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Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 13/2012

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit)


17 June 2012
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Table of Contents: BOOKS ................................................................................ 4


Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5): Environment for the future we want .......................... 4 Confronting Scarcity: Managing Water, Energy and Land for Inclusive and Sustainable Growth ..................................................................................................................................... 4 To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.................................................................. 4

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 5


Global Health................................................................................................................ 5
Our Planet, Our Health, Our Future ........................................................................................ 5 Reshaping Global Health ........................................................................................................ 5 Global Health - May 2012........................................................................................................ 5 WHO Watch Report on the 65th World Health Assembly....................................................... 6 Climate change adaptation: Where does global health fit in the agenda?.............................. 6 Connecting the Global Climate Change and Public Health Agendas ..................................... 6 From the Earth Summit to Rio+20: integration of health and sustainable development......... 7 Multiple crises and global health: New and necessary frontiers of health politics .................. 7 Consequences of Neglect: Analysis of the Sub-Saharan African Snake Antivenom Market and the Global Context............................................................................................................ 7

HIV - AIDS - STI ........................................................................................................... 8


Antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TASP) of HIV and TB................................................. 8 An international collaboration to compare mathematical models of the potential impact of HIV treatment on new HIV infections in South Africa.............................................................. 8 Measuring the performance of ART programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa .............................. 8 Chronic Lung Disease in Adolescents with Delayed Diagnosis of Vertically Acquired HIV Infection ................................................................................................................................... 9 Field performance of a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test for antenatal syphilis screening in the Amazon region, Brazil ....................................................................................................... 9

Sexual & Reproductive Health ..................................................................................... 9


An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria ................................................................ 9 Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation: a prospective cohort study ............. 10 A guide to family planning for community health workers and their clients .......................... 10

Maternal & Child Health ............................................................................................. 10


Cervical Cancer - the silent killer: A growing concern in Africa............................................. 10 Delivering maternal health: why is Rwanda doing better than Malawi, Niger and Uganda? 11 A decade of change for newborn survival, policy and programmes (2000-2010): A multicountry evaluation of progress towards scale ....................................................................... 11 Building a Future for Women and Children: The 2012 Report.............................................. 11 Ending Preventable Child Death in a Generation ................................................................. 12 Pneumonia and Diarrhoea: Tackling the deadliest diseases for the worlds poorest children ............................................................................................................................................... 12

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 1

Malaria........................................................................................................................ 12
Seasonal performance of a malaria rapid diagnosis test at community health clinics in a malariahyperendemic region of Burkina Faso....................................................................... 12 Combination of malaria vector control interventions in pyrethroid resistance area in Benin: a cluster randomised controlled trial ........................................................................................ 13 Ownership and usage of mosquito nets after four years of large-scale free distribution in Papua New Guinea ............................................................................................................... 13 Forecasting Malaria............................................................................................................... 13

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................... 14
HIV and TB in Practice for nurses: ART and TB prevention ................................................. 14 The Role of mHealth in the Fight against Tuberculosis ........................................................ 14 Unsustainable funding of high-burden tuberculosis control programmes: who is responsible? ............................................................................................................................................... 14

Other Infectious Diseases .......................................................................................... 15


Fighting Neglect: Finding ways to manage and control visceral leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease ...................................................................... 15 A time of fear: local, national, and international responses to a large Ebola outbreak in Uganda .................................................................................................................................. 15

Non-communicable Diseases..................................................................................... 16
Priorities for developing countries in the global response to non-communicable diseases.. 16 2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Foot Infections ............................................................................ 16

Essential Medicines.................................................................................................... 16
Priority Medicines for Maternal and Child Health: A Global Survey of National Essential Medicines Lists...................................................................................................................... 16

Social Protection ........................................................................................................ 17


The Human Rights Approach to Social Protection................................................................ 17 National health insurance in Asia and Africa......................................................................... 17 Client-value of microinsurance products: evidence from the mutual assistance fund in Vietnam ................................................................................................................................. 17 Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: Worth the Price?....................................................... 18

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene ...................................................................................... 18


More, Better, or Different Spending? Trends in Public Expenditure on Water and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa ........................................................................................................... 18

Health Systems & Research ...................................................................................... 18


What healthcare financing changes are needed to reach universal coverage in South Africa? ................................................................................................................................... 18 Priority-Setting in Health: Building Institutions for Smarter Public Spending ........................ 19 Knowledge translation of research findings .......................................................................... 19 Point-of-Care Tests to Strengthen Health Systems and Save Newborn Lives: The Case of Syphilis .................................................................................................................................. 19 What are the barriers to scaling up health interventions in low and middle income countries? A qualitative study of academic leaders in implementation science ..................................... 20 The implementation of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in Uganda: a review of progress and challenges between 2001 and 2007 ........................................................... 20 Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia............................................................... 20 Unfulfilled expectations to services offered at primary health care facilities: Experiences of caretakers of underfive children in rural Tanzania ................................................................ 21

Information & Communication Technology ................................................................ 21


ICT adoption and prospects in the Arab region .................................................................... 21 Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and Social Incentives for Crowdsourcing Development Information in Uganda: A Field Experiment ................................................................................................. 21

Education ................................................................................................................... 22
Engendering Empowerment: Education & Equality .............................................................. 22 ICTs for Education: A Reference Handbook ......................................................................... 22 Mobile Learning for Teachers in Africa and the Middle East ................................................ 23 School and Teaching Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa...................................................... 23 Decentralized Finance and Provision of Basic Education..................................................... 23 Education Sector Responses to Homophobic Bullying......................................................... 23

Millennium Development Goals.................................................................................. 24 HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 2

Rural Women and the Millennium Development Goals ........................................................ 24 From Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development Goals .......................... 24 MDGs 2.0: What Goals, Targets, and Timeframe?............................................................... 24 Accountability for Achieving the MDGs: The Role of Parliaments ........................................ 25

Development Assistance............................................................................................ 25
The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? .................................... 25 Where do European Institutions rank on donor quality? ....................................................... 25 What If You Could Invest in Development? .......................................................................... 26 When Do Donors Trust Recipient Country Systems?........................................................... 26

Others......................................................................................................................... 27
From Green Economy to Green Society: Bringing the Social to Rio+20 .............................. 27 IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis: Living with Climate Change ................................ 27 Saving our Shared Future: Best Policies to Regenerate our World...................................... 27 The Need for an African Science News Service ................................................................... 27 Mercury in Skin Lightening Products..................................................................................... 28

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 28


Tracking Support for the MDGs ............................................................................................ 28 Peoples Health Movement (PHM) Global News Volume 2, Issue 1 - May 2012 ................. 28 World Federation of Public Health Associations Newsletter, May 2012 ............................... 29 Global Digital Download ........................................................................................................ 29

CONFERENCES................................................................ 29
European Scientific Conference on Applied Infectious Disease Epidemiology (ESCAIDE). 29

CARTOON ......................................................................... 30 TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 30


Shrink to Fit in MS Excel ....................................................................................................... 30

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HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 3

BOOKS
Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5): Environment for the future we want
by Matthew Billot, Ludgarde Coppens, Volodymyr Demkine et al. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), June 2012 550 pp. 81.1 MB(!): http://www.unep.org/geo/pdfs/geo5/GEO5_report_full_en.pdf Published to coincide with the Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, UNEPs 2012 Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) calls on world leaders to take immediate action to address international environmental degradation and turn world-wide discussion of sustainable development into practice. GEO-5 builds on the findings of previous GEO reports, outlines the current state of the environment, projects future environmental trends and focuses on the smart policies that could put the world on the path to a sustainable future. ***

Confronting Scarcity: Managing Water, Energy and Land for Inclusive and Sustainable Growth
by Dirk Willem te Velde, James Mackie, Nathaniel Mason et al. Overseas Development Institute (ODI), Deutsches Institut fr Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) and European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM), 2012 208 pp. 5.8 MB: http://erd-report.eu/erd/report_2011/documents/erd_report%202011_en_lowdef.pdf This Report focuses on water, energy and land. It examines the constraints on each, the interrelationships between them and then considers how they can be managed together to promote growth in developing countries that is both socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable. ***

To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System


by Linda T. Kohn, Janet M. Corrigan, and Molla S. Donaldson Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine, 2000 311 pp. 2.1 MB: http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=9728&free=1 The book breaks the silence that has surrounded medical errors and their consequence - but not by pointing fingers at caring health care professionals who make honest mistakes. After all, to err is human. Instead, this book sets forth a national agenda - with state and local implications - for reducing medical errors and improving patient safety through the design of a safer health system. ***

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ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health Our Planet, Our Health, Our Future
Human health and the Rio Conventions: biological diversity, climate change and desertification by Jonathan Patz, Carlos Corvalan, Pierre Horwitz et al. World Health Organization, 2012 64 pp. 2.2 MB: http://www.who.int/globalchange/publications/reports/health_rioconventions.pdf The report reviews the scientific evidence for the linkages between health and biodiversity, climate change and desertification, the representation of health in the corresponding Rio Conventions, and the opportunities for more integrated and effective policy. The report demonstrates the importance of human health as an integrating theme across sustainable development, and a strong motivation for concerted global actions to address global environmental change. ***

Reshaping Global Health


by Mark Dybul, Peter Piot, and Julio Frenk Policy Review No. 173, June 1, 2012 Read online at: http://www.hoover.org/publications/policy-review/article/118116 The authors are calling for a Bretton Woods of Global Health because the current governance gap is responsible for huge efficiency losses. Although there are limited supportive data, they believe it is likely that an integrated approach focused on the health of a person and community is more cost-effective than a silo approach focused on a specific disease or health threat. Yet, existing global health institutions were designed for specific diseases and have not effectively shifted to embrace a broader vision. ***

Global Health - May 2012


Editors Ilona Kickbusch, John Kirton, James Orbinski Published by newsdeskmedia 74 pp. 4.8 MB: http://www.newsdeskmedia.com/files/Global-Health-2012.pdf Welcome to the inaugural edition of Global Health, which seeks to enrich the dialogue on how to address the many challenges currently facing organisations responsible for improving health and well-being worldwide. The publication includes contributions from leading global health institutions, many representatives of which gathered at the 2012 World Health Assembly (WHA) in Geneva, Switzerland, from 21-26 May. ***

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WHO Watch Report on the 65th World Health Assembly


Peoples Health Movement (PHM), June 1, 2012 46 pp. 433 kB: http://www.hst.org.za/sites/default/files/WHOWatchReport_May2012.pdf WHO Watch is a project of the Peoples Health Movement (PHM), undertaken in association with a range of collaborating organisations. It is part of a broader initiative directed at democratising global health governance. The purpose of this report is to share more widely within PHM and related networks our understanding of the state of play in global health, as seen through the window of WHOs governing bodies. Our hope is that the availability of this information might help to stoke mobilisation and advocacy towards Health For All, including action around the items documented in this report. ***

Climate change adaptation: Where does global health fit in the agenda?
by Kathryn J Bowen and Sharon Friel Globalization and Health 2012, 8:10 (27 May 2012) 12 pp. 129 kB: http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-8-10.pdf Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities. ***

Connecting the Global Climate Change and Public Health Agendas


by Maria Nilsson, Birgitta Evengrd, Rainer Sauerborn et al. PLoS Med 9(6): e1001227 (5 June 2012) 3 pp. 167 kB: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi %2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001227&representation=PDF Climate change is a public health problem. Evidence from many sectors shows substantial health impacts of climate change, particularly for the most vulnerable: the poorest, the youngest, and the oldest. Human health and climate change are closely connected. Within the global United Nations (UN) process, health is seen as the most direct component linking climate change and individual lives. Public health actions in relation to climate change are needed. Top-down advocacy on health and climate at the UN level needs to be mirrored by bottom-up public health actions that bring health and climate co-benefits. ***

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From the Earth Summit to Rio+20: integration of health and sustainable development
by Andy Haines, George Alleyne, Ilona Kickbusch et al. The Lancet, Vol. 379, Issue 9832, pp. 2189-2197, 9 June 2012 9 pp. 98 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS014067361260779X.pdf In June 2012, world leaders will meet at the Rio+20 conference to advance sustainable development - 20 years after the Earth Summit that resulted in agreement on important principles but insufficient action. Many of the development goals have not been achieved partly because social (including health), economic, and environmental priorities have not been addressed in an integrated manner. Implementation of policies that both improve health and promote sustainable development is urgently needed. ***

Multiple crises and global health: New and necessary frontiers of health politics
by Ted Schrecker Global Public Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice - Volume 7, Issue 6, pp. 557-573; 1 June, 2012 18 pp. 447 kB: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/17441692.2012.691524 The world economy is entering an era of multiple crises, involving finance, food security and global environmental change. This article assesses the implications for global public health, describes the contours of post-2007 crises in food security and finance, and then briefly indicates the probable health impacts. ***

Consequences of Neglect: Analysis of the Sub-Saharan African Snake Antivenom Market and the Global Context
by Nicholas I. Brown PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(6): e1670 (5 June 2012) 7 pp. 201 kB: http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F 10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001670&representation=PDF The worldwide neglect of immunotherapeutic products for the treatment of snakebite has resulted in a critical paucity of effective, safe and affordable therapy in many Third World countries, particularly in Africa. Snakebite ranks high among the most neglected global health problems, with thousands of untreated victims dying or becoming permanently maimed in developing countries each year because of a lack of antivenom - a treatment that is widely available in most developed countries. This paper analyses the current status of antivenom production for sub-Saharan African countries and provides a snapshot of the global situation.

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HIV - AIDS - STI Antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TASP) of HIV and TB


Programmatic update World Health Organization, June 2012 22 pp. 819 kB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2012/WHO_HIV_2012.12_eng.pdf HIV prevention efforts focused on people living with HIV make sense from an individual and public health perspective, and there is high-quality evidence supporting the use of ART to prevent HIV transmission. Treatment as prevention (TasP) is a term used to describe HIV prevention methods that use ART in HIV-positive persons to decrease the chance of HIV transmission independent of CD4 cell count. While this update focuses on TasP of HIV and TB, there have been exciting developments in the use of other biomedical interventions such as antiretrovirals (ARVs) and microbicides for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). ***

An international collaboration to compare mathematical models of the potential impact of HIV treatment on new HIV infections in South Africa
by Jeff Eaton, Britta Jewell, Tim Hallett South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA) Quarterly, 13 June 2012 3 pp. 287 kB: http://sacemaquarterly.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Jeff-Eaton_Aninternational-collaboration.pdf Many mathematical models have investigated the impact of HIV treatment as prevention in combination with other prevention strategies or other guidelines for HIV treatment provision. Generally, all models have predicted positive prevention benefits of HIV treatment, but directly comparing the results of different models has been challenging because each model has been used to answer different questions and has reported different key outcomes. The results of a model comparison exercise - in which each of the models simulated a standardised set of HIV intervention scenarios and reported common metrics of intervention impact - are reported here. ***

Measuring the performance of ART programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa


by Stphane Verguet South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA) Quarterly, 13 June 2012 2 pp. 103 kB: http://sacemaquarterly.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/StephaneVerguet_Measuring-the-performance.pdf The HIV epidemic is becoming financially unsustainable. It is therefore essential to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different HIV treatment programmes and models so that the existing limited resources can be allocated optimally. Little work HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 8

so far has assessed the performance of ART programmes differing by the kind of providers and subsequently identified the good versus bad performers. Identifying the determinants of good performance for ART programmes is essential. Decision-makers will then be able to potentially improve ART delivery in countries. ***

Chronic Lung Disease in Adolescents with Delayed Diagnosis of Vertically Acquired HIV Infection
by Rashida A. Ferrand, Sujal R. Desai, Charlotte Hopkins et al. Clin Infect Dis 2012 55: 145-152; First published online: April 2, 2012 8 pp. 212 kB: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/1/145.full.pdf+html A high burden of chronic lung disease (CLD) was found among 116 consecutive adolescents with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus in Zimbabwe. The main cause of HIV-associated CLD appears to be obliterative bronchiolitis, which has not previously been recognized among this patient group. ***

Field performance of a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test for antenatal syphilis screening in the Amazon region, Brazil
by A S Benzaken, M Sabido, E Galban et al. International Journal of STD & AIDS 2011; 22: 15-18 4 pp. 106 kB: http://www.iusti.org/sti-information/Journals/pdf/IJSA-10-145.pdf The authors evaluated an immuno-chromatographic point-of-care (POC) syphilis test in 712 pregnant women under field conditions in remote communities of the Amazon region (Brazil), and identified risk factors for syphilis. The rapid test performed moderately well as a screening tool for low-risk populations. This combined with on-site testing and same day treatment could expand antenatal syphilis screening programmes in distant communities characterized by difficult access to antenatal services and infrequent clinical follow-up visits.

Sexual & Reproductive Health An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria


by TC Okeke, USB Anyaehie, CCK Ezenyeaku et al. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2012;2:70-3 4 pp. 626 kB: http://www.amhsr.org/temp/AnnMedHealthSciRes21705924538_162725.pdf Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 9

current status of FGM in Nigeria. There is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria but there is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount. ***

Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation: a prospective cohort study


by Pierre Folds, Batrice Cuzin, Armelle Andro The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 12 June 2012 8 pp. 459 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612604000.pdf Women who have undergone female genital mutilation rarely have access to the reconstructive surgery that is now available. Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation seems to be associated with reduced pain and restored pleasure. It needs to be made more readily available in developed countries by training surgeons. ***

A guide to family planning for community health workers and their clients
by Sarah Johnson, Pamela Lynam, Douglas Huber et al. World Health Organizations Department of Reproductive Health and Research (RHR), June 2012 50 pp. 1.5 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503754_eng.pdf This tool is an adaptation of the Decision Making Tool for Family Planning Clients and their Providers, which constitutes one of the Four Cornerstones of WHOs evidencebased guidance in family planning. The flip-chart is a tool to use during family planning counselling or in group sessions with clients. It can: help your clients choose and use the method of family planning that suits them best; give you the information you need for high-quality and effective family planning counselling and care; help you know who may need referral.

Maternal & Child Health Cervical Cancer - the silent killer: A growing concern in Africa
by Rita Magawa Consultancy Africa Intelligence, June 2012 Read online at:
http://www.consultancyafrica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1037:cervicalcancer-the-silent-killer-a-growing-concern-in-africa-&catid=61:hiv-aids-discussion-papers&Itemid=268

This paper discusses the factors contributing to the increase of cervical cancer in Africa. Cervical cancer is a rising public health concern as it is a growing cause of high morbidity and mortality rates among women in Africa. Cervical cancer is preventable but thouHESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 10

sands of women die of cervical cancer each year due to several risk factors. In addition to describing the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Africa, this paper also outlines the levels of its prevention. ***

Delivering maternal health: why is Rwanda doing better than Malawi, Niger and Uganda?
by Vikki Chambers and David Booth Overseas Development Institute (ODI) Briefing Papers # 74, May 2012 4 pp. 504 kB: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/docs/7696.pdf This Briefing Paper uses new research by the Africa Power and Politics Programme to explore the factors that shape maternal health outcomes in Malawi, Niger, Rwanda and Uganda. It examines the institutional causes of bottlenecks in the provision of maternal health services and considers the policy implications for country actors and donors. ***

A decade of change for newborn survival, policy and programmes (20002010): A multi-country evaluation of progress towards scale
Guest Editors: Joy E Lawn, Mary V Kinney, Anne Pfitzer et al. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 27, Suppl. 3; July 2012 Access all articles free of charge at: http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/suppl_3.toc?etoc Read Executive Summary A Decade of Change for Newborn Survival Health Policy and Planning - Supplement 3, 2012 26 pp. 3.3 MB:
http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0df91d2eba74a%7D/EMBARGO%20%20DECADE%20OF%20CHANGE%20HIGHLIGHTS.PDF

This supplements series presents a comprehensive analysis of the changes in newborn care and survival over the last decade at global level, as well as five detailed country assessments undertaken by over 60 experts from governments and multiple organizations, in order to better understand the process of taking solutions to scale and how to accelerate progress towards reductions in mortality and morbidity. ***

Building a Future for Women and Children: The 2012 Report


by Jennifer Requejo, Jennifer Bryce, Cesar Victora et al. World Health Organization and UNICEF, 2012 228 pp. 22.0 MB(!): http://www.countdown2015mnch.org/documents/2012Report/2012-Complete.pdf The report highlights country progress - and obstacles to progress - towards achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 to reduce child mortality and improve maternal HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 11

health. It focuses, like previous Countdown reports, on evidence-based solutions health interventions proven to save lives - and on the health systems, policies, financing and broader contextual factors that affect the equitable delivery of these interventions to women and children. Country profiles for 75 Countdown countries were published together with the report. ***

Ending Preventable Child Death in a Generation


by Roger I. Glass, Alan E. Guttmacher, Robert E. Black JAMA 2012;():1-2; Published online June 13, 2012 2 pp. 101 kB: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/pdfaccess.ashx?ResourceID=347822 7&PDFSource=13 As 2015 approaches, and with it a final assessment of progress toward MDG 4 on reducing child mortality, it is appropriate to consider a post-2015 vision for child health. A new common vision for a global commitment to end all preventable child deaths is needed. Such a vision will not be compelling unless it can be tied to concrete and measurable benchmarks at the global and country levels that are both ambitious and plausible. In this Viewpoint, a new benchmark is detailed: that all countries achieve a national under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) of no more than 20 deaths per 1000 live births by 2035 and that the global average U5MR should decline to 15 deaths per 1000 in 2035. ***

Pneumonia and Diarrhoea: Tackling the deadliest diseases for the worlds poorest children
by Emily White Johansson, Liliana Carvajal, Holly Newby et al. United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), June 2012 86 pp. 5.6 MB: http://www.unicef.org/media/files/UNICEF_P_D_complete_0604.pdf Pneumonia and diarrhoea account for nearly one-third of the deaths among children under five globally - or more than 2 million lives each year. Nearly 90 per cent of deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The report identifies a tremendous opportunity to narrow the child survival gap both among and within countries by increasing commitment, attention and funding. We know what works against pneumonia and diarrhoea - the two illnesses that hit the poorest hardest. Scaling up simple interventions could overcome two of the biggest obstacles to increasing child survival, help give every child a fair chance to grow and thrive.

Malaria Seasonal performance of a malaria rapid diagnosis test at community health clinics in a malariahyperendemic region of Burkina Faso
by Amidou Diarra, Issa Nebie, Alfred Tiono et al. Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:103 (30 May 2012)

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16 pp. 165 kB: http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/pdf/1756-3305-5-103.pdf Introduction of effective and affordable malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT) in remote areas could be an alternative tool for malaria case management. This study aimed to assess performance of the OptiMAL dipstick for rapid malaria diagnosis in children under five. The authors conclude that by improving the performance of the test through accurate and continuous quality control of the device in the field, OptiMAL could be suitable for use at community clinics for the management and control of malaria. ***

Combination of malaria vector control interventions in pyrethroid resistance area in Benin: a cluster randomised controlled trial
by Vincent Corbel, Martin Akogbeto, Georgia B Damien et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Early Online Publication, 7 June 2012 10 pp. 449 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309912700816.pdf

The authors investigated whether the combination of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLINs) with indoor residual spraying (IRS) or carbamate-treated plastic sheeting (CTPS) conferred enhanced protection against malaria and better management of pyrethroid-resistance in vectors than did LLINs alone. No significant benefit for reducing malaria morbidity, infection, and transmission was reported when combining LLIN+IRS or LLIN+CTPS compared with a background of LLIN coverage. These findings are important for national malaria control programmes and should help the design of more costeffective strategies for malaria control and elimination. ***

Ownership and usage of mosquito nets after four years of large-scale free distribution in Papua New Guinea
by Manuel W Hetzel, Gibson Gideon, Namarola Lote et al. Malaria Journal 2012, 11:192 (10 June 2012) 21 pp. 1.1 MB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-11-192.pdf With the aim of achieving 80% ownership and usage, a country-wide campaign in Papua New Guinea distributed two million free long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). While a single round of free distribution of LLINs significantly increased net ownership, an insufficient number of nets coupled with a heterogeneous distribution led to overall low usage rates. Programme targets were missed mainly as a result of the distribution mechanism itself and operational constraints in this very challenging setting. ***

Forecasting Malaria
by Kjersti Brown Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Education (SIU), 21 April 2012

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4 pp. 45 kB: http://sciencenordic.com/printpdf/946?utm_source=ScienceNordic.com%20Newsl etter&utm_campaign=a799aad8db-RSS_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN&utm_medium=email Ethiopian and Norwegian researchers have developed a mathematical model that can identify conditions that increase the likelihood of a malaria outbreak up to two months ahead of its occurrence. The computer model, Open Malaria Warning (OMaWa), incorporates hydrological, meteorological, mosquito-breeding and land-use data to determine when and where outbreaks are likely to occur.

Tuberculosis HIV and TB in Practice for nurses: ART and TB prevention


by Theo Smart HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice (HATIP) #194, June 8th, 2012 5 pp. 209 kB: http://www.aidsmap.com/pdf/page/2387630/ This edition of HATIP is particularly intended for nurses and community health workers. It examines why people living with HIV have a much greater risk of active TB - and how ART can reduce, but not entirely wipe out the threat of TB. It also looks at isoniazid preventive therapy in relation to ART. This edition also looks at the differences between latent TB infection and active TB infection, and why the risk of developing active TB is higher for people living with HIV infection. ***

The Role of mHealth in the Fight against Tuberculosis


mHealth Alliance and Stop TB Partnership, 2012 10 pp. 1.5 MB: http://www.gbchealth.org/system/documents/category_1/265/mHealth %20&%20TB%20by%20mHA%20&%20STBP%202012.pdf?1338578805 The report points to a variety of projects that already show that text messages, or other reminders such as automatic call-backs on patients personal phones can be used to communicate effectively with patients. The report recommends providing patients with mobile credits or other rewards and incentives to encourage adherence. In addition, the report suggests the use of global positioning systems to help track where patients are being diagnosed and treated in order to simplify the process of surveillance and monitoring. ***

Unsustainable funding of high-burden tuberculosis control programmes: who is responsible?


by Verena Mauch, Rob Baltussen, Koos van der Velden Tropical Medicine & International Health, Article first published online: 12 June 2012

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3 pp. 99 kB: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.03023.x/pdf Flooding programmes with money without securing sufficient parallel domestic funding sets wrong incentives and may be counterproductive in the long run. Increases in donor funding for health need to come with requirements to increase domestic funding for health. This would set national TB control programmes under pressure to face their own governments instead of looking for outside sources to fill gaps. In this respect, donors are just as responsible to avoid fungibility of funding as national governments.

Other Infectious Diseases Fighting Neglect: Finding ways to manage and control visceral leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease
by Gemma Ortiz Genovese, Emilie Alirol, Lucia Brum et al. Mdecins Sans Frontires (MSF), June 2012 80 pp. 4.7 MB: http://www.msf.org.uk/UploadedFiles/Fighting_Neglect_May2012_2 01206081400.pdf Charting the MSFs 25 years of experience in diagnosing and treating Chagas disease, sleeping sickness, and kala azar in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Caucasus, the report examines past, present, and future management of the diseases and notes that access to quality life-saving treatment requires much greater political will among major international donors and national governments of endemic countries. In order to break the vicious cycle that leaves tropical diseases neglected, existing programmes that diagnose and treat patients need to be expanded and medical research to develop simpler, more effective tools needs to be supported. ***

A time of fear: local, national, and international responses to a large Ebola outbreak in Uganda
by John Kinsman Globalization and Health 2012, 8:15 (13 June 2012) 23 pp. 425 kB: http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-8-15.pdf This paper documents and analyses some of the responses to the largest Ebola outbreak on record, which took place in Uganda between September 2000 and February 2001. The experience demonstrates that responses to an Ebola outbreak can be very dramatic, but perhaps disproportionate to the actual danger presented. An important objective for any future outbreak control strategy must be to prevent excessive fear, which, it is expected, would reduce stigma and other negative outcomes. To this end, the value of openness in the provision of public information - and, critically, of being seen to be open - cannot be overstated. ***

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Non-communicable Diseases Priorities for developing countries in the global response to noncommunicable diseases
by Dermot Maher, Nathan Ford and Nigel Unwin Globalization and Health 2012, 8:14 (11 June 2012) 15 pp. 236 kB: http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-8-14.pdf The growing global burden of non communicable diseases (NCDs) is now killing 36 million people each year and needs urgent and comprehensive action. This article provides an overview of key critical issues that need to be resolved to ensure that recent political commitments are translated into practical action and to enable an effective response to NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. ***

2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Foot Infections
by Benjamin A. Lipsky, Anthony R. Berendt, Paul B. Cornia et al. CID 2012:54 (15 June) e132-e173 42 pp. 560 kB: http://www.idsociety.org/uploadedFiles/IDSA/GuidelinesPatient_Care/PDF_Library/2012%20Diabetic%20Foot%20Infections%20Guideline.pdf Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are a frequent clinical problem. Properly managed, most can be cured, but many patients needlessly undergo amputations because of improper diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Summarized in this publication are the recommendations made in the new guidelines for diabetic foot infections.

Essential Medicines Priority Medicines for Maternal and Child Health: A Global Survey of National Essential Medicines Lists
by Suzanne Hill, Annie Yang, Lisa Bero PLoS ONE 7(5): e38055 (31 May 2012) 6 pp. 321 kB:
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=87307606C75B67E9B 0EA3D5FCFEB0ADB?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0038055&representation=PDF

In April 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a list of priority medicines for maternal and child health based on 1) the global burden of disease and 2) evidence of efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of these priority medicines on national essential medicines lists. The findings suggest that countries need to urgently amend their lists to provide all priority medicines as part of the efforts to improve maternal and child health.

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Social Protection The Human Rights Approach to Social Protection


by Magdalena Seplveda and Carly Nyst Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, 2012 72 pp. 3.6 MB: http://formin.finland.fi/public/download.aspx?ID=96505&GUID={725 8EC69-A0FC-4D2C-B513-344E33D37E8F} This publication is intended to be an articulation of the fundamental elements of the human rights framework applicable to the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of social protection systems. While the ultimate objective of advocating a human rights approach to social protection systems is to maximise the effectiveness of such systems in reducing poverty and facilitating the realisation of human rights by those living in poverty, it is also hoped that social protection can provide a useful strategy around which human rights and development practitioners can collaborate and pursue coordinated efforts. ***

National health insurance in Asia and Africa


Advancing equitable Social Health Protection to achieve universal health coverage by Thomas S. O'Connell United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), May 2012 29 pp. 740 kB: http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/National_health_insurance_ in_Asia_and_Africa-Final-22MAY12.pdf UNICEF in 2010-2011 conducted a two-phase landscape analysis (LA) to investigate how health insurance and other social health protection mechanisms contribute to achieving universal health coverage (UHC). UNICEF is applying the findings of the landscape analysis to inform other areas of work, such as its new Social Protection Framework to guide country programming; its efforts to strengthen sub-national capacity to recognise and remove access-barriers; and its support for the global strategic equity agenda. ***

Client-value of microinsurance products: evidence from the mutual assistance fund in Vietnam
Son Hong; Nghiem and An Hoai Duong ILO Research Paper N18, May 2012 15 pp. 899 kB:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/mifacility/download/repaper18.pdf

The microinsurance industry is relatively new in Vietnam and little research has been conducted on this industry. This study is one of the first that examines whether current insurance products provided by the Mutual Assistance Fund (MAF), Vietnams first microinsurance provider, satisfy their clients needs. In addition, the study examines the factors influencing microinsurance take up and identifies potential gateways for microinsurance to serve the uninsured poor population. HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 17

Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: Worth the Price?


by Shannon K. O'Neil Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), June 12, 2012 Read online at: http://blogs.cfr.org/oneil/2012/06/12/conditional-cash-transfer-programsworth-the-price/?cid=otr-partner_site-devex In the economic development world, one of Latin Americas claims to fame are its conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs), which provide direct money transfers to lowincome families who send their children to school and/or get basic health care. A few of these programs, such as Bolsa Famlia in Brazil and Oportunidades in Mexico, reach millions of families (some 20 percent of the two countries households). Others are smaller and more targeted toward the extreme poor, such as Chile Solidario in Chile, Familias en Accinin Colombia, and Bono de Desarrollo Humano in Ecuador. Most now boast at least a decade in place, providing a track record to test their reach and effectiveness.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene More, Better, or Different Spending? Trends in Public Expenditure on Water and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Meike van Ginneken, Ulrik Netterstrom, and Anthony Bennett Water Unit, Transport, Water and ICT Department - The World Bank, December 2011 120 pp. 1.3 MB: http://water.worldbank.org/sites/water.worldbank.org/files/publicatio n/Water-Report-Dec-11.pdf This overview paper tests current public spending patterns against the economic rationale for such spending, including reducing disparities in service delivery and overcoming market failures. Reducing the disparities in access to basic water supply and sanitation (WSS) is a responsibility of government. Individuals have little incentive to build and maintain extensive WSS infrastructure, but communities and societies do. Targeted public spending benefitting households that otherwise would be unable to afford those services can be a component of a broader social policy agenda to redistribute resources to the poor.

Health Systems & Research What healthcare financing changes are needed to reach universal coverage in South Africa?
by Diane McIntyre South African Medical Journal, Vol. 102, No. 6 (2012) 2 pp. 972 kB: http://www.samj.org.za/index.php/samj/article/download/5611/4173 The national health insurance proposed for South Africa aims to achieve a universal health system. The best way to identify the financing mechanism that is best suited to HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 18

achieving this goal is to consider international evidence on funding in universal health systems. The evidence from Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries and a number of middle-income countries that have achieved universal coverage clearly indicates that mandatory pre-payment financing mechanisms (i.e. general tax funding, in some cases supplemented by mandatory health insurance) must dominate, with a clearly specified, complementary role for voluntary or private health insurance. ***

Priority-Setting in Health: Building Institutions for Smarter Public Spending


by Amanda Glassman and Kalipso Chalkidou Priority-Setting Institutions for Global Health Working Group, June 2012 101 pp. 1.5 MB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1426240_file_priority_setting_global_hea lth_FINAL.pdf Health donors, policymakers, and practitioners continuously make life-and-death decisions about which type of patients receive what interventions, when, and at what cost. These decisions - as consequential as they are - often result from ad hoc, nontransparent processes driven more by inertia and interest groups than by science, ethics, and the public interest. The result is perverse priorities, wasted money, and needless death and illness. Reallocating a portion of public and donor monies toward the most cost-effective health interventions would save more lives and promote health equity. ***

Knowledge translation of research findings


by Jeremy M Grimshaw, Martin P Eccles, John N Lavis et al. Implementation Science 2012, 7:50 (31 May 2012) 29 pp. 259 kB: http://www.implementationscience.com/content/pdf/1748-5908-7-50.pdf One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. In this paper, the authors summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). ***

Point-of-Care Tests to Strengthen Health Systems and Save Newborn Lives: The Case of Syphilis
by David C. Mabey, Kimberly A. Sollis, Helen A. Kelly et al. PLoS Med 9(6): e1001233 (12 June 2012) 6 pp. 142 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=19F20957383F009AD B23738020A520AC?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001233&representation=PDF

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The authors used a non-traditional approach to implementation research, engaging policy makers in each country (Tanzania, Uganda, China, Peru, Brazil and Zambia) in the design of a prenatal syphilis screening project using point-of-care tests and ensuring relevance to the local health care system. They showed that it is possible to implement a quality assurance and quality management system for point-of-care testing in all settings. Lessons learnt and policies implemented as a result of the project have strengthened health systems by improving access to quality-assured prenatal screening and saving newborn lives. ***

What are the barriers to scaling up health interventions in low and middle income countries? A qualitative study of academic leaders in implementation science
by Gavin M Yamey Globalization and Health 2012, 8:11 (29 May 2012) 24 pp. 507 kB: http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-8-11.pdf Most low and middle income countries (LMICs) are currently not on track to reach the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). One way to accelerate progress would be through the large-scale implementation of evidence-based health tools and interventions. This study aimed to: (a) explore the barriers that have impeded such scaleup in LMICs, and (b) lay out an implementation research agenda - a series of key research questions that need to be addressed in order to help overcome such barriers. ***

The implementation of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in Uganda: a review of progress and challenges between 2001 and 2007
by Luswa Lukwago, Miriam Nanyunja, Nestor Ndayimirije et al. Health Policy Plan. (2012)First published online: June 4, 2012 11 pp. 293 kB: http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/06/04/heapol.cz s022.full.pdf+html In 2000 Uganda adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy, which aims to create a co-ordinated approach to the collection, analysis, interpretation, use and dissemination of surveillance data for guiding decision making on public health actions. Implementation of IDSR was associated with improved surveillance and response efforts. However, decreased budgetary support from the government may be eroding these gains. Renewed efforts from government and other stakeholders are necessary to sustain and expand progress achieved through implementation of IDSR. ***

Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia
by Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Sandy Campbell and Christina Zarowsky Health Research Policy and Systems 2012, 10:17 (6 June 2012)

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12 pp. 233 kB: http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content/pdf/1478-4505-10-17.pdf For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS) exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, the authors discuss the ongoing development of Zambias NHRS. ***

Unfulfilled expectations to services offered at primary health care facilities: Experiences of caretakers of underfive children in rural Tanzania
by Catherine K Kahabuka, Karen M Moland, Gunnar Kvle et al. BMC Health Services Research 2012, 12:158 (14 June 2012) 17 pp. 156 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6963-12-158.pdf There is growing evidence that patients frequently bypass primary health care (PHC) facilities in favour of higher level hospitals regardless of substantial additional time and costs. The study revealed significant disappointments among caretakers with regard to the quality of services offered at PHC facilities in their areas, with implications for their utilization and proper functioning of the referral system. Practices regarding partial drugs administrations, skipping of injections, unofficial payments and consultations by unskilled health care providers need urgent action.

Information & Communication Technology ICT adoption and prospects in the Arab region
by Susan Teltscher, Vanessa Gray, Ivan Vallejo et al. International Telecommunication Union, 2012 170 pp. 6.8 MB: http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/ind/D-IND-AR-2012-PDF-E.pdf Arab countries continue to rapidly gain access to mobile cellular and to a smaller extent, mobile and wireless Internet, but lag behind in access to fixed broadband Internet access at home. The report examines information and communications technologies (ICT) trends throughout the region and identifies ICT areas that need policy attention. The largest improvement in Internet and communications technology has been in the mobile sector. As of the end of 2011, mobile cellular penetration in Arab countries is at 97 per 100 people, 19 points higher than the world average. ***

Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and Social Incentives for Crowdsourcing Development Information in Uganda: A Field Experiment
by Michael G. Findley, Madeleine C. Gleave, Robert N. Morello et al. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 2012 HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 21

22 pp. 286 kB: http://zunia.org/uploads/media/knowledge/Crowdsourcing Field Experiment Uganda.24May20121338833687.pdf Crowdsourcing allows for mass citizen feedback on development outcomes and may help repair the broken feedback loop between aid donors and recipients. However, it is limited by a lack of understanding on participant motivation. The authors employed two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate which incentive mechanisms best motivate Ugandans to use SMS/text messaging to transmit development information to UNICEFs Ureport system.

Education Engendering Empowerment: Education & Equality


United Nations Girls Education Initiative, April 2012 154 pp. 1.6 MB: http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/EngenderingEmpowerment_W ebVersion.pdf The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set global targets to achieve universal primary education and eliminate gender disparity in all levels of education by 2015. As the deadline to meet those goals draws near, it is increasingly evident that although significant progress has been made, there is still much more to do. ***

ICTs for Education: A Reference Handbook


by Wadi D. Haddad The World Bank, 2008 Part 1 - ICT for Education: Decision Makers Essentials (13 pp. 356 kB): http://www.ictinedtoolkit.org/usere/pdfs/ICTs_for_Education_Essentials.pdf Part 2 - ICTs for Education: Analytical Review (63 pp. 892 kB): http://www.ictinedtoolkit.org/usere/pdfs/ICTs_for_Education_Analytical_Review.pdf Part 3 - ICT for Education: Resources (62 pp. 998 kB) http://www.ictinedtoolkit.org/usere/pdfs/ICTs_for_Education_Resources.pdf Part 4: ICTs for Education: PowerPoint Presentation (31 pp. 3.2 MB): http://www.ictinedtoolkit.org/usere/toolkit_documents/Tool-1_1-PPT-01.ppt The purpose this Reference Handbook is to provide decision makers, planners and practitioners with a summary of what is known about the potential and conditions of effective use of ICTs for education and learning, by drawing on worldwide knowledge, research and experience. The handbook has four parts, each of which addresses different users and serves different functions. These parts are organized in a parallel manner for ease of use and to allow cross-referencing. ***

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Mobile Learning for Teachers in Africa and the Middle East


Exploring the Potential of Mobile Technologies to Support Teachers & Improve Practice by Shafika Isaacs, Steven Vosloo, Mark West et al. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2012 33 pp. 805 kB: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002163/216358E.pdf This paper describes several projects that use mobile technologies to support teaching and learning as well as educational administration. The paper argues that basic mobile phones (often referred to as feature phones) are not especially conducive for tasks beyond rudimentary communication. While a number of projects have assisted teachers and students by pushing educational materials to their phones via SMS, projects that attempt richer collaboration and greater interaction tend to rely on smartphones. ***

School and Teaching Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa


UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) Information Bulletin No. 9, (2012) 14 pp. 852 kB:
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/singleview/news/inadequate_school_and_teaching_resources_challenge_education_in_sub_sa haran_africa/

Overcrowded classrooms, too few trained teachers, insufficient schoolbooks and few toilets, often without separation between boys and girls: these are some of the problems facing primary school students in Sub-Saharan Africa. A statistical survey of school and teaching resources in the region by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) highlights these challenges which undermine childrens chances to succeed in their studies. ***

Decentralized Finance and Provision of Basic Education


Asia-Pacific Education System Review Series No. 4 by Donald Winkler UNESCO Bangkok, Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, 2012 42 pp. 605 kB: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002163/216312e.pdf The booklet provides a conceptual framework for understanding the issues involved in decentralizing the financing and provision of education. Through exploration of various country experiences in implementing education, the paper describes the challenges that Asian countries have encountered in this process and provides a basis for well-informed decision-making regarding future education decentralization efforts, with a view to improving education equity and efficiency in the Asian region. ***

Education Sector Responses to Homophobic Bullying


Good policy and practice in HIV and health education, Booklet 8 HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 23

by Kathy Attawell, Mark Richmond, Soo Hyang Choi et al. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2012 58 pp. 1.6 MB: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002164/216493e.pdf This publication is part of a Good Policy and Practice series that addresses key themes of UNESCOs work with the education sector including HIV and AIDS and safe, healthy educational environments for all learners. This volume, on the theme of homophobic bullying in educational institutions, builds on UNESCOs work on gender, discrimination and violence in schools.

Millennium Development Goals Rural Women and the Millennium Development Goals
Inter-Agency Task Force on Rural Women, 2012 12 pp. 5.9 MB: http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an479e/an479e.pdf This fact sheet highlights the progress of rural women against key Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicators, pointing to some of the advancements made and gaps that still exist. It suggests that globally, and with only a few exceptions, rural women fare worse than rural men and urban women and men for every MDG indicator for which data are available. ***

From Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development Goals


by Jeffrey D Sachs The Lancet, Vol. 379, Issue 9832, pp. 2206-2211, 9 June 2012 6 pp. 628 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612606850.pdf The author explores the transition between Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). He details successes and shortfalls in the global effort to achieve the MDGs, which must be scrutinised in order for the SDGs to promote urgent and high-profile global awareness, political accountability, improved metrics, social feedback, and public pressures. ***

MDGs 2.0: What Goals, Targets, and Timeframe?


by Jonathan Karver, Charles Kenny, and Andy Sumner Center for Global Development, 13 June 2012 62 pp. 1.3 MB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1426271_file_Kenny_Karver_MDGs_FINAL.pdf This paper builds on a discussion that has already begun to address potential apHESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 24

proaches, goals, and target indicators to help inform the process of developing a second generation of MDGs or MDGs 2.0. The paper outlines potential goal areas based on the original Millennium Declaration, the timeframe for any MDGs 2.0 and attempts to calculate some reasonable targets associated with those goal areas. ***

Accountability for Achieving the MDGs: The Role of Parliaments


All Africa Parliamentary Conference on the MDGs 22nd to 24th of May 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia by Dyfan Jones International Expert on Parliamentary Development, 2012 14 pp. 425 kB: http://www.agora-parl.org/sites/default/files/background_note__accountability_for_achieving_the_mdgs.pdf This paper builds on the 2010 manual produced by the UNMC and UNDP and the content of training workshops held with Parliaments. The paper provides a rationale for increased Parliamentary engagement with the MDGs in Africa, a summary of the challenges faced by African Parliaments when engaging with the MDGs and an outline of possible solutions to those challenges.

Development Assistance The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change?
Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan by Tim Shorten, Martin Taylor, Neil Spicer et al. Globalization and Health 2012, 8:13 (31 May 2012) 22 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-8-13.pdf Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+), to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP +Results), makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. ***

Where do European Institutions rank on donor quality?


by Matthew Geddes Overseas Development Institute, June 2012 16 pp. 1.0 MB: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/docs/7698.pdf

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The tightening of budgets in the current financial crisis has led to a renewed focus on aid effectiveness, with the most recent iterations including three academic indices that rank the quality of donors as well as the Multilateral Aid Review (MAR) by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). These exercises are being used to assess donor comparative performance and foster international norms of good practice. This paper investigates how to interpret, respond to and use the evidence they provide, focusing on the European Institutions and major donors themselves. ***

What If You Could Invest in Development?


by Owen Barder with Rita Perakis Center for Global Development, 11 June 2012 Read online at: http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2012/06/what-if-you-couldinvest-in-development.php A Social Impact Bond (SIB) is a payment for outcomes model that seeks to shift attention, incentives and accountability to results; transfer risk and responsibility for performance to private investors and implementers; and drive value for money and efficiency gains throughout the cycle. A Development Impact Bond is a potential variation of the SIB model that would provide new sources of financing to achieve improved social outcomes in developing country contexts. As with SIBs, investors would provide external financing and only receive a return if pre-agreed outcomes are achieved. This approach is intended to strengthen incentives for the innovation and adaptation necessary to deliver successful outcomes. See also: Development Impact Bonds Working Group Briefing Note, May 2012 7 pp. 500 kB: http://www.cgdev.org/doc/Working%20Groups/Development%20Impact%20Bond s%20Briefing%20Note.pdf ***

When Do Donors Trust Recipient Country Systems?


by Stephen Knack The World Bank, Development Research Group, April 2012 48 pp. 1.2 MB:
http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2012/04/02/000158349_201204 02091917/Rendered/PDF/WPS6019.pdf

The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness sets targets for increased use by donors of recipient country systems for managing aid. The target is premised on a view that country systems are strengthened when donors trust recipients to manage aid funds, but undermined when donors manage aid through their own separate parallel systems. This study provides an analytical framework for understanding donors decisions to trust or bypass country systems. ***

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Others From Green Economy to Green Society: Bringing the Social to Rio+20
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), 2012 12 pp. 1.9 MB:
http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpAuxPages)/0F0B5009A146E C7DC1257A090043BB68/$file/Rio%20Magazine%20Web%20SinglePage.pdf

Will the transition to a green economy be seized as an opportunity to transform social structures, institutions and power relations for more resilient, inclusive and equitable societies? Or will it be limited to technological fixes and market-based solutions that support business as usual? This publication draws on expertise related to poverty reduction, inequality, social policy, environmental conservation, corporate social responsibility, and the politics of social change. ***

IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis: Living with Climate Change


IRIN - UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 2012 24 pp. 6.9 MB: http://www.irinnews.org/pdf/IRIN_Climate_Change_Booklet.pdf Twenty years after the first protocol on climate change, even with the global financial crisis, there is an opportunity in Rio this June to ensure the environment is not compromised by economic growth - and indeed, that measures of growth look beyond GDP to incorporate green issues as well as gender and inequality. ***

Saving our Shared Future: Best Policies to Regenerate our World


The World Future Council (WFC) Policy Action Plan, June 2012 6 pp. 160 kB: http://www.worldfuturecouncil.org/fileadmin/user_upload/PDF/Glob al_Policy_Action_Plan.pdf The World Future Council has released an emergency policy agenda on the eve of World Environment Day, which happens June 5. The 24-point policy action plan is the result of more than five years of work by a number of experts, and is composed of what the council calls some of the best and most effective laws and policies around the world, identified through research. ***

The Need for an African Science News Service


by Julie Clayton and Marina Joubert UK National Commission for UNESCO, May 2012 32 pp. 369 kB: http://www.unesco.org.uk/uploads/The%20Need%20for%20an%20African%20Sc ience%20News%20Service%20May%202012.pdf HESP-News & Notes - 13/2012 - page 27

According to this report the launch of a science news service for Africa could improve the quality and relevance of the continents media coverage of scientific research. The views of 35 journalists and scientists - from Africa, or from European organisations closely involved with Africa - were included in the report. Communication barriers, geographical distance and poor levels of scientific understanding amongst journalists are obstacles to effective science reporting. But for a news service to be rolled out successfully across the continent, many challenges - including institutional barriers, limited resources, and lack of training - must be addressed. ***

Mercury in Skin Lightening Products


Preventing Disease through Healthy Environments World Health Organization, 2011 6 pp. 118 kB: http://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/mercury_flyer.pdf The World Health Organisation has released a technical document focusing on the issues associated with skin-lightening creams that contain mercury. One in three women in Southern Africa are reported to be using these products on a regular basis despite the fact that it could cause kidney damage among other side-effects.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
Tracking Support for the MDGs
http://iif.un.org/ This site records and monitors commitments made in support of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by UN Member States and other international stakeholders. Data is displayed through an interactive data visualization and mapping tool, raw datasets and searchable qualitative data entries. ***

Peoples Health Movement (PHM) Global News Volume 2, Issue 1 - May 2012
7 pp. 2.2 kB: http://www.phmovement.org/sites/www.phmovement.org/files/PHM NewsletterVol2Iss1.pdf In this issue: Right to Health Campaign Moves Towards Mobilization PHM Circles Take Action to Gain Health For All Around the World More Updates on the Third People's Health Assembly ***

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World Federation of Public Health Associations Newsletter, May 2012


The May 2012 newsletter of the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) is now available online at: http://www.wfpha.org/online-newsletter/item/WFPHA_Newsletter_May_2012.html The newsletter includes the following topics: 13th World Congress on Public Health (conference highlights and announcement 14th WCPH) WFPHA Working groups What's on (initiatives, websites etc.) Members newsletters and news Publications Upcoming events WFPHA members communication (e.g. new members) ***

Global Digital Download


http://www.internews.org/globaldigitaldownload/ The Global Digital Download (GDD) is a weekly publication that aggregates resources on Internet freedom, highlighting trends in digital and social media that intersect with freedom of expression, policy, privacy, censorship and new technologies. The GDD includes information about relevant events, news, and research.

CONFERENCES
European Scientific Conference on Applied Infectious Disease Epidemiology (ESCAIDE)
24-26 October 2012, Edinburgh, UK ESCAIDE is a major infectious disease conference and the primary EU event where European and international experts in epidemiology, microbiology and other related disciplines can share information and experience on pathogen detection, outbreak investigation and public health actions that support the identification, control and prevention of infectious diseases. Call for abstracts Abstracts are welcomed in the areas of infectious disease epidemiology, public health microbiology, outbreak investigations, surveillance, public health intervention and other areas in applied epidemiology or public health practice in which results are linked to public health action. Deadline for submission abstract is 13 July, 2012. Further information is available at: http://www.escaide.eu

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CARTOON

TIPS & TRICKS


Shrink to Fit in MS Excel
Ever have data in MS Excel that is just a bit too long for the cell? What happened? Did the column widen to accommodate? Or, maybe you got the infamous ##### to let you know that the number didnt fit. And let us not forget everyones favourite: the old convert the number to scientific notation. If the results of Excels attempt to accommodate the large data are not to your satisfaction, here is an alternative you can try to see if you like it any better. After all, too many columns with extra width may cause problems for printing later on. Excel has a cell formatting option called shrink to fit. Its effects on data look like this: You need to begin by highlighting the cell(s), column(s) or row(s) that need this setting. Next, we need to open the Format Cells dialog box. You could choose to Click the dialog box launcher in the bottom right corner of the Font group on the Home tab of the Ribbon or right-click on your highlighted cells then choose Format Cells from the list. At this point, you need to select the Alignment tab of the Format Cells dialog box. In the Text Control section, select the Shrink to fit choice. Click OK. Thats it. Just one more tool to add to your toolbox when you are handling long data in Excel. Best regards, Dieter Neuvians MD

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