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WHOModelListof

EssentialMedicinesfor
Children

3rdlist
(March2011)

Statusofthisdocument
ThisisareprintofthetextontheWHOMedicines
website
http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/index.html

Thepublishedmaterialisbeingdistributedwithoutwarrantyofanykind,eitherexpressedorimplied.The
responsibilityfortheinterpretationanduseofthemateriallieswiththereader.InnoeventshalltheWorld
HealthOrganizationbeliablefordamagesarisingfromitsuse.

WHOModelListofEssentialMedicinesforChildren
ExplanatoryNotes
ThisModelListisintendedforuseforchildrenupto12yearsofage.

Thecorelistpresentsalistofminimummedicineneedsforabasichealthcaresystem,listingthemost
efficacious,safeandcosteffectivemedicinesforpriorityconditions.Priorityconditionsareselectedon
thebasisofcurrentandestimatedfuturepublichealthrelevance,andpotentialforsafeandcost
effectivetreatment.

Thecomplementarylistpresentsessentialmedicinesforprioritydiseases,forwhichspecialized
diagnosticormonitoringfacilities,and/orspecialistmedicalcare,and/orspecialisttrainingareneeded.
Incaseofdoubtmedicinesmayalsobelistedascomplementaryonthebasisofconsistenthighercosts
orlessattractivecosteffectivenessinavarietyofsettings.

Thesquareboxsymbol()isprimarilyintendedtoindicatesimilarclinicalperformancewithina
pharmacologicalclass.Thelistedmedicineshouldbetheexampleoftheclassforwhichthereisthe
bestevidenceforeffectivenessandsafety.Insomecases,thismaybethefirstmedicinethatislicensed
formarketing;inotherinstances,subsequentlylicensedcompoundsmaybesaferormoreeffective.
Wherethereisnodifferenceintermsofefficacyandsafetydata,thelistedmedicineshouldbetheone
thatisgenerallyavailableatthelowestprice,basedoninternationaldrugpriceinformationsources.

Therapeuticequivalenceisonlyindicatedonthebasisofreviewsofefficacyandsafetyandwhen
consistentwithWHOclinicalguidelines.Nationallistsshouldnotuseasimilarsymbolandshouldbe
specificintheirfinalselection,whichwoulddependonlocalavailabilityandprice.

Theformatandnumberingofthe17thWHOModelListofEssentialMedicineshavebeenretainedbut,
asindicatedinthetext,somesectionshavebeendeletedbecausetheycontainmedicinesthatarenot
relevantforchildren.

a indicatesthatthereisanageorweightrestrictiononuseofthemedicines;thedetailsforeach
medicineareinTable1.

IntheListofEssentialMedicinesforChildren,anadditionalsymbolisused:

RindicatesthattheCommitteehasendorsedthemedicineasessentialbuthasrequestedareviewof
theefficacyandsafetytoconfirmthisdecision,ortoexpandusetoadditionalagegroups.

ThepresenceofanentryontheEssentialMedicinesListcarriesnoassuranceastopharmaceutical
quality.Itistheresponsibilityoftherelevantnationalorregionaldrugregulatoryauthoritytoensure
thateachproductisofappropriatepharmaceuticalquality(includingstability)andthatwhenrelevant,
differentproductsareinterchangeable.

Forrecommendationsandadviceconcerningallaspectsofthequalityassuranceofmedicinesseethe
WHOMedicineswebsitehttp://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_assurance/en/index.html

Medicinesanddosageformsarelistedinalphabeticalorderwithineachsectionandthereisno
implicationofpreferenceforoneformoveranother.Standardtreatmentguidelinesshouldbe
consultedforinformationonappropriatedosageforms.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 1


ThemaintermsusedfordosageformsintheEssentialMedicinesListcanbefoundinAnnex1.
Definitionsofmanyofthesetermsandpharmaceuticalqualityrequirementsapplicabletothe
differentcategoriesarepublishedinthecurrenteditionofTheInternationalPharmacopoeia
http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/pharmacopoeia/en/index.html.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

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1. ANAESTHETICS
1.1 General anaesthetics and oxygen
1.1.1 Inhalational medicines
halothane

Inhalation.

isoflurane

Inhalation.

nitrousoxide

Inhalation.

oxygen

Inhalation(medicinalgas).

1.1.2 Injectable medicines


ketamine

Injection:50mg(ashydrochloride)/mlin10mlvial.
Injection:10mg/ml;20mg/ml.

propofol*

*Thiopentalmaybeusedasanalternativedependingonlocal
availabilityandcost.

1.2 Local anaesthetics


Injection:0.25%;0.5%(hydrochloride)invial.
bupivacaine

Injectionforspinalanaesthesia:0.5%(hydrochloride)in
4mlampouletobemixedwith7.5%glucosesolution.
Injection:1%;2%(hydrochloride)invial.

lidocaine

Injectionforspinalanaesthesia:5%(hydrochloride)in
2mlampouletobemixedwith7.5%glucosesolution.
Topicalforms:2%to4%(hydrochloride).

lidocaine+epinephrine
(adrenaline)

Dentalcartridge:2%(hydrochloride)+epinephrine1:80000.
Injection:1%;2%(hydrochlorideorsulfate)+epinephrine
1:200000invial.

1.3 Preoperative medication and sedation for short-term procedures


atropine

Injection:1mg(sulfate)in1mlampoule.
Injection:1mg/ml.

midazolam

Oralliquid:2mg/ml.
Tablet:7.5mg;15mg.

morphine

Injection:10mg(sulfateorhydrochloride)in1mlampoule.

2. ANALGESICS, ANTIPYRETICS, NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY MEDICINES (NSAIMs), MEDICINES USED TO TREAT


GOUT AND DISEASE MODIFYING AGENTS IN RHEUMATOID DISORDERS
(DMARDs)
2.1 Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs)
Oralliquid:200mg/5ml.
ibuprofena

Tablet:200mg;400mg.
a

>3 months.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

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Oralliquid:125mg/5ml.
Suppository:100mg.
paracetamol*

Tablet:100mgto500mg.
*Notrecommendedforantiinflammatoryuseduetolackof
provenbenefittothateffect.

ComplementaryList
Suppository:50mgto150mg.
acetylsalicylicacid*

Tablet:100mgto500mg.
*Foruseforrheumaticfever,juvenilearthritis,Kawasakidisease.

2.2 Opioid analgesics


Injection:10mg(morphinehydrochlorideormorphinesulfate)
in1mlampoule.

morphine

Oralliquid:10mg(morphinehydrochlorideormorphine
sulfate)/5ml.
Tablet:10mg(morphinesulfate).
Tablet(prolongedrelease):10mg;30mg;60mg(morphine
sulfate).

2.3 Medicines used to treat gout


2.4 Disease modifying agents used in rheumatoid disorders (DMARDs)
ComplementaryList
hydroxychloroquine

Solidoraldosageform:200mg(assulfate).

methotrexate

Tablet:2.5mg(assodiumsalt).

3. ANTIALLERGICS AND MEDICINES USED IN ANAPHYLAXIS


Injection:10mg(hydrogenmaleate)in1mlampoule.
Oralliquid:2mg/5ml(hydrogenmaleate).
chlorphenamine a R

Tablet:4mg(hydrogenmaleate).
a

>1 year.

R Review of diphenhydramine to assess comparative efficacy and


safety with chlorphenamine as a possible preferable alternative.
dexamethasone

Injection:4mg/mlin1mlampoule(asdisodiumphosphate
salt).

epinephrine(adrenaline)

Injection:1mg(ashydrochlorideorhydrogentartrate)in
1mlampoule.

hydrocortisone

Powderforinjection:100mg(assodiumsuccinate)invial.

prednisolone

Oralliquid:5mg/ml.
Tablet:5mg;25mg.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

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4. ANTIDOTES AND OTHER SUBSTANCES USED IN POISONINGS


4.1 Non-specific
charcoal,activated

Powder.

4.2 Specific
acetylcysteine

Injection:200mg/mlin10mlampoule.
Oralliquid:10%;20%.

atropine

Injection:1mg(sulfate)in1mlampoule.

calciumgluconate

Injection:100mg/mlin10mlampoule.

naloxone

Injection:400micrograms(hydrochloride)in1mlampoule.

ComplementaryList

deferoxamine

Powderforinjection:500mg(mesilate)invial.

dimercaprol

Injectioninoil:50mg/mlin2mlampoule.

sodiumcalciumedetate

Injection:200mg/mlin5mlampoule.

succimer

Solidoraldosageform:100mg.

5. ANTICONVULSANTS/ANTIEPILEPTICS
Oralliquid:100mg/5ml.
carbamazepine

Tablet(chewable):100mg;200mg.
Tablet(scored):100mg;200mg.

diazepam

Gelorrectalsolution:5mg/mlin0.5ml;2ml;4mltubes.

lorazepam

Parenteralformulation:2mg/mlin1mlampoule;4mg/mlin
1mlampoule.
Injection:200mg/ml(sodium).

phenobarbital

Oralliquid:15mg/5ml.
Tablet:15mgto100mg.
Injection:50mg/mlin5mlvial(sodiumsalt).
Oralliquid:25mgto30mg/5ml.*
Solidoraldosageform:25mg;50mg;100mg(sodiumsalt).

phenytoin

Tablet(chewable):50mg.
*Thepresenceofboth25mg/5mland30mg/5mlstrengthson
thesamemarketwouldcauseconfusioninprescribingand
dispensingandshouldbeavoided.
Oralliquid:200mg/5ml.

valproicacid(sodiumvalproate)

Tablet(crushable):100mg.
Tablet(entericcoated):200mg;500mg(sodiumvalproate).

ComplementaryList
ethosuximide

Capsule:250mg.
Oralliquid:250mg/5ml.

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6. ANTI-INFECTIVE MEDICINES
6.1 Anthelminthics
6.1.1 Intestinal anthelminthics
albendazole

Tablet(chewable):400mg.
Tablet:50mg;150mg(ashydrochloride).

levamisole*

*TheCommitteerecommendedthatthismedicinebereviewed
fordeletionatitsnextmeeting.Shouldonlybeusedin
combinationwithotheranthelminthics.

mebendazole

Tablet(chewable):100mg;500mg.
Tablet(chewable):500mg.

niclosamide*

*Niclosamideislistedforusewhenpraziquanteltreatmentfails.
TheCommitteerecommendedthatthismedicinebereviewedfor
deletionatitsnextmeeting.

praziquantel

Tablet:150mg;600mg.

pyrantel

Oralliquid:50mg(asembonateorpamoate)/ml.
Tablet(chewable):250mg(asembonateorpamoate).

6.1.2 Antifilarials
albendazole

Tablet(chewable):400mg.

diethylcarbamazine

Tablet:50mg;100mg(dihydrogencitrate).

ivermectin

Tablet(scored):3mg;6mg.

6.1.3 Antischistosomals and other antitrematode medicines


praziquantel

Tablet:600mg.

triclabendazole

Tablet:250mg.

ComplementaryList
Capsule:250mg.
oxamniquine*

Oralliquid:250mg/5ml.
*Oxamniquineislistedforusewhenpraziquanteltreatmentfails.

6.2 Antibacterials
6.2.1 Beta Lactam medicines

amoxicillin

Powderfororalliquid:125mg(astrihydrate)/5ml;250mg(as
trihydrate)/5ml.
Solidoraldosageform:250mg;500mg(astrihydrate).

amoxicillin+clavulanicacid

Oralliquid:125mgamoxicillin+31.25mgclavulanicacid/5ml
AND250mgamoxicillin+62.5mgclavulanicacid/5ml.
Tablet:500mg(astrihydrate)+125mg(aspotassiumsalt).

ampicillin

Powderforinjection:500mg;1g(assodiumsalt)invial.

benzathinebenzylpenicillin

Powderforinjection:900mgbenzylpenicillin(=1.2millionIU)
in5mlvial;1.44gbenzylpenicillin(=2.4millionIU)in5mlvial.

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benzylpenicillin

cefalexin

Powderforinjection:600mg(=1millionIU);3g(=5millionIU)
(sodiumorpotassiumsalt)invial.
Powderforreconstitutionwithwater:125mg/5ml;250mg/5ml
(anhydrous).
Solidoraldosageform:250mg(asmonohydrate).
Powderforinjection:1g(assodiumsalt)invial.

cefazolin*a

*Forsurgicalprophylaxis.
a

>1 month.

Powderforinjection:250mg;1g(assodiumsalt)invial.
ceftriaxone*a

*Donotadministerwithcalciumandavoidininfantswith
hyperbilirubinemia.
a

>41 weeks corrected gestational age.

Capsule:500mg;1g(assodiumsalt).
cloxacillin

Powderforinjection:500mg(assodiumsalt)invial.
Powderfororalliquid:125mg(assodiumsalt)/5ml.

phenoxymethylpenicillin

Powderfororalliquid:250mg(aspotassiumsalt)/5ml.
Tablet:250mg(aspotassiumsalt).
Powderforinjection:1g(=1millionIU);3g(=3millionIU)in
vial.

procainebenzylpenicillin*

*Procainebenzylpenicillinisnotrecommendedasfirstline
treatmentforneonatalsepsisexceptinsettingswithhigh
neonatalmortality,whengivenbytrainedhealthworkersin
caseswherehospitalcareisnotachievable.

ComplementaryList
Powderforinjection:250mgpervial(assodiumsalt).
cefotaxime*

*3rdgenerationcephalosporinofchoiceforuseinhospitalized
neonates.

ceftazidime

Powderforinjection:250mgor1g(aspentahydrate)invial.
Powderforinjection:250mg(asmonohydrate)+250mg(assodium
salt);500mg(asmonohydrate)+500mg(assodiumsalt)invial.

imipenem*+cilastatin*

*Onlylistedforthetreatmentoflifethreateninghospitalbased
infectionduetosuspectedorprovenmultidrugresistantinfection.
Meropenemisindicatedforthetreatmentofmeningitisandislicensed
foruseinchildrenovertheageof3months.

6.2.2 Other antibacterials


Capsule:250mg;500mg(anhydrous).
azithromycin*

Oralliquid:200mg/5ml.
*Onlylistedfortrachoma.

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Capsule:250mg.
Oilysuspensionforinjection*:0.5g(assodiumsuccinate)/mlin
2mlampoule.
chloramphenicol

*Onlyforthepresumptivetreatmentofepidemicmeningitisin
childrenolderthan2years.
Oralliquid:150mg(aspalmitate)/5ml.
Powderforinjection:1g(sodiumsuccinate)invial.
Oralliquid:250mg/5ml(anhydrous).

ciprofloxacin

SolutionforIVinfusion:2mg/ml(ashyclate).
Tablet:250mg(ashydrochloride).
Oralliquid:25mg/5ml;50mg/5ml(anhydrous).

doxycyclinea

Solidoraldosageform:50mg;100mg(ashyclate).
aUse in children <8 years only for life-threatening infections when no
alternative exists.

erythromycin

gentamicin

Powderfororalliquid:125mg/5ml(asstearateorestolateor
ethylsuccinate).
Solidoraldosageform:250mg(asstearateorestolateorethyl
succinate).
Injection:10mg;40mg(assulfate)/mlin2mlvial.
Injection:500mgin100mlvial.

metronidazole

Oralliquid:200mg(asbenzoate)/5ml.
Tablet:200mgto500mg.

nitrofurantoin

Oralliquid:25mg/5ml.
Tablet:100mg.
Injection:

sulfamethoxazole+
trimethoprim

80mg+16mg/mlin5mlampoule;
80mg+16mg/mlin10mlampoule.
Oralliquid:200mg+40mg/5ml.
Tablet:100mg+20mg;400mg+80mg.
Oralliquid:50mg/5ml.

trimethoprima

Tablet:100mg;200mg.
a

>6 months.

ComplementaryList
Capsule:150mg(ashydrochloride).
clindamycin

Injection:150mg(asphosphate)/ml.
Oralliquid:75mg/5ml(aspalmitate).

vancomycin

Powderforinjection:250mg(ashydrochloride)invial.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

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6.2.3 Antileprosy medicines
Medicines used in the treatment of leprosy should never be used except in combination.
Combinationtherapyisessentialtopreventtheemergenceofdrugresistance.Colourcodedblister
packs (MDT blister packs) containing standard two medicine (paucibacillary leprosy) or three
medicine (multibacillary leprosy) combinations for adult and childhood leprosy should be used.
MDTblisterpackscanbesuppliedfreeofchargethroughWHO.
clofazimine

Capsule:50mg;100mg.

dapsone

Tablet:25mg;50mg;100mg.

rifampicin

Solidoraldosageform:150mg;300mg.

6.2.4 Antituberculosis medicines


TheCommitteerecommendsandendorsestheuseoffixeddosecombinationsandthedevelopment
of appropriate new fixeddose combinations, including modified dosage forms, nonrefrigerated
productsandpaediatricdosageformsofassuredpharmaceuticalquality.
ethambutol

Oralliquid:25mg/ml.
Tablet:100mg;400mg(hydrochloride).
Oralliquid:50mg/5ml.

isoniazid

Tablet:100mgto300mg.
Tablet(scored):50mg.
Oralliquid:30mg/ml.

pyrazinamide

Tablet:400mg.
Tablet(dispersible):150mg.
Tablet(scored):150mg.

rifampicin

streptomycinR

Oralliquid:20mg/ml.
Solidoraldosageform:150mg;300mg.
Powderforinjection:1g(assulfate)invial.
RReview of safety and efficacy of streptomycin in childhood TB.

ComplementaryList
Reservesecondlinedrugsforthetreatmentofmultidrugresistanttuberculosis(MDRTB)
shouldbeusedinspecializedcentresadheringtoWHOstandardsforTBcontrol.R
RThe Committee requests a review of the medicines for MDR-TB in children.
amikacin

Powderforinjection:100mg;500mg;1g(assulfate)invial.

capreomycin

Powderforinjection:1g(assulfate)invial.

cycloserine

Solidoraldosageform:250mg.

ethionamide

Tablet:125mg;250mg.

kanamycin

Powderforinjection:1g(assulfate)invial.
Tablet:200mg;400mg.

ofloxacin*

*Levofloxacinmaybeanalternativebasedonavailabilityand
programmeconsiderations.

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paminosalicylicacid

Granules:4ginsachet.
Tablet:500mg.

6.3 Antifungal medicines


Capsule:50mg.
fluconazole

Injection:2mg/mlinvial.
Oralliquid:50mg/5ml.

griseofulvin

Oralliquid:125mg/5ml.
Solidoraldosageform:125mg;250mg.
Lozenge:100000IU.

nystatin

Oralliquid:50mg/5ml;100000IU/ml.
Tablet:100000IU;500000IU.

ComplementaryList
amphotericinB

Powderforinjection:50mginvial.

Assodiumdeoxycholateorliposomalcomplex.

flucytosine
potassiumiodide

Capsule:250mg.
Infusion:2.5gin250ml.
Saturatedsolution.

6.4 Antiviral medicines


6.4.1 Antiherpes medicines
Oralliquid:200mg/5ml.
aciclovir

Powderforinjection:250mg(assodiumsalt)invial.
Tablet:200mg.

6.4.2 Antiretrovirals
Based on current evidence and experience of use, medicines in the following three classes of
antiretroviralsareincludedasessentialmedicinesfortreatmentandpreventionofHIV(prevention
of mothertochild transmission and postexposure prophylaxis). The Committee emphasizes the
importance of using these products in accordance with global and national guidelines. The
Committee recommends and endorses the use of fixeddose combinations and the development of
appropriate new fixeddose combinations, including modified dosage forms, nonrefrigerated
productsandpaediatricdosageformsofassuredpharmaceuticalquality.
Scoredtabletscanbeusedinchildrenandthereforecanbeconsideredforinclusioninthelistingof
tablets,providedadequatequalityproductsareavailable.
6.4.2.1 Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
abacavir(ABC)

Oralliquid:100mg(assulfate)/5ml.
Tablet:300mg(assulfate).

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Bufferedpowderfororalliquid:100mg;167mg;250mgpackets.
didanosine(ddI)

Capsule(unbufferedentericcoated):125mg;200mg;250mg;
400mg.
Tablet(bufferedchewable,dispersible):25mg;50mg;100mg;
150mg;200mg.
Capsule:200mg.
Oralliquid:10mg/ml.

emtricitabine(FTC)* a

*FTCisanacceptablealternativeto3TC,basedonknowledgeof
thepharmacology,theresistancepatternsandclinicaltrialsof
antiretrovirals.
a

lamivudine(3TC)

stavudine(d4T)

>3 months.

Oralliquid:50mg/5ml.
Tablet:150mg.
Capsule:15mg;20mg;30mg.
Powderfororalliquid:5mg/5ml.
Capsule:100mg;250mg.

zidovudine(ZDVorAZT)

Oralliquid:50mg/5ml.
SolutionforIVinfusioninjection:10mg/mlin20mlvial.
Tablet:300mg.

6.4.2.2 Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors


Capsule:50mg;100mg;200mg.
efavirenz(EFVorEFZ)a

Oralliquid:150mg/5ml.
Tablet:600mg.
a

nevirapine(NVP)

>3 years or >10 kg.

Oralliquid:50mg/5ml.
Tablet:200mg.

6.4.2.3 Protease inhibitors


Selectionofproteaseinhibitor(s)fromtheModelListwillneedtobedeterminedbyeachcountryafter
consideration of international and national treatment guidelines and experience. Ritonavir is
recommendedforuseincombinationasapharmacologicalbooster,andnotasanantiretroviralinits
ownright.Allotherproteaseinhibitorsshouldbeusedinboostedforms(e.g.withritonavir).
atazanavira

Solidoraldosageform:100mg;150mg;300mg(assulfate).
a

>25 kg.

Capsule:133.3mg+33.3mg.
lopinavir+ritonavir(LPV/r)

Oralliquid:400mg+100mg/5ml.
Tablet(heatstable):100mg+25mg;200mg+50mg.
Oralliquid:400mg/5ml.

ritonavir

Solidoraldosageform:100mg.
Tablet(heatstable):25mg;100mg.

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saquinavir(SQV)a

Solidoraldosageform:200mg(asmesilate).
a

>25 kg.

FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS
lamivudine+nevirapine+
stavudine

Tablet:150mg+200mg+30mg.
Tablet(dispersible):
30mg+50mg+6mg;60mg+100mg+12mg.

lamivudine+nevirapine+
zidovudine

Tablet:30mg+50mg+60mg;150mg+200mg+300mg.

lamivudine+zidovudine

Tablet:30mg+60mg;150mg+300mg.

6.4.3 Other antivirals


Capsule:30mg;45mg;75mg(asphosphate).
Oralpowder:12mg/ml.

oseltamivir*

*OseltamivirshouldbeusedonlyincompliancewiththeWHO
treatmentguidelines,i.e.(1)fortreatmentofpatientswithsevereor
progressiveclinicalillnesswithconfirmedorsuspectedinfluenza
pandemic(H1N1)2009,(2)forthetreatmentofpatientswith
confirmedorsuspectedbutuncomplicatedillnessduetopandemic
influenzavirusinfectionwhowereinhigherriskgroups,most
notablyforpregnantwomenandchildrenunder2yearsofage.
Injectionforintravenousadministration:800mgand1gin
10mlphosphatebuffersolution.

ribavirin*

Solidoraldosageform:200mg;400mg;600mg.
*Forthetreatmentofviralhaemorrhagicfeversonly.

6.5 Antiprotozoal medicines


6.5.1 Antiamoebic and antigiardiasis medicines
diloxanidea

Tablet:500mg(furoate).
a

>25 kg.

Injection:500mgin100mlvial.
metronidazole

Oralliquid:200mg(asbenzoate)/5ml.
Tablet:200mgto500mg.

6.5.2 Antileishmaniasis medicines


amphotericinB

Powderforinjection:50mginvial.
Assodiumdeoxycholateorliposomalcomplex.

miltefosine

Solidoraldosageform:10mg;50mg.

paromomycin

Solutionforintramuscularinjection:750mgofparomomycinbase
(asthesulfate).

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

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sodiumstibogluconateor
meglumineantimoniateR

Injection:100mg/ml,1vial=30mlor30%,equivalentto
approximately8.1%antimony(pentavalent)in5mlampoule.
R

Review of comparative effectiveness and safety of antimonials for


leishmaniasis, and whether they should be kept on the core list or
moved to the complementary list.

6.5.3 Antimalarial medicines


6.5.3.1 For curative treatment
Medicines for the treatment of P.falciparummalaria cases should be used in combination. The list
currently recommends combinationsaccording to treatment guidelines. TheCommittee recognizes
that not all of these FDCs exist and encourages their development and rigorous testing. The
Committeealsoencouragesdevelopmentandtestingofrectaldosageformulations.
amodiaquine*

artemether*

Tablet:153mgor200mg(ashydrochloride).
*Tobeusedincombinationwithartesunate50mg.
Oilyinjection:80mg/mlin1mlampoule.
*Foruseinthemanagementofseveremalaria.
Tablet:20mg+120mg.

artemether+lumefantrine*

Tablet(dispersible):20mg+120mg.
*Notrecommendedinthefirsttrimesterofpregnancyorin
childrenbelow5kg.
Injection:ampoules,containing60mganhydrousartesunicacid
withaseparateampouleof5%sodiumbicarbonatesolution.
Foruseinthemanagementofseveremalaria.

artesunate*

Rectaldosageform:50mg;200mgcapsules(forprereferral
treatmentofseveremalariaonly;patientsshouldbetakentoan
appropriatehealthfacilityforfollowupcare).
Tablet:50mg.
*Tobeusedincombinationwitheitheramodiaquine,mefloquine
orsulfadoxine+pyrimethamine.
Tablet:25mg+67.5mg;50mg+135mg;100mg+270mg.

artesunate+amodiaquine*

*Othercombinationsthatdeliverthetargetdosesrequiredsuchas
153mgor200mg(ashydrochloride)with50mgartesunatecanbe
alternatives.
Oralliquid:50mg(asphosphateorsulfate)/5ml.

chloroquine*

Tablet:100mg;150mg(asphosphateorsulfate).
*ForuseonlyforthetreatmentofP.vivaxinfection.
Capsule:100mg(ashydrochlorideorhyclate).

doxycycline*

Tablet(dispersible):100mg(asmonohydrate).
*Foruseonlyincombinationwithquinine.

mefloquine*

Tablet:250mg(ashydrochloride).
*Tobeusedincombinationwithartesunate50mg.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 13


Tablet:7.5mg;15mg(asdiphosphate).
primaquine*

*OnlyforusetoachieveradicalcureofP.vivaxandP.ovale
infections,givenfor14days.
Injection:300mgquininehydrochloride/mlin2mlampoule.

quinine*

Tablet:300mg(quininesulfate)or300mg(quininebisulfate).
*Foruseonlyinthemanagementofseveremalaria,andshouldbe
usedincombinationwithdoxycycline.

sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine*

Tablet:500mg+25mg.
*Onlyincombinationwithartesunate50mg.

6.5.3.2 For prophylaxis


Oralliquid:50mg(asphosphateorsulfate)/5ml.
chloroquine*

Tablet:150mg(asphosphateorsulfate).
*ForuseonlyforthetreatmentofP.vivaxinfection.

doxycyclinea

mefloquinea

proguanil*

Solidoraldosageform:100mg(ashydrochlorideorhyclate).
a

>8 years.

Tablet:250mg(ashydrochloride).
a

>5 kg or >3 months.

Tablet:100mg(ashydrochloride).
*Foruseonlyincombinationwithchloroquine.

6.5.4 Antipneumocystosis and antitoxoplasmosis medicines


pyrimethamine

Tablet:25mg.

sulfadiazine

Tablet:500mg.
Injection:

sulfamethoxazole+
trimethoprim

80mg+16mg/mlin5mlampoule;
80mg+16mg/mlin10mlampoule.
Oralliquid:200mg+40mg/5ml.
Tablet:100mg+20mg;400mg+80mg.

6.5.5 Antitrypanosomal medicines


6.5.5.1 African trypanosomiasis
Medicinesforthetreatmentof1ststageAfricantrypanosomiasis.
Powderforinjection:200mg(asisetionate)invial.
pentamidine*

*TobeusedforthetreatmentofTrypanosomabruceigambiense
infection.
Powderforinjection:1ginvial.

suraminsodium*

*Tobeusedforthetreatmentoftheinitialphaseof
Trypanosomabruceirhodesienseinfection.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 14


Medicinesforthetreatmentof2ndstageAfricantrypanosomiasis
Injection:200mg(hydrochloride)/mlin100mlbottle.
eflornithine*

*TobeusedforthetreatmentofTrypanosomabruceigambiense
infection.

ComplementaryList
melarsoprol

Injection:3.6%solutionin5mlampoule(180mgofactivecompound).

6.5.5.2 American trypanosomiasis R


benznidazole

Tablet:100mg.

nifurtimox

Tablet:30mg;120mg;250mg.

7. ANTIMIGRAINE MEDICINES
7.1 For treatment of acute attack
ibuprofen
paracetamol

Tablet:200mg;400mg.
Oralliquid:125mg/5ml.
Tablet:300mgto500mg.

7.2 For prophylaxis


propranolol

Tablet:20mg;40mg(hydrochloride).

8. ANTINEOPLASTIC, IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVES AND MEDICINES USED IN


PALLIATIVE CARE
8.1 Immunosuppressive medicines
ComplementaryList
azathioprine

Powderforinjection:100mg(assodiumsalt)invial.
Tablet(scored):50mg.
Capsule:25mg.

ciclosporin

Concentrateforinjection:50mg/mlin1mlampoulefororgan
transplantation.

8.2 Cytotoxic and adjuvant medicines


Medicines listed below should be used according to protocols for treatment of
the diseases.
ComplementaryList
ACUTELYMPHOBLASTICLEUKAEMIA
STEP1

asparaginase

Powderforinjection:10000IUinvial.

dexamethasone

Oralliquid:2mg/5ml.

mercaptopurine

Tablet:50mg.

methotrexate

Powderforinjection:50mg(assodiumsalt)invial.
Tablet:2.5mg(assodiumsalt).

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 15


methylprednisolone

Injection:40mg/ml(assodiumsuccinate)in1mlsingledosevialand
5mlmultidosevials;80mg/ml(assodiumsuccinate)in1mlsingledose
vial.

prednisolone

Oralliquid:5mg/ml.

vincristine

Powderforinjection:1mg;5mg(sulfate)invial.

STEP2

cyclophosphamide

Powderforinjection:500mginvial.

cytarabine

Powderforinjection:100mginvial.

daunorubicin

Powderforinjection:50mg(hydrochloride)invial.

doxorubicin

Powderforinjection:10mg;50mg(hydrochloride)invial.

hydrocortisone

Powderforinjection:100mg(assodiumsuccinate)invial.

methotrexate

Powderforinjection:50mg(assodiumsalt)invial.

thioguanine

Solidoraldosageform:40mg.

WILMSTUMOUR(NEPHROBLASTOMA)
STEP1&STEP2

dactinomycin

Powderforinjection:500microgramsinvial.

daunorubicin

Powderforinjection:50mg(hydrochloride)invial.

vincristine

Powderforinjection:1mg;5mg(sulfate)invial.

BURKITTSLYMPHOMA
STEP1&STEP2

cyclophosphamide

Powderforinjection:500mginvial.

cytarabine

Powderforinjection:100mginvial.

doxorubicin

Powderforinjection:10mg;50mg(hydrochloride)invial.

prednisolone

Oralliquid:5mg/ml.

vincristine

Powderforinjection:1mg;5mg(sulfate)invial.

ADJUVANTMEDICINES
allopurinol
mesna

Tablet:100mg;300mg.
Injection:100mg/mlin4mland10mlampoules.
Tablet:400mg;600mg.

8.3 Hormones and antihormones


8.4 Medicines used in palliative care
amitriptyline
cyclizine

dexamethasone

Tablet:10mg;25mg.
Injection:50mg/ml.
Tablet:50mg.
Injection:4mg/mlin1mlampoule(asdisodiumphosphatesalt).
Tablet:2mg.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 16


Injection:5mg/ml.
diazepam

Oralliquid:2mg/5ml.
Rectalsolution:2.5mg;5mg;10mg.
Tablet:5mg;10mg.

docusatesodium

fluoxetinea

hyoscinehydrobromide

Capsule:100mg.
Oralliquid:50mg/5ml.
Solidoraldosageform:20mg(ashydrochloride).
a

>8 years.

Injection:400micrograms/ml;600micrograms/ml.
Transdermalpatches:1mg/72hours.
Oralliquid:200mg/5ml.

ibuprofena

Tablet:200mg;400mg;600mg.
a

Not in children less than 3 months.

lactulose

Oralliquid:3.13.7g/5ml.

midazolam

Injection:1mg/ml;5mg/ml.
Granules(modifiedrelease)(tomixwithwater):20mg;30mg;
60mg;100mg;200mg.
Injection:10mg/ml.

morphine

Oralliquid:10mg/5ml.
Tablet(controlledrelease):10mg;30mg;60mg.
Tablet(immediaterelease):10mg.
Injection:2mgbase/mlin2mlampoule(ashydrochloride).

ondansetrona

Oralliquid:4mgbase/5ml.
Solidoraldosageform:Eq4mgbase;Eq8mgbase.
a

senna

>1 month.

Oralliquid:7.5mg/5ml.

9. ANTIPARKINSONISM MEDICINES
10. MEDICINES AFFECTING THE BLOOD
10.1 Antianaemia medicines R
R The Committee proposed a review of the evidence for appropriate dose combinations of iron and folic acid for
children.
ferroussalt

Oralliquid:equivalentto25mgiron(assulfate)/ml.
Tablet:equivalentto60mgiron.

folicacid

Tablet:1mg;5mg.

hydroxocobalamin

Injection:1mg(asacetate,hydrochlorideorassulfate)in1ml
ampoule.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 17


10.2 Medicines affecting coagulation
phytomenadione

Injection:1mg/ml;10mg/mlin5mlampoule.
Tablet:10mg.

ComplementaryList
heparinsodium

Injection:1000IU/ml;5000IU/mlin1mlampoule.

protaminesulfate

Injection:10mg/mlin5mlampoule.

warfarin

Tablet:0.5mg;1mg;2mg;5mg(sodiumsalt).

10.3 Other medicines for haemoglobinopathies


Complementarylist
deferoxamine*

Powderforinjection:500mg(mesilate)invial.
*Deferasiroxoralformmaybeanalternative,dependingoncostand
availability.

hydroxycarbamide

Solidoraldosageform:200mg;500mg;1g.

11. BLOOD PRODUCTS AND PLASMA SUBSTITUTES


11.1 Plasma substitutes R
RThe Committee requested a review to determine whether these medicines are essential for children.
11.2 Plasma fractions for specific use
AllplasmafractionsshouldcomplywiththeWHORequirementsfortheCollection,Processingand
QualityControlofBlood,BloodComponentsandPlasmaDerivatives(Revised1992).(WHOTechnical
ReportSeries,No.840,1994,Annex2).
ComplementaryList
factorVIIIconcentrate

Dried.

factorIXcomplex
(coagulationfactors,II,VII,
IX,X)concentrate

Dried.
Intramuscularadministration:16%proteinsolution.*

humannormal
immunoglobulin

Intravenousadministration:5%;10%proteinsolution.**
Subcutaneousadministration:15%;16%proteinsolution.*
*Indicatedforprimaryimmunedeficiency.
**IndicatedforprimaryimmunedeficiencyandKawasakidisease.

12. CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINES


12.1 Antianginal medicines
12.2 Antiarrhythmic medicines R
R

The Committee noted the potential importance of these medicines and requested a review to determine
which of these medicines are essential for children.

12.3 Antihypertensive medicines


enalapril

Tablet:2.5mg;5mg(ashydrogenmaleate).

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 18


12.4 Medicines used in heart failure
Injection:250micrograms/mlin2mlampoule.
digoxin

Oralliquid:50micrograms/ml.
Tablet:62.5micrograms;250micrograms.
Injection:10mg/mlin2mlampoule.

furosemide

Oralliquid:20mg/5ml.
Tablet:40mg.

ComplementaryList
dopamineR

Injection:40mg(hydrochloride)in5mlvial.
R

Review of safety and efficacy of dopamine in children.

12.5 Antithrombotic medicines


12.6 Lipid-lowering agents R
R

The Committee noted the potential importance of these medicines in children but requested a review of the
section before endorsing any medicine as essential.

13. DERMATOLOGICAL MEDICINES (topical)


13.1 Antifungal medicines
miconazole

Creamorointment:2%(nitrate).

terbinafine

Cream:1%orOintment:1%terbinafinehydrochloride.

13.2 Anti-infective medicines R


R

The Committee requested a review of safety of topical antibiotics including tetracycline ointment in neonates.

Cream(asmupirocincalcium):2%.
mupirocin
potassiumpermanganate
silversulfadiazinea

Ointment:2%.
Aqueoussolution:1:10000.
Cream:1%.
a

>2 months.

13.3 Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic medicines


betamethasonea

Creamorointment:0.1%(asvalerate).
a

Hydrocortisone preferred in neonates.

calamine

Lotion.

hydrocortisone

Creamorointment:1%(acetate).

13.4 Medicines affecting skin differentiation and proliferation


benzoylperoxide

Creamorlotion:5%.

coaltar

Solution:5%.

podophyllumresin

Solution:10%to25%.

salicylicacid

Solution:5%.

urea

Creamorointment:5%;10%.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 19


13.5 Scabicides and pediculicides
benzylbenzoatea

permethrin

Lotion:25%.
a

>2 years.

Cream:5%.
Lotion:1%.

14. DIAGNOSTIC AGENTS


14.1 Ophthalmic medicines
fluorescein

Eyedrops:1%(sodiumsalt).

tropicamide

Eyedrops:0.5%.

14.2 Radiocontrast media R


R The Committee requested a review of possible alternative contrast agents for use in children.
ComplementaryList
bariumsulfate

Aqueoussuspension.

15. DISINFECTANTS AND ANTISEPTICS


15.1 Antiseptics
chlorhexidine

Solution:5%(digluconate);20%(digluconate)(needstobe
dilutedpriortouseforcordcare).

ethanol

Solution:70%(denatured).

polyvidoneiodine

Solution:10%(equivalentto1%availableiodine).

15.2 Disinfectants
chlorinebasecompound

Powder:(0.1%availablechlorine)forsolution.

chloroxylenol

Solution:4.8%.

glutaral

Solution:2%.

16. DIURETICS
Injection:10mg/mlin2mlampoule.
furosemide

Oralliquid:20mg/5ml.
Tablet:10mg;20mg;40mg.

ComplementaryList
hydrochlorothiazide

Tablet(scored):25mg.

mannitol

Injectablesolution:10%;20%.

spironolactone

Oralliquid:5mg/5ml;10mg/5ml;25mg/5ml.
Tablet:25mg.

17. GASTROINTESTINAL MEDICINES


ComplementaryList
pancreaticenzymes

Ageappropriateformulationsanddosesincludinglipase,proteaseand
amylase.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 20


17.1 Antiulcer medicines
omeprazole

Powderfororalliquid:20mg;40mgsachets.
Solidoraldosageform:10mg;20mg;40mg.
Injection:25mg/ml(ashydrochloride)in2mlampoule.
Oralliquid:75mg/5ml(ashydrochloride).

ranitidine*

Tablet:150mg(ashydrochloride).
*TheCommitteehasrequestedareviewofthecomparative
effectivenessandsafety,forpossibledeletionofthisclassof
medicineatitsnextmeeting.

17.2 Antiemetic medicines


Injection:4mg/mlin1mlampoule(asdisodiumphosphatesalt).
dexamethasone

Oralliquid:0.5mg/5ml;2mg/5ml.
Solidoraldosageform:0.5mg;0.75mg;1.5mg;4mg.
Injection:5mg(hydrochloride)/mlin2mlampoule.

metoclopramidea

Oralliquid:5mg/5ml.
Tablet:10mg(hydrochloride).
a

Not in neonates.

Injection:2mgbase/mlin2mlampoule(ashydrochloride).
ondansetrona

Oralliquid:4mgbase/5ml.
Solidoraldosageform:Eq4mgbase;Eq8mgbase.
a

>1 month.

17.3 Anti-inflammatory medicines


17.4 Laxatives R
RThe Committee noted the potential importance of these medicines in children but requested a review of the
section before endorsing any medicine as essential.
17.5 Medicines used in diarrhoea
17.5.1 Oral rehydration

oralrehydrationsalts

glucose:

sodium:

chloride:

potassium:

citrate:

osmolarity:

glucose:

sodiumchloride:

potassiumchloride:

trisodiumcitratedihydrate+:

75mEq
75mEqormmol/L
65mEqormmol/L
20mEqormmol/L
10mmol/L
245mOsm/L
13.5g/L
2.6g/L
1.5g/L
2.9g/L

+trisodiumcitratedihydratemaybereplacedbysodiumhydrogen
carbonate(sodiumbicarbonate)2.5g/L.However,asthestabilityofthis
latterformulationisverypoorundertropicalconditions,itisonly
recommendedwhenmanufacturedforimmediateuse.

Powderfordilutionin200ml;500ml;1L.
3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 21


17.5.2 Medicines for diarrhoea in children
Solidoraldosageform:20mg.
zincsulfate*

*Inacutediarrhoeazincsulfateshouldbeusedasanadjunctto
oralrehydrationsalts.

17.5.3 Antidiarrhoeal (symptomatic) medicines in adults

18. HORMONES, OTHER ENDOCRINE MEDICINES AND CONTRACEPTIVES


18.1 Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutes
fludrocortisone

Tablet:100micrograms(acetate).

hydrocortisone

Tablet:5mg;10mg;20mg.

18.2 Androgens
18.3 Contraceptives
18.3.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives
18.3.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives
18.3.3 Intrauterine devices
18.3.4 Barrier methods
18.3.5 Implantable contraceptives
18.4 Estrogens
18.5 Insulins and other medicines used for diabetes
glucagon

Injection:1mg/ml.

insulininjection(soluble)

Injection:100IU/mlin10mlvial.

intermediateactinginsulin

Injection:100IU/mlin10mlvial
(ascompoundinsulinzincsuspensionorisophaneinsulin).

ComplementaryList
metformin

Tablet:500mg(hydrochloride).

18.6 Ovulation inducers


18.7 Progestogens
18.8 Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicines
levothyroxine

Tablet:25micrograms;50micrograms;100micrograms
(sodiumsalt).

ComplementaryList
Lugolssolution

Oralliquid:about130mgtotaliodine/ml.

potassiumiodide

Tablet:60mg.
Tablet:50mg.

propylthiouracilR

R Review of use of propylthiouracil in children and appropriateness of


carbimazole as an alternative.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 22

19. IMMUNOLOGICALS
19.1 Diagnostic agents
AlltuberculinsshouldcomplywiththeWHORequirementsforTuberculins(Revised1985).WHO
ExpertCommitteeonBiologicalStandardization.Thirtysixthreport.(WHOTechnicalReportSeries,
No.745,1987,Annex1).
tuberculin,purifiedprotein
derivative(PPD)

Injection.

19.2 Sera and immunoglobulins


AllplasmafractionsshouldcomplywiththeWHORequirementsfortheCollection,Processingand
QualityControlofBlood,BloodComponentsandPlasmaDerivatives(Revised1992).WHOExpert
CommitteeonBiologicalStandardization.Fortythirdreport.(WHOTechnicalReportSeries,No.
840,1994,Annex2).
antitetanusimmunoglobulin
(human)
antivenomimmunoglobulin*

Injection:500IUinvial.
Injection.
*Exacttypetobedefinedlocally.

diphtheriaantitoxin

Injection:10000IU;20000IUinvial.

rabiesimmunoglobulin

Injection:150IU/mlinvial.

19.3 Vaccines

SelectionofvaccinesfromtheModelListwillneedtobedeterminedbyeachcountryafter
considerationofinternationalrecommendations,epidemiologyandnationalpriorities.Thelistbelow
detailsthevaccinesforwhichthereiseitherarecommendationfromtheStrategicAdvisoryGroupof
ExpertsonImmunization(SAGE)
(http://www.who.int/immunization/sage_conclusions/en/index.html)and/oraWHOpositionpaper
(http://www.who.int/immunization/documents/positionpapers/en/index.html).Thissitewillbe
updatedasnewpositionpapersarepublishedandcontainsthemostrecentinformationand
recommendations.AllvaccinesshouldcomplywiththeWHORequirementsforBiological
Substances.
TheCommitteenotedtheneedforvaccinesusedinchildrentobepolyvalent.
BCGvaccine

choleravaccine

diphtheriavaccine

Haemophilusinfluenzaetypeb
vaccine

hepatitisAvaccine

hepatitisBvaccine

influenzavaccine

Japaneseencephalitisvaccine

measlesvaccine

meningococcalmeningitis
vaccine

mumpsvaccine

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 23


pertussisvaccine

pneumococcalvaccine

poliomyelitisvaccine

rabiesvaccine

rotavirusvaccine

rubellavaccine

tetanusvaccine

typhoidvaccine

varicellavaccine

yellowfevervaccine

20. MUSCLE RELAXANTS (PERIPHERALLY-ACTING) AND


CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS R
RThe Committee has requested a review of this section at its next meeting.

neostigmine

Injection:500microgramsin1mlampoule;2.5mg(metilsulfate)
in1mlampoule.
Tablet:15mg(bromide).

suxamethonium
vecuronium

Injection:50mg(chloride)/mlin2mlampoule.
Powderforinjection:(chloride),invial.
Powderforinjection:10mg(bromide)invial.

ComplementaryList
pyridostigmine

Injection:1mgin1mlampoule.
Tablet:60mg(bromide).

21. OPHTHALMOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS R


RThe Committee requested a review of newer medicines for potential additions to this list.
21.1 Anti-infective agents
aciclovir

Ointment:3%W/W.

gentamicin

Solution(eyedrops):0.3%(sulfate).

tetracycline

Eyeointment:1%(hydrochloride).

21.2 Anti-inflammatory agents


prednisolone

Solution(eyedrops):0.5%(sodiumphosphate).

21.3 Local anaesthetics


tetracainea

Solution(eyedrops):0.5%(hydrochloride).
a

Not in preterm neonates.

21.4 Miotics and antiglaucoma medicines

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 24


21.5 Mydriatics
Solution(eyedrops):0.1%;0.5%;1%(sulfate).
atropine* a

*Orhomatropine(hydrobromide)orcyclopentolate
(hydrochloride).
a

>3 months.

ComplementaryList
Solution(eyedrops):2%(ashydrochloride).
epinephrine(adrenaline)R

R Review of anti-infective eye drops, identifying which are most


appropriate for use in children.

22. OXYTOCICS AND ANTIOXYTOCICS


22.1 Oxytocics
22.2 Antioxytocics (tocolytics)

23. PERITONEAL DIALYSIS SOLUTION


ComplementaryList
intraperitonealdialysis
solution(ofappropriate
composition)

Parenteralsolution.

24. MEDICINES FOR MENTAL AND BEHAVIOURALDISORDERS R


R The Committee noted the potential importance of these medicines in children for a variety of disorders and
requests a review of the entire section.
24.1 Medicines used in psychotic disorders
ComplementaryList
Injection:25mg(hydrochloride)/mlin2mlampoule.
chlorpromazine

Oralliquid:25mg(hydrochloride)/5ml.
Tablet:10mg;25mg;50mg;100mg(hydrochloride).
Injection:5mgin1mlampoule.

haloperidol

Oralliquid:2mg/ml.
Solidoraldosageform:0.5mg;2mg;5mg.

24.2 Medicines used in mood disorders


24.2.1 Medicines used in depressive disorders
ComplementaryList
fluoxetinea

Solidoraldosageform:20mg(ashydrochloride).
a

>8 years.

24.2.2 Medicines used in bipolar disorders R


24.3 Medicines for anxiety disorders R
24.4 Medicines used for obsessive compulsive disorders R
24.5 Medicines for disorders due to psychoactive substance use R

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 25

25. MEDICINES ACTING ON THE RESPIRATORY TRACT


25.1 Antiasthmatic medicines
budesonide

Inhalation(aerosol):100microgramsperdose;200micrograms
perdose.

epinephrine(adrenaline)

Injection:1mg(ashydrochlorideorhydrogentartrate)in
1mlampoule.
Injection:50micrograms(assulfate)/mlin5mlampoule.

salbutamol

Metereddoseinhaler(aerosol):100micrograms(assulfate)per
dose.
Respiratorsolutionforuseinnebulizers:5mg(assulfate)/ml.

26. SOLUTIONS CORRECTING WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID-BASE


DISTURBANCES
26.1 Oral
oralrehydrationsalts

Seesection17.5.1.

potassiumchloride

Powderforsolution.

26.2 Parenteral
glucose

Injectablesolution:5%(isotonic);10%(hypertonic);
50%(hypertonic).

glucosewithsodiumchloride

Injectablesolution:5%glucose,0.9%sodiumchloride
(equivalentto150mmol/LNa+and150mmol/LCl);5%glucose,
0.45%sodiumchloride(equivalentto75mmol/LNa+and
75mmol/LCl).

potassiumchloride

Solutionfordilution:7.5%(equivalenttoK1mmol/mlandCl
1mmol/ml);15%(equivalenttoK2mmol/mlandCl2mmol/ml).

sodiumchloride

Injectablesolution:0.9%isotonic(equivalenttoNa+
154mmol/L,Cl154mmol/L).

sodiumhydrogencarbonate

sodiumlactate,compound

solution

Injectablesolution:1.4%isotonic(equivalenttoNa+167mmol/L,
HCO3167mmol/L).
Solution:8.4%in10mlampoule(equivalenttoNa+
1000mmol/L,HCO31000mmol/L).
Injectablesolution.

26.3 Miscellaneous
waterforinjection

2ml;5ml;10mlampoules.

27. VITAMINS AND MINERALS R


RThe Committee noted the need for a review of this section of the list to meet public health needs in
children.
ascorbicacid

Tablet:50mg.
Oralliquid:400IU/ml.

cholecalciferol*

Solidoraldosageform:400IU;1000IU.
*Ergocalciferolcanbeusedasanalternative.

3rd WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (March 2011)

page 26


Capsule:200mg.
iodine

Iodizedoil:1ml(480mgiodine);0.5ml(240mgiodine)in
ampoule(oralorinjectable);0.57ml(308mgiodine)indispenser
bottle.

pyridoxine

Tablet:25mg(hydrochloride).
Capsule:100000IU;200000IU(aspalmitate).
Oraloilysolution:100000IU(aspalmitate)/mlinmultidose
dispenser.

retinol

Tablet(sugarcoated):10000IU(aspalmitate).
Watermiscibleinjection:100000IU(aspalmitate)in
2mlampoule.

riboflavin

Tablet:5mg.

sodiumfluoride

Inanyappropriatetopicalformulation.

thiamine

Tablet:50mg(hydrochloride).

ComplementaryList
calciumgluconate

Injection:100mg/mlin10mlampoule.

28. EAR, NOSE AND THROAT CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN R


R Review of role of leukotriene antagonists in the management of childhood allergic rhinitis.
aceticacid

Topical:2%,inalcohol.

budesonide

Nasalspray:100microgramsperdose.

ciprofloxacin

Topical:0.3%drops(ashydrochloride).
Nasalspray:0.05%.

xylometazolinea

aNot in children less than 3 months.

29. SPECIFIC MEDICINES FOR NEONATAL CARE


caffeinecitrate

Injection:20mg/ml(equivalentto10mgcaffeinebase/ml).
Oralliquid:20mg/ml(equivalentto10mgcaffeinebase/ml).

ComplementaryList
ibuprofen

Solutionforinjection:5mg/ml.
Solutionforinjection:

prostaglandinE

ProstaglandinE1:0.5mg/mlinalcohol.
ProstaglandinE2:1mg/ml.

surfactant

Suspensionforintratrachealinstillation:25mg/mlor80mg/ml.

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Table 1: Medicines with age and weight restrictions


atazanavir
atropine
benzylbenzoate
betamethasonetopicalpreparations
cefazolin
ceftriaxone
chlorphenamine
diloxanide
doxycycline
efavirenz
emtricitabine
fluoxetine
ibuprofen
mefloquine
metoclopramide
ondansetron
saquinavir
silversulfadiazine
tetracaine
trimethoprim
xylometazoline

>25kg
>3months
>2years
Hydrocortisonepreferredinneonates
>1month
>41weekscorrectedgestationalage
>1year
>25kg
>8years(exceptforseriousinfectionse.g.cholera)
>3yearsor>10kg
>3months
>8years
>3months(exceptIVformforpatentductusarteriosus)
>5kgor>3months
Notinneonates
>1month
>25kg
>2months
Notinpretermneonates
>6months
>3months

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Annex 1: Explanation of dosage forms

A. Principal dosage forms used in EMLc - Oral administration

Term

Solidoraldosageform

Definition

Referstotabletsorcapsulesorothersoliddosageformssuchasmelts
thatareimmediatereleasepreparations.Itimpliesthatthereisno
differenceinclinicalefficacyorsafetybetweentheavailabledosage
forms,andcountriesshouldthereforechoosetheform(s)tobelisted
dependingonqualityandavailability.

Thetermsolidoraldosageformisneverintendedtoallowanytypeof
modifiedreleasetablet.

Refersto:

uncoatedorcoated(filmcoatedorsugarcoated)tabletsthatare
intendedtobeswallowedwhole;

Tablet

Tablet(qualified)

unscoredandscored*;
tabletsthatareintendedtobechewedbeforebeingswallowed;
tabletsthatareintendedtobedispersedordissolvedinwateror
anothersuitableliquidbeforebeingswallowed;
tabletsthatareintendedtobecrushedbeforebeingswallowed.

Thetermtabletwithoutqualificationisneverintendedtoallowany
typeofmodifiedreleasetablet.

Referstoaspecifictypeoftablet:
chewabletabletsthatareintendedtobechewedbeforebeing
swallowed;
dispersibletabletsthatareintendedtobedispersedinwateror
anothersuitableliquidbeforebeingswallowed;
solubletabletsthatareintendedtobedissolvedinwateroranother
suitableliquidbeforebeingswallowed;
crushabletabletsthatareintendedtobecrushedbeforebeing
swallowed;
scoredtabletsbearingabreakmarkormarkswheresubdivisionis
intendedinordertoprovidedosesoflessthanonetablet;
sublingualtabletsthatareintendedtobeplacedbeneaththetongue.

Thetermtabletisalwaysqualifiedwithanadditionalterm(in
parentheses)inentrieswhereoneofthefollowingtypesoftabletis
intended:gastroresistant(suchtabletsmaysometimesbedescribedas
entericcoatedorasdelayedrelease),prolongedreleaseoranother
modifiedreleaseform.

Scoredtabletsmaybedividedforeaseofswallowing,provideddoseisawholenumberof

tablets.

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Term

Capsule

Capsule(qualified)

Granules

Oralpowder

Oralliquid

Definition

Referstohardorsoftcapsules.

Thetermcapsulewithoutqualificationisneverintendedtoallowany
typeofmodifiedreleasecapsule.

Thetermcapsulewithqualificationreferstogastroresistant(such
capsulesmaysometimesbedescribedasentericcoatedorasdelayed
release),prolongedreleaseoranothermodifiedreleaseform.

Preparationsthatareissuedtopatientasgranulestobeswallowed
withoutfurtherpreparation,tobechewed,ortobetakeninorwith
wateroranothersuitableliquid.

Thetermgranuleswithoutfurtherqualificationisneverintendedto
allowanytypeofmodifiedreleasegranules.

Preparationsthatareissuedtopatientaspowder(usuallyassingle
dose)tobetakeninorwithwateroranothersuitableliquid.

Liquidpreparationsintendedtobeswallowedi.e.oralsolutions,
suspensions,emulsionsandoraldrops,includingthoseconstitutedfrom
powdersorgranules,butnotthosepreparationsintendedfororomucosal
administratione.g.garglesandmouthwashes.

Oralliquidspresentedaspowdersorgranulesmayofferbenefitsinthe
formofbetterstabilityandlowertransportcosts.Ifmorethanonetype
oforalliquidisavailableonthesamemarket(e.g.solution,suspension,
granulesforreconstitution),theymaybeinterchangedandinsuchcases
shouldbebioequivalent.Itispreferablethatoralliquidsdonotcontain
sugarandthatsolutionsforchildrendonotcontainalcohol.

B. Principal dosage forms used in EMLc - Parenteral administration

Term
Injection
Injection(qualified)
Injection(oily)
Intravenousinfusion

Definition
Referstosolutions,suspensionsandemulsionsincludingthose
constitutedfrompowdersorconcentratedsolutions.
Routeofadministrationisindicatedinparentheseswhererelevant.
Theterminjectionisqualifiedby(oily)inrelevantentries.
Referstosolutionsandemulsionsincludingthoseconstitutedfrom
powdersorconcentratedsolutions.

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C. Other dosage forms

Modeof
administration
Totheeye
Topical
Rectal
Vaginal
Inhalation

Termtobeused
Eyedrops,eyeointments.
Forliquids:lotions,paints.
Forsemisolids:cream,ointment.
Suppositories,gelorsolution.
Pessariesorvaginaltablets.
Powderforinhalation,pressurizedinhalation,nebulizer.

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INDEX
abacavir(ABC)................................................... 10
aceticacid ........................................................... 27
acetylcysteine....................................................... 5
acetylsalicylicacid.................................................. 4
aciclovir ........................................................ 10,24
albendazole .......................................................... 6
allopurinol............................................................ 16
amikacin ................................................................. 9
amitriptyline ...................................................... 16
amodiaquine ...................................................... 13
amoxicillin............................................................ 6
amoxicillin+clavulanicacid.............................. 6
amphotericinB ............................................ 10,12
ampicillin.............................................................. 6
antitetanusimmunoglobulin(human)........... 23
antivenomimmunoglobulin............................ 23
artemether .......................................................... 13
artemether+lumefantrine ............................... 13
artesunate ........................................................... 13
artesunate+amodiaquine................................ 13
ascorbicacid....................................................... 26
asparaginase......................................................... 15
atazanavir........................................................... 11
atropine....................................................... 3,5,25
azathioprine.......................................................... 15
azithromycin ........................................................ 7
bariumsulfate ...................................................... 20
BCGvaccine ....................................................... 23
benzathinebenzylpenicillin............................... 6
benznidazole...................................................... 15
benzoylperoxide............................................... 19
benzylbenzoate................................................. 20
benzylpenicillin ................................................... 7
betamethasone ................................................... 19
budesonide................................................... 26,27
bupivacaine.......................................................... 3
caffeinecitrate.................................................... 27
calamine.............................................................. 19
calciumgluconate ......................................... 5,27
capreomycin ........................................................... 9
carbamazepine..................................................... 5
cefalexin................................................................ 7
cefazolin................................................................ 7
cefotaxime............................................................... 7
ceftazidime ............................................................. 7
ceftriaxone ............................................................ 7
charcoal,activated............................................... 5
chloramphenicol.................................................. 8
chlorhexidine ..................................................... 20
chlorinebasecompound .................................. 20
chloroquine .................................................. 13,14
chloroxylenol ..................................................... 20

chlorphenamine................................................... 4
chlorpromazine .................................................... 25
cholecalciferol .................................................... 26
choleravaccine .................................................. 23
ciclosporin............................................................ 15
ciprofloxacin .................................................. 8,27
clindamycin ........................................................... 8
clofazimine........................................................... 9
cloxacillin ............................................................. 7
coaltar ................................................................ 19
cyclizine.............................................................. 16
cyclophosphamide ................................................ 16
cycloserine.............................................................. 9
cytarabine............................................................. 16
dactinomycin........................................................ 16
dapsone ................................................................ 9
daunorubicin........................................................ 16
deferoxamine .................................................... 5,18
dexamethasone...................................4,15,16,21
diazepam.................................................... 3,5,17
didanosine(ddI) ................................................ 11
diethylcarbamazine ............................................ 6
digoxin................................................................ 19
diloxanide........................................................... 12
dimercaprol ............................................................ 5
diphtheriaantitoxin .......................................... 23
diphtheriavaccine............................................. 23
docusatesodium ............................................... 17
dopamine.............................................................. 19
doxorubicin .......................................................... 16
doxycycline ...............................................8,13,14
efavirenz(EFVorEFZ)..................................... 11
eflornithine......................................................... 15
emtricitabine(FTC) ........................................... 11
enalapril.............................................................. 18
epinephrine(adrenaline).........................4,25,26
erythromycin ....................................................... 8
ethambutol ........................................................... 9
ethanol ................................................................ 20
ethionamide............................................................ 9
ethosuximide .......................................................... 5
factorIXcomplex(coagulationfactors,II,VII,
IX,X)concentrate........................................... 18
factorVIIIconcentrate ......................................... 18
ferroussalt.......................................................... 17
fluconazole ......................................................... 10
flucytosine............................................................ 10
fludrocortisone .................................................. 22
fluorescein .......................................................... 20
fluoxetine...................................................... 17,25
folicacid ............................................................. 17
furosemide ................................................... 19,20

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gentamicin...................................................... 8,24
glucagon ............................................................. 22
glucose ................................................................ 26
glucosewithsodiumchloride ......................... 26
glutaral................................................................ 20
griseofulvin ........................................................ 10
Haemophilusinfluenzaetypebvaccine............. 23
haloperidol............................................................ 25
halothane .............................................................. 3
heparinsodium..................................................... 18
hepatitisAvaccine ............................................ 23
hepatitisBvaccine............................................. 23
humannormalimmunoglobulin .......................... 18
hydrochlorothiazide.............................................. 20
hydrocortisone................................... 4,16,19,22
hydroxocobalamin ............................................ 17
hydroxycarbamide................................................ 18
hydroxychloroquine ............................................... 4
hyoscinehydrobromide ................................... 17
ibuprofen ............................................ 3,15,17,27
imipenem+cilastatin............................................. 7
influenzavaccine............................................... 23
insulininjection(soluble) ................................. 22
intermediateactinginsulin.............................. 22
intraperitonealdialysissolution
(ofappropriatecomposition)............................ 25
iodine .................................................................. 27
isoflurane.............................................................. 3
isoniazid ............................................................... 9
ivermectin............................................................. 6
Japaneseencephalitisvaccine.......................... 23
kanamycin.............................................................. 9
ketamine ............................................................... 3
lactulose.............................................................. 17
lamivudine(3TC) .............................................. 11
lamivudine+nevirapine+stavudine............. 12
lamivudine+nevirapine+zidovudine .......... 12
lamivudine+zidovudine ................................. 12
levamisole............................................................. 6
levothyroxine ..................................................... 22
lidocaine ............................................................... 3
lidocaine+epinephrine(adrenaline)................ 3
lopinavir+ritonavir(LPV/r)............................ 11
lorazepam............................................................. 5
Lugolssolution ................................................... 22
mannitol............................................................... 20
measlesvaccine ................................................. 23
mebendazole ........................................................ 6
mefloquine ................................................... 13,14
melarsoprol........................................................... 15
meningococcalmeningitisvaccine ................. 23
mercaptopurine .................................................... 15
mesna ................................................................... 16
metformin............................................................. 22

methotrexate................................................4,15,16
methylprednisolone .............................................. 16
metoclopramide ................................................ 21
metronidazole................................................ 8,12
miconazole ......................................................... 19
midazolam ......................................................... 17
miltefosine.......................................................... 12
morphine .................................................... 3,4,17
mumpsvaccine.................................................. 23
mupirocin........................................................... 19
naloxone ............................................................... 5
neostigmine........................................................ 24
nevirapine(NVP) .............................................. 11
niclosamide .......................................................... 6
nifurtimox .......................................................... 15
nitrofurantoin ...................................................... 8
nitrousoxide ........................................................ 3
nystatin ............................................................... 10
ofloxacin................................................................. 9
omeprazole......................................................... 21
ondansetron ................................................. 17,21
oralrehydrationsalts.................................. 21,26
oseltamivir ......................................................... 12
oxamniquine .......................................................... 6
oxygen .................................................................. 3
paminosalicylicacid............................................ 10
pancreaticenzymes .............................................. 20
paracetamol.................................................... 4,15
paromomycin..................................................... 12
pentamidine ....................................................... 14
permethrin ......................................................... 20
pertussisvaccine ............................................... 24
phenobarbital....................................................... 5
phenoxymethylpenicillin ................................... 7
phenytoin ............................................................. 5
phytomenadione ............................................... 18
pneumococcalvaccine...................................... 24
podophyllumresin ........................................... 19
poliomyelitisvaccine ........................................ 24
polyvidoneiodine ............................................. 20
potassiumchloride............................................ 26
potassiumiodide ............................................ 10,22
potassiumpermanganate................................. 19
praziquantel......................................................... 6
prednisolone .............................................4,16,24
primaquine......................................................... 14
procainebenzylpenicillin................................... 7
proguanil............................................................ 14
propofol ................................................................ 3
propranolol ........................................................ 15
propylthiouracil ................................................... 22
prostaglandinE.................................................... 27
protaminesulfate ................................................. 18
pyrantel ................................................................ 6

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pyrazinamide....................................................... 9
pyridostigmine ..................................................... 24
pyridoxine .......................................................... 27
pyrimethamine .................................................. 14
quinine................................................................ 14
rabiesimmunoglobulin .................................... 23
rabiesvaccine..................................................... 24
ranitidine ............................................................ 21
retinol.................................................................. 27
ribavirin .............................................................. 12
riboflavin ............................................................ 27
rifampicin ............................................................. 9
ritonavir .............................................................. 11
rotavirusvaccine ............................................... 24
rubellavaccine ................................................... 24
salbutamol.......................................................... 26
salicylicacid ....................................................... 19
saquinavir(SQV) ............................................... 12
senna ................................................................... 17
silversulfadiazine ............................................. 19
sodiumcalciumedetate .......................................... 5
sodiumchloride................................................. 26
sodiumfluoride ................................................. 27
sodiumhydrogencarbonate............................ 26
sodiumlactate,compoundsolution ............... 26
sodiumstibogluconateormeglumine
antimoniate.................................................... 13
spironolactone ...................................................... 20
stavudine(d4T).................................................. 11
streptomycin ........................................................ 9
succimer ................................................................. 5

sulfadiazine........................................................ 14
sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine.......................... 14
sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim............... 8,14
suraminsodium ................................................ 14
surfactant............................................................. 27
suxamethonium................................................. 24
terbinafine .......................................................... 19
tetanusvaccine .................................................. 24
tetracaine ............................................................ 24
tetracycline ......................................................... 24
thiamine.............................................................. 27
thioguanine .......................................................... 16
triclabendazole .................................................... 6
trimethoprim ....................................................... 8
tropicamide ........................................................ 20
tuberculin,purifiedprotein
derivative(PPD) ........................................... 23
typhoidvaccine ................................................. 24
urea ..................................................................... 19
valproicacid(sodiumvalproate)...................... 5
vancomycin ............................................................ 8
varicellavaccine ................................................ 24
vecuronium........................................................ 24
vincristine ............................................................ 16
warfarin ............................................................... 18
waterforinjection ............................................. 26
xylometazoline .................................................. 27
yellowfevervaccine ......................................... 24
zidovudine(ZDVorAZT) ............................... 11
zincsulfate ......................................................... 22

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