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AT

A project of Volunteers in Asia

MICROFICHE REFERENCE LIBRARY

-.---

ooj

Trm

By: international Labour Office

Published by: inter~rztionai Labaur Office Pubikations Branch CH-1211 Geneva 22 SWITZERLAND

Available from:iLO Publications international Labour Offic63 CH4211 Geneva 22 SWITZERLAND

Reproduced with permisslon. Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subjea to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

CONTENTS --Page INfRODUCTlON BASIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..*.**.*.............. TOOLS .......................... 4 6 8 10 12 ..I..... 1

WQRK AND MAtNTENANCE

HAND TOOLS FOR WOOD HARVESTING FILES ................................................... GRINDSTONES SPLITTING MAKING AXES

AND WHETSTONES .............................. .....................................

HAMMER AND WEDGES .............................

TOOL HANDLES

USE AND TYPES OF AXES ................................... MAINTAZNING SHAFTING BGW SAWS USE AND TYPES OF DOW SAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CROSS-CUT SAWS SAWS ................................. SAWS .................... ......................... SAW ................... SAW ................ SAWS ..................... ................................. CROSS-CUT AN AXE ...................................... MAKING AN AXE HANDLE .................................... AN AXE .........................................

14 16 20 22

24

TYPES OF CROSS-CUT MAINTENANCE FILING FILING VICES, VICES,

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 42

TOOLS FOR CROSS-CUT SELF-MADE A PEG-TOOTH COMMERCIALLY-MADE CROSS-CUT

MAINTAINING MAINTAINING

TYPES OF RAKER-TOOTH

A RAKER-TOOTH

CROSS-CUT

MAJOR OVERHAUL OF CROSS-CUT THE WORKER CLOTHING, FIRST-AID FOOD,

SAWS ........................

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . ..a....................... AND REST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44 46 48

NUTRITION

WORKING POSTURES AND MOVEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi

THE UORKER (continued) WORK PLANNING ACCIDENT TREE FELLING PREPARATION TREE FELLING TREE FELLING FOR TREE FELLING . . . . . . . . . . . ..~.............. SAW . . . . . . . . . . . . ..I.. 58 60 62 64
66

AND ORGANlSATZON

. ..e......................

52

PREWENTlON

. . . . . . . . . . . ..~..~....................

54

WITH AXE AND BDW SAW . . . ..s......~.......... WITH AXE AND CROSS-CUT

PRECAUTIONS WHEN MAKING THE UNDERCUT AND THE BACK CUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..s........................... FELLING FELLING FELLING FELLING FELLING TREES LEANING
DIRECTION

INTO

THE PLANNED .,..................... .. ............ .. . . ..~............~. 68 70 72 76

. . ..e..................................

TREES LEANtNG TREES IN

TO THE SIDE

DENSE TROPICAL

FORESTS

OF TREES WITH PLANK BUTTRESSES

WOdD WASTAGE DUE TO POOR WORKING TECHNIQUES IN FELLlNG .. ... .. ..... ..... ..... ........ .............. .. RELEASING LODGED TREES LODGED TREES WITH SIMPLE TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

RELEASING RELEASING EQUlPMENT DEBRANCHING DEBARKING CROSS-CUTTING

80 82

LODGED TREES WITH SPECIAL AND MACHINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..v.... AND DEBARKING . . . ..m.......................................

DEBRANCHING

84 86

... . .. ....... ..... ... ........... .............. .

GENERAL RULES FOR CROSS-CUTTZNG TOOLS FOR CROSS-CUTTING SUPPORTS AND TRESTLES CROSS-CUTTING WOOD WASTAGE IN CUTTING WLNDFALLS

.........................

88 90 92

................................. ................................... .................... ..,........................

OF TREES UNDER TtNSION CROSS-CUTTTNG

94 96 98

. ............ .. ......... .. ....... ....... ..

WOOD SPLITTING

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

vii

Page UOOD HANDLING HANDLING AND TRANSPORT


AND LOGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..a....... 102

BILLETS

MANUAL TRANSPORT OF SMALLER-SIZED USE OF SKIDDING


SLIDING SULC.iES

WOOD . . ..a..

. . . . . . . . . 104
106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WOOD DOWNHILL AND STORING

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

STACKING PIT-SAWING TRAINING

OF WOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 112

n......m........................................ IN UOOD HARVESTING

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

-ooo-

INTRODUCTION

This vious -

training manual IL0 publications: Felling

updates

and

amalgamates

the

following

pre-

forests
Selection

and cross-cutting and (1969); and maintenance

of

tropical

trees

in

natural

of

logging

hand tools --~-

(1970).

These publications were prepared by B. Strehlke, on the basis of substantial inputs from H. Gl;iser and R. Wettstein and with illustrations by B. Schmidle. The first of these two publications dealt with axes, Its English version hand saws and chain sqws. for several years. In 1980, in collaborahas been out of print tion with the FAO, the section dealing with chain saws was expanded to include work in man-made forests and chain-saw maintenance and this was published separately under the title:
Chainsaws in tropical

forests .-

(Rome,

FAO/ILO,

1980).

During the last decade, the use of chain saws has spread increasingly to the developing countries where they are found in commercial logging operations, especially in countries with higher wage levels. However, wood harvesting with manual tools continues on a large scale and, with the shift of emphasis to trees grown by rural people, it will gain more importance in the

years

to

come.

It is for this reason that a need was felt to compile information excluding machines ard techniques which on basic hood harvesting, in many developing countries are out of reach of the rural populaThis view was fully supported by the participsnts, in an tion. FAO/ECE/lLG Workshop on the Transfer of Basic Technology, held in 1986.

For several years it looked as if experience in efficient basic logging and supplies of hand tools of adequate quality would beThis trend has changed thanks to come less and less available. the manufacture of improved forestry tools in several developing countries and the reappearance of logging hand tools in the catalogues of some of the major dealers in forestry tools and equipment.

Attempts have also been made in Central Europe and Scandinavia to keep alive experience in manual logging accumulated in previous periods and to encourage further improvement of manual tools and An example of this is the logging sulky of which a techniques. bogie type has been developed only recently.

This work

manual is supervisors

addressed primarily and foremen.

to

trainers,

extension

workers,

As in the three publications mentioned above, an attempt has been made to use simple terms and to describe as much as possible by means of drawings. Users are encouraged to translate the text into other languages and to copy illustrations in any way they might find useful for training purposes.

The the -

reader following Equipment training (Geneva, Basic

interested in publications:

supplementary

information

is

referred

to

planning guides -_I for vocational and education programmes: No. ILO, 1981); technology in forest ogerations with_eo_ssibble --I SIDA, 1983); technology (HelsGki,

and technical ---_l 17 - ---Forestry

(Rome,

FAO,

1982); -in

Swedish fores+ry the Third World Handbook on in developing

techniques (Sgnga,

applications

appropriate countries

for forestry operations FINNIDA, 1986).

_-

The
tion Michel

present publication with E. Fosser. Bagas amended

was Hazel

compiled Cecconi

by
edited

B.

Strehlke

in

collabora-

and

supplemented

the

and typed drawings.

the text and DANIDA p-o-

vided

the

finance.

4
----

BASIC

WORK AND HAINTENANCE

TOOLS

HAND TOOLS FOR WOQD HARVESTING

The following vesting:

tools

are

needed

for

efficient

manual

wood

har-

(1)

Axe

(weight

between

0.8

and

1.5

kg)

(2)

One-man

bow

saw

(length

approx.

1 m)

(3)

Cross-cut

saw

(length

usually

1.20-1.60

m)

(4)

Machete

(5)

Splitting

hammer

(weight

about

2.5

kg)

(6)

Wedges

(for

felling,

cross-cutting

and

splitting)

(7)

Turning

hook

(B)

Timber

tong

and

timber

pick

(9)

Measuring

stick

or

tape

measure

(10)

Caliper

(to

measure

diameter)

(11)

Debarking

spade

More detailed information is given in: for ---_.- -_._.I._,___,____._._____ vocational and technical -.- -..--- traininvnd ---...-. --.No. ILO, 1981). -_- _ _ 17 _-..-___.-.__... ____ Forestry ,__--_, (Geneva,

EquQment _--.--_ q_lannin_e-guide --.-- - _____ -.. -educationgrogrammes: -._ --_.

07

BASIC

WORK AND HAINTENANCE

TOOLS

FILES

The following forest tools. mum to simplify

types of An effort
stocking

file

will

has and

been

commonly made to

be used for maintaining keep these to the mini-

distribution.

For

cross-cut

saws
single cut, smooth (22.4

Millsaw file, 20 cm, with two round edges small gullets deepening A worn lowering fi!e of this

for

sharpening (1).
can

cutter

and

cuts per cm), flat raker teeth and for

sort

be used

for

jointing

the

saw and

for

the

raker. 25 cm, between constant rakers diameter (2). of 12.5 mm for deepening the

Round
big

file, gullets

For
Millsaw

axes

and
file,

other
25

edged
cm, single

tools cut,

tapered

or

blunt

for

reshaping

(3). For handles


shaping

tool

Wood rasps are used for never be used on metal.

wooden

handles

(4).

They

must

File

handles

A file
handle

or

rasp

should

must never have a length

be used without of 12 cm.

a handle

(5).

The

Care

of

files

When file or a wire brush


Files

rasp
(file

teeth card)

become which

clogged, they must must be kept clean

be cleaned with and dry (6). dropped

and

must never be allowed to become rusty, knocked or are best kept in a canvas holder when not in use.

0I

3 0

BASIC

WORK AND MAINTENANCE

TOOLS

GRINDSTONES

AND WHETSTONES

sharpening axes, revolving grindstones lar overhauls (1). and a minimum width artificial material

For

debarking spades and other cutting $ools, operated by hand or foot are used for reguThey should have a minimum diameter of 50 cm of 10 cm, be made of sandstone or appropriate When not in use, the and be used with water. softening the part of stone must be kept dry to prevent moisture the stone under water. From time to time, the stone must be "dressed", that is, restored to its original circular shape. be made locally from 20 litres of good can easily cement and 50 litres of quartzitic sand with 1 mm or The sand must be sieved (e.g. with mosparticle size. In be washed and clean from clay or salt. quito netting), an iron tube or rod is needed, about 60 cm length and addition,
2 cm diameter The grindstone with is a nail welded to its middle. (2) which is set up in by 50 cm in size (2a) which are placed 50

Grindstones
quality smaller

a shady place. and 15 cm high. on a board (2b)


Exactly in the right

made in The mould


It consists

a wooden mould is approximately

resting
centre angle nailed

of two parts on two supports (2~).

a perfect
by small

boards

of the mould the iron rod with the mould and securely on the mould (3a). with

is

placed, held in

forming position

After
the ling

filling the mould grindstone is left water may be with

to

dry

mortar and for about


to avoid

compacting

it

carefully,

three
too mould, fitted

days.
rapid the

Some sprinkdrying.

required

After

removing

the
with

grindstone
a piece of

from
an old

the
tyre

in a trestle water container

stone underneath

is

placed as a

(4a).
is also handy for spades and should sharpening agricultural in any

This type of grindstone tools such as hoes and village.

be available

Zn addition to grindstones, whetstones are necessary where edged tools are in use for frequently touching them up during the day. They are also used for finishing axes after grindstone work and saws and axes after filing. Whetstones with a coarse and a fine side, of pocket size (5 by 10 cm), are required (5).

j0 cm

0I

3 0

r-

10
-

BASIC

WORK AND MAINTENANCE

TOOLS

SPLITTING
To avoid and to lift

HAMMER AND WEDGES

the

saw blade the tree

getting into the

caught intended hammer (1)

in

the

saw cut of (2)

(pinching), fall are and for

direction and wedges

splitting

wood,

a splitting

needed.

The

splitting

hammer handle

should

have

a weight For

of

about

2.5 the

kg and edge

a straight should

about sharp.

90 cm long.

splitting,

be kept

Wedges
also

should

preferably hard and are

be made wood.

from

aluminium wedges have

alloys. the break

They disadvantage off.

can

be made from being very of heavy

Steel if

of

dangerous suggested used a narrow high shoe

splinters for use: tree


angle,

Three Type

types

wedges

2a

is
large

a wedge surface even

commonly and

for

felling opening

with

a rather saw

up closed

cuts Type 2b consists

under of after with

very

pressure. and a wooden the type the of of head which can head has a up head to be is

a metal wear. a metal and

replaced secured wider than of

Additionally, ring. This opens absence

wooden wedge

angle type

therefore In the

saw cut

farther the ring

2a.

a metal with

shoe,

a wooden

wedge

may be fitted

an iron

reduce

wear. from metal, It in


saw

Type

2~

made and

is can the cut

very

convenient
in

for the

cross-cutting pocket of and should

felling.

be carried

be inserted before the

saw cut closes.

as a measure

precaution

1 0

2 0

a 0

c 0

12

BASIC

WORK ANDIMAINTENANCE

TOOLS

MAKING

TOOL HANDLES construction


is very practical

This

simple (la)

made
for

from

wood

and

two

pieces

of

an

old

tyre
making

holding

a piece

of

wood

when

a handle.

The the

vice platform

is

closed is pieces height vice. lifted

when

the

platform

is tool is is

down firmly

(lb).
held on the

It

opens between
platform. of the

when the

(2%). the then

The worker

two
His ing

rubber
elbow of the

when should

standing

correspond

to

the

height

open-

Good

tool

handles, important

for to

instance

of

axes,

hooks

and

hoes,

are

extremely

ensure handle
and the

that
should size wood

work
fit and in order

can the
weight

be done worker of
last

conveniently Isi

and
length should

efficiently. of bc

The arm,
made height) from

of
tool. a long

hand,
It time.

the for

suitable

to

The
an

vice axe

can
during

be used
sharpening.

for

other

purposes

as

well,

such

as

holding

13

_-

y--

--

__

-,. -

-m-.-5 -am----

---.*--. --

-4

- _ _

14

AXES

USE ANO TYPES OF AXES


as a un iversal and splitting

traditional tool for felling,

In

wood

harvesting,

debranching,

the axe cross-cutting,

is

used

debarking.

The main advantages easy maintenance.

of

axe

work

are

the

simple

tool

outfit

and

However, it is many accidents,

heavy
including

work

and may waste a lot very serious ones.

of

wood

and

cause

Axe

work

should

be

to

preparation

for

the

restricted felling

to

the

of

felling of very larger ones and to

small trees, debranching.

Axes made by local blacksmiths may be quite use if they are properly hardened and well

good for shafted.

traditional

The The axe consists of a steel head fitted to a wooden handle. most important part of the head (1) is the blade (la), ending in The wooden handle is fitted into the eye (1~). the edge (lb). Modern axes are shaped like a wedge and have an oval eye which prevents the handle from turning in the eye.

Special However,

types
in

of most

axes cases

can

be used

for
axe

a universal

felling and debranching. is used for both jobs.

For professional recommended (2).

the type of axe shown in the picture is weight should be from 0.8 to 1.5 kg, the on the length of the length of the handle from 60-80 cm, depending The handle should have fawnfoot shape (2) and worker's arms (3). Workers should be able to make handles and be made of strong wood. During transport, the axe to replace broken handles themselves. blade should be secured with a protective cover which can be made from a worn bicycle tyre (2a). easily, 8.g: work, The

To keep the axe sharp, course of the day using

repeated maintenance is needed a whetstone (see page 8).

during

the

15

2 0

3 0

16

AXES

MAINTAINING

AN AXE

Taper The axe blade has a curved ening it is important that Heavy axes a stronger Lighter to the Although be very taper towards the the correct taper During edge, is maintained. wood sharp-

and axes used to cut hard blade close to the cutting and axes UC!', 1 for edge (lb). soft

wood ano frozen edge (la). wood should

red;.Jire

axes cutting

be thinner

close

wood of hard and

coniferous trees axes may require

is usually soft, branches may the same taper as for hard wood.

Taper

gauge suitable for average conditions. of metal sheet corresponding to This gauge can be used during the taper is too small and if into the wood, the taper is too maintenance and when the taper the taper gauge can be adjusted

The taper of new axes is usually A gauge can be made from a piece the taper of the new axe (2a). If the axe "bites", maintenance. the axe does not penetrate enough big. Adjustments are made during corresponds to the requirements, accordingly.

Oaikmaintenance -----. Hone the or spit wards on with the axe several times daily on the whetstone to keep one side with the handle handle up (3b). with a whetstone (3). Use water it moist. Honing is done downdown (3a) and on the other side

. :

17

0I

I \ I d 9 \ 4---+-h \ \ \\\ I : I
\ \ \ \ \ \ \

: I I : \ ~ \ I : \ 1 \ 1 9: :I: v

2 0 @ .

,>:;.. ~~

18

AXES
-

MAINTAINING

AN AXE (continued)

Major
This is

overhaul done at intervals of about Major overhaul of the axe. a week or long er depen ding is done by th e follow ing

the use steps:


-

Check curve of edge with a new axe or a curv e gauge A curve gauge can be made locally from a met al, sheet using a new axe to copy the correct curve. If necessary,
the axe axe

(1). (la)

correct
in

curve
a vice

holding Grind

with (2).

millsaw

fil

e (page

61,

axe from down (5). necessary,


Final

blade right

on grindstone in zone to left (41 and at the Grind zone 3b only at longer by moving the axe from left is done as for daily remove burrs and to 3, previous page).

the 3a, by moving same t ime up a n d inte rvals, i f to ri ght (4). e with surface a of

honing

whetstone the axe

to
(see

maintenanc polish the

is not available, If a grindstone sharpening. Care must be taken move file away from the cutting

to

a millsaw file file a correct

can be u sed f taper. Alwa

edge.

19

1 0

-I-.-

20

AXES -

NAKXNG AN AXE HANDLE hardwood of high elasticity and To make an axe handle, is taken from the butt end of a young tree or from the The wood must be well seasoned. zones of an old one. have straight fibres and be free of knots and bends, A scantling piece of
as indicated is

strength outer lt should

wood
in

sawn (1).
the

seasoned

before

the

or squared with an axe out of a suitable Annual rings should run through the scantling drawing (2a). The scantling must be well handle is made.
the outline be copied of

A model of a fawnfoot handle is used for drawing The model can the handle on the scantling (2b). of cardboard. a new handle on a piece A bow saw is used from the scantling An axe
Final

from

for
(2~).

making

cuts

into

the

wood

to

be taken

off

can
shaping

be used
is

for done page

shaping
with

the

outline

of

the

handle.

a spokeshave

(31,

if

available,

and

a wood

rasp

(see

6).
by polishing with sandpaper window glass), or a knife.

The handle is of glass (for


Making an axe

finished instance,

(41,

a piece

handle

is

easier

if

a vice

can

be used

(see

page

12).

0I

2 0

80mm \
36m!nb

3 0

4 0

22

AXES

SHAFTING

AN AXE

When shafting that


plane

an axe, the blade (1);

care and the

must handle

be taken are
in

to

ensure:
the

exactly

same

that the centre of axe is placed with surface on a level

the the (2).

blade
blade

touches and the

the end

surface of the

if

the

handle

Shafting Fit with

is

done

by the

following

steps: the eye of the axe, preferably

the handle exactly a wood rasp (3). the eye

to

Put handle into ment (1, 2). Take depth the of

(4)

and

test

for

correct

align-

handle out and the eye (5).


into saw the cut

cut

with

a knife

or

axe

to

the

Put the handle wedge into the Test head for of correct
with

eye (6).

again

and

drive

a small

hardw ood

alignment

(1,

alignment

the

the wood rasp axe once more.


is it

2). after

If

having

necessary, taken

off

adjust the

If the handle,

alignment

off the above nails.

and wedge protruding

correct, above part of

put the the

2 small

head
handle

of

nails across the axe (ba), and wedge about

the saw 1 cm

Note:

the

reshafted, drive the remaining wood out of from the unwedged side or from the wedge d side and wedge have been removed. Never bur n wood still remaining in the eye: by doing this, the ax e's temper would be lost and it would become useless.
If an axe is

eye either once nails

23

24 ___---__-_ _..-

BOW SAWS

USE _...-_ TYPES OF BQW SAWS AND -...-Bow saws are handy vided the wood is for not felling too hard. and cross-cutting small trees pro-

For professional oval steel frame protective cover

the bow saw should consist of a high-quality use, holding a thin blade under high tension (1). is needed to guard the blade during transport

A (la).

A one-man bow saw with an asymmetric frame of approx. 100 cm (1). There are also models with a symlength is recommended metric frame and one side of the bow extended into a handle which allows more force in cutting but restricts movement if space is narrow (lb).

For a frame of 100 cm length, are 91.5 cm long and usually or raker teeth (2b).

the have

corresponding hard-pointed

saw blades peg teeth

(2)

(2a)

When should

a hard-pointed be re-set

with

blade loses its setting pliers

set and (3).

starts

p inching,

it

When stone used

the blade becomes dull, it can be re-sharpened with a whet(4). If the saw runs to one side, the whetstone should be on the side to which it is running (5).

Hard-pointed discarded. contact with

blades wear out after some time Great care must be taken during soil, sand and stones.

and must then be cutting to avoid

25

a 0

b 0

26

CROSS-CUT

SAWS --

TYPES OF CROSS-CUT

SAWS
tool outfit is rein order to make the job saws require less energy

a comprehensive If cross-cut saws are used, The saw must be well maintained quired. Properly maintained easy and efficient. in use and increase production.

For large trees, The saw should be made of high-quality steel. a straight-back type of saw is preferable (la) and for small to The cutting edge should be type. medium trees a hollow-back thicker than the back in order to reduce friction and the risk The length of the saw should be 100 cm plus the of "binding". The saw should be fitted with detachable diameter of the tree, A protective (lb) which can easily be screwed on and off. handles cover (1~) is needed to guard the cutting edge during transport. Peg-tooth (2a). Raker-tooth They cut Saw teeth In

type

saws

are

common

because

they

are

easy

to

maintain

type saws are faster but require must through


loose

preferred by professional more skill in maintenance


things

workers. (2b).

do three the
the loose

cut break

fibres; cut fibres;

remove

the

fibres

(sawdust)

from

the

kerf.

peg-tooth raker-tooth of cutters


third

these three saws, saws the first of cutting on alternate actions are done by the

things are done by one tooth. In the three actions is done by a group The second and sides of the kerf. raker following the group of cutters.

27

2 0

28

CROSS-CUT

SAWS -

MAINTENANCE

TOOLS FOR CROSS-CUT -- SAWS maintenance


tools

The saws:

following

are

necessary

for

peg-tooth

type

(la) (lb)
(1~)

Millsaw Jointer, self-made Angle Filing

file

(single

cut)
file

(le) (If) (19) (lh)

Setting Setting mercial

iron indicator, com-

commercial or using a worn

or

self-made

gauge
grid

Whetstone
Filing vice

(Id)

(The three

self-made
metal pins

setting

indicator

consists length in

of
a fixed

a piece
position

of

wood and

with

of

the

same
pin.)

an

adjustable

screw-type

For except

raker-tooth for the

tvoe
following

saws.

the

same maintenance

tools

are

needed,

differences:

a raker (2a)
is

adjuster necessary; hammer


iron.

(or

a combined and

raker

adjuster

and

shaper)

a setting setting

(2b)

and

a setting

anvil

(2~)

replace

the

29

1 0

C 0

C 0

30
--c-e

CROSS-CUT

SAUS

FILING A filing Peg-tooth saws


tions

VICES,
vice saws hold

SELF-MADE -holds are

the
held

saw

firmly

in

position Filing vices

during for and and


closing 50 held cm, at

maintenance,

vertically. firmly in

raker-tooth
oblique should preferably the height posi-

must
that

the

saw-blade must have


allowing or

vertical

can must

be easily be steady.
elbow standing

changed.
a length

Opening of
saw at should

be

easy.
more.

Saw vices They he is worker's

least be

The
sitting.

of

the

a comfortable

working

position

whether

A filing
little vertical

vice commercial

can
oblique in

easily value

be made sawn off are cuts

from
at

a standing
elbow height.

tree

of The

no or saw can (1).

As required, wedges

and
held

cuts these

made by using

into

the
small

stump. wooden

be firmly

-The

Swedish

saw

vice

(2) piece

is

built

of and (2d)

two are

boards screwed between or

(2a)

enclosing

wedge-shaped straps When the boards (2~1,


vice

centre Four
is

(2b)
legs

connected
is

by three on to one

leather these of the


position.

wooden erected,
piece

boards. two

the
in

saw

held

and

the

centre

a vertical

oblique

The

Swedish

saw vice and


is easily

can

be made easily
transportable.

from

locally-available

materials

31

115

IOcm IQcm

32 .

CROSS-CUT

SAUS

FlLING

VICES,

COMMERCIALLY-MADE
.

Commercially-made

filing

vices given:

are

available

in

vario

us

types.

Two handy

examples

are

The to

Swiss --sit

filing filing

bench

has
(1).

the

advantage

of

enabling

the

worker

during

An engineers
pieces

vice

can

be used

as position

a filing

vice

by
with

in serting flap

two hinges

of the

wood
vice

in

a vertical jaws.

connected
position

between arranged

An oblique (2).

of

the

sa w can

be

using

two

wedges

33

1 0

2 0

34

CROSS-CUT

SAW

EAINTAINING The
following

A PEG-TOOTH measures

CROSS-CUT are

SAU for triangular teeth: Width of gullet between two tezh 6.0 mm 0.5 mm 3.7 mm

recommended

Hardness Hard Soft


Mixed

of wood

Distance

points

between of two teeth 17 mm 9 mm

Height of tooth 16 mm 12 mm 15 mm

hard and soft starts


position with

14 mm
jointing while

Maintenance
a vertical

the

the saw teeth teeth in the at the end. and the ning The
jointing

by the filing vice. using very little pressure middle of the saw will wear This is adjusted by increased end of the jointing stroke.

saw is firmly held in The jointer is run along (1). In normal use, the more quickly than those pressure at the begin-

flat

is continued until all cutter teeth show a small and jointing should stop when this happens. One or a few (if evenly distributed) badly worn or broken teeth are not conFurther jointings will bring them back into the tooth sidered. line.

teeth filing is done with a 20 cm millsaw file using horistrokes parallel to the lines of a grid attached to the The sharpening angle marked on the grid (2a) is 70 for (2). hard wood and 60' for soft wood. These angles may be copied from figure 3. The top angle (2b) is 38O for hard and soft wood. A to check the sharpening angle and the top angle gauge is needed During filing, the gullet should be lowered at the same (4). time (5). First file one side of the saw, tooth by tooth, and then turn the saw and file the other side. Care must be taken to stop filing when the flat is about to disappear.
zontal vice

Cutter

Deburring run lightly 38).


Setting is

is

done
along

with

both

the whetstone, sides (as for

the fine raker-tooth

side of saws,

which is see page

carried

saw set 0.5-0.6 Note:

(6b). mm for
Badly

The soft

out with correct wood.

set

a setting indicator is 0.3-0.4 mm for

(aa)

and

special

hard

wood

and

worn saws may need gulleta --This is best done after having position (7a). The round edge for gulleting (7b).

before sharpening begins. marked the gullet depth and of the millsaw file is used

35

1 0

4 0

36

CROSS-CUT

SAWS

TYPES OF RAKER-TOOTH

CROSS-CUT

SAWS

The for for

raker-tooth
felling professions!

cross-cut and sross-cutting.


use.

saw

is

the
This

most

efficient

type

of

saw

type

of

saw is

recommended

There teeth cutters

are EM')

two for

types: harder teeth,

one wood

raker (1) for

followec!

by

two

cutters
by

(Champion four

and

one

raker wood

followed

(Lance

4 YMT)

softer

(2).

The moves the

raker's the cutters

work fibres (3a).


it

can (3b)

be compared
which

with cut

that on both

of

a plane. of the

It

rekerf the
if

are must break

sides

by

The
will

raker not

be slightly off uncut break kerf.

shorter fibres.
loose the of

than However, cut


sufficient

cutters too
and

so that
it

short, the
is

w 11 will to

not

sufficiently jam
in

fibres

cutters needed

the

A gullet the sawdust

depth

hold

and

transport

(3~).

Correct
if if

raker raker short,

depth depth
fine is

produces
too long, is

long

chips chips

with

clean to have

edges
whiskers

(4);
(5);

the too

tend

sawdust

produced.

1
tion.

According

to

International

Organisation

for

Standardisa-

.:/ _: \ Is ,,
$

,-

:,
37

0I

2 0

38

CROSS-CUT

SAWS --

MAlNTAfNlNG

A RAKER-TOOTH

CROSS-CUT

SAW

Maintenance

work

follows

the

same raker

pattern adjustment
position

as
is

for

peg-tooth needed. The

saws saw

except
is

that,
at all

additionally, times in

held

a vertical

during

maintenance

work.

Jointi

is

done

in

exactly

the

same

way

as

for

peg-tooth

saws

(1).

Raker over raker depth wood


tions

adjustment. a raker
is filed

The (2).
flush

raker
the the

adjuster,
tool tool firmly guide

correctly against plate

set,
the

is

placed
saw, the

Holding with

(2a). 0.6-1.0 under


saw

The mm for
working chips.

raker soft
condi-

should (2b). and


will

be 0.2-0.5 The correct


be indicated

mm for depth
by

hard must

wood

and

be found

properly-shaped

Raker
is file

filing

is until

done the used


easily

after
flat

adjusting is as small

the

raker as angle

height

(3). Horizontal

It

continued

possible.

strokes be checked
file

are

(3a). during

The
filing

raker
with

should top end

be 90. of the

Zt
mill-

can
saw

the

(3b).

Cutter
(4). Filing of the

teeth A top strokes


file is

filing angle

is

done 70'
not

with

the

saw
angle

in

the

oblique

position

of
should

and

a side 60

of minute. put when the


of

35'

must The

be produced.
full file. length

exceed

per

used the the


This with

tnd gauge top


gives

an even frequently of the

pressure and
with

on the the
file how gentle. flat

Check
almost or is small left. is

the

angles

with

disappears, piece

tap wood. strokes when the

tooth

handle much flat

of
last

a true file just

picturi?

The

the
is

must about

be very to

Sharpening

finished

flat

disappear.

39

0I # & n

2 0

3 0

^,_, :

/_,;,, ..)_

40

CROSS-CUT

SAWS

MAlNTAINING DeburrinJ. the (1).


Setting

A RAKER-TOOTH Put
is

CROSS-CUT
in

SAW (continued)
position.

the run not

saw along

a vertical both
sides

The saw to
with firmly over

fine

side

of

whetstone
Be careful (2).

of

the teeth very put

remove
the in

burrs

to that man,

touch the the teeth


is with

the
saw left is

sharp
held is

fingers.
the vice. taking anvil

Check catch hand. The


is set right

For care
in

a right-handed not the set cutter


in left

arm the
with

the and towards back

saw, the of the the


setting

to first. the

the

saw

arm the

or

body, the of

held body cutter. hammer

Those
anvil with

bevels

are The
held

placed and 2b).


to firm

against strokes

short (2a,
is used

the

hand

The The

setting

indicator

check
is is

the
0.1-0.2

set

of at

each once been

tooth

(3).

correct strokes.

saw set
If

for the the one

hard
set is

wood set
too

mm, for
it anvil is

soft by with and

wood further the the

0.2-0.4 hammer
setting

mm (4). hammer After


side is

Insufficient

corrected
great

removed has round

after
set.

position side, the

of

the

changed

(5). other Note:


Setting

setting

saw is

turned

The

first

six

teeth

on either cutter teeth

end
filing

of

the but

saw

need order

no setting. can
also

normally

follows

the

be reversed. Deepening necessary between between the the of to


gullets,

At the (6b) and

intervals

of on the
millsaw (4~)

about cutters
file with

four (6a) and the

weeks, and the round


big file.

it

is gullets gullets

deepen rakers rakers

gullets with

the

the cutters

the

41

i----

0.1 - 0,4

mm

42

CROSS-CUT

SAWS

MAJOR OVERHAUL OF CROSS-CUT If

SAWS

saws tooth properly

become
line.

badly
This as saw

out can

of

tooth

line,

it

is

necessary
a new is

to
saw

adjust
which

the
is

best

be done
Its

by using
line is

shaped
old gullet

a model. (I).

tooth line
also (2). to

marked

with

scribe

on the correct a scribe


is also

A second This can


jointer old saw

drawn

underneath after
jointing

at

the
with points

depth.
to

be done
The

attached marked

the

position

of

tooth

on the

avoid

incorrect

spacing.

If

a new

saw

is

not

available,

a thin

flexible the the

board
desired

(or
curve

a
(3).

straight-back
It is fixed line

saw) on both shape. of the

can ends
If

be used and

to bent

draw
in line

middle is is

to drawn

the

correct the

tooth two
middle length, length.

a straight

(3) curve (3b) and

between if 1.5 the

ends of

board, board
is

the bent

correct outwa:-d
length

obtained

the

by 7 cm for 9 cm for 2.5

m saw

by

8 cm for

2.0

m saw

m saw

Reshaping the saw is

the

curve

according
if in

to shears

the can

new tooth be used

line instead

marked of
files.

on

facilitated

Shears

may be found

central

workshops.

Use of
In for files central

a press workshops,
gullets time. it may also be useful worn saws to provide (4). This a press saves

deepening

and

reshaping

and

43

2 0

3 0

44

THE WORKER

CLOTHING,

PERSONAL PROfECTlVE

EQUIPMENT,

FIRST-AID

EQUIPMENT

Workers (1)

should

wear:
shirt

Long-sleeved
colour, fitting

or
neither

jacket, too

preferably
loosely nor

in too

a warning tightly.

(2) (3)

Long Boots

trousers. with
non-slip soles.

In (4)

felling

operations,
helmet with

the

worker

must --

wear:

Safety

ventilation

holes.

During

the

felling

of

large-sized

trees,

it

may be advisable

to

use:

(5)

Knee

protectors.

The (6)

following

first-aid first-aid

equipment
kit containing

must

be available:
roller carried serious

A pocket standard

bandages
by the

and
worker to .

dressing
first-aid

for
kit

open
for

wounds,
treating

(7)

A full kept at

accidents,

be

the

work

site

for

a group

of

workers.

During

rainy

periods, boots.

workers

should

have:

(8)
(9)

Rubber
Raincoats.

Simple protection

shelters
against

should
rain

be available or sun (10).

for

use

during

breaks

as

5 0

7 0

-_. )

a ,,

i:

-.

I.

46

THE WORKER

FOOD,

NUTRITION

AND REST

Wood harvesting The


fed.

is

heavy

work be
in

and

over

a period state of

of

time

is

tiring.

worker

must

therefore

a good

health

and

be well

He should

have

a meal

before

starting

work

and

eat

during

breaks.

Under
tropical

severe

climatic

conditions not more a six-hour each


again

(very
six

hot hours day,

weather of

or

humid, work breaks can of

climate), During 30 minutes

than

productive
two meal

be expected.
at least

working be taken later).

should two hours

(after

the

first

two

hours

of

work

and

Food

should

be

sufficiently cassava); oil,

rich in oil,

in

starches (beans,

(rice,

maize,

wheat, fish);
vitamins

mi 1 1 e-t , bananas,
in

proteins cheese,

eggs, and

meat, in

fats

(olive

coconut

butter);

(fruit,

vegetables).

During
litres

hard of

work
liquid

and
per with

in day.

hot

weather,
This

the

body

can

lose

3 to

must water,

be replaced. tea at or other

Workers beverages
intervals lost

should and
during

carry drink the

a container not day.


only

boiled

when must

thirsty

but to

also replace

regular
the salt

Care

be taken

through

sweating.

47

I)Lr I

!J,;. : I I ,<

;?

-:

,:

,I,

48

THE UORKER

UORKING

POSTURES AND MOVEMENTS

Heavy

physical

work movements.

can

be made

easier

by

prop er

working

postu

and

working

Sawing is pulled

can

become by the and

very arms

tiring

and the
only

quite

ineffi if

cient

if

the

saw
st

towards

body, short

the

body s can

remains

and

upright

consequently

stroke

be made.

To make work
only along by

the

job
its

less full

tiring length

and
and

more
the

efficient should

the be

saw carried

should not

load whole

the

arm and

muscles

but

by the

the

body of

swinging

backwar

and

forwards

supporting

movement

th e saw.

Efficient cut in such saws working as

working (2)

techniques indicated in

in

the

use illustration

of

bow 1 saws I appl

(1)

and

cr

are
position.

the

showing

the

ch

The
(3).

same

principles

y to

other

jobs,

debarking

Manual

wood

harvesting

often

involves

heavy should be muscles

li

fting

and
straight

carryi to

of
avoid

loads.

In

such

work,

the and the

back

ke pt

excessive

strain lifting (4).

strong

of

the

legs

shou

be used

for

49

2 0

/,.. &&,
3 0

*,,A23 ,.,,.

4 0

50

THE WORKER
-

WORKING POSTURES AND HOVEMENTS (continued)

Zn axe
changing near the

work,
the cut

the
weight while

whole from the the


is

body the upper


left-hand

moves leg hand

and away
slides grip

supports from the


down

the cut
the

stroke to
handle.

by
leg lf right-

the

the hand

worker
grip

masters
(31,

(1).

(2)

and

the

work

safer

and

less

strenuous.

51

01

3 0

52

THE UORKER

UORK PLANNING Wood harvesting make and the best production of type cut),
(flat,

AND ORCANISATION must use cost different of be well the


low

planned
material minimising

and
while

organised keeping

in

order labour

to input

raw and

damage systems can

to

the

environment. dependpoles cut (thinning natural),

A variety
ing logs),

harvesting size

be applied
(fuelwood,

on the
clear

wGod species, of forest kind steep, transport cases, good of

and or

assortment
natural), (artificial,

or

(man-made regeneration swampy), (manual,


planning

type (roads,
motorised).

of

or and
In

coppice,

terrain means
all

accessibility animal,

waterways)

of

these

and

organisation

of

work

depends

on: the the the and assessment determination


determination felling direction: of

the of
of

volume

to

be harvested; to
places,

the
wood

assortments
storing

be produced;
skidding lines

clearly-instructed availability

and of Ihe

skilled

supervisors hand
tools

and and

workers;

necessary

maintenance

and
clear

other

equipment; of operations working areas (felling for individual

separation different

work

teams

and The the


places

and
of

transport).
map indicating (21, the

illustration forest road lines

shows
network (3),

an example
(I), felling the

a harvesting
direction (4) and

transport direction

the

skidding

the and

storage

for

logs

(5)

short

wood

(6).

2 0

_,

54

THE UORKER -

ACCIDENT

PREVENTION

Wood or may kers

harvesting injured to serious stumble

is

extremely in open and fall tree

dangerous. felling and Many difficult

Many transport. accidents terrain

workers

are Cutting

killed tools wor-

severely lead slip,

wounds. in

occur or on

when slippery

surfaces.

Adequate any type

accident of wood

prevention harvesting.

is

therefore

a basic

requirement

of

Workers must be

need well set

to

be

healthy for safety

and their rules.

in jobs,

good

physical They must

condition. strictly

They observe

trained of

a definite

The -

most In

important tree felling, with saws number felling from to

safety

rules

are must and

the use carry should as

following: safety first be helmets, aid available type distance distance in a tree and of wear equipment. in suffigood

workers soles

shoes Axes, cient The lengths creased is to poor. fall.

non-slip and helping be must

tools adequate keep

and team other four

regards

maintenance. two be tree in-

a minimum

workers tree lengths should

(1).
when be given

This

may the is

visibility before

forest about

A warning

Greatest by an

care adequate hinge. the tree and

is

required undercut and

in

controlling back cut,

trees leaving

during a sufficiently

felling

strong When position

falls, watch out

the for

worker falling

must

retreat branches

to (2).

a safe

55

:;

56

THE WORKER

ACCIDENT

PREVENTION

(continued)

Particular safely

care

is

needed

to

bring

lodged

trees

down

(1).
felling debranching, watch out trees debarking people are are more tired. concentrate that or should be debarking they parts spades must frequent During on keep are of done in and not trees, or splitting of the the stormy weather. workers falling, on sliding slopes. are being

No tree
During must or

cross-cutting, caught by

turning axes, other

especially hammers working end of

When used,

clear towards this

range. the day should when

Accidents workers preferably

period, less

harvesting jobs.

the

dangerous

The

working with

techniques a view to

described reducing

in

this

manual

are

specifically

designed

hazards.

57

58

TREE FELLfN6

PREPARATION

FOR TREE FELLING

The
will shape

felling

direction

must
skidding the wind,

be carefully
direction, and on

determined
the obstacles lean

(I). of
in

This

depend
of fall, the

on the
crown, obstacles safely.

the the

tree, way of

the the

tree's of

on the

ground

and

also

on the

possibility

retreating

When the
placed

felling opposite

direction to

(la)
felling

is

determined, behind cleared to

the

tools

are (lb).

the

direction,

the

tree

The routes
placed

working
are

area
cleared,

around
as

the far 45'

tree as
is

is

(1~).
allow

Two escape easy retreat,

necessary to the

sideways

at

about

angles

rear

(Id).

The

base

of in

the order

tree to

must prevent

be well the

cleared,

using blunting

the
too

axe

or

a
(2).

matchet

saw from

quickly

59

1 0

I , /

I I I I I

d 0

2 0

60

TREE FELLINC -

TREE FELLING
Small

WITH AXE AND BOU SAU are


felled with

trees

an axe,

cutting

from

both

sides

(I).

For
In

slightly this case,

larger

trees,
horizontal

axes cut be made difficult

are can
with

used the to

for axe

making with

the the too desired

undercut. bow saw much (2). wood

the should
it (3). is

be done maintain

The
is tion

back wasted of

cut and
fall

not more

because the

direc-

Axe

felling

of

larger

trees

is

allowed

only

in

exceptional

cases.

61

!~~ 1.. ;&A -

62

TREE FELLING

TREE FELLING
Felling

WITH AXE AND CROSS-CUT mediumand saw.


large-sized This

SAY trees
is

of the

done

with

the
skills

axe and

and

cross-cut

process

requires

special

experience.

A proper a hinge
Small

undercut (2a)
lateral to cuts felling.

(la)
guide

and the and The

back tree (2b)


it

cut
into avoid

(lb) the the 2-5

are
desired tearing

necessary,
direction of fibres

leaving of fall,

(1~) diameter; should trees, depending

from be about of the up to

the

tree l/5
60.

during to l/4 The


In

depth

of

undercut open
at

should an angle than cut

of back very

the cut
large

should

about underl/3

be about the on shape,

cm higher the back

cut. of the lo-20

undercut and

may penetrate

diameter, cm higher.

may be

Wedging

will

be necessary
wedging will

to
also

avoid

pinching

of to

the
fall.

saw

(3).

If

necessary,

force

the

tree

1 0

2 0

3 0

64
-

TREE FELLING

PRECAUTIONS

WHEN MAKING

THE UNDERCUT AND THE BACK CUT -the job safer,


facilitates Felling precision. a poor

Accurate
rations

felling

makes

subsequent should By looking or


a good

opebe the job

and
with it

reduces
greatest easily

timber

wastage.

therefore
at felling

done stump, has

the
can

care be seen

and

whether

been

done.

When making
cisely into

the the the

undercut,
felling

care
direction.

must

be taken This can

that

it

points

prestanding

be checked the undercut

by

in

front

of

undercut

(1).

If

necessary,

should

be

corrected.

Sufficient in in

holding to direction maintain

wood

which

acts

as

a hinge

must it

always

remain

order any

control other

of that cut.
picture, it

the

tree

so that
(2).

does

not the

fall

than back the

intended

2a shows

correct as and

depth of

of by

the 2b in

If

the the

cut tree

penetrates
is practically

as deeply
loose

indicated

a gust

wind

may push

anywhere.

If

trees the

have

buttresses, and ease

it

is

necessary which

to can

remove then should

them

before with be reTo make

making

undercut and

back (3).

cut, The and


in

be made also
log. it

more moved sure they

precision

buttresses handling the


right

to that are

facilitate the cuts with

transport are
an placed axe.

of

the

position,

helps

if

marked

65

1 0

0
2

a 0 b 0
1 1 I I I

3 0

66
,

TREE FELLING

FELLING

TREES LEANING

INTO

THE PLANNED FELLING

DIRECTION

Trees
felled

leaning particularly

into

the

planned
in

felling

direction
to avoid

(1) danger

have to

to the

be

carefully

order wastage

workers,

damage

to

the

saw and

of

timber.

ln the (3) with

such tree. and the

a case,
This

the

undercut

(2) preparing

must

penetrate the undercut work

more
in

deeply two

into

may entail When the

steps continue

(4). axe.

saw starts.pinching,

should

The

back

cut wood

(5) (6)

must

be done parallel

from

both with

sides

and
hinge.

only

the

re-

maining

be sawn

the

67

1 0

b8 --

TREE

FELLING

FELLING ---

TREES

LEANING

TO THE

SIDE

A tree In this

can

also the

be

felled undercut

at (a) (c) on

an

angle should

of face be

about the

30'

from

the felling

lean.

case, (b). lean In help to (d)

intended smaller the side on tree of

direction of the

The and

hinge larger

should the (e) of the side

kept to

the is the

side to lean be

which on the

felled. will

addition, direct the

a wedge fall

placed tree.

Felling tional and ches).

larger cases requires

trees (e.g. special to

against save skills,

the young

lean tree

is

only

justified or near

in buildings) (e.g.

excep-

growth and

techniques

equipment

win-

49

e 0

Q4

0C

: d 0r 1 b 0
0b

\ \

d 0

70

TREE FELLING

TREE FELLING

IN

DENSE TROPICAL

FORESTS

Felling

in

dense

tropical

forests it

can

be particularly to retreat
in it

dangerous. from
the

Dense during
is to

undergrowth
its fall.

makes Dead

difficult

the crown,

tree
which

branches For the tree. and

may be hidden same reason,

often
assess

not the

visible. lean

may be difficult

of

the

Trees centres. Trees trees from off break The

may be over-mature

may therefore

have

hollow

or

rotten

are
fall,

often they
falling

connected frequently tree or

to

each
pull

other down

with other

climbers.

When the (1). Branches 3) off are or broken may

trees trees are


torn

the and

from

neighbouring (4).
Climbers

(2,

may swing snap


risk

backwards (5). when


if felling the well to

and
accident

back

trees

in

dense the

tropical

forests the tree

is

considerably

reduced routes are are

area cleared.

around

base

of

and

the

escape

Two paths the


should Climbers

cleared

a length felling

of
direction.

20-30

m beyond The
angle

the

reach

of them

crown
be

opposite
about 45.

the

between

attached often and dirt

to

the

tree
to

must
clean

also

be cut base of

before the

sawing

begins. remove

lt bark

will

be necessary deposited
in with saws natural

the

tree

to

by

termites.
tropical although

Tree

harvesting

forests
in

still large

continues commercial

to

some
rations

extent
chain

hand have

saws

the

ope-

taken

over.

71

72

TREE

FELLING

FELLING

OF TREES WITH PLANK BUTTRESSES They occur

Plank many

buttresses tree
species

are once

common
they

in have

tropical

trees.
large.

in

grown

Large
only the

trees
at

with

plank

buttresses 3-5 m above


larger

often ground and

attain level

a cylindrical

shape
level

a height

of

(1).
irregular

At

ground
(3).

cross-section

becomes

more

(21,

Trees
working

with

large

plank while

buttresses the workers

may be felled are


standing

at

a convenient level.

height

at

ground

If
to

felling build

from
a platform will

the

ground
(41, to

is

not

possible, in quite

it

may be necessary
terrain. with

especially do this

steep
quickly

Experienced
material avail-

workers
able

be able The

locally.

platform
position.

should

permit

a sufficiently

comfort-

able

and

safe

working

74

TREE FELLING

FELLING

OF TREES WITH PLANK BUTTRESSES -(continued)

If
felled

felling into

is

done the

through

the
of

buttresses,
lean.

the

tree

is

usually

direction

The (la). The


zontal

undercut First back cut and


is

is

made

to

a depth cut

of
is

about

one-third then more) on the (1~).


to

of the than
side Wedging

the
oblique

diameter cut.
hori-

the
is

horizontal

made and (or


begins

cut of

made

about

20 cm higher The rear cut

the

the

undercut. on the
lateral

buttresses
may

(lb)

finished

buttress
in

be tree
of

necessary and
fall

on the rear

buttress to push

order tree

stabilise the direction

the

on the (Id).

buttress

the

into

This
tree.

technique The

must undercut (2a). If

be adapted
may, for

to instance,

the

particular

shape

of in

the two

have two one


and

to

be made the
the

buttresses
felling smaller To assist

there have

are to

also

buttresses after
then to

opposite other,
larger wedges

the the
one (2~).

direction

which

cut (2b)

one

should

be cut
it is

first again

felling,

advisable

insert

(2d).

75

1 0

76

TREE FELLING

WOOD WASTAGE DUE TO POOR WORKING TECHNIQUES

IN

FELLIN --and
insufficient

High

stumps

are

an indication Often
they are

of
the

poor
result

workmanship
of control putting

supervision. which are to

felling too

marks,
high.

be left
find

on the
it

stump more in

for

purposes, to cut
(e.g. low as

Sometimes

workers
level (la).

comfortable
special cases

about
hollow possible lower

1 m above or
heavily

ground buttressed
This

Except the stump

trees),
to easier. avoid

should

be as and

(lb). stumps make

helps

wastage

of

wood

because

skidding

Where of

the left the

wage in

level

is

low

and (1~)

the

timber

price

high,

the

value

wood of

one

stump

may correspond

to

a week's

wages

or

more

operator.

The

following

table

gives

information

on

volume

loss:

Stump
able

recoverheight 20 40 60 40 0.025 0.050 0.075

Diameter
60 0.057 0.113 0.171

cm
80

0.100
0.200 0.300

Considerable felled without

wood

losses

in

felling

can
an

also

occur

if

the

tree (2).
the

is

an undercut
is a risk the at the

or
same

with level fibre

insufficient as, will or be higher pulled

undercut
than,

If
cut,

the

undercut there end,


is

back

that
value

wood
of

out

of

the

butt

reducing

the

log.

If

the

undercut
the

is

too fall results

small is no in

(3a),
longer

this

can
properly

be most
guided. wastage

dangerous
The tree valuable

because may split

tree's
and this

considerable

on the

butt

end.

78 --

TREE FELLING

WOOD WASTAGE DUE TO -POOR WORKING TECHNIQUES A considerable are


ridges felled (21, obstacles.

IN

FELLING when as large

(continued) trees
(11, they hit loss

amount across
logs

of

valuable

wood Most broken can

is

lost

obstacles or

on the (3).
the

ground
species

such

hollows if

rocks

break

such caused

Although

part

may be small,

the

by

cutting

out

the

break

be considerable.

The when
This

experienced
determining will

worker
the

will felling in

look

carefully

for he will Remember about 30'

obstacles

and,
avoid heavily side

direction,

try that
on

to even

them.

bu possible trees
lean.

many
to

cases.
a point

leaning of

can

be felled

either

the

Efforts
facilitate

to

avoid

obstructions because

not

only

reduce

waste
is

but

also

work

unnecessary

cross-cutting

avoided.

The

breaking

of hardwood

a tree
species.

can

cause

serious

losses,

especially

for

valuable

;; (, i,,: ifi, :$-, ,, Is : ! 1.

_,

,-;, *<;,) ,, ,,_I

r ;, :...

,.

:;i.,.,,:t:,

: (

.:.,.

79

:. .i ,_

.- ,: I, ;

80

RELEASINQ

LODGED TREES

RELEASING

LODGED TREES WITH SIHPLE

TOOLS

When thinning stopped


this is

man-made trees.
a hang-up.

forests, The tree

falling is

trees

are to

frequently

by other
called

then

said

be lodged

and

Skilled

operators spaces.
help to

will

try

to

avoid

this

by

felling

the

tree wedging avoided.

into

open
will

A proper
reduce

undercut,
lodging,

an adequate but
this

hinge
always

and
be

cannot

BEWARE - dislodging before Do not Do not Do not Do not


deciding walk try fell climb how

hung-up
to take

trees
the

is tree

very
down.

dangerous.

Th ink

first

or
to

work
fell.the

below

a hang-up.
which is holding the lodged tree.

tree tree

another
the

on to tree for to

the

hang-up.
its

lodged

loosen

crown.

Recommended
Place

techniques
suitable

small (e.g.

trees
poles, might slide split

material

wood) backwards

on the (la),

ground (Za),
-

on to (3a).

which

the

tree

Cut the
might

the

remaining preferably get

wood

which with an

may still
axe

connect
If

the
is

tree
used,

with it

stump,
easily the

(1).

a saw

pinched. hook to roll the

Use

turning to

tree

to

one (3).

side

(2).

Use a pole Use a manual


may safe help to

push
winch increase if

the
to

butt
pull the pull

end the

backwards tree

backwards
place the

(4).
winch

A pulley
in a

or

to

position,

necessary.

81

1 0

3 0

82

RELEASING

LODGED TREES

SPECIAL

EQUIPMENT

AND MACHINES

If
lifting sulky

lodging

occurs the tree

frequently, up from the


to of skid

a sulky stump
it

may be a convenient to
pull skidding this it

ai d for

and
to

down
line.

(1).

The

may also an excellent


Their cubic use

be used means
is

the

Sul kies

are job.
0.5

facilitating to

heavy

and

danger
of

ous

restricted Sulkies

trees

up to
in local

a volume

abo ut

metres.

can

be made

workshops.

BEUARE suddenly
it ing is the

if

the

terrain

slopes, it is lifted

the

tree from

may push the the of stump. ground


the sulkv

the In

sulky

forward
advisable sulky.

when
to For

such

cases

move

the

butt
the

end
handle

to

before
is lift

at tached up

braking,

Heavy pulled

trees down

which with animals

cannot draught must the


cable

be dislodged
animals or

by

manual

work tractor

should (21. from

be The
th e

a skidding

tractor
lodged

or tree

be placed
winch

at used,

a safe

distance

and

r7--

2 0

: _ _: L .,.T,. ,, . .,, ,I _

2; . :::, -

,,*:,

.. .

,,.., _,,_,*.,

,__ ,, ;,,,

,_ .:

.,,:, /;,. .

, :

84 I, 3 +I .d DEBRANCHING :^-

DEBRANCHING

AND DEBARKIN

Debranching
coniferous thin

may be a rather
trees. It is

time-consuming

job, For

especially small poles

in w ith

:.

done can

with also

an axe. be used.

branches,

a matchet

Debranching
may

is

a dangerous
severe, especially leg.

job
This

and
if

easily

causes
especially

accidents misses to

wh ich
t he

be quite and

a powerful

stroke

branch

hits

the workers.

may happen

young

inexperienced

It as that

is

therefore as
is possible

essential

never
side to

to of
direct

cut the the

towards tree stroke

the

legs,

to

s tand

far

on the and
always

opposite away

the from

branc the

h body.

cut

(1)

Debranching branches to cut cut the are them

usually

proceeds and some part under


flush distance

towards
tension,

the
it

top base

of

the

tree. subsequent1

Zf
fi

thick off

may be preferable and

rst
Y

from
with

their
the

remaining

stem.

If

trees

are from

heavily

branched, tree and to

care keep

must the

be taken
working

to

remove
clear.

c.ut

branches

the

space

After turn

debranching trees or
logs

the (2a).

upper

side,

a turning

hook

(2)

is

needed

to

2 0

0 0

;,.. \.:I,./,. : , , I:>: ,.,,,: Yc, ; ) ,I, ;.,i -.:, ,is,> , 86


, : _. DEBARKING
Debarking ..,

DEBRANCHING

AND DEBARKING

as
of for is

control
weight used for

of wood may be required acceleration of insects,


in transport pulp wood, tanning, or simply or the

instance

a variety of reasons such of wood seasoning, reduction the demand for wood without bark, demand for the bark itself if it

for

Large with

industries debarking

requiring machines

debarked installed

in

wood the

are usually plant.

equipped

lf manual be used. should be

debarking is As debarking suitable for

required, demands the job

a variety of diffe,-ent and effort, much time and be handled efficiently.

the

tools tools

can

Debarking of smallto medium-sized of which different barking spades, debarking spade is used for harder for softer bark, to permit working

logs is usually done with models exist. A short-handled bark (la), a long-handled in longer strokes (lb).

deone

Axes may too thick

be used to and tough

debark trees or for the debarking

their butt spade.

ends

if

the

bark

is

It may be necessary to debark large logs of trees which have very thick and strong bark. iron spoon should be used which permits, if bark loose and peeling it off with the spoon

broad-leaved In such necessary, (2).

tropical cases, an beating the

Machetes are sometimes used for peeling off the thin bark They are less efficient smaller trees, such as eucalyptus. less convenient than debarking spades and should therefore restricted to occasional work on a small scale.

of and be

As in during

debranching, debarking.

a turning

hook

may

be

needed

to

turn

logs

, Li @ - 84 \ .\ LI / ( Ir/-. ~ d ml ,

I :, ,,, (I S,, ., 2. , . . : ( -., j,

88

CROSS-CUTTIN

SENERAL RULES FOR C,ROSS-CUTTING


If
does time

the
the

tree

is should

not

skidded be done
and to

to

a landing

for by the
avoid

cross-cutting,

this which

operation

in the
in

the tree.

forest
to

same
this

team process of

felling

debranching
supervisors timber

delays

and

additional rel,uires

spent presence
basic

on getting of
qualified knowledge

However, or
grading unless

the having to The

availability

workers
is

only

fuelwood

be produced.
greatest care is required to avoid losses in cross-cutting

valuable grading be given

trees, before for the

They
cross-cutting grading into

should

be thoroughly
begins. Clear logs. lengths

inspected
instructions Simply

for

proper
should

of

different log

cutting in

trees
wastage

from
during

the

bottom
utilisation.

uniform

may result

much

A single
higher-quality chipboard siderably

tree
plant

may be cut
logs

into

different
sawmill

assortments:

for
grading

instance, logs can for cona

for the
it /* is

the and

(lb),

fuelwood

(la), (1~).
returns of
logs

lower-quality Skilled

increase

economic common

the
to

operation.

In the

many forest

sawmills, without

for must
in into Minimum

saw

go

straight

from
In such

further and
of quality

cross-cutting

into

conversion.

cases,

tree should
with

shape
degree

be carefully
the mill.

assessed
Heavily lengths

to
tapering

allow

a reasonable

recovery

trees
trees size,

therefore
little will taper

be cut
(2).

shorter
and

than
log

straight length and

maximum

however,
logs

depend
normally

on transport
be cross-cut

facilities.

Crooked tween the

should (3).

in

the

bend

and

not

be-

bends

.--

TOOLS FOR CROSS-CUTTING


For
contact cross-cutting should be small-sized used

trees,
This tool with

e.g.
facilitates

for

fuelwood, the job


This

a portable

support support forest

(1).
cutting

and

avoids type

of can (see

the

sharp 92).

the and

ground. transported

of the

easily

be made on the

spot

within

page

Bow saws

are

handy

for

cross-cutting

up to

a diameter

of

20 cm (2).

Above cross-cut

diameters saw

of (3).

20 cm,

the

bow saw

should

be replaced

by

the

To avoid

pinching

of

the

saw,

wedging

is

required

(4).

Furthermore,
suring sticks,

tools

for or

correct
calipers.

measuring

are

needed,

such

as mea-

tapes

91

c- _,A

---

2 0

2Ocm

92

CROSS-CUTTING

SUPPORTS -AND TRESTLES These barking or


timber quickly

are

made and when yard.

locally

and

used
in

as

an aid
at is

for the done

work more

s;Jch
easily tool close

tis

de-

cross-cutting

the and

stand, work trestles.


if

roadside,

landing

In for

many supports

cases,
time

and
edges to

using

Moreover,
is

remain ground.

sharp

a longer

work

not

done

the

A forked rested

branch against

i s the

easiest

means in the

of

supporting (I).

a pole

if

a standing

tree

forest

!7~~~ataaI

trestles

consist

of the the
light

a wooden
with

post used. The

and

two
tools

legs.

They an axe cuts the


legs cuts.

can and are are

easily

be made Dry end on one

in of

forest post (3)

no other top
into

than of

a bow saw. made square

and
sides

wood (2). and

is

Two dovetail ends the


dovetail

on three

fitted

The

low

dovetail
(4a).

trestle

(4) dovetail

cons ists cuts The are should be so post.


fitted legs

of

a post are

200 are the

cm long

and

12 cm thick 20 cm and and cuts top


it is

The the

25 mm deep
into

made about 80 Grn long The that two


resting dovetail

40 cm from 7.5 cm thick. below.


longer

end. They feet

70 cm and

about from
of

inserted be about
into

Their
log

65 cm apart. the
dovetail leg

the

must the
lower

10 cm higher made for as a log


in

than the which or

This the post

extended provide the

and

notches
positions

end can

of

three trestle

poles

be put

on to

by tools

such

turner

a sappie.

93

8
-----.-.-.b---

0I

Jb
J

3Qcm ---r .-

80 - IOOcm -.-g- --

---4

,&cc--y

r-

---+L

--^

36cm

5Ocm

dir

94
-

CROSS-CUTTING

CROSS-r, -

TIN6

OF TREES UNDER TENSION

Cross-cutting
may

of

trees

under

also

through

pinch special

the

saw.

tension This should

may cause be avoided

loss of wood and as much as possible

techniques.

Tension

can If

often

be

reduced

by

(la).
side is
cross-cutting

this
under

is not tension
should

possible, and the


be done from

putting supports under the tree e.g. in a tree where the upper lower side is accessible, then below
above

from

(lb) (1~).

until

the

saw

starts

jamming

and

then

continued

If be

the made

lower
to

side
place

of

the

tree

is

under the

tension, tree (2a).

an In

effort

should

a support

under

sawing
and

should start from above until the saw starts be continued from below (2~) unless wedging is

this case, jamming (2b) feasible and

sufficient.

In

windfalls,
on pages cases such

cross-cutting
98 and 99,

under a pressure

tension rope Such

is
or

very

common. can may be

As used

shown in

cable

to

avoid in

cracking. other

equipment operations.

in

special

cases

also

be useful

harvesting

*r- &A2&..-

_ -.

96 -. NOOD WASTAGE IN
Cross--cutting wood,

CROSS-CUTTING -I_CROSS-CUTTING -,

with
of 30

axes
per of wood

should
cent of 1 m or and

losses into
amount

avoided the total


be

(la). volume
saw cut

In

large-sized if cnly
work mrasurewood

may occur
wastes than precise transport. axe

is cut minimal
(lb).
ment and

lengths
of

less.

The

requires

Furthermore, stacking as

a clean well
as

saw cut
denser

less effort allows more loading in

If

cross-cuts

on

logs

are

not

made

at

an

angle

of may

90' require

(2a),

wood cor-

is usually lost during rective cross-cutting.

utilisation

since

logs

Cutting crack. the

from

the may

side be an

which

is

under in anyway never

tension

causes

the

log

to
when

This log

advantage

special into
be reduced

circumstances fuelwood
by or

would have to be split However, valuable logs should to fuelwood quality (3a, 3b).

pulowood.

careless

I:utLing

97

@ ic /r-

11L._

-,i

2 0

--++----h-

cc

\eLLI-- ----A, b-j 3. --f


---rL-e--~-~-~* -. L__

98

CUTTING _..-

UIZJDFALLS -

the wood is often under high Windfalls are dangerous to cut: the working place is sometimes restricted and the tree tension; Stumps may tip forward or backward when cut difficult to get at. Therefore, the worker must be well trained loose from the trunk. and experienced in order to avoid accidents and to reduce the loss of wood.

Chain saws have a definite advantage over hand saws in clearing windfalls as they can be more easily handled in restricted space compared to a crass-cut saw, only one man is exposed to and, They permit special techniques for cutting wood under danger. FlJrthermore, in extensive windfalls without cracking. tension where there is a danger of wood deterioration through insects and fungi, chain saws help to speed up the operation. Wind-fallen
entered. the top areas are attacked from the When working with hand tools, end by debranching and cross-cutting

side
trees

where the wind has are worked up from to release tension.

When cutting the tree if there is a danger stump moving towards a piece be used, e.g.

from the stump, special care must be taken of the stump turning over. To avoid the different means of support can the sawyers, of wood or a stone (la), a pole (lb), or

a cable
After must

(1~).
off the tree, stumps may fall back. make sure that nobody is standing are The behind sawyers the stump

cutting therefore whilst they

sawing.

loose soil, the base of the tree may be pressed on the ground. this case, it is necessary to dig a trench to allow salvage of the valuable butt end (2a).
In

In

Cutting

losses
pressure

of tensioned trees in through cracking (2b). ropes or chains (3).

windfalls may easily result in wood This risk can be reduced through

Work after

in windfalls cross-cutting

is

greatly facilitated to storage places

if which

the are

wood easy

is
of

skidded
access.

0
1

0
2

a 0

b O

0
3

100
-_Ic

WOOD SPLITTING
1--

To to

make reduce

handling
the

and

transport for

of

short

pieces

of

do3d

easier
the

and
ex-

time required ceeding 20 cm is often split of splitting tools, bigger remain unutilised.

seasoning, wocc? of d;+@r- Lt-c:q-cutting. pieces of fuelwood

a diameter
in

absence often

kood

quality

It

may also

be necessary

to

spl it

wood

to

be

used

as fence

posts.

good quality The hammer should weigh about about 90 cm long, with 2 knob head should not be used (2).
wedge with a wooden head and

Splitting

requires

splitting
2.5 (1). kg and

hammers have

and

wedges.

a straight

handle,

Steel wedges with a mushrooni The safest wedge is a steel socket a steel ring (3).

Since species,
wood the wood the crack

the

way wood splitting splits is


the (3). more hammer

splits
techniques

differs
must

a lot
be

depending modified with billet


a wedge may be

on the accordingly. cutting

tree
For

which splitting which


end of opens

easily,
on the

a few blows
end of the

the

side

of For near

will is

suffice.
inserted as the

difficult
and

to
further

split,
wedges

billet

needed

101

0
2

102

WOOD HANDLING ---

AND TRANSPORT -I___---_-__ --

HANDLlNG Loading

BILLETS
and

AND LOGS -a

simple

stacking helping tools

of
are

billets
used.

and

moving

of

logs

is

easier

if

In
and

the

absence up the

of

such

helping
from the

tools,
ground,

the which

worker
may

has to
be muddy

bend
(?a).

down

pick

wood

A timber

pick of wood

makes

it

much

easier

to

pick

up and handle

small

pieces

(lb).

Different
hooks hand of

types

of

handling picks
(3)

tools small
but the

are timber

available,
wooden

such

as metal fitting The latter


the

(21,
the

timber
worker

with
and

a short

handle, (4).
can ones

tongs

tool
made

is
more

particularly easily.

handy

former

be

locally

The

sappie (5).
42 28

is

used

for for

logs
a hook

A model cm iong. cm long.

lifting heavier

or for short-distance logs has a handle model has a handle

skidding 190 cm long 110 cm long

of
and

A 1ighi:er

and

a hook

Sappies
them (7).

are

typically
In the

used

gravity handling

Alpine skidding of logs logs during tree

pulling logs (6) and for turning countries they were widely user; for and continue to be indispensable in felling and transport.
for

103

0
2

104

UOOD HANDLING .weWOOD

AND TRANSPORT _I-

---..h..-

HANIJAL TRANSPORT OF SHALLER-SIZED ---Carrying wood and

manually inefficient
of just

should
job a few

be

avoided is
(1).

as

much

as

possible.
over

It

is
short

a heavy

which
metres

only

permissible

distances

Small place

logs can be pulled more easily using skidding tongs (2). The the
end

to
tong

the

stacking
should be effect

or

loading
and thus

attached

close to facilitate

of

the

log

to

achieve

a lifting

pulling.

If

the

terrain means over

and of short

ground assembling

cover

permit, loads
e.g. of for

the
short

wheelbarrow
pieces wood of to

is
wood

an
for

excellent
transport for

distances,

taking

a site

a charcoal

kiln

(3).

10s

___c_____e-rf. -

- -. ,C_

---*

106

WOOD HANDLING

AND TRANSPORT

USE OF SKIDDING
The

SULKIES
transport of Loads

skidding small-sized consist


to 200 up of

sulky (1) is used for short-distance especially downhill on moderate logs,


of

slopes.

can

gravity.
the

wards

single logs or bundles and may have a weight of loads are attached at the centre On flat terrain, kg. the load is shifted more toOn increasing slopes, Skidding sulkies can be back to serve as a brake. 2 wheels (la) or with 4 wheels latter type is more sophisticated larger loads and negotiating fixed to bogie but permits
surface

built
(lb).

with
The

axles the condi-

handling tions.

of

rougher

Two

sulkies

can

also

be

connected

the load is guided by this case, in the rear. the rear On slopes, close to the ground to facilitate

bigger logs (2). In one handle in the front and one part of the log should hang rapid braking when required.

to

skid

On can ched

steep be to

terrain,
connected trees

two
by

sulkies

may

be

operated

together

(3).

They

(3a).

a cable which is guided by two pulleys attaThe loaded sulky (3b) can thus be used to
(3c), together

pull up the empty it by the handle.

one

with

the

worker,

who

guides

0
3

108
-

WOOD HANDLIN6

AND TRANSPORT

SLIDZNG

YOOD DOWNHILL -chutes are used for

Timber
wood

downhill

on slopes

sliding small logs or short with a gradient of 25% or more

pieces
(1).

of

Plastic chutes are commercially available in sections of 5 m and At a diameter of 40 cm, the chutes with a diameter of 35-50 cm. logs up to a length of 5 m and short pieces to a diameter can take
of 30 cm.

Chutes

may be used conditions, distance.

over

distances
may

of
be

up to

150 m.
per

Under hour

favourover

able
that

2 m3 stacked

transported

chutes are easily assembled thanks to Commercially-available different connecting systems. Chutes may be made locally from plastic tubes cut lengthwise or from other materials, e.g. wooden although these are heavier and more difficult to handle. boards,

In
to

clearfelling
the

areas

on

moderate

slopes, have

logs been

may be rolled felled


up the

down

roadside They can


at can

across

trees

which

slope if applied

(2).
necessary,

properly,

be out into shorter assortments, This techrique, if the foot of the slope. save considerable expense in skidding.

subsequently

109

0
1

0
2

110

STACKING

AND STORING

OF WOOD

Proper

stacking reduces

of

wood

at

the and

roadside

prior

to

transport

seasoning, rat i on.


the road

weight
should

provides
be

protection
done on the

against
higher

aids deterioside
of

Stacking
embankment

if this

possible facilitates

if

loading

(1).

Logs

and

poles
for

should

be

placed

on

supports

(!a)

a!ld

be

easily

accessible

loading.

Short

wood The

is

usually
should

piled

(Za). (Zb).

stacks

in stacks which also require supports be firmly secured by one or more stakes

Small-sized
and

material
more

used

for handled

fuel
and

can

be

bundled
(3).

prior

to

stacking

is

thus

easily

marketed

0
2

P
b

0
3

PIT-SAWING

Pit-sawing continues to be It is used for countries. site without transporting locally as building material Pit-sawing provides kets. Pits
are However, dug

widespread in rural areas of developing cutting boards and planks at the felling The sawnwood is mainly used the logs. but sometimes it reaches distant marjobs for many thousands of workers.

and large logs are easily rolled across for sawing. more convenient to set up a stand on which the log The saw cut is marked with a string soaked in moist is placed (1). A plumb line is fixed to the end of the cut dust (fines). charcoal This worker should to guide the worker standing on the ground. The saw hat as a protection against sawdust. wear a wide-brimmed only on the way down but the worker standing on the log has cuts the heavier job because he has to lift the saw up to shoulder Therefore, height. both workers should change places regularly.

it

is

The

pit
may upper

handles
an

saws

Depending on log size, saw is tapering in shape (2). Different types vary in length from 150 to 300 cm. An example is given of a lower handle (3a) are used. both of which must be easily removable. handle (3b),

pit
of and

The shape and sire of the teeth is indicated in illustration The height of teeth is from 15 to 20 mm, the distance from front edge angle varies from to tooth from 20 to 25 mm, the 100 to 1050 and the near edge angle from 20 to 25 mm.

4.
tooth

Maintenance

includes (as
for

the

following

operations:

jointing gulleting
sharpening the saw);

cross-cut
round-edge

saws); millsaw millsaw file); at


an

(with
of

teeth

(with

angle

of

90'

with

setting
0,8
mm);

of

saw

(as

for

triangular

cross-cut

saws,

saw

set

bevelling
about 50).

(teeth

pointing

away are

given

a slight

bevel

of

The measures wood.

given

must

be

adapted

to

size

of

log

and

hardness

of

113

0
2

1 0

0
3

h n
0
b

I u

114

TRAINING

IN UOOD HARVESTING

whether done with hand tools or with machines, Wood harvesting, lf it is done by unskilled percan be a heavy and dangerous job. with poor tools and inadequate working techniques, it generally sons results in excessive effort, numerous accidents, low productivity training is indispensable For this reason, and also in wood waste. not only for professional forest workers but also for occasional wood cutters such as rural people harvesting fuelwood or constructio

poles.
must be adapted to the special conditions lt must be done on the job, as much as possible of wood harvesting. in a practical way aid on a short-term basis with follow-up visits. It should always be based on locally-available tools and equipment. may be lost if tools are brought just for The benefits of training the sake of training which cannot be bought locally or which are Under such conditions, it is too expensive for village people, important for the trainer to ensure that tools and tool handles made by rural artisans or sold by local hardware shops meet the requirements as much as possible.

Obviously,

such

training

Traditionally,
Where the

skills are passed on from one generation to the next. axe is the only wood harvesting tool, this transfer of However, skills normally produces quite experienced axe workers. tools and helping tools requires the use of saws, saw maintenance additional knowledge and skill for which training is needed. Training forest workers may last several weeks in levels of productivity with new tools the occasional wood cutter, the minimum would be a one-to-two day demonstration, but a one-week period including demonstrations and on-the-job practice would be prefeThis type of training should concentrate on safe working rable. habits, reduction of physical effort and optimal wood utilisation more than on high productivity. of professional

order to reach acceptable For and working methods.

The trainee is provided with information, demonstrations and practice regarding tools and tool maintenance, safety rules, directional tree felling, debranching, cross-cutting, splitting, stacking and For the maintenance of tools, transport as required for his job. especially saws and wooden handles, it may be necessary to train specially selected persons who take care of this aspect for a group
of workers.

Training will the trainee,


correct the

be readily Follow-up
work.

accepted

if are

visits

it brings needed to

obvious benefits to further improve and

115

I--

The instructor accepted if

He will only be plays a crucial role i n traini n9= if he is able to a nd he is perfectly skilled h imself Ide ally, instructors communicate in the language spoken lo tally. i nw ood h arvesting should themselves have extensive expe rience and should undergo special training a s instru cto rs fo r several

months.

Training technical
subject

of instructors co-operation
may be requested

for wood harv esting F urther activitlas,


from:

i s i nclud ed in IL0 i nfo rmati on on this

Forestry and Wood lndustrie International Labour Office CH-1211 GENEVA, 22,

5 Specia lis t, 9

Switzerland. Please
contents send of to the any comments

this
same

training
address,

which you mi ght wish to make on the manual and suggesti its improveons for

ment

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