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PRESENT SIMPLE

Se formeaza: Afirmativ

S + vb / vb (e)s
pers a III-a singular

I go to school in the morning. The boys play football in the afternoon. She listens to music every day. Interogativ:

Do / Does + S + vb? pers a III-a sg


Do you go to school in the morning? Do the boys play football in the afternoon? Does she listen to music every day? Raspunsuri scurte: Yes, I do. / No, I dont. Yes, they do. / No, they dont. Yes, she does. / No, she doesnt. Negativ:

S + dont / doesnt + vb
pers a III-a sg I dont go to school in the morning. The boys dont play football in the afternoon. She doesnt listen to music every day. Exprima : 1. actiuni obisnuite, repetate. Eg. They meet in the park every Sunday. She goes shopping on Saturdays. Adverbe de frecventa: always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, generally, occasionally, frequently, They always do their homework. Do you usually get up at 7 a.m? I dont usually walk to work. Adverbe de timp: every day/ week/ month/ year, in the morning/ afternoon/ evening; at noon/ at night on Sunday / Monday in July/ September/ January at 5 am/ 2 oclock from time to time, once a day/month/year, twice a day/ week, as a rule, etc 2. actiuni permanente eg. A teacher teaches. 1

They sell newspapers and magazines in that shop. They live in Oradea. 3. actiuni ce fac parte dintr-un program oficial, orare, itinerare eg. The train leaves the station at 10 am. The Prime Minister starts his official visit to China tomorrow. You arrive at the hotel at about 6.00 and have your evening meal at 7.30. 4. adevaruri general valabile eg. Water freezes at 0 Celsius. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 5. In propozitii temporale sau conditionale. Se foloseste dupa: when, if, unless, before, after, until, as soon as, whenever, etc eg. Ill give her the message when she comes back. Will you tell me if you see her? Give me a call as soon as you find out something. Ill take care of the baby till you get back. 6. in explicatii, demonstratii si indicatii scenice eg. When you buy a ticket you show it to a machine which sucks it in, records it and releases a barrier. I add the sugar to the egg yolks and place the basin over a saucepan of hot water. The phone rings. She listens carefully. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. Ortografia persoanei a III-a singular. a) verbele terminate in ch, -sh, -ss, -x, -o primesc terminatia es push pushes fix fixes teach teaches do does kiss kisses go - goes b) verbele terminate in consoana + y , y se transforma in i si se adauga terminatia es cry cries try tries c) verbele terminate in vocala + y, adauga terminatia s pay pays enjoy enjoys d) restul verbelor primesc terminatia s rub rubs ride rides dream dreams run runs drink drinks

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
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Se formeaza: Afirmativ : I am sitting on the chair. She is practicing the piano now. They are talking about school. Interogativ

S + am / is/ are + vb-ing

Am / Is / Are + S + vb-ing?
Are you sitting on the chair? Is she practicing the piano now? Are they talking about school? Raspunsuri scurte: Yes, I am / No, I am not. Yes, she is. / No, she isnt. Yes, they are. / No, they arent. Negativ:

S + am not / are not/ is not + vb-ing arent/ isnt


Im not sitting on the chair. She isnt practicing the piano now. They arent talking about school. Exprima: 1. actiuni care se intampla in momentul vorbirii ( NOW, AT THE MOMENT) eg. The sun is shining beautifully. He is driving to work now. 2. actiuni temporare: (adverbe: today / this week/ this month / this year) eg. We are not going on holiday this year. They are staying at a hotel this week. I am living in Brasov this month. 3. actiuni viitoare planificate in prezent (planuri personale de viitor) eg. We are going on a trip this weekend. They are buying a new car next week. 4. Actiuni care supara sau irita vorbitorul eg. He is always asking too many questions. They are continually calling us at late hours. 5. Actiuni temporare repetate eg. Whenever I see Tom hes smoking. Youre making the same mistake again! 6. Cu verbe care descriu schimbare sau dezvoltare 3

eg. Things are getting worse! More and more people are giving up smoking. 7. cand descriem fotografii, de obicei descriem scena ca si cum s-ar intampla in momentul vorbirii 8. Cu verbul a fi pentru a vorbi despre comportamentul cuiva de moment. (cand ne referim la o trasatura permanenta de caracter se foloseste presentul simplu) eg. He isnt being too friendly tonight, you know? You are being aggressive. (i.e. now) You are aggressive. (i.e. generally) Ortografia verbelor terminate in ing Terminatia verbului 1. consoana + e smile write Exceptii : 2.o vocala + consoana sit run Exceptii: verbele terminate in -w, x, -y Snow fix say 3. 2 vocale + consoana read rain 4. 2 consoane stand Push 5. -ie lie die be see Forma in ing -e cade si se adauga terminatia ing smiling writing being seeing Se dubleaza consoana si se adauga ing sitting running snowing fixing saying Se adauga ing reading raining se adauga ing Standing pushing se transforma in y si se adauga terminatia ing lying dying

VERBE CARE NU POT FI FOLOSITE LA ASPECTUL CONTINUU 4

Verbe care exprima: A) Sentimente si atitudini : to care, to matter, to love, to like, to dislike, to detest, to hate, to loathe, to please, to mind, , to prefer, to refuse, to regret, to satisfy, etc B) activitati mintale: to agree, to believe, to consider, to deny, to expect, to forget, to hope, to know, to intend, to mean, to need, to notice, to recognize, to remember, to seem, to suppose, to think, to want, to wish etc. C) reactii: to (dis)agree, to deny, to impress, to mean, to promise, to satisfy, to surprise D) perceptii senzoriale: to feel, to hear, to smell, to sound, to taste, to resemble, to see, to appear, to look (seem). E) Verbe legate de obiecte care au insusiri relative permanente: to belong, to contain, to consist of, to cost, to have (to possess), to own, to possess, to measure, to weigh etc. F) Alte verbe care nu sugereaza ideea de temporar: to depend, to deserve, to equal, to result, to signify etc. Aproape toate verbele mentionate pot avea si forma continua, dar atunci sensul lor lexical se schimba, ideea de permanenta disparand: To DEPEND (a depinde de) devine a conta pe e.g. We are depending on you for the seats. To HAVE daca nu are sensul de a avea, a poseda e.g. to have tea/ a drink / a rest/ a walk/ a bath/ a swim/ a party/ a laugh I cant answer the phone right now. I am having a bath. To MIND (a se supara) devine a avea grija de e.g. Do you mind my smoking? (Va supara daca fumez?) Who is minding the children? (Cine are grija de copii?) To FEEL pentru a exprima o actiune temporara e.g. He is feeling much better now. I am feeling the ground with my foot. But. This material feels soft. To HEAR devine a audia , a asculta lectiile e.g. I was hearing him the lesson. You will be hearing from him (= you will get news from him) To LOOK pentru a exprima a stare temporara e.g. You are looking better today. Tom is looking at Helen. (He is using his eyes to see) To SEE devine a se intalni, a vizita, a conduce sau se intrebuinteaza cu prepozitii sau adverbe care-i schimba intelesul. e.g. We are seeing him tonight. They are seeing the sights of the city. I was seeing her to the door when you rang. 5

To SMELL pentru a arata o stare temporara. e.g. He was smelling a rose BUT. The rose smells nice. To TASTE pentru a arata o stare temporara e.g. The cook was tasting the gravy when she dropped the spoon. BUT. This food tastes good To be - pentru a arata o stare temporara e.g. He is being nasty. (He is not usually like that) To APPEAR pentru a arata o actiune temporara. e.g. The actor is appearing on the stage. But. He appears to be asleep (=seems to be) To CONSIDER a se gandi la/ sa e.g. I am considering buying a new bicycle. (I am thinking of buying) But. I consider it wise to interfere. (= it is my opinion) To EXPECT e.g. I am expecting a letter from her. (I am waiting to receive) But: I expect shell come later. (I believe, I think) To THINK e.g. I am thinking of my grandmother. (this thought is going through my mind right now) But : I think he is a kind man. (it is my opinion, I believe) To COST e.g. Food is costing more and more these days (food is getting more and more expensive) But: How much does this book cost? To HOLD e.g. I am holding the bottle in my hand. (Im keeping it) But: This bottle holds 3 liters. (contains) To RESEMBLE e.g. Ann is resembling her mother more and more. (is looking/ acting more and more like her mother) But. Daniel resembles his mother.

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE


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Se formeaza: A:

S + vb-ed/ vb II

She invited me to have lunch together. We told her the bad news. I: Did + S + vb? Did she invite me to have lunch together? Did we tell her the bad news? N: S + did not/ didnt + vb She didnt invite me to have lunch together. We didnt tell her the bad news. Exprima: 1. Actiuni terminate intr-un anumit moment din trecut: eg. They moved to England in 1990. He sold his car two weeks ago. Adverbe: yesterday, last night/week /month; a few hours / minutes / days ago, two/three weeks ago, a long time ago, in 1880, on July 1st, 1975, the other day; once upon a time, etc. 2. Actiuni ce ocupa o anumita perioada din trecut. e.g. She worked as a secretary from March through October. I spent my childhood in a little village in the north. 3. Actiuni obisnuite, repetate in trecut e.g. She always complained about everything. They used to ride their bikes when they were kids. 4. Actiuni trecute, consecutive: e.g. She put on her coat, took her bag and left the house. 5. In propozitii conditionale de tip II: e.g. I would change my car if I had enough money. She wouldnt cry if you told her the truth. 6. Situatii speciale:!!!!!!! e.g. I wish I knew her name. If only I knew the truth. They talk as if/ as though they were up to something. Its (high) time she went away. Id rather/ Id sooner you kept your mouth shut.

USED TO BE USED TO - WOULD WAS GOING TO 7

USED TO+ vb expresses past habits, regularly repeated actions in the past or past states. It forms its negative and interrogative with did and it is the same in all persons. We can use Past Simple instead of used to e.g. She used to walk / walked long distances. She didnt use to stay in and watch TV. BE USED TO + vb-ing means be accustomed to , be in the habit of. e.g. She isnt used to living in tropical climates. (= she isnt accustomed to living) WOULD+ vb expresses past repeated actions and routine. It isnt used for states. e.g. Grandma would always make me porridge for breakfast. (also: used to make) When I was young I used to live in Leeds. (not would) WAS/ WERE GOING TO + vb expresses unfulfilled arrangements or unfulfilled plans in the past, or actions one intended to do but did not do or could not do. e.g. He was going to visit Pam but she wasnt at home. They got up early. They were going to catch the 6 oclock train. WAS/ WERE TO +VB expresses unfulfilled plans in the past or actions that one intended to do but did not do for various reasons. I was to leave the house when the phone rang and I had to answer it.

PAST CONTINUOUS 8

Se formeaza : Afirmativ:

Subiect + was / were + vb-ing

eg. I was learning a poem at this time yesterday. You were watering the flowers. They were mending the radio at 5 oclock yesterday. Interogativ: Was / Were + Subiect + vb-ing? eg. Was I learning a poem at this time yesterday? Were you watering the flowers? Were they mending the radio at 5 oclock yesterday? Negativ: Subiect + was not / were not + vb-ing wasnt werent eg. I wasn't learning a poem at this time yesterday. You weren't watering the flowers. They weren't mending the radio at 5 oclock yesterday. Exprima: 1. o actiune in desfasurare intr-un anumit moment din trecut (Specificarea momentului trecut este obligatorie.) Este folosit cu: at this time yesterday, at 7 oclock yesterday morning, at this time last Saturday eg. At 8 oclock she was watching TV. 2. Doua sau mai multe actiuni simultane, de durata, in trecut eg. They were dancing while he was playing the guitar. While I was sunbathing, Tim was swimming. 3. O actiune trecuta, in desfasurare, care a fost intrerupta de o alta actiune trecuta (exprimata prin Past Simple). Eg. He was painting the bedroom when suddenly he fell off the ladder. Se folosesc adverbele: while, when , as, fromto, all day, for Eg. Tom was typing some letters at this time yesterday. She was playing the guitar from 6 to 8 o'clock. They were laughing all day. She was living in an old building for 6 years.
4. exprima o actiune repetata de-a lungul unei perioade de timp

eg. Did she ask any questions? Oh, she was asking questions all the time. Did he buy any sweets? Oh, he was buying sweets all the time.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


Se formeaza: A: S + have / has + vb-ed/ vb III Pers III sg

e.g. The show has begun. I have heard the news. I : HAVE / HAS + S + vb-ed /vb III e.g. Have you seen John recently? Has he told you the truth? N: S + HAVE NOT / HAS NOT + vb-ed / vb III Havent hasnt e.g. I havent seen her for ages. They havent finished painting the house. Exprima : 1. Actiuni terminate recent: eg. Weve just finished lunch. I havent finished yet Ive already written the letter. 2. Actiuni terminate intr-o perioada de timp care nu este mentionata. (pentru ca nu este importanta. Importanta este actiunea in sine.) e.g I have seen that film but I dont mind watching it again. He has written ten novels and Ive read all of them. I think he is great. We have met before, havent we? 3. Cu expresii de timp: for years, for two/ three / four years, for months, for two weeks, for (such) a long time, since last week/ 1988/ I was born; lately, recently, now, before, always, never, ever, so far, yet, already havent seen her for ages! She has worked in a bank since she moved to Boston. Have you ever been to France? They've never seen a mountain. I have read 10 pages so far. 4. Actiuni terminate intr-o perioada de timp care nu s-a incheiat inca. (ADV: today, this week/ month/ year, this September) I have phoned her six times this morning. 5. Actiuni terminate ale caror consecinte se vad in prezent: e.g I have twisted my ankle. (thats why I am limping). I have already seen the movie. (I know what it is about) 10 I Raspunsuri scurte: Yes, I have. / No, I havent. Yes, he has. / No, he hasnt.

6. Actiuni incepute in trecute continuate pana in prezent si care, poate, vor continua si in viitor. In special cu verbele care nu pot avea aspectul continuu. Se folosesc adverbele FOR (arata durata actiunii) si SINCE (arata momentul de inceput al actiunii) e.g Hes lived in San Francisco for 10 years/ since 1999. How long have you worked for this company? 7. Cand intrebam daca a fost terminata o actiune: e.g Have you finished your dinner ? 8. Actiuni viitoare (in propozitii de timp) e.g You can go out as soon as you have finished your lunch. Ill give you a call when the meeting has ended. Dont answer any questions until you have read the whole questionnaire. 9. Dupa a fi (prezent) +numeral ordinal sau adjectiv la gradul superlativ. e.g. This is the first time Ive been to London. She is the most honest person Ive ever met.

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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


Se formeaza: A: S + have / has + been + vb-ing Pers III sg

e.g. John has been looking for a job since he finished university. Shes been working all day. I : HAVE / HAS + S + been + vb-ing? e.g. Have you been waiting long? Has he been talking for hours? N: S + HAVE NOT / HAS NOT + been +vb-ing Havent hasnt e.g. They havent been answering their phone all week. She hasnt been talking to me for days. Exprima: 1. Actiuni incepute in trecut care tocmai s-au terminat: e.g Theres my pen at last! Ive been looking for it since lunch. My towel is all wet. Have you been using it? You know youve been sleeping for ten hours. 2. Actiuni care au inceput in trecut, continua in prezent si care, poate, vor continua si in viitor. e.g I have been waiting here all morning and the bus hasnt arrived yet. They have been going out together for six months. Weve been using this road since the war. 3. repros, iritare, mirare ca urmare a unei actiuni repetate e.g. I have been knocking for the past ten minutes. Why dont you open the door? She has been asking me that silly question for almost a month. Raspunsuri scurte: I have. / No, I havent. Yes, he has. / No, he hasnt.

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PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


A: S+ had + vb III/ vb-ed I had finished reading the book before I started to write an essay about it. They had already seen that play when we invited to come with us. I: Had + S + vb III/ vb-ed? Had you finished reading the book before starting to write an essay about it? Had they seen that play when we invited to come with us? N: S + had not ( hadnt) + vb III / vb-ed I hadnt started writing the essay before reading that book They hadnt seen that movie when we invited to join us. Exprima: 1. o actiune sau un eveniment care a avut loc inaintea unui moment trecut sau a unei actiuni trecute Shed always lived in Bucharest before she moved to Germany a few years ago. After I had bought the house I started to decorate it. He had finished writing the article by 5 oclock. Seeing that their mother had fallen ill, the children grew depressed.
NOTA: Cand nu este necesara sublinierea succesiunii evenimentelor sau cand este clar ca o actiune s-a petrecut inaintea celeilalte, se folosesc doua trecuturi simple.

Tony felt relieved when he passed the exam. The executioner waited until the prisoner finished smoking his last cigarette. 2. exprima o actiune care tocmai s-a terminat inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute eg. When I arrived the boss had just left. I refused his cigarette because I had just finished mine. Id just bought the tickets when I realised that my wallet wasnt there. Se folosesc constructiile: hardly...when scarcely.when barelywhen no sooner ..than I had hardly put the receiver down when the phone rang again. No sooner had he got home than al the guests arrived. 3.Exprima regretul fata de o actiune trecuta Eg. I wish I hadnt eaten so much 4. Se foloseste in fraza conditionala de tipul 3 si in vorbirea indirecta. Eg. If I had known the truth, it would have been easier for me. She left ten minutes ago He told me that she had left ten minutes before.

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5. se foloseste la fel ca perfectul prezent in CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR. Comparati: Perfectul prezent: Larrys wife is quite worried: she hasnt heard from him for several days. Mai mult ca perfectul: Larrys wife was quite worried: she hadnt heard from his for several days.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


A: S + had been + vb ing They had been walking for hours before their arrival. I: Had + S + been + vb ing? How long had they been walking before coming here? N: S + had not (hadnt) + been + vb ing. They hadnt been driving before coming here. Se foloseste: 1. cand actiunea a inceput inaintea momentului trecut sau a unei actiuni trecute si a continuat pana in acel moment sau s-a incheiat chiar inaintea lui. It was eight oclock now and they were tired because they had been writing all day long. They had been walking for five hours when they finally arrived. They had been writing all the afternoon. (At 3 oclock they had still been writing) - The Resultative Past Perfect Continuous 2. exprima rezultatul unei actiuni trecute care s-a incheiat chiar inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute They were tired because they had been working all day long. 3. se foloseste la fel ca prezentul perfect continuu, numai ca sensul este mutat mai demult in trecut (vezi CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR): Prezentul perfect continuu: It is time to stop. Hillary has been working non-stop since breakfast! Trecutul perfect continuu: It was time to stop. Hillary had been working non-stop since breakfast! 4. poate exprima o actiune trecuta repetata, care a durat pana la un moment dat in timp: eg. My father had been getting up at daybreak until his accident. I had been calling her every evening until we quarrelled. 5. accentueaza ideea de desfasurare a unei actiuni petrecute inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute I had been looking for it for hours before I found it 6. conform concordantei timpurilor, se foloseste in vorbirea indirecta atunci cand verbul din regenta este la trecut He said he had been studying English for several years

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FUTURE SIMPLE Se formeaza: A: S + will/ shall+vb I: Will+S+ vb? N: S +will not / wont +vb

Eg. He will be here by 5 oclock. Will he be on time? I can see you are busy, so I wont stay long.

Reguli: 1. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie actiuni ce exprima intentia sau decizia (mai ales cele luate in momentul vorbirii). e.g. Oh, Ive left the door open. Ill go and shut it. I will have some Pepsi, please. Nu se foloseste prezentul simplu in aceste situatii. (not I go and shut ) 2. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste in legatura cu asteptari, predictii, opinii sau presupuneri care se vor desfasura in viitor. e.g. Don't worry. She'll come back. My son will be ten next month. 3. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie actiuni obisnuite ce vor avea loc in viitor. (Adv: tomorrow, next week, after two days, in February 2018, the day after tomorrow) e.g. Drivers will always have to pay their speed tickets. Babies will be born and old people will die, as usual. 4. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste in cadrul propozitiilor conditionale de tip 1, precum si in propozitii temporale. eg. We will punish him if he does it again. He will come home when he finishes his work. 5 Folosim will in urmatoarele situatii: - cand ne oferim sa facem ceva: eg. That bag looks heavy. I will help you with it. - cand suntem de acord sa facem ceva: eg. A: Can you give Tim this book? B: Sure, I will give it to him when I see him tonight. - cand promitem sa facem ceva: Thanks for lending me the money. I will pay it back of Friday. - cand cerem cuiva sa faca ceva: Will you please turn the stereo down? Im trying to concentrate. 6.Adesea folosim viitorul cu I think Ill. eg. I feel a bit hungry. I think Ill have something to eat. I dont think Ill. eg. I dont think the exam will be difficult. probably eg. Ill probably be home late tonight. I expect eg. I havent seen Carol today. I expect shell phone this evening. Im sure eg. Dont worry about the exam. Im sure you will pass. I wonder eg. I wonder what will happen. Dupa I hope, folosim in general presentul ( este posibil si will) I hope Kate passes her exam. (sau I hope Kate will pass) I hope it doesnt rain tomorrow. 7. Folosim wont pentru a spune ca cineva refuza sa faca ceva: eg Ive tried to give her advice, but she wont listen. The car wont start. 15

8. Shall se foloseste in intrebari pentru a cere opinia cuiva (in special in oferte sau sugestii): eg. Shall I open the window? Ive got no money. What shall I do? Where shall we go this evening? Comparati: shall I.? si will you.? Shall I shut the door? (=do you want me to shut the door?) Will you shut the door? (= I want you to shut it.) FUTURE CONTINUOUS (will be + vb-ing) 1. pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare in viitor, cand timpul este mentionat sau dedus: eg. Cathy will be wearing her red dress at the party on Saturday night. This time next week I will be lying on a hot sunny beach. 2. pentru a exprima ceva ce a fost deja planuit sau decis, fara intentia vorbitorului si fara a se mentiona un timp anume: eg. Ill be going to the supermarket soon. Do you want something? 3. pentru a intreba politicos despre planurile altora: eg. Will you be using your car this evening? No, why? Could I borrow it? Will you be going away this summer? 4. apare deseori in subordinate de timp, introduse de when eg. Shell be cooking my favourite dish when I get home

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE (will + have + participiul trecut) Se foloseste pentru a exprima faptul ca o actiune se va fi petrecut deja pana la un anumit moment din viitor. Este importanta mentionare momentului.Acest timp are corespondent in limba romana viitorul anterior eg.I will have retired from work by the time Im 65. eg. In four months from now, she will have saved enough money to buy a car. Se folosesc verbe care au sens de terminare a unei actiuni: to finish, to prepare, to deliver, to conclude, to drop eg. My classmates will have delivered the paper work by Friday. Obs: Viitorul perfect este o forma verbala caracteristica limbilor scrise, fiind rar folosit in vorbirea curenta.

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS (will + have been + vb-ing) pentru a exprima faptul ca o actiune se va afla inca in desfasurare la un anumit moment in viitor, inainte si pana la o alta actiune viitoare (si poate si dupa aceea). 16

eg. They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas. (= Ei vor fi construind acea casa de 2 ani Craciunul viitor.) When the bell rings, we will have been writing for fifty minutes. Obs: Actiunea savarsita n aceasta perioada de timp viitoare, anterioara unui moment sau actiuni viitoare, este la viitorul perfect continuu daca se specifica lungimea perioadei de timp sau nceputul ei (ex.: By six oclock p.m. she will have been selling blouses for eight hours.), si la viitorul perfect simplu daca este prezenta o precizare numerica n legatura cu actiunea (ex.: By six o'clock p.m. she will have sold eight blouses). NOTA: Viitorul perfect continuu este rar folosit n vorbire, fiind o forma caracteristica limbii scrise.

ALTE MODALITATI DE EXPRIMARE A VIITORULUI A. Prezentul continuu 1. pentru a exprima ceva deja aranjat sau planificat pentru viitorul apropiat. Timpul (tomorrow, on Monday morning etc.) trebuie mentionat pentru a evita confuzia: Im not working tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere. Ian isnt playing football next Saturday. Hes hurt his leg. Im going to (do) se poate folosi in aceste propozitii, dar presentul continuu e mai natural pentru aranjamente. What are you going to do on Saturday evening? 2.pentru a intreba pe cineva de planurile de viitor: What are doing on Saturday night? Im going to the club with my girlfriend. 3. Putem folosi Present Continuous pentru actiuni chiar inainte de a inceperea lor. In cazul acesta folosim verbe de miscare (go / come / leave etc) eg. I am tired. I am going to bed now. (not I go to bed now) Tina, are you ready yet? yes, Im coming. (not I come) B. Si Presentul Simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima planuri de viitor, cu expresii de timp. Este considerat mai formal. eg. We leave tonight and arrive tomorrow morning. Folosim Present Simple cand vorbim de orare, programe, etc (pentru transportul public, cinematografe) : eg. My train leaves at 11.30, so I need to be at the station by 11.15. What time does the film begin? Its Wednesday tomorrow. Folosim Present simple pentru a vorbi despre planurile oamenilor daca acestea sunt stabilite ca orare. eg. I start my new job on Monday. What time do you finish work tomorrow? Dar Present Continuous se foloseste pentru a exprima planuri/ aranjamente personale: 17

eg. What time are you meeting Ann tomorrow? C. Viitorul cu TO BE + going to.( = a avea de gand sa, a intentiona sa, a urma sa, o sa) 1. pentru a exprima intentia de a face in viitor ceva ce nu a fost aranjat, dar probabil se va intampla: Sarah and James are going to get married next year. My son is going to study law at the university. 2. pentru a prezice o intamplare in viitor (predictia se bazeaza pe indicii din situatia prezenta): Look at how fast those cars are moving. There is going to be an accident. That little girl isnt looking where shes going. She is going to walk into a tree. 3. forma cu was / were going to se foloseste pentru a exprima o intentie din trecut care nu s-a realizat: I was going to phone you last night but I fell asleep in front of the TV. My parents were going to go to Greece for their holidays but they changed their minds. C. About to se poate folosi in loc de going to atunci cand inseamna eram pe punctul de a dar nu s-a realizat. I was about to have my dinner when the phone rang. C. TO BE TO+ verb la infinitivul scurt Exprima actiuni viitoare, datorate unui aranjament, contract, datorie de onoare, ordin Eg. The actor has got the money on the contract and he is to play in that film. He is to pay me a visit at the week-end, because he has promised it.

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