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Communicative Grammar Unit 1: Imperatives Use the imperatives for: Directions Go straight. -> Make an U-turn.

. Instructions Read this book. -> Listen to this CD. Request Close the door. -> Please answer the phone. Use the base form of the verb for the imperative: Eat vegetables. Use dont + the base form for the negative form of the imperative: Dont go to the park. Please makes a request more polite. Go to the supermarket, please. Unit 2: The present of the BE The present of be has three forms: am, is, are. be Am Is Are I He She It We You They

Use the correct form of be + not to make a negative statement. I am not He is not She is not It is not We are Im not He isnt She isnt It isnt We

2 not You are not They are not arent You arent They arent

Examples: They are from Brazil. She is a doctor. He is at his office. We arent in the high school. I am not nurse. You arent in class. It isnt my dog. Possessive Adjectives I You He She It We You The y My You r His Her Its Our You r Thei r

Examples: Its my house. These are her friends. This is his dog. It is its dish. Yes/No Questions In Yes/No questions with be, put am, is are before the subject. BE + Subject + complement + ? Examples: Are you a teacher? Yes, I am Is she her mother? No, she isnt Is he married? Yes, he is Are you a new student? No, Im not Questions: Who/What

Who: ask information about people. What: ask information about things or ideas. Wh + word + BE + subject + complement + ? Examples: Who is that man? Who is she? What is that? What is it?

Whos that man? Whos she? Whats your jacket? Whats it?

Questions: Where; Prepositions of place Where: ask about location. At + street address On + street name On the + floor In + city, state, country or continent Examples: Where is the bank? Its on Bolivar street. Where is the museum? Its at Bolivar and Sucre street. Unit 3: The past of BE The past of be has two forms: was and were Past of BE was I He She It We You They I wasnt He wasnt She wasnt It wasnt We

were

I was He was She was It was We

I was not He was not She was not It was not We were

4 were You were They were not You were not They were not werent You werent They werent

Examples: They were at the cinema. They arent at the cinema. She was an excellent doctor. She wasnt an excellent doctor. He was in this school. He wasnt in this school. Yes/No Questions To ask a Yes/No question put was or were before the subject. Was/Were + Subject + Complement + ? Were you at home? Yes, the were Was the play good? No, it wasnt Were they happy? Yes, they were Was she at a party? No, she wasnt Yesterday, last night, week, day, .ago Wh-questions Some wh-questions start with: where, when, who, what, how long. These words ask for information. Where Locati on Whe Who How n Time Perso Descripti n on How long Length of time

Wh-word + was/were + Subject + Complement + ? Where was Peter last night? He was at the library. When was the party? The party was on Saturday. Unit 4: The simple present To talk about facts or things that happen again and again.

5 Base form of the verb I You We The y -s or es He Sh e It

Subject + Verb + Complement They live near here. She goes go the supermarket everyday. He washes the dishes on weekends. Children play in the park on Sunday. Marlon usually cleans his room. Raul buys groceries every Friday. Use do not/ dont or does not/ doesnt + the base form of the verb to make negative statements. DON I T You We The y Yes/No questions To make Yes/No questions, use the following structure: Do/Does + a subject + the base form of the verb + ? Do you live in Loja? Does she eat vegetables? Do they go to the park? Yes, Do we buy the meat? Does he write this letter? Wh-questions To make Wh-questions, use the following structure: Wh-word + do/does + a subject + the base form of the verb + ? When Yes, I do. No, she doesnt. they do. No, we dont. Yes, he does. DOESN T He Sh e It

6 What time What Who Why How Where He goes to the cinema. About 10 p.m. At Ginos restaurant. At 9 oclock. Because we need to be on time. My father. Her mother comes.

Examples: Where does he go? What time do they sleep? Where do they eat? When does the game start? Why do we go too early? Who visits you? What happens today?

Adverbs of frequency Adverbs of frequency say how often something happens. Adverbs of frequency After the verb Be (am, is, are) Before other Verbs. They always live in Quito.

They are always late.

Use HOW OFTEN to ask questions about frequency. How often does he go to the gym? How often do you study English? Unit 5: The Present Progressive Use the present progressive to talk about an action that is happening now. Past _____NOW_____Future You are listening an English class now. Subject + BE + verb + -ing + complement

Subject + BE + not + verb + -ing + complement Examples: They are watching English videos. Isabel isnt doing her homework. We arent studying French. Luis is swimming in the pool. Andrea is writing a letter. Julie is singing. Her mother isnt making the dinner. Peter isnt driving his car. Yes/No questions Are they watching English videos? Yes, they are. Is Isabel doing her homework? No, she isnt. Are we studying French? Yes, we are. Is Luis swimming in the pool? No, he isnt. Is Andrea writing a letter? Yes, she is. Is Julie singing my new song? No, she isnt. Wh-questions Wh-word + BE + Subject + verb + -ing + complement + ? What are they watching? What is Isabel doing? Where are they studying? Where is Luis swimming? Why is Andrea writing a letter? Who is signing my new song? Julie Who is making the dinner? Unit 6: Count nouns and Non Count Nouns Count nouns refer to separate things which are easy to count To form the plural of most of the count nouns add s or es Pencil pencils Box boxes book books dish dishes English videos. Her homework. In French Institute. In the pool. Because Her mother.

8 Non Count nouns refer to things that are difficult to count. We use quantifiers to help us to count non-count nouns. A BLOW OF, A SLICE OF, A BOOTLE OF, A GLASS OF Can and Cant Can is a modal. Can has different meanings, including ability, possibility, and request. Cannot/Cant is negative form of CAN I can swim Ability She can go to the supermarket Possibility Can you open the door, please? Request

Affirmative Statements Subject + Can + simple form of the verb + complement I can play the piano. She can go to the cinema tonight. Negative statement Subject + cant/cannot + simple form of the verb + complement They cant watch TV. He cant finish his project this night. Unit 7: The Simple Past Tense Statements Subject + Verb in past tense + Complement They wrote a book. He lived in Peru. We went to the cinema.

9 He arrived yesterday. They got married last month. It rained last week. I ate hamburger. Regular and Irregular Verbs. Negative statements Subject + did not/didnt + Verb in simple form + Complement They didnt write a book. He did not live in Peru. We didnt go to the cinema. He did not arrive yesterday. They didnt get married last month. It did not rain last week. I didnt eat hamburger.

Yes/No questions Did + Subject + Verb in simple form + Complement + ? Did you sleep well? Did she go to the doctor? Did they watch the movie? Did he clean his room? Yes, Wh-questions Where did you go? What did she buy? When did they travel? They Why did he go to the dentist? toothache. Unit 8 How much/ How many Use how much and how many to ask about quantify. Use How much.- with non-count nouns. Use How many.- with count nouns. They went to the cinema. She bought a car. travelled on Monday. He went to the dentist because he had a Yes, I did. / No, I didnt. Yes, she did. / No, she didnt. Yes, they did. / No, they didnt. he did. / No, he didnt.

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How much water does she need? How many apples did you buy? IMPORTANT Sometimes its not necessary to repeat the noun after how much and how many. I need some money How much do you need? There is/There are There is singular Count and non-count nouns. There There There There There There is water in the glass. is an apple. is a chair. isnt an orange. isnt bread. isnt a restaurant near hear.

There are Plural Count nouns There There There There There There are two restaurants. are sweets in my bags. are some eggs in the refrigerator. arent people in the concert. arent any movies in the cinema. arent shows for today.

Questions Is there any restaurant near here? Yes, there is. / No, there arent. Are there any banks in this town? Yes, there are. / No, there arent. Is there an empty chair in the class? Yes, there is. / No, there isnt. Are there shows tonight? Yes, there are. / No, there arent. Unit 9 The Comparative Adjectives

11 Use the comparative form of an adjective + than to compare two people, places or things. Long Longe r Small Small er Tall Taller Hot Hott er Big Bigg er Busy Busier Good Bette r Easy Bad Easier Wors e Happy Far Happi Farth er er Intelligent More intelligent Expensive More expensive Wonderful More wonderful

Luisa is younger than Alberto. Luisa is younger than he is. Luisa is younger than him. Which animal is faster? Which is faster, a giraffe or a lion?

The Superlative Adjectives Use the superlative form of an adjective to compare three or more people, places or things. Long Longe st Small Smalle st Tall Tallest Hot Hotte st Big Bigge st Busy Good Busiest Best Easy Bad Easiest Worst Happy Happie st Far Farthe st Intelligent The most intelligent Expensive The most expensive Wonderful The most wonderful

Unit 10 Be going to Use be going to + base form to: State facts about the future Make predictions

12 Talk about plans Statements Affirmative sentences Subject + be + going to + base form of verb She is going to go to Miami. Negative sentences Subject + be + not + going to + base form of verb They are not going to buy a new house. Yes/No Questions BE + Subject + going to + base form of verb + complement + ? Is she going to read his new book? Affirmative answer: Yes, she is. Negative answer: No, she isnt.

Wh-Questions Wh-word + be + subject + going to + base form of verb + complement + ? Where are they going to study? In the library. When is she going to New York? Next week. What are you going to do tonight? Nothing. Communicative Grammar II USED TO I used to teach children. Use USED TO + base form of verb to talk about past habits or past situations that no longer exist in the present. BE CAREFUL! : USED TO always refers to the past. There is no present form.

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Examples: He used to play in band. (He played in a band in the past, but he doesnt play in a band now). She used to love cartoons. (NOT she uses to love cartoons). Use USED TO in sentences that contrast the past and the present. We often use time expressions such as now, no longer, and not anymore with present to emphasize the contrast.

Examples: I used to have vey long hair, but now my hair is very short. We used to play with Rubiks cubes, but we dont like anymore. Form the negative with: Didnt + use to In negative statements, never + used to is more common than didnt used to. Examples: He didnt use to study. Not he didnt used to study. He never used to study. Form questions with: Did + used to. In questions, the simple past is more common than did + use to. Examples: Did you use to have long hair? NOT: Did you used to have long hair? Did you have long hair when you were younger? Be careful! Did not confuse used to + base form of the verb with the following expressions. Be used to + base form + ing (BE ACCUSTOMED TO). Get used to + base form + ing (GET ACCUSTOMED TO).

14 Examples: She used to work. (She doesnt work now). She is used to working. (She is accustomed to working). She will get used to working. (Shell get accustomed to working). USED TO. Statements SUBJE CT I You He She It We You They USED TO BASE FORM OF THE VERB

didnt use to

be popular

Yes/No Questions DI D SUBJE CT I You He She It We You They USED TO BASED FORM

Di d

used to

be popular?

Wh-Questions WH-WORD DID did You he SUBJECT I USED TO used to BASED FORM be popular?

15 When She It We You They