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Spring 2012 Master of Computer Application (MCA) Semester IV MC0076 Management Information Systems 4 Credits (Book ID: B0901)

1) Assignment Set 1 (60 Marks) Q 1: What do you understand by Information processes data? Ans: Data are generally considered to be raw facts that have undefined uses
and application; information is considered to be processed data that influences choices, that is, data that have somehow been formatted, filtered, and summarized; and knowledge is considered to be an understanding derived from information distinctions among data, information, and knowledge may be derived from scientific terminology. The researcher collects data to test hypotheses; thus, data refer to unprocessed and unanalyzed numbers. When the data are analyzed, scientists talk about the information contained in the data and the knowledge acquired from their analyses. The confusion often extends to the information systems context, and the three terms maybe used interchangeably. Generally, acquiring information through informal sources costs less, but the information acquired may be harder to organize and use effectively. Data acquisition can occur manually or electronically. Manual processing of large volumes of data tends to be more expensive than computer processing. In computerized systems the processing between retrieval and communication allows more analysis and display possibilities in a shorter time. The costs of computerized processing include rental or depreciation of computer equipment, the labor costs of operating the equipment, and the costs associated with programming software to retrieve, format, and display information.Computerized processing involves lower labor and time costs but higher equipment costs than manual processing.

Q 2:How do you retrieve information from manual system? Ans: To start the system in safe mode and perform a restore follow these

steps. 1. Restart your computer, and then press F8 during the initial startup to start your computer in Safe Mode or Safe Mode with a command prompt. 2. Log on to your computer with an administrator account or with an account that has administrator credentials. 3. In Safe Mode type or paste the following command in the Start - Run box then press Enter. In Safe Mode Command Prompt type the following command then press ENTER. %systemroot%\system32\restore\rstrui.exe 4. Follow the instructions that appear on the screen to restore your computer to an earlier state, or undo the last restore if available.

Q 3: What are the challenges of information management ? Ans: The use of Management Information Systems (MIS) has gone from
competitive advantage for few to business necessity for all. The true advantages of information technology (IT) come in the forms of efficiency and effectiveness of the gathered information.

The Information

Information is the starting point for MIS, which is the analysis of collected raw data such as pricing, demographics or temperatures. As defined by Haag and Cummings, "Information is data that have a particular meaning within a specific context." The current price of airfare becomes information if you are deciding which airline to fly with. Businesses constantly collect information on their customers, vendors and competitors to build strategies and make managerial decisions.

Managerial Literacy
Though technology receives most of the credit, managers play an intricate role when dealing with MIS. Their literacy in both technology and information determine how effective strategies will be when implemented. A technologyliterate manager will know how and when to apply technology, meaning that she will know what to purchase to execute certain processes and the most appropriate time to make the purchase.

The Information Technology (IT) Element

The technology portion of the MIS equation consists of acquiring the necessary hardware and software to help managers gather, analyze, and access information. To determine what IT is necessary, managers need to assess the business's needs, understand the industry's environment and design the best strategies to meet objectives. The IT needs to support the strategies, not vice versa.

Q 4 : Explain the different components of MIS. Ans: Structure of MIS may be understood by looking at the physical
components of the information system in an organization. The physical components of an organizational information system may be hardware, software, Database, manual procedures and operating persons. A brief description of these components has been outlined in the following paragraphs:

Hardware It refers to the physical data processing equipment and

peripheral devices, For example, CPU, monitor, keyboard, printer, drives, tapes, communication devices, etc.

Software It is a broad term given to the instructions or programs that direct

the operating of the hardware. Software could be of two types, i.e. system software and application software.

Database The Database consists of all data utilized by application software.

Data is stored in files.

Procedures Formal operating procedures, which are required to operate a

system, such as manuals, are also regarded as physical elements.

Operating Personnel Personnel like Computer Operators, Computer

Programmers, System Analysts, System Managers, etc., are the operating people of the information systems.

Input and Output Various physical inputs and outputs from the
information system, existing in forms like printout, reports etc.

Q 5: Mention different characteristics of MRS. Ans: Characteristics of Management Reporting Systems

Management reporting systems are the most elaborate of the management oriented information systems. The main objective of management reporting

systems (MRS) is to provide lower and middle management with printed or electronic reports and with inquiry capabilities to help maintain operational and management control of the enterprise. Characteristics of MRS include: 1. They are usually developed by information systems professionals, rather than by end users, over an extensive period of time, with the use of life cycle oriented development methodologies as opposed to a rapid development by first building a simpler prototype system and then refining it in response to user experience. 2. These systems are build for situations in which information requirements are reasonably well known and expected to remain relatively stable. 3. MRSs do not directly support the decision-making process as a search for alternative solutions to problems and the selection of the solution to be implemented. 4. MRSs are oriented toward reporting on the past and the present, rather than projecting the future.

Q 6: List down the Potential External Opportunities, potential internal Weaknesses. Ans:
Increasingly, organizational advantages come from incorporating external information into the information system partially captured by the organizational TPS, but a good part of it must be acquired from external sources. The internal stakeholders are, of course, a firms employees, who may be classified in terms of their informational needs. Table 4.2 lists principal external stakeholders of organizations, along with the principal informational demands generated by their presence. The distinction between external and internal data has become blurred. For example, consider: Inventory data maintained by your organization in behalf of a customer firm that relies on your company for all its supply needs within a certain product area (such as a hospital relying on a drug distributor) An information processing subsidiary of a diversified corporation handling the information of another business unit for the parent company The original data processing systems were oriented toward the past, in that they maintained accounting data about company activities. With the advent of on-line systems, it was possible to maintain up-to-date data about the present. Next, planning became possible, particularly with decision support systems. Continuing

comparison of present and projected results is the fundamental tenet of management control. Today, MIS maintain information about the past, present, and projected future of the company, its operating units, and the relevant aspects of its environment.

Q 7: What are the technology evaluation factors that need to be considered during ERP selection. Ans: To address the common mistakes that lead to a poor system selection it
is important to apply key principles to the process, some of which are listed here under:

Structured approach
The first step in selection of a new system is to adopt a structured approach to the process. The set of practices are presented to all the stakeholders within the enterprise before the system selection process begins.

Focused demonstrations
Demonstrations by potential vendors must be relevant to the business. However, it is important to understand that there is considerable amount of preparation required by vendors to perform demonstrations that are specific to a business.

Objective decision process

The criteria and the scoring system must be agreed in advance prior to viewing any potential systems. The criteria must be wide-ranging and decided upon by as many objective people as possible within and external to the enterprise. In no circumstance should people with affiliations to one or more systems be allowed to advise in this regard.

Full involvement by all personnel

Representatives of all users should: Be involved in the project initiation phase where the decision making process is agreed; Assist in the gathering of requirements; Attend the Vendor Demonstrations;

Q 8: What are the common business exposures and risk of using internet by organization. Ans: Small businesses encounter a number of risks when they use the
Internet to establish and maintain relationships with their customers or suppliers. Increased reliance on the Internet demands that small business owners decide how much risk to accept and implement security systems to manage the risk associated with online business activities. As of the early 2000s, the insurance industry had not made policies widely available to protect businesses against the risks of E-commerce. As a result, business owners had to include Internet security among their risk analysis and management activities. As a minimum level of protection, experts recommend that companies conduct a legal review of their Web site content, establish clear policies on employees' Internet and e-mail usage, and install virus protection and security systems on all computers used to access the Internet.

Q 9: Explain with relevant example the concept of business process. Also mention their elements Ans: A business process or business method is a collection of related,
structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. There are three types of business processes:

Management processes, the processes that govern the operation of a

system. Typical management processes include "Corporate Governance" and "Strategic Management".

Operational processes, processes that constitute the core business and

create the primary value stream. Typical operational processes Purchasing, Manufacturing, Advertising and Marketing, and Sales. are

Supporting processes, which support the core processes. Examples

include Accounting, Recruitment, Call center, Technical support. Business Processes can be modeled through a large number of methods and techniques. For instance, the Business Process Modeling Notation is a Business Process Modeling technique that can be used for drawing business processes in a workflow.

Q 10. Explain the link between MIS and BPR. Ans: Any excersie towards building design of the management information
system will be processed by an excersie of business re-engineering. Building the MIS is a long term project It is, therefore, essential to have a relook at the organizational where the mission and goals of the organization are likely to be replaced. The MIS will be concentrator more on the performance parameter evolution which is different in the parameter evaluation which is different in the reengineered organization. The data capture, processing, analysis and reporting would be process central and performance efficiency would be evaluated in relation to the value generated by the processes. The role of Management Information Systems will be raised to a level where the following activities would be viewed for the management action: 1 Control of process cycle time 2 Work forum efficiency 3 Customer satisfaction index 4 Process efficiency and effectiveness