys at the elevated temperatures. Temperature has a signicant inuence on the stamping process. Further investigation on forming showed that the formability with a partial heating in the holder or matrices area was much better when compared with the homogeneously heated tools (Schmoeckel, 1994). Schmoeckel et al. (1995) showed that a signicant increase in the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) for the aluminum alloy AlMg4.5 Mn0.4 can be achieved by a heated and lower strain rated hydromechanical stamp. Modeling of the deep drawing with a rotationally symmetrical tool (stamp diameter: 100 mm) which was cooled from the stamp side by additional air ensured an increase in LDR. It was demonstrated that the formability is improved by a uniform temperature increase, but the best results are obtained by applying temperature gradients. The formability depends strongly on the composition of the aluminum alloy. Aluminummagnesium alloys have a relatively good formability. A disadvantage is that these alloys suffer from stretcher lines, which gives an uneven surface after deformation. Because of this reason, 5XXX series aluminum is used for inner panels of vehicles. These undesired surface defects can be eliminated by the forming processes at the elevated temperatures (Van Den Boogaard et al., 2001). The aluminum which contains 6% magnesium could give a 300% total elongation at about 250 C, nds more application in industry (Altan, 2002). Yamashita et al. (2007) numerically simulated circular cups drawing process by using Maslennikovs technique (Maslennikov, 1957) which is also called punchless drawing. In this production technique, a rubber ring is used instead of the rigid punch. Browne and Battikha (1995) optimized the formability process by using a exible die and optimized the process parameters to ensure a defect-free product. To accurately simulate warm forming of aluminum sheet, a material model is required that incorporates the temperature and strain-rate dependency (Van Den Boogaard and Huetink, 2004). Because of this, the effect of temperature distribution on warm forming performance is very impor tant. Van Den Boogaard and Huetink (2006) observed that the formability of the AlMg alloy sheets can be improved by increasing the temperature in some parts of the sheet and

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cooling the other parts when simulated by the cylindrical cup deep drawing at the different temperature gradients of the tools and the blanks. Chen et al. (2006) investigated combined isothermal/non-isothermal nite element analysis (FEA) with design of experiments tools to predict appropriate warm forming temperature conditions for 5083-O (AlMg) sheet metal blanks, deep drawing and two-dimensional stamping cases. To achieve increased degrees of forming, different temperature levels should be assigned to the corner and body of the die and punch. 25250% elongation ranges were seen. They found that the formability of Al-5083 alloy is greatly dependent on the temperature distribution of the die and punch. It is also observed that the optimal temperature distributions for warm deep drawing and warm two-dimensional stamping were not identical. Naka et al. (2003) investigated the effects of temperature on yield locus for 5083 aluminum alloy sheet. In their study, they have tried to determine the optimum condition of press forming for an aluminum alloy sheet, the effect of forming temperature on the yield locus. They obtained the yield locus for a ne grain AlMg alloy (5083-O) sheet by performing biaxial tensile tests, using cruciform specimens, at temperatures of 30, 100, 170, 250, and 300 C at 10 s1 strain rate. As expected, the size of the yield locus drastically decreased with increasing temperature. This can be exploited to improve press operations. Naka and Yoshida (1999) investigated the effects of temperature and forming rates on deep drawability of 5083 AlMg alloy. In their study, different temperature gradients from room temperature to 180 C and the forming speeds between 0.2 and 500 mm/min were performed. Results show that LDR increases mostly with increasing the die temperature because the deformation resistance in ange shrinkage decreases with an increase in temperature. Beside that the LDR becomes smaller with increasing the forming speed at all temperatures since the ow stress of the heated blank (at the ange) increases with increasing the strain rate. Moreover, the cooled blank at the punch corner becomes less ductile. Another comprehensive study for 5XXX series aluminum alloys was done by Bolt et al. (2001). In that study, the formability was compared for 1050, 5754 and 6016 type aluminum alloys from 100 to 250 C by using the both box shaped and conical rectangular products. They observed that the minimum die temperature of 6016 alloy on the die process limits was lower than that of the 5754 alloy. Smerda et al. (2005) investigated the strain rate sensitivity of 5754 and 5182 type aluminum alloy sheets at room temperature and elevated temperatures. In their study, the split Hopkinson bar apparatus was used to identify the constitutive response and the damage evolution in the aluminum alloys at high strain rates of 600, 1100 and 1500 s1 . It was observed that the quasistatic and dynamic stress strain responses in the range of strain rates and temperatures were low for both alloys. AA5754 exhibited a mild increase in ow stress with strain rate, while AA5182 appeared to be strain rate insensitive. The ductility of the materials showed little differences in the temperature range between 23 and 150 C at a strain rate of 1500 s1 . However, the nal elongation was decreased for both aluminum alloys at 300 C and a strain rate of 1500 s1 when compared to that at lower temperatures. Picu et al. (2005) investigated the mechanical behavior of the commercial alu-

minum alloy AA5182-O. The dynamic strain aging effect was observed at all temperature between 80 and 110 C and at strain rates lower than 101 s1 . In addition, the strain rate sensitivity parameter was also determined as a function of temperature and plastic strain. Abedrabbo et al. (2007) developed a temperature-dependent anisotropic material model for FEA and formability simulation for two automotive aluminum alloys, AA5182-O and AA5754-O. Multiple temperatures to simulate the formability of more complex automotive parts, where the temperatures of the different sections will be determined automatically, can be found by this model. In addition to the temperature, the forming speed controlling the strain rate, the die and stamp corner radii and other geometric parameters of the die set-up determine the forming characteristics of aluminum alloy sheets. In the nite element simulations, material models are quite important in order to evaluate accurately the formability of aluminum alloy sheets. Barlat models are commonly used to dene aluminum alloy behaviors. Barlat and Lian (1989) developed a yield function that described the behavior of orthortropic sheets and metals exhibiting a planar anisotropy and subjected to plane stress conditions. This yield function showed similar results calculated by the Taylor/Bishop and Hill models. Barlat et al. (1991) extended this method to triaxial loading conditions by using a six-component yield function. Lian et al. (1989) used this yield function to study the inuence of the yield surface shape on failure behavior of sheet metals. Yu et al. (2007) developed a ductile fracture criterion which is introduced by a nite element simulation. They carried out the simulations of aluminum alloy sheet forming based on Barlats yield function (Barlat and Lian, 1989) and Hollomons hardening equation. In their study, the critical punch strokes of the aluminum alloy sheets of X611-T4, 6111-T4 and 5754O in a cylindrical complex forming in which deep drawing and stretching modes were calculated by the ductile fracture criterion. The results showed good agreements with the experimental results. Barlat et al. (1997) measured the yield surfaces for binary aluminummagnesium sheet samples with different microstructures. A generalized plastic behavior of any aluminum alloy sheet yield description was proposed to predict the behavior of the solute strengthened (precipitation hardened) aluminum alloy sheets. Barlat et al. (2003) proposed a plane stress yield function that describes the anisotropic behavior of the sheet metals, in particular, for aluminum alloy sheets. The anisotropy of the function was introduced in the formulation using two linear transformations on the Cauchy stress tensor. For the Al5 wt.% Mg and 6016-T4 alloy sheet samples, yield surface shapes, yield stress and r-value directionalities were compared with those of previously suggested yield functions by Yoon et al. (2004). Barlat et al. (2005) proposed anisotropic yield functions based on linear transformations of the stress deviator in general terms. Two specic convex formulations were given to describe the anisotropic behavior of metals and alloys for a full stress state (3D). Choi et al. (2007) developed analytical models for hydro-mechanical deep drawing tests to investigate the effects of process conditions such as temperature, hydraulic pressure, BHF and forming speed. According to their models, the experimental results show good agreement with the FE models. One of the

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most important problems in forming simulation programs is the method by which the defects are analyzed during the simulation. Forming conditions of the sheet metals were also investigated in implicit and explicit nite element simulations by Van Den Boogaard et al. (2003). The study showed that the computation time for implicit nite element analyses tended to increase disproportionally with increasing problem size. Sheet metal deformation is considered biaxial rather than tensile deformation. For this reason, biaxial data in material model should be evaluated. Li and Ghosh (2003) studied uniaxial tensile deformation behavior of three aluminum sheet alloys, Al 5182 + 1%Mn, Al 5754 and Al 6111-T4 in the warm forming temperature range of 200350 C and in the strain rate range of 0.0151.5 s1 . It is found that the total elongation in uniaxial tension increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing strain rate. They contributed to the enhanced ductility at elevated temperatures primarily from the post-uniform elongation which becomes dominant at elevated temperatures and/or at slow strain rates. The enhancement of strain rate sensitivity with increasing temperature accounts for the ductility improvement at elevated temperatures. In their study, the uniaxial tensile test is used

as a screening test for ranking the relative formability among different sheet alloys. The strain hardened 5XXX alloys (Al 5182 + Mn and Al 5754) have shown better formability than the precipitation hardened alloy (Al 6111-T4). Li and Ghosh (2004) also investigated biaxial warm forming behavior in the temperature range 200350 C for three automotive aluminum sheet alloys: Al 5754, Al 5182 containing 1%Mn and Al 6111T4. Formability was studied by forming rectangular parts at a rapid rate of 1 s1 using internally heated punch and die for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. It is observed that the formability for all the three alloys improves at elevated temperatures, the strain hardened alloys Al 5754 and Al 5182 + Mn show considerably greater improvement than the precipitation hardened alloy Al 6111-T4. Results show that temperature effects on drawing of the sheet have a large effect on formability. Setting die temperature slightly higher than punch temperature was favorable in promoting formability. They also determined the forming limit diagram (FLD) under warm forming conditions which showed results consistent with the evaluation of part depth. Fig. 7 shows that the effects of temperature on FLDs of type 5754, 5182 and 6111-T4 aluminum alloy. As seen in the gures, the formabil-

Fig. 7 The effect of warm temperatures on FLDs (Li and Ghosh, 2004).

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ity of aluminum alloys increases with increasing the forming temperature. It is also determined that Al 5754 forming temperature sensitivity is greater than other type aluminums. Takuda et al. (2002) studied the deformation behavior and the temperature change in cylindrical deep drawing of an aluminum alloy sheet at elevated temperatures by the combination of the rigid-plastic and the heat conduction nite element methods. It was claried that the appropriate distribution of ow stress depending on temperature must exist in the sheet for the higher LDR. In their study, the numerical results as well as the experimental show that the LDR in the warm deep drawing increases with the die prole radius. Jain et al. (1998) investigated experimentally and numerically the limiting draw ratios (LDRs) and other axisymmetric deep drawing characteristics of AA5754-O and AA6111-T4 automotive aluminum sheet materials as a function of die prole radii. Other deep drawing characteristics such as punch load versus displacement traces, ange draw-in, strain distribution along the cup prole, ange wrinkling, wall ironing and fracture characteristics are experimentally assessed for the two sheet materials as a function of the die prole radius. They observed that the deep drawability of AA5754-O as measured by cup depth at fracture and LDR is superior to that of AA6111-T4. They explained the differences in the deep drawing behavior of the two materials in terms of the competition in work hardening between the material in the ange at the die prole region versus the material at the punch prole region, bendability of the two materials, and fracture characteristics. They also observed that a decrease in LDR and ange draw-in as a function of the die prole radius. Namoco et al. (2007) studied embossing and restoration process of A5052 and A6061 to reduce the deformation force, the drawing resistance and to increase the drawability of the sheet and LDR. Palumbo and Tricarico (2007) investigated warm deep drawing process of AA5754-O aluminum alloy. In this experimental work, they took into account the parameters which were temperature level of the blank in the centre of the specimen and the forming speed; in addition they used grease lubricant. They observed that the temperature in the blank centre had a strong inuence on the process feasibility and thus on the material formability. Spigarelli et al. (2004) investigated the deformation behavior of an Al alloy between 120 and 180 C by means of uniaxial compression tests to identify possible differences in the deformation response compared with uniaxial tensile data. They found that the strength of the alloy was slightly greater in compression than in tension and this difference gradually disappearing as strain rate decreased. Yoshihara et al. (2004) demonstrated spin formability of AlMg alloy using an NC control machine at 300 C with a main shaft rotational frequency of 300 rpm and feed per revolution of 180 mm/min. By spin forming, it is possible to form a domed shape similar to a pressure vessel at the end of a pressurized gas cylinder for passenger and aeronautical vehicles. Their study presents the nite element simulation of the spin forming of AlMg alloys. This model was constructed based on the material properties at 300 C as recorded in the real forming process. They also developed a new deep drawing process (Yoshihara et al., 2003a,b) and localized heating and cooling technique (Yoshihara et al., 2003a,b) to improve formability. The conclusion is deep drawing performance of the alloy would be

enhanced using the appropriate temperature distribution for the local heating and cooling technique and with variable blank holder pressure control. Kim et al. (2006) investigated thermomechanically coupled FEA which was performed for forming of aluminum rectangular cups at elevated temperatures. They examined applicability, accuracy and repeatability of three different failure criteria (maximum load, minimum load, and thickness ratio) to identify the onset of failure during FEA. They selected the thickness ratio criterion since it resulted in accurate prediction of necking-type failure when compared with experimental measurements obtained under a variety of warm forming conditions. They also compared predicted part depth values from FEA at various die-punch temperature combinations and blank holder pressures conditions with experiments. Results indicate that they were in good agreement. They established forming limit diagrams at three different warm forming temperature levels (250, 300 and 350 C). It is concluded that limit strain increases with increasing forming temperatures. In addition, strain distributions on the formed part obtained under different die-punch temperature combinations were also compared to further validate the accuracy of FEA. A high temperature gradient between die and punch (Tdie > Tpunch ) was found critical to increase formability. Naka and Yoshida (1999) investigated the effects of forming speed and temperature on the deep drawability for a ne grain AlMg alloy (5083-O) sheet by performing cylindrical deep drawing tests at various forming speeds (0.2500 mm/min) at die temperatures of 20180 C (the die was heated, while the punch was water cooled during the tests). They observed that the LDR mostly increases with increasing die temperature, because the deformation resistance in ange shrinkage decreases with temperature rise and the LDR also becomes lower with increasing forming speed at all temperatures because of the ow stress of the heated blank at the ange increases with increasing strain rate. Moreover, the cooled blank at the punch corner becomes less ductile. Naka et al. (2001) investigated the effects of forming speed and temperature on the FLD experimentally for a ne grain AlMg alloy (5083-O) sheet by performing stretch-forming test at various forming speeds (0.2200 mm/min) at several temperatures from 20 to 300 C. It is found that the forming limit strain increased drastically with decreasing speed for any strain paths at a high temperature ranging from 150 to 300 C. It is known that the FLD was not sensitive to speed at room temperature. The improvement in formability at 300 C at low forming speed is specically due to the high strain rate hardening characteristic of the material, but below 200 C the formability is also affected strongly by strain hardening. The number of available 5XXX series Al-based alloys for passenger vehicles is very limited. At the present time, 5052 and 5456 are the most commonly used alloys. Although 5052 offers a good combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and formability, it is unsuitable for use at temperatures above 120 C due to its poor creep resistance and its low strength at elevated temperatures. In order to get a better overall understanding of alloys and to identify the most promising compositions, most researchers examine and evaluate the micro structural features, tensile properties and creep resistance. Zhang et al. (1998) presented some new AlMg alloys with good creep resistance, acceptable formabil-

10

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ity, and low cost. They also investigated the inuence of small additions of Ca and Sr on the tensile and creep properties. Another room temperature formability testing was performed on an AlMg6.8 type alloy sheet with a fully recrystallized structure (average grain diameter 18 m) and after partial annealing with a retained deformed structure by Romhanji et al. (1998). The yield strengths attained after full recrystallization and after partial annealing, were 175 and 283 MPa, respectively. Such an increase in strength is followed by formability degradation, maximized around the plain strain state to either 42%, as obtained using the limiting dome height test (LDH), or 35% after using forming limit curves (FLC). A comparison with known high-strength formable alloys has shown that the tested alloy in the recrystallized condition has a better stretch formability (at the same or even higher yield stress level), while in the unrecrystallized-partially annealed condition it has a lower formability, limiting its application to moderate forming requirements for very high-strength parts.

world. Many of these researchers have used material properties which are obtained from tensile test results in their investigations. However, information on properties obtained at elevated temperatures under a biaxial state of stress is limited. Mostly, they are not available for nite element simulation. This area needs to be studied extensively. In terms of numerical simulations, there are no well dened material models including temperature and strain rate effects for aluminum alloy. Further investigations on material models are required. In future study, material models should be developed and the effect of process parameters should be investigated for process optimization.

Acknowledgements
This work is supported by The Scientic and Technologi cal Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). Project Number: 106M058, Title: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of The Effects of Temperature and Deformation Speed on Formability. TUBITAK support is profoundly acknowledged.

3.3.

The effects of lubrication

One of the important parameter for the forming of aluminum sheets is lubrication. It is used during the forming process to get better surface quality and to decrease the friction of die surfaces. This contributes to increasing the die lifetime by reducing wear. Meiler et al. (2003) investigated the effects of dry lm lubricants on aluminum sheet metal forming and compared the results with other type lubricants. They observed that dry lm lubricants showed advantages over conventional oil lubricants because of their high deep drawing performance, especially on complex shaped body panels. They also emphasized in their study the formability is increased as a consequence of reduced friction and it is possible to get more homogeneous sheet thickness distributions. Wu et al. (2006) studied a super plastic 5083 Al alloy under biaxial deformation by deforming the sheet into a rectangular die cavity with and without lubrication. Results indicate that reducing the interfacial friction by use of a lubricant altered the metal ow after the deformed sheet had made contact with the die surface. Besides, they observed that changes of the metal ow during forming not only developed a better thickness distribution of the formed part, but also improved cavitations distribution (Kelly and Cotterell, 2002).

references

4.

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