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Draft for Internal Review

July- 2005
Sindh Programme Office I U C N- The World Conservation Union Parin Lodge 2-Bath Island Road Karachi -75530, Pakistan Phone: (92 -21) 5374072- 75 FAX: (92- 21) 5838106

Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

Draft for Internal Review Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

Table of contents
About this..i Summary...ii 1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................................7 2. Objectives of the compendium ....................................................................................................... 10 3. Overview of the coastal and marine environment ............................................................................ 10 3.1 Climate and Oceanography of the Arabian Sea......................................................................... 10 3.2 Sindh Coast............................................................................................................................ 11

3.2.1 Karachi Coast ................................................................................................................11 3.2.2 The Indus Deltaic Coast ................................................................................................11
3.3 Balochistan Coast ................................................................................................................... 12

3.3.1 Lasbela Coast ................................................................................................................13 3.3.2 Mekran Coast ................................................................................................................13


4. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and Biodiversity............................................................................ 13 4.1 Xerophytic vegetation and terrestrial fauna ............................................................................... 14 4.2 Mangroves .............................................................................................................................. 14 4.3 Mudflats and sub-tidal soft-bottom communities ........................................................................ 15 4.4 Seagrass beds and algal communities ...................................................................................... 16 4.5 Turtle nesting and other sandy beaches ................................................................................... 16 4.6 Rocky shores and subtidal rocky reefs ...................................................................................... 16 4.7 Corals and associated communities ......................................................................................... 16 4.8 Shore and seabirds ................................................................................................................. 17 4.9 Marine mammals .................................................................................................................... 17 5. Resource Use and Development .................................................................................................... 17 5.1 The Indus River and Delta System ........................................................................................... 18 5.2 Coastal areas of Sindh ............................................................................................................ 19 5.3 The Balochistan coast ............................................................................................................. 19 6. Policy and institutional framework .................................................................................................. 19 7. Coastal and marine protected areas (CMPAs) needs and benefits................................................. 22 7.1 National and local benefits ....................................................................................................... 22

7.1.1 Fisheries replenishment, food security and economics.................................................22 7.1.2 Protection from natural disasters and climate change ...................................................23
7.2 International obligations ........................................................................................................... 25 8. Strategic, integrated, participatory system planning ......................................................................... 25 8.1 Linking the CMPA system with Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) ....................................... 26

8.1.1 Integrated Coastal Management ....................................................................................26 8.1.2 Sustainable Fisheries Development ..............................................................................26 8.1.3 Linking CMPAs with sustainable livelihoods ..............................................................27
8.1.4 Building strong Scientific basis....26 9. A comprehensive and representative network of CMPAs ................................................................. 29 9.1 Representativeness, comprehensiveness and balance.............................................................. 29 9.2 Adequacy ............................................................................................................................... 29 9.3 Coherence and complementarity.............................................................................................. 30 9.4 Consistency............................................................................................................................ 30 9.5 Cost effectiveness, efficiency, equity and community support ..................................................... 30 9.6 Refuge to climate change ........................................................................................................ 30 10. Existing coastal PAs and potential sites for incorporation into the CMPA network ............................ 31 10.1 Cape Monze Churna Island Sandspit Hawks Bay ........................................................... 38 10.2 Miani Hor ............................................................................................................................. 38 10.3 Hingol National Park (and Dhrun Wildlife Sanctuary) ............................................................... 39
Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

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10.4 Ormara turtle beaches ...........................................................................................................41 10.5 Astola Island Kalmat Khor .................................................................................................... 42 10.6 Jiwani Gwatar Bay .............................................................................................................. 44 11. The way forward..44 12 References .................................................................................................................................. 45

Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

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About this:
This report details on coastal and marine areas in Pakistan and their potential to be identified as ecologically sensitive. This document is intended to be a supportive tool for policy makers, conservationist, and developmental sector to identify the need for managing the coastal and marine area by adopting sustainable practices. It is an effort to identify and propose national representative of protected areas in the pretext of coastal and marine issues. The information gathered in this document is qualitative and would defiantly help all the stakeholders to recognize the importance for hot spots of ecologically vulnerable habitats in context of coastal and marine areas and their need to be designated as Protected. This write up is a result of gathering information from the secondary source, field visits and number of consultative meetings with the stake holders. The recommendation of this report is the clear reflection of serious approach of the majority of stakeholders / participants towards recognition of the wise use of resources for their future. This document is produced in a manner so that it also serves as qualitative update of inventory in the coastal and marine habitats. However, it also identifies certain gaps and suggests some area specific actions for establishing CMPAs in an efficient and effective manner. Organizing a workshop inviting all the interest group would be the next step in formulating the modus operandi for declaring national representative of Coastal Marine Protected areas identified in this document. It would also help in strengthening the initiative by scrutinizing more potential CMPAs. The recommendation/s would be forwarded to the concerned Ministry for appropriate action. This document also gives us a way forward for short and long term actions.

Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

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Summary:
Background: The concept of marine reserves or coastal marine protected areas (CMPAs) has been one of the major issues of discussion in academic and environmental forums. Initially, the concept had been loosely defined, and different interests have sought to apply it to various goals. Recently, a coastal marine protected area (CMPA) is identified as an area of sea and its coast especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means. The IUCN: In 1988, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) General Assembly called upon national governments, international agencies and the non-governmental community to: Provide for the protection, restoration, wise use, understanding and enjoyment of the marine heritage of the world through the creation of a global, representative system of marine protected areas and through management in accordance with the principles of the World Conservation Strategy of human activities that use or affect the marine environment. In 2003, 8th meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical, and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (Montreal, Canada 10-14 March 2003). The role of Marine and Coastal Protected Areas in conserving marine biodiversity (Agenda item 5.2) has recommended : that MCPAs and MCPA networks are a powerful tool both for meeting all these biodiversity objectives and for ensuring sustainable and equitable marine resource /marine management. It will contribute to fulfilling the commitments and new political imperatives created by the WSSD . The rationale: In case of Pakistan, unawareness, ignorance and poverty coupled with the erratic exposure to modern technology has increased the range of uses of, and unchecked access to, coastal marine environments, supporting industries such as fishing, tourism, aquaculture and the development of new products at the cost of coastal and marine biodiversity, emerging out as key factors for coastal and marine ecosystems to threaten, change and destroy the very processes and resources that people depend on. Absence of a specific management system for CMPAs is failing to maintain the productivity, biological diversity of coastal and marine ecosystems. The consequences of this failure are serious and farreaching. Coastal and marine biodiversity, ecosystems and resources are also threatened by impacts reaching the sea from the land, through pollution by nutrients, chemicals and silt, and through man made and natural changes as habitat loss and changed river flows. Establishment of coastal marine protected areas help protect important habitats and representative of coastal and marine life and can assist in restoring the productivity of the oceans and avoid further degradation besides addressing number of social and sociological issues like migration, dependence on natural resource and improvement in living standards by improving economic indicators. They can also be the potential sites for scientific study and can generate income through tourism and sustainable fishing. The Benefit: This document will serve as guideline for policy makers, conservationist, and developmental bodies and all concerned with CMPA related issues, this recommends way forward towards effective planning and management of the national system of CMPAs, also provides secondary information on
Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

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the existing and potential coastal and marine protected areas in Pakistan, and identifies information gaps. The methods: The methodology adopted in compiling this document is based on preliminary information gathered from different sources and their possible verification from the available secondary data, field visits and as a result of consultative meetings with the potential stake holders. Six potential sites were identified which fulfill the criteria given by Davey, (1998), The way forward: The coastal and marine wealth in terms of natural resources is of vital importance in both ecological and economic context. It is needed to demarcate a national representative of coastal marine protected area; this document identifies the need. An effective planning system is basic requirement for declaring CMPA. This report recommends priority areas and actions for the establishment of national representative system of CMPA. It is intended to provide strategic guidance to the donors and other organizations for investment in coastal and marine biodiversity conservation. The next phase would focus on the development and implementation of specific proposals for the establishment of new CMPAs . The sites of highest priorities are preliminary identified in this report; however the need of additional investigation is also identified to set specific priorities in CMPAs. It can be expected that Government will take initiatives and provide funding for developing their national CMPA system.

Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

Draft for Internal Review 1. Introduction


The Arabian Seas Marine Region includes marine areas from Djibouti to Pakistan, including the northern part of Somalia, the Red Sea, the Gulf, and parts of the Arabian Sea.( Kelleher et al 1995). (Fig.1). Coastal and marine environments throughout the Arabian Seas Region are subject to increasing human pressures, many of which appear to have resulted in harmful environmental effects. Oil, phosphate mining (Hanna 1982, 1983a), and domestic, urban and industrial pollutants are among the major problems of the area. Ecological problems also result from the loss and degradation of productive coastal habitats caused by coastal landfill, dredging, and sedimentation. Loss of habitat extends to other parts of the region and to the wider Indian Ocean where approximately 50 percent of mangrove forests may have been lost over the last 20 years (IUCN/UNEP 1985c). Overfishing is a major concern in all areas of the region.

Fig 1. The eco regional map of coastal and marine areas in IPI of Arabian Sea. (Kelleher 1995) Overfishing, damaging pollution, habitat destruction and other impacts of human activities in the sea and from land are causing increasing damage to coastal and marine environments. Current practices are failing to sustain the productivity, biological diversity and ecosystem services of marine ecosystems. The consequences of this failure are serious and far-reaching. The most obvious effect is seen in impacts on the longstanding and widespread use of marine resources for sea food. While the global fish catch stabilized briefly in the 1980s (Watson & Pauly 2001) it has since then been in consistent decline (Pauly et al 2002). (Fig. 2)

Fig. 2 Estimated global fish landings for the period 1950 to 1999, corrected for over reporting of China catch and without the catch of Peruvian anchovetta (Watson et al 2001).

Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

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Compared to our knowledge of life on land, we know little of marine ecosystems or the effects of our impacts upon them.(Jackson et al. 2001) Coastal Marine Protected Areas are critically important if we are to meet the needs of the increasing world population and demands for a reasonable quality of life. It is vital that we reverse the decline in marine ecosystems. This is essential to maintain, and ideally to increase, the sustainable supply of high quality protein from the sea and to realize the potential of other uses and values; However the national scenario of marine catch (Fig. 3) also tell us the same story as in Fig.1.

Fig. 3. Estimated national fish landing pattern for the period 1985 to 1997, study based on two most common traits fishes. ( Source: Sindh Fisheries department) The coast of Pakistan constitutes the northern boundary of the Arabian Sea, with oceanic influences dominating over those of the continent, which is essentially a subtropical dessert. River flows are monsoonal, with the only major freshwater input coming from the Indus, at the eastern extremity that discharges some 150 MAF of water and 450 million tons of suspended sediment annually and forms the Indus cone, a subaqueous delta 1,5002,000 kilometers long (Pernetta 1993). Currents in the Arabian Sea result from the removal of surface water during the summer monsoon and its replacement by cooler upwelling water (Sheppard, Price, and Roberts 1992). The Pakistani coast has tides of up to a 3.5-meter range (Pernetta 1993). Pakistan lies in the northwestern part of the Indian ocean that form the Arabian sea. Indo-Pacific (IP1) region according to Chiffings (1992). To its west rests Iran, its east India, and southwest Oman. The coastline stretches for about 1,000 km, along two coastal provinces, Sindh (320 km) and Balochistan (670 km). The total area of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is about 240,000km. The continental shelf is the broadest off the Sindh coast and the narrowest point (16-24km) is of the Balochistan coast where the shelf has a sharp drop in the coastal slope. (Fig. 4)

Fig. 4. The coastline of Pakistan

Preliminary Compendium of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas in Pakistan

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The coastal and near shore waters of Pakistan are not uniform, but maybe spatially divided into reflecting the distinct geology, climate, vegetation, oceanographic conditions and the levels of present use and consequent rates of change in terms of resource depletion and habitat degradation. The biological, physical, chemical and socio-economic conditions of Balochistan differ considerably from those of Sindh, and within Sindh, the present rate and future prospect for the coastline of Karachi differ from those of the Indus delta. Coastal zone is one of the most important national assets of a country where socio-economic activities are highly concentrated.(Table 1) According to 2001 census, the population of the coastal areas of Pakistan is near 1.5 million and 90.5 percent of the population lives in the rural areas. The growth in the coastal areas is much higher (3.33 percent per year) as compared to non coastal areas (2.7 percent per year). Marine fisheries in general, are an important economic activity in coastal areas of Pakistan, particularly on Balochistan coast. Despite low contribution of fisheries in GDP (0.5 percent) and employment (1 percent), the export earnings from this sector are substantial. Export of fish and fishing product has yielded a sum of Rs. 8.8 billion in 2002. These exports are critically dependent on environmental sustainability. Coastal and offshore areas of Pakistan support large fisheries. Although major part of the fishing fleet of Pakistan is mechanized, vessels are poorly equipped and as such fisheries is still considered as small scale. Fisheries activities in Pakistan are concentrated in shallow coastal waters, the estuarine system of Indus and creeks and lesser extent, in the deeper part of the Arabian sea. Coastal and marine areas, with their fisheries, minerals, oil and gas resources, have an immense potential in contributing towards national growth and development. However these areas are fragile and the resources they harbour are not infinite. Therefore, any attempt to deplete them for alternative uses may result in irreparable losses both in ecological and socio-economic terms. Already the population explosion and rampant industrial development in Karachi has degraded several waterways and some of the mangrove resources of the Indus Delta. In the meantime, ambitious development plans are being drawn for the Balochistan coast, notably the Gwader Master Plan which incorporates large scaled industrial, port (for oil and gas, cargos and fisheries), residential and tourism development. The importance of sustainable development of coastal and marine resources and its contribution to national economy and local livelihoods have not been fully appreciated. Table. 1 A comparative of coastal marine specific database of south-east Asia # 1 2 Vital parameters Land area (000 ha) Coastline (km) * Country data: UNEP GEO 3 data: Shelf area upto 200m depth (sq km) Claimed EEZ (sq km) Territorial sea (sq km) Population within 100 km of coast (% of total) Pakistan 77088 1046 2599 43701 201520 31388 9.1 India 297319 8118 17181 372424 2103415 193834 26.3 Bangladesh 13017 710 3306 59638 39868 40257 54.8

3 4 5 6

Source: (R.Rajagopalan and A. Lakshmi 2003) The need to protect and wisely utilize the coastal ecosystems is urgent. Coastal and marine protected areas (CMPAs), identified based on scientific evidence and socio-economic considerations, forming networks consisting of small marine sanctuaries and larger multiple use complexes, provide the opportunities for biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource management. When effectively managed within a sound framework of integrated coastal management and sustainable fisheries management, the network of CMPAs should contribute positively, and over the long-term, tangible assets to local people, provinces and the central government. On the other hand, CMPAs may be seen as indispensable tools as well as integral parts of ICM and sustainable fisheries management.
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2. Objectives of the compendium
Provide the rationale and guidelines for selection of a national system of coastal and marine protected areas (CMPAs); Recommend way forward towards effective planning and management of the national system of CMPAs; Provide secondary information on the existing and potential coastal and marine protected areas in Pakistan, and identify information gaps.

3. Overview of the c oastal and marine environment


3.1 Climate and Oceanography of the Arabian Sea
The Arabian sea is characterized by very unique oceanographic features, resulting from a distinct monsoonal climate. Past climatic record of the Arabian sea shows variability of monsoon climate over a decadal to centennial time scale (von Rad et al, 1999). Changes in the monsoon intensity have been found correlated with past global climate. Seas onal changes in monsoon climate effects about a third of Asia-Pacific region. Socio-economic activity of this region is largely associated with the monsoon climate. Inter annual variability has been observed in monsoons that are connected with climatic changes. The continental shelf of Pakistan is a wind-forced shelf, influenced by summer monsoonal winds that are in excess of 30 knots that blow in the southwest direction. High energy waves in the southwest monsoon greatly intensify the process of erosion. The northern and central regions of the Arabian sea are known for their high salinity (34.8-36.6 ppt ). The thermal structure of the Arabian S ea is influenced by the southwest monsoon. Satellite imageries and high resolution infrared radiometers have revealed complex eddies of warm and cold waters in the Arabian Sea, and a seasonal reversal of currents and disappearance and shifting of eddies. The latter are generally rich in both nutrients and dissolved oxygen, essential for high local biological productiv ity. Indeed the annual upwelling during the southwest monsoon brings up the cold, nutrient rich water from deep under, inducing high primary productivity and fisheries production. Pakistan has vast sea area in the northern Arabian sea. The major physiographic features of the Arabian sea are the Indus fan in the east and Oman basin in the west, separated by the Marray Ridge. The latter extends southwest from the continental slope near Karachi for over 750 km. The ridge is considered as a probable continuation of the Khirther range in the north. The ridge consists of a linear series of sea mounts and small basins. The Pakistan coast to the west of the ridge is oriented in east-west direction and has a narrow continental shelf of about 15-20 nautical miles wide while the coast to the east is oriented in NW-SE direction and has a continental slope with a gentle gradient of 0.022. The orientation of the coast west of the ridge is especially favorable to the development to upwelling during the south west monsoon. The coastal and off-shore geology of Pakistan tectonically exhibits both active and passive margin features. The Balochistan coast is active while the Sindh coast, including the Indus deltaic area and offshore Indus basin are geologically passive. The S indh and Balochistan coasts have differing climate conditions, geographical locations and socioeconomic factors. The Sindh coast can be further divided into parts, namely the Indus Deltaic coast and the Karachi coast. The coast in the vicinity of Karachi, which is approximately a 70 km stretch, is heavily developed compared to the rest of the Pakistan coast. Pakistans coastal areas are amongst the most biologically productive areas (50-200g C/m per year). The coastal zone supports highly diversified ecosystems and provides a range of critical habitats for many organisms that are vulnerable to severe change or loss. Changing condition in coastal and terrestrial environments associated with degradation of environmental quality and the health of coastal ecosystems threatens the survival of many species and communities. The coastal domain is dramatically affected by changes in sea level, ground water level, salinity, wave pattern, current regimes, sediment budgets, storm events and erosion patterns. Physical changes themselves result in
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a wide variety of biological changes at the population, community and ecosystem level, which in turn affect the suitability of the coastal zone and its resource for use by human population.

3.2 Sindh Coast


The Sindh coastal region is located between the Indian border along the Sir Creek on the east to the Hab River on the west (370 km). The Indus River drains into the entire lower plain of Sindh. The Indus Delta is the most prominent feature of the Sindh coast. The sediments a subjected to coastal re dynamic processes, such as tides, winds, waves and currents, leading to accretion and erosion of the Indus deltaic coast. The coastal morphology is characterized by a network of tidal creeks and a number of small islands with sparse mangrove vegetation, mud banks, swamps and lagoons formed as a result of changes in river courses. The present delta covers an area of about 600,000 hectares and is characterized by 17 major creeks and innumerable minor creeks, mud flats and fringing mangroves. The delta supports wetlands rich in nature and culture, and also nurtures the largest area of arid climate mangroves. This area is very arid, receiving an average annual rainfall of about 200mm. 27% of this land is under water in the form of creeks and water courses. Islands abound amongst the calm and protected water courses, though flushed daily by semi- diurnal tides ranging up to 3m.

3.2.1 Karachi Coast


The coast of Karachi is situated between the Cape Monze a high cliff projecting into the Arabian Sea and the Korangi creek (Indus Deltaic area). The coastline of Karachi metropolitan is about 70 km long. It is generally oriented NW-SE. On the western side it is bounded by the Hab River and on the east by the mangrove swamps and creeks of the Port Qasim area. The Lyari and Malir rivers are the seasonal streams which flows during SW monsoon. The rainwater from Karachi and its adjoining areas drains in the Arabian Sea. The prominent features of Karachi coast are shallow lagoons, raised beaches, marine terraces and dune fields. Four major inlets, Manora Channel (Karachi harbor), Korangi creek, Phitti creek, and Khuddi creek invigilates the coastline. A small crescent shaped sand bar exists at the mouth of the Korangi creek. The shore terraces and sea cliffs are due west of Hawks Bay area. The Cape Monze beach is an example of raised beaches along the coast of Karachi. The eastern coast has tidal creeks with mangrove and mud flats. The coast west of Manora breakwater to Bulleji consists of sand beac hes, (Manora, Sandspit and Hawks Bay ) rocky protruding points separate these beaches from each other. From Bulleji to Cape Monze the coast consists of hard conglomerate and shale cliffs. Beyond Hawks Bay towards west up to the Cape Monze, the unconsolidated sandy clays are exposed to coastal erosion and weathering. Small rivers are the predominant sources of sediment to the sandy beaches. The Lyari delta is well protected from the direct influence of the ocean surf by the belt of sand, but the mouth of the river is more or less blocked and there is very little supply of water. The Clifton beach is largely composed of dark, grey silty materials with minute flakes of mica. The fine micaceous sand drifted from the mouth of the river Indus by the strong littoral currents. The sand, after it compiles on the beach by the waves is blown inland in large quantity by wind action. Further east of Clifton there is agglomeration of Ghizri hills. The coastal areas of Karachi are densely populated. The beaches of Karachi also attract large number of people; these beaches are a source of recreation for the local habitants.

3.2.2 The Indus Deltaic Coast


The present Indus Delta is located at the head of the Arabian Sea, between Korangi Creek and the Gulf of Kutch. (Fig 5). The Indus River is the worlds sixth largest river. It drains into the northeastern Arabian Sea forming a large delta. The river discharges nutrient rich sediment load that has a great influence on the marine life of the Indus Estuary and the near shore areas. During the historic times i.e. 5000-6000 years B.C. the delta has prograded 150 km at the rate of 30 m/year to the present position. Fan shaped deltaic complex spread over an area of about 30,000 sq.km. the deltaic complex is comprised of abandoned, active and sub aqueous parts of the delta and river flood plains. With the changes in the river discharge, the present active delta has consequently shrunk to a small triangular area of about 100 sq. miles in extent in the vicinity of Keti Bandar. Some early estimates indicate that the Indus River apparently discharges more than 600 million tons of suspended sediments annually, of which about 60 million tons of silt load is coming at present, annually. With drying and silting up of the major distributaries the alluvial processes have ceased in the tidal delta, it has taken the form of
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tidal mudflat. Currently a network of creeks is spread over the entire coast southeast of Karachi for nearly 170 km. These creeks meander about 50 to 60 km inland. Seawater flows in the creeks with velocities as high as 2.3 m/sec during the flood and ebb tides. The whole area presents a peculiar geomorphology of mud banks, swamps, lagoons and sand dunes. The soil cover in the deltaic area is of drift type made up of altered material transported by rivers. The Indus delta has been found changing it fluvial characteristics due to damming upstream, which has reduced river borne sediments. This has resulted in drying up of the estuaries and has induced sea encroachment further inland. The most likely scenario for the next 25-30 years projected by Wells and Coleman (1984) will be (i) cessation of seaward progradation of subaques and sub aerial delta front, (ii) transgression of delta front (iii) increase in windblown sands due to loss of vegetation. The physiographic changes will cause economic degradation of the delta.

Fig. 5. The creek system of Indus delta.( SUPARCO Satellite images 2003)

3.3 Balochistan Coast


The Balochistan coast extends form the mouth of the Hab River in the coast to the middle of Gwater Bay in the west and stretches on a distance of about 700km. There are a few indentions in the coastline, which can be classified as follows: A) Embayed Coast: Khalifa Bay, `Gadani Bay, Bayal Ras Malan, Ormara East and West Bays, Pasni Bay, Gwader East and West Bays, Bay at Ras Gunz and Gwatar Bay. B) Tide Lagoons: Miani Hor at Sonmiani Bay and Kalmat Khor. C) Mouths of Small Rivers: Hab River, Porali River, Basol River, Hingol River. Shadikaur and Dasht River. The indentions in the coastlines are potential site for harbor developments and they provide some shelters to small fishing crafts from high waves. Almost all the villages along the coast are located in those havens. The coastal region consists of cliffs, occasionally with rocky head-lands and a number o sandy f beaches with shifting sand dunes, as well as mangrove and associated marshes along creeks and

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coastal lagoons. There are several seasonal rivers draining to the sea only during rains. Flash floods are quite common and even during scanty rains heavily erode the uncovered hillsides and muddy banks. The eroded material is deposited along the coast at the mouth of the rivers. The coastline is subjected to wave attack (3.5m high waves ) during south-west monsoon when the wave energy is largely expanded in eroding sea cliffs and to movement of beaches material along the coast through wave generated currents all along the coast the process of erosion and accretion is taking place continuously.

3.3.1 Lasbela Coast


The Lasbela Coast belt stretches from the Hab River in the east to the Hingol River in the west, forming the large Sonmaini Bay. The coast between the Hab River and Cape Monze has two islands: Churna and Kiou. Both hard and soft corals have been reported from Churna Island (Personal communication). There are many beautiful sandy beaches and small bays such as Monze Bay, Khalifa Bay and Gadani Bay. Further south of these bays is a large oyster bed and corals near Churna Island. West of the Lasbela coast, the Hingol River emerges from the Haro Range and drains into the Arabian sea. At present there is a small fishing village west of the Hingol River known as Sorapi Bunder. Hingol river has a historical and religious site known as hinglaj where a Hindu temple is located. The Sonmiani Bay is characterized by upwelling and sea fronts creating ideal conditions for high fish catch. The lagoon is traditional shrimp fishing ground with high quality shrimp. Rivers Winder and Porali drain into the lagoon in the east and west respectively. Large barren mudflats are formed at the mouth of the Winder river which has totally cut off the Sonmiani village form the lagoon. Most of the Sonmiani fishermen operate now from Damb village in the north. In close proximity to the Karachi metropolitan sea, this coast is under tremendous development pressure. Basic infra structure for industry is being established and/or extended from Karachi. The government of Balochistan has plans to build a power station, water supply units, communications and industrial estates. The industrial state of Hub and Uthal has been established near the Hub and Windar rivers.

3.3.2 Mekran Coast


Constituting the western part of Balochistan province from the Hingol River westward to the international border at Jiwani is the 600 km long Mekran (or Gwadar) coast. Owing to scanty rainfall (150 mm/yr) and high saline soils, this coast is almost entirely desert. The coast is drained by the small rivers of Hingol, Basol, Shadi Kaur and Dasht. Despite having large catchments areas, these rivers flow only during rainy reason. The mountains are composed of bare rocky limestone or conglomerate and except in some upper highlands, have no vegetation. Four small urban centers Jiwani, Gwadar, Pasni and Ormara account for more than half of the coastal population, estimated at 400,000 (Government of Balochistan and IUCN Pakistan, 2002). The coastline is subjected to wave attack during south west monsoons, when near seashore wave height is over 3.5 meters. The coastline faces considerable erosion. Owing to the shortage of promont ories and sheltered areas, most of the littoral material is lost to the sea. The Mekran coast is also a subduction zone. Here the Indian Ocean plate moves northward under the continental crest. Spectacular mud volcanoes have been built in several areas along the makran coast where gas charged water escapes to the surface. The Mekran coast is one of the most seismically active regions in Pakistan (Sheikh, 1992). In 1945, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.3 on Richter scale and associated tsunamis destroyed buildings at Pasni. Some 25 km south of Pasni is the Astola Island with an area of 5,000 ha which has been designated as Ramsar Site in 2001. Hard and soft coral communities have been reported in the area.

4. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and Biodiversity


Most of Pakistan coast falls within arid zone. With the exception of mangroves there is little vegetation on the coastal belt. Similarly, with the exception of marine forms, the wildlife is also limited to a few species of mammals, birds and terrestrial invertebrates. A diverse range of habitats exists, such as rocky headlands, pocket bays, lagoons and wide alluvial plains which extend in places to some 130 km inland.

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4.1 Xerophytic vegetation and terrestrial fauna
Part of the coastal belt beyond tidal influence is dry and desert like, characterized by xerophytes. Through this part, land vertebrates constitute the major part of the community. These include herbivores like rodents, hens, squirrels and w boars, and predators such as snakes, lizards, cats, ild jackals, and foxes as carnivores. Many species of water birds and terrestrial birds are found here such as grebes, egrets, cormorants, pelicans, ibises, spoonbills, flamingos, ducks particularly marbled teal ( nas angustirostris), white-eyed pochard ( ythya nyroca), coots ( ulica atra), stone curlew A A F (Burhinus ocdenemis), plovers, sand pipers, gulls and terns. Among other birds the following are the more or less common species: ring dove (Streptopelia decaocto), little brown dove ( treptopelia S senegalensis), spotted owlet (Athene brama), grey shrike (Lanius excubitor), black drongo ( Dicrurus adsimilis), Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis), common babbler (Turdoides caudatus ), stone chat (Saxicola torquata), pied bush chat (Saxicola caprata), desert buzzard (Buteo vulpinus), tawny eagle (Aquila rapax), gray partridge (Francolinus pondicerianus), ashy-crowned finch lark ( remopterix E grisea), crested lark (Galerida cristata), desert wheatear (Oenanthe deserti), desert warbler ( Sylvia nana), and yellow-throated sparrow (Petronia xanthocollis), (Fig. 6) Except for mangroves and a few scattered clumps of date palm, the vegetation is similar throughout the coastal plains. Immediately behind the beaches and mudflats, salt tolerant vine is lopmea pescaprae. Often found on the coastal dune, but generally growing over a hundred meters behind the soft spray, are desert plants of sandy plain, such as Suaeda fruticosa, Aerva javanica, Heliotroprium curassavium, Sericostum panniflorm , Atiplex stocksii, and several Tamarix species. Fig.6. The Xerophytic vegetation

4.2 Mangroves
Mangroves (i.e forest of woody halophytes occurring in inter-tidal areas of the tropics and sub-tropics) are very important features of sheltered shores, estuaries, tidal creeks and salt marshes. These are increasingly understood as playing crucial ecological, chemical and bio-physical roles in the tropical marine ecosystem, as nursery grounds, filtering systems and in shoreline stabilization. They also contain a highly specialized community of plants and associated fauna. The mangrove ecosystems of Pakistan mammals. Forest birds live in the mangrove provide habitats for wildlife of both terrestrial forest while marine animals migrate inshore, and marine origins. They provide food and as far as salinity permits. The shelter to fish and water fowls as well as many mammals. Forest birds live in the mangrove forest while marine animals migrate inshore, as far as salinity permits. The mangrove swamps are important nurseries and supply nutrients for economically important fish species. The wildlife of terrestrial origin which still survives in the delta consists of a variety of birds, and several species of mammals. (Fig. 7) Fig.7. Submerged Mangroves at intertidal area Among the birds, the commonly occurring important species are: white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala), spoon bill ( Platalea leucorodia), greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus ), osprey ( Pandion haliaetus), Brahminy kite (Haliastur indus), oystercatcher (Haematotus ostralegus ), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), curlew (Numenius arquata), avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), plovers, sand pipers, gulls and terns. The mammals include the jackal (Canis aureus), jungle cat (Felis chaus ), small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus ), house rat (Rattus rattus), five-striped palm squirrel ( Funambulus pennanti), plumbeous dolphin (Sousa plumbea) and little Indian porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides).and reptiles.
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Mangroves are widely distributed along the Pakistan coastline. The Sindh coast is studded with dense growth of mangroves extending from Karachi to beyond the Indo-Pakistan border. The distribution of mangroves along the Balochistan coast is restricted to three geographical locations, namely Miani Hor, Kalmat Hor and Gwater bay. (Fig. 8) The over all coverage of mangroves in Pakistan is 86,153 ha (SUPARCO-IUCN,2003). At present the dominant species in most areas is Avicennia marina. Amongst the dense growth of Avicennia are localized patches of Ceriops tagal, Aegiceras corniculatum and Rhizophora mucronata.

Fig. 8 The coastline of Pakistan as seen through satellite images The mangrove ecosystem flourished in the past when flushing of the Indus River was natural and normal. Due to repeated damming of the river and some of its tributaries, water flow of the Indus has been reduced drastically from 150 MAF to 10 MAF. Consequently salinity in the Indus delta region has risen due to sea intrusion. Moreover, the overexploitations o mangroves for f fuel wood and fodder, and impacts of pollution, are the major causes of mangrove degradation in Pakistan.

4.3 Mudflats and sub-tidal soft-bottom communities


Mudflats, often associated with mangrove forests, are commonly found on low energy shores and sheltered lagoons, and are most extensive in the Indus Delta. At low tides, the mudflats under mangrove forest are feeding grounds for herons and shorebirds and even jackals and wild boar come here to hunt crabs. At high tide on the other hand fish and shrimps come from the channel or from the sea and they do hunt the crabs that have not returned to their holes in time or have not hidden themselves deep enough in the mud. Sea snakes even pursue the crab and mudskippers Fig. 9. Mangroves and the mudflat into their holes in the mudflats Near to the water edge, microbes decompose the plant litter into organic detritus which is in turn picked up by the detrital feeders on the bottom, such as crabs, shrimps, shellfish and fishes, notably mudskippers. Wave and tidal actions often carry these down the tidal regime where they become welcomed feed for waders and other predators. Grey mullets, gizzard shads, flat fishes, skates and rays are some of the fishes which prefer to live on the soft bottom and feed on detritus feeders. At low tides, when a large part of the muddy bottom is exposed, crabs, mudskippers and waders occur in large numbers, picking up their food which includes worms and other animals that have emerged from the receding tide.

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4.4 Seagrass beds and algal communities
Patches of sea grass have been observed from the air along coast of Balochistan, but need further investigation. Penhale (1986) gives information on seagrass ecology. More than 45 species of green and 79 species of red seaweed have been recorded but abundance does not appear to be sufficient for sustained yields (UNEP, 1986). Seasonal changes in the standing crops of inter tidal sea weeds from the Karachi cost are described by Qari Qasim (1986).

4.5 Turtle nesting and other sandy beaches


Southwest of Karachi, a 20km beach (Hawksbay and Sandspit beaches) stretches out west from Manora Point at the Karachi Harbor, the countrys most important harbour. The beach is backed by creeks and shallow tidal lagoons with mudflats and mangroves. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and Olive Ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) nest on this coast in Hawksbay and Sandspit. Both turtle species are globally endangered.

Fig. 10. Olive Ridlay and their eggs found on the sandy beaches. Although most of the Balochistan coast is lined with sandy beaches, the total length that is well-suited to turtle nesting is limited. Nevertheless, five species of marine turtles have been reported from the Balochistan coast. Large numbers of green turtles a known to visit its beaches for nesting. Olive re Ridley turtles are also common visitors, although their numbers are low in comparison with green turtles. Few sandy beaches are visited by marine turtles regularly. The most important turtle nesting beaches are at Ormara, Astola island and Jiwani. Nestling takes place throughout the year with peak activity in the months of October to December for green turtles and July to August for Olive Ridleys. Most of the turtle beaches are located in inaccessible and remote areas and are therefore not easily disturbed.

4.6 Rocky shores and subtidal rocky reefs offshore island


Rocky shores are patchily distributed along the Balochistan coast, around the headlands and offshore islands, while subtidal rocky reefs also occur further offshore, notably where older volcanic activity has formed hard substrata. Rocky shores occur at Ras Kachari, Ras Malan, Ormara, Ras Jaddi, Ras Shahid to Ras Kappar, Ras Nuh, and Ras Jiwani. Offshore. Astola Island is important for birdnesting, a Ramsar S of international importance. Astola Island is about 6 km in length. The ite endangered green turtle and the hawksbill turtle nest on the beach at the foot of the cliffs and it is a very important area for the endemic viper, (Echis carinatus astoli). There are remains of an ancient temple of goddess Kali Devi and the prayer yard of the Muslim saint, Khwaja khizar. Astola Island and Sail Rock and the submerged webb bank and Rodrigues Shoal, and many unnamed shallow (< 20 m depth) patches, provide potential habitats for colonization by tropical marine communities, including soft and hard corals, sponges and a diverse array of associated fauna and flora.

4.7 Corals and associated communities


Coral reefs are not present in Pakistan (UNEP, 1986). However Qurashee (1984) describes the sea beds on the Makran coast as being muddy but with patches of corals and rocks in some areas. It is possible that this coast would be more suitable for coral growth than the Sindh area as it has harder substances and less turbid water. Future research may reveal more extensive coral communities,
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particularly around Churna Island on the west coast of Karachi (Dr. Rupert Ormond, pers. comm. ), Astola Island, near Pasni and Ormara (UNEP, 1986). According to Snead (1989) submerged coral reefs may occur to the south west of Cape Monze.

4.8 Shore and seabirds


Shorebirds or waders are small to medium sized wading birds belonging to the order Charadriiformes and they often occur in large numbers at specific sites, such as coastal wetlands and freshwater marshes. There are 57 species of shorebirds recorded from Pakistan, of which 2 species are vulnerable. These are sociable plover (Vanellus gregarious) and wood snipe (Capella nemoricola) .36 species of waders have been recorded from the coastal waters. The notable species are: painted snipe (Rostratula benghalensis), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), crab plover (Dromas ardeola), stone curlew (Burhinus ocdenemus), great stone plover (Esacus magnirostris), little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), Fig. 11 . The Avifauna of the Pakistani coast lesser sandplover (Charadrius mongolus), lesser golden plover Pluvialis dominica), gray plover (Pluvialis squatarola), sociable lapwing (Vanellus gregarious great knot ( alidris tenuirostris), sanderling ( C Calidris alba), little stint ( alidris minuta), C curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea), dunlin (Calidris alpina), broadbilled sandpiper (Limicola falcinellus), common or fantail snipe (Capella gallinago), bartailed godwit (Limosa lapponica), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), curlew (Numenius arquata), common redshank ( Tringa totanus ), marsh sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis), greenshank (Tringa nebularia), wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola), terek sandpiper (Tringa terek ), common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos ), turnstone (Arenaria interpres) and red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). The sea birds are the birds of the off-shore or the ocean. These include the storm petrels (2 spp.), shearwaters (2 spp.), tropic birds (3 spp.), boobies (1 sp.), skuas (2 spp.), gulls (7 spp.), and terns (10 spp.)

4.9 Marine mammals


Marine mammals belong to order Cetacea and include dolphins, porpoises and whales. The cetaceans are the major conservation flagship group of the marine environment. 12 species of marine cetaceans have been recorded from Pakistani waters. Of these, 2 species are threatened. The blue whale is an endangered species while humpbacked whale is vulnerable. 10 species of marine cetacea have been recorded from Sindh. These are the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), Brydes whale (Balaenoptera edeni), humpbacked whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus), black finless porpoise (Neophoceana phocaenoides ), long beaked dolphin ( Delphinus tropicalis), plumbeous dolphin (Sousa plumbea), bottle-nosed dolphin ( ursiops truncatus), melon headed whale ( eponocephela electra) and false T P killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens). There are 11 species recorded from the Balochistan coast. They are: fin whale (Balaenoptera physalis), blue whale , Brydes whale, humpbacked whale, dwarf sperm whale, black finless porpoise, long-beaked dolphin, plumbeous dolphin, bottle-nosed dolphin, melon-headed dolphin, and Cuviers beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

5. Resource Use and Development


Once the sea and its margins were viewed as infinitely large and endlessly productive (Jackson et al. 2001). Coastal areas the world over provide critical spawning, feeding and nursery areas that support fisheries of great nutritional importance and economic worth to humankind. Coastal and estuarine areas are vital habitats for sea birds, migratory water fowls, coastal and marine fishes, mammals and reptiles, including endangered sea turtles. Coastal vegetation also filters pollutants and plays a central role in maintaining ecological linkages between terrestrial and marine systems, as well as buffering

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the shoreline from storm damage and gradual erosion. Tourism and recreation use of coastal areas is a primary source of revenue for many coastal nations, while shipping, mariculture, and other seabased industries contribute significantly to national economies. At the same time, coastal waters and the open sea alike, are treated as dump sites for domestic wastes, chemical pollutants and toxins. Shipping lanes in the Arabian Sea are considered to be among the busiest in the world (Government of Balochistan and IUCN Pakistan, 2002). All vessels visiting the oil rich Persian Gulf pass through the area. It is estimated that approximately 11,000 ships, totaling 12,000 million dead-weight tonnage, cross the Arabian Sea annually, amongst which are some 2,500 oil tankers carrying 33 million tones of oil. The patterns of surface winds and currents expose the Arabian coast, especially the Balochistan coast of Pakistan, to the threat of oil pollution. Approximately one tenth of Pakistans estimated 40 million people live in the coastal areas. The coastal zone is one of the most important material assets of a country where micro-economic activities are highly concentrated. Damage to the fragile coastal zone and its resources (fisheries, minerals, oil and gas) could have long term ecological and socio-economic impacts. The sustainable development and conservation of marine resources in the coastal zone of Pakistan requires a detailed understanding of the ecological processes and bio-physical features, as these have a direct bearing on the distribution and abundance of the living and non-living marine resources (Jackson et al. 2001). The coastal areas of Pakistan are threatened by over-exploitation of natural resources, population growth, unchecked development and lack of education and awareness of the crucial importance of sustainability, both on the part of the coastal communities who use the resources, and the government. Marine turtles and cetaceans, including globally threatened species, continue to be threatened by incidental by-catch in fish nets. Nets with effective Turtle Exclusion Devices (TEDs), although available, are not used by the Pakistani fishing fleet due to monetary concerns and lack of enforcement of existing laws.

Fig.12.

Fisherman

busy

with

their

job.

5.1 The Indus River and Delta System


The international workshop on the Indus delta Biosphere reserve, organized by IUCN-Pakistan in collaboration with the Sindh Forest and Wildlife department and WWF-Pakistan in 1994, identified several serious problems and issues in coastal and marine areas that remain of concern today, and still need to be addressed urgently. Highlights of some of these are as follows: Rapid increase in coastal population and expansion in socio-economic activities, particularly along the coast near Karachi and the remaining productive south east coast of Sindh; Indiscriminate and uncontrolled discharge of effluents from domestic, agricultural and industrial resources, exceeding the assimilation capacity of the natural systems, resulting in decline of fisheries; Negative impact of economic activities in the hinterland, in particular diversification of water resources of the Indus River for various uses, resulting in reduction in flow and in sediment. The consequences of these impacts are the shrinking of the estuary and deltaic region, threatening the very existence of the vast mangrove belt and its valued resources; Encroachment of the sea i land, resulting in salt intrusion and consequent destruction of n agricultural land. There is numerous evidence from recent studies of c ontamination of tubewells, indicating the increasing concentration of salt above the aquifers, presumably resulting from water logging; and below the aquifers from salt intrusion from the sea, affecting the agricultural potential of vast areas of Sindh near the coast;

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Coastal erosion resulting from increasing action of high energy waves resulting from negative mass balance stemming from the reduced flow.

The Indus River is part of a major flyway for birds between Siberia and warmer lands to the south. Human interventions in the flow of the Indus River have dramatically altered the riverine and coastal ecology, with for example, a major recent decrease in flow rates and annual discharge of sediment (60 million tons compared to historical values of 450 million tons).

5.2 Coastal areas of Sindh


Industrial effluents from 70% of Pakistans industry may be traced back to Karachi. These effluents carry contaminants that ultimate find their way in coastal and marine life, posing health hazards to the coastal communities, especially around the Karachi area and the northwestern end of the Indus Delta. Add to this are unmanaged shrimp and fisheries harvest, uncontrolled cutting and grazing of the mangrove forests, and the domestic waste and sewage f om Karachis estimated 11 million people, r together causing unprecedented degradation of the coastal ecosystems of Sindh. The economic losses for future generations will be immense, reflected in loss of agricultural land close to the coast, loss of biodiversity, loss of livelihood accompanied by dislocation of coastal communities, pollution of beaches and degradation of recreational facilities, leading to decline in tourism.

5.3 The Balochistan coast


The coast of Balochistan, though under considerably less human pressure than the Sindh coast, faces its own set of threats. It is unclear to what extent the development and implementation of the Mekran Master Plan follows an integrated approach to resource management (Government of Balochistan and IUCN Pakistan, 2002). Already there have been many development projects on the coast, including the port and fish harbors at Pasni and Gwadar, mechanization of fishing boats, improvements in the fishing industry, desalination plants, agriculture and livestock demonstrations, water supply schemes and residential land development. The Gwadar port is near to completion and will be followed by large scale industrial, residential and tourism development. It is likely that the pace of commercial activities along the Balochistan coast will pick up fast. Without an integrated planning and management approach, involving close cooperation among departments, institutions and other stakeholders involved, the limited resources of the Balochistan coast could easily become overexploited. Some of the changes and impacts on the coastal environments and ecosystems could be irreversible. Oil pollution from fishing boats and the large number of merchant vessels and oil tankers that pass through the EEZ of Pakistan, already appears to be of some concern along the Pasni coast.

6. Policy and institutional framework


Marine resources have an immense potential in contributing towards national economic growth and development. The coastal zone is one of the most important national assets of a country when socioeconomic activities are highly concentrated. They are fragile and therefore any attempt to deplete them for alternative uses may result in irreparable loss of natural systems with serious consequences to the productive potential and economic uses of associated natural systems. Because coastal systems are sensitive to changes in the environment, there are uncertainties and risk involved, once a coastal ecosystem is damaged, it will have far reaching impacts as many uses of coastal amenities. The importance of developing marine resources in the coastal zone of Pakistan has not successfully perceived. The economic losses to the future generations from depletion of coastal environment and natural system will be immeasurable. This will be reflected in loss of agricultural land close to coast, loss of biodiversity, dislocation of coastal amenities, loss of livelihood, loss of fisheries, pollution of beaches and recreational facilities and decline in tourism. The ultimate goal of coastal and marine policy and legislation is to promote national development through rational use of the coastal resources and environments of Pakistan in a manner which balances economic, social and environmental goals. The coastal and near shore waters of Pakistan are not uniform, but may be spatially divided into units reflecting the distinct geology, climate, vegetation, oceanographic conditions and the levels of present uses and consequent rates of change in terms of resource depletion and habitat degradation. It is clear that biological, physico-chemical and socio-economic conditions of Balochistan differ considerably from those of Sindh and that within

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Sindh the present rate and future prospects for the coastline of Karachi differ from those of Indus delta. In the case of Balochistan the o pportunities for proactive planning and management of major development on the coastline are considerable, while for the Karachi areas most short term management will be reactive, addressing existing problems of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Table 2. National legislation related to Environment with particular references to coastal marine areas. # Laws National Nomenclature Regulatory Body 1 Umbrella Environment Pakistan Environment Ministry of Environment Local Act protection Act 1997 Govt. and Rural Development 2 EIA Pakistan Environment Federal and Provincial EPAs protection Act 1997 3 Coastal Legislation Coastal developmental Provincial Coastal Development Authority Acts Sindh 1994 Authority and Balochistan 1998. 4 Marine Pollution Pakistan Environment Federal and Provincial EPAs protection Act 1997 and Port Authorities. 5 Coastal Forest, Forest Act 1927 Sindh and Balochistan Forest Mangroves and Wildlife Departments. 6 Flora, Fauna & wildlife (incl. Corals) Mining Law State Wildlife Protection ordinances of 1972 in Sindh and Balochistan. West Pakistan Mines and Mineral Development Act, 1958: Balochistan Mining concession rules 1970. Ports Act, 1908 Karachi Fisheries Harbour Ordinance, 1984; Karachi Port Authority Land Acquisition Act 1894 Provincial Forest and Wildlife Departments Mineral Development Authority.

Ports

Karachi Port Trust, Fish Harbor Authorities and Port Qasim Authority.

Ministry of Environment Local Govt. and Rural Development. Land Revenue Departments under Provincial Governments 10 Fisheries Provincial sea fisheries Sindh Fisheries department and Ordinance Marine Fisheries department. 11 EEZ Territorial Waters and Pakistan Maritime Security Maritime Zones Act 1979 Agency, Pakistan Coast Guards, Port and Harbor Authorities. Source:(R.Rajagopalan and A. Lakshmi 2003) and (Pernetta, 1993) There is a well established legislative framework for environmental management in Pakistan. The Environment and Urban Affairs Division (E&UAD) within Ministry of Housing, Works, Environmental and Urban Affairs, is the main Government organization responsible for the protection of environment and resource conservation. The E&UAD works closely with the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) and the Federal and Provincial Environmental Agencies formed under PEPA, 1997. A number of other institutions exist in the governmental structure which are concerned primarily with resource augmentation and conservation and which carry out resource surveys, and monitoring of relevance to environmental protection. These include the following federal Ministries: Planning and Development Finance and Revenue Economic Affairs and Statistics. Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives Local Government and Rural Development Health, Social Welfare
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Water and Power Education Science and Technology

There are some governmental and non governmental organizations and research organizations that are mainly involved in protection and conservation of marine environment include the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Marine Fisheries Department, Sindh and Balochistan Forest and Wildlife Departments, Maritime Security Agency, IUCN, WWF and Centre o Excellence for Marine f Biology, Karachi University. The main motivation for C & M protected area system planning arises from nation level consensus about integrating protected areas with other aspects of sustainable developments. Protected areas are an integral part of a strategy for managed conservation of biodiversity and natural and cultural heritage as well. Protected area system plans are called for under article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity, where protected area are seen as having an important role in conservation of biodiversity, alongside conservation in a range of other contexts. The Caracas Action Plan also identified national protected area system plan as desirable priority. A protected area is identified as an area of land and/ or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated wetland resources, and managed through legal or other effective means. The definition does not require that the area necessarily be land or any particular tenure, or that management be carried out by any particular level of Government,.( or even by Government rather than non government parties). Many places serve important nature conservation functions, yet fall outside the definition of protected area because the primary objective in managing those particular lands is sometimes other than biodiversity conservation (e.g. timber production) to re designate some such areas so that nature conservation is recognized as the primary objective. But even under the most conservationoriented scenario it is not likely that protected area will ever take in all or even a major part of most countries. For this and many other practical reasons, protected areas must be a part of an integrated system and should be complemented by conservation activities on coastal and marine areas in wide range of different land uses. Pakistan has made progress towards establishment of system of terrestrial protected area which represents its biodiversity and environment types, but substantial obstacles remain to achieve system balance and sustainability. Sustainability is identified as a key issue. If it is to be achieved, considerable efforts will need to go into development of institutional capacities, and into a wide range of appropriate mechanisms to support local level involvement. A wider range of flexible model is called for. Under current provincial and territorial legislation, only three categories of PAs have been established: Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Parks and Game Reserves. Private g ame reserves, however, may be established in Punjab, NWFP and Federal territory. Any area of land that is government property, or over which the government has proprietary right, may be declared as one of the above categories, including game reserves, the latter also including privately owned lands. In additional to these legally-based categories, a number of other types of PA have been created over the years and appear on national lists of protected areas. These include a crane refuge, a wildlife refuge, wildlife parks, as well as wilderness and native parks. Regarding wilderness and Native Park. legislative reforms, which may be a necessary and / desirable part of this review, are always complex and difficult (sometimes uncertain or impossible). It will be desirable to adopt strategies which enable the objectives to be pursued as much as possible within existing structure. Coastal Environment Management Plan for Pakistan (CEMP 1996) The Coastal Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) for Pakistan was prepared in 1996 by Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific(ESCAP) in collaboration with Government of Pakistan. The CEMP was never implemented, however covers a large variety of subject relating to coastal zone development and management. The physical setting, ecology and status of living and
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nonliving resources, development potential, associated problems of sanitation and pollution- all relevant aspects have been described which has a pervasive bearing on the entire ambit of coastal zone development, protection and management planning. Balochistan Conservation Strategy (2002) In 2000 Balochistan Conservation Strategy highlighted the serious threats which confronts the coastal and marine areas of Balochistan, Conservation efforts for the marine environment have been lagged far behind for the terrestrial environment , and an integrated approach to the management of the marine ecosystem is yet to be implemented. Recognizing these problems, a number of areas have been proposed for protected - area status. Astola Island (Haft Talar) is important for nesting green turtles on a sandy beach and rich marine fauna in the surrounding waters. It used to have diverse wildlife populations with large numbers of over- wintering and nesting birds. Introduced rodents and cats have greatly reduced the bird populations. The island may contain a number of endemic species in addition to sub-species of the sand scaled viper Echis carinatus astolae .Ormara turtle beaches, Jiwani turtle beaches, Astola Island and Miani Hor have already been declared as Ramsar sites and further worth for investigation for CMPAs Related and complementary initiatives, e.g. UNDP/GEF Wetland project implemented by WWF Acknowledging the vital importance of the area, The WWF- Pakistan identified Makran Coast Wetlands Complex project stretching westwards from Basol River to Jiwani on the border of Iran as an effort towards recognition as protected area. The project has many phases of implementation, mainly to enhance the capacity of conservation agencies to protect the area in context of wetlands through an enhanced policy framework provided by an upgraded National Wetlands Conservation Strategy (NWCS) and through the establishment of effective management mechanisms, an awareness campaign is envisaged to create conditions conducive to the replication of proven conservation techniques. The project will focus its site-based interventions in wetland complexes, which supports a spectrum of endemic, threatened and vulnerable flora and fauna. The project will reduce threats to biodiversity. The goal of conservation initiatives within this project is closely tied to community involvement. A reduction in anthropogenic threats has been foreseen through community agreements on limiting resource-use and investment in livelihood diversification (http://www.gefweb.org/Documents/Work_Programs/wp_Jul03/Executive_Summary7.pdf)

7. Coastal and marine protected areas (CMPAs) needs and benefits


7.1 National and local benefits 7.1.1 Fisheries replenishment, food security and economics
The establishment and effective management of a comprehensive and ecologically representative network of CMPAs will enable the conservation and sustainable development of biodiversity and natural resources on which the majority of the coastal populations depend, and contribute to local and national economic development. Mangroves are especially important as nursery grounds for shrimp and fishes. The shrimp fishery in Pakistan bears a strong relationship to the extent and status of the mangrove forests. Government of Pakistan is earning an average of Rs. 8.8 billion from the export of shrimp and fishes annually The destruction or degradation of mangroves (Fig. 13) and associated ecosystems will seriously hamper fisheries production which in turn could jeopardize food security for local communities and reduce the economic contribution of the fisheries sector to the provincial and national Fig. 13. Catch from mangrove area

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economy. Though often neglected and difficult to measure in monetary terms, mangrove and associate vegetation also supply fire wood, timber, fodder and other products (e.g. honey) essential to the subsistence and livelihoods of local communities. With rapid population growth, these resources are becoming over-exploited in many areas, especially where destructive fishing methods whereby fine meshed nets (locally known as Katra and Gujjo) are used (ADB and IUCN Pakistan, 2002). Protection and rehabilitation of selected mangrove areas is essential to ensure future sustainability of these resources. Moreover, effective management of MPAs has demonstrated significant benefits to nearby reef associated fisheries in a number of case studies, notably in the Philippines. Elsewhere such as in the Pacific islands and the Indian Ocean, the concept and management approach of fisheries refugia has been taken to protect fish spawning aggregations and/or trans-boundary, migratory fish stocks (e.g. in the Bay of Bengal). Much more information and data analyses (both site and species specific) are required to consider and apply this fisheries management tool in Pakistan, as an integral part of the CMPA planning and management process.

7.1.2 Protection from natural disasters and climate change


The ecological functions and protective role of coastal ecosystems, notably mangroves and coral reefs, to coastal communities are often overlooked. The loss of healthy mangroves or coral reefs is often accompanied by increased vulnerability to coastal erosion and heavy storms, the loss of tourism income, reduced fisheries, and other undesirable impacts on the local people and economy. The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster demonstrated that coastal areas with dense mangroves, mature coastal shelter belt plantations or other vegetation cover suffered comparatively less damage in built properties and loss of lives than areas where the natural vegetation had been degraded or converted to other land use (IUCN, 2005-a). In addition to the immediate material and environmental damage, such a disaster also carries longer term implications on local fisheries and food security (IUCN, 2005-b). The Mekran coast is situated in a seismically active region and the Pasni area has previously suffered from an earthquake and associated tsunamis back in 1945. (Fig. 14) Such old and recent lessons provide strong argument for the protection and maintenance of healthy coastal vegetation and ecosystems, and a precautionary approach to coastal land use planning, integrating both socio-economic and environmental considerations.

Fig. 14. A view of Tsunami devastation and its severity . Indeed global climate change continues to cause, and is expected to escalate, wideranging impacts on the coastal and marine ecosystems and resource base on which local communities livelihoods and economy depend. Since the first contemporary broad scale coral bleaching and die offs brought about by the ENSO (El Nino / Southern Oscillations) event in the early 1980s, the occurrence of such events has increased at unprecedented rates and scales, as noted during the 1997-98 ENSO event which killed one tenth of the worlds coral reefs (Hodgson and Liebeler, 2002), and the subsequent one in 2002. While natural ecosystems have evolved with resistance and the ability to recover (resilience) from disturbances, the unprecedented rates and severity of such disturbances, adding on top of other non-climate related human-induced stresses, notably over fishing, pollution and habitat loss through coastal development, have severely reduced ecosystems resistance
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and resilience. A comprehensive network of CMPAs, effectively planned and managed in the context of integrated coastal and marine areas management, will help to build and maintain the resistance and resilience of the coastal and marine ecosystems, which in turn will protect coastal populations from often unpredictable natural disasters, though to varying degrees.

7.1.3. Protecting endangered or threatened species and habitats.


While a number of endangered or threaten species in Pakistan have direct protection (i. e. they are not allowed to be harvested or collected), it is also important to protect their habitats.. While Pakistan has no endemic aquatic / avi fauna, Pakistans coastal wetlands are important staging area ( i.e. critical feeding and resting grounds) within Central Asian Indian Flyway for many migratory water birds species. Some wintering water bird species such as the Dalmation pelican ( Pelecanus crispus) and the Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostis) are on IUCNs threatened species list. Along the coast of Pakistan are globally important nesting habitats for at least two species of marine turtles namely green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and olive ridlley turtle (Lepidochelis olivea) . Most nesting beaches are found along the coastline of Balochistan and Sindh, nesting is restricted to sandy beaches located between Karachi and Cape Monze about 40 Km to the west. Astola Island with its unique marine hard bottom benthic fauna, most likely supports a small offshore population of Hawksbill ( Eretmochelys imbricate).

7.1.4. . Improving local economies


As well as helping to ensure that stocks of commercial fish and invertebrate species are maintained on a sustainable basis, CMPAs have additional economic values. The natural features found in many CMPAs around the world were the popular areas of recreation and tourism activities such as snorkeling, SCUBA diving and recreational fishing. (Lloyd, 1997).

7.1.5. Providing opportunities for research.


By providing natural areas that are protected from most human impacts, many CMPAs have an important role in scientific research. For example the Keti bunder North and South Wildlife Sanctuary was established in 1974 to protect the wildlife, seabirds and mangrove ecosystem. A mangrove conservation project has been underway since 1987, focusing on long term ecological and population studies on the recovery of the species. CMPAs can also be used to study the effects of human activities on the marine environment, by comparing an area that has little impact from humans(CMPAs) with a nearby unprotected area.

7.1.6. Providing opportunities for education.


Educating students and the general public about marine biology and marine conservation is an important role of CMPAs, local students frequently visit the Hawksbay/ Sandspit and obtain information on conservation issues .

7.1.7. Preserving Cultural and historical heritage


Many CMPAs also protect important historical or cultural features, for example, Ratto kot in Phitti Creek area is an important archeological site from a civilization that flourished in the area some 500-600 years ago.

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7.2 International obligations
At the 7 Conference of Parties (COP 7) of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) held In February 2004, the notable under-representation of protected areas in marine ecosystems was highlighted and the need to increase coverage of these ecosystems was emphasized. The COP 7 thereby adopted the Programme of Work on Protected Areas, with an overall purpose to support the establishment and maintenance of comprehensive, ecologically representative and effectively managed national and regional systems of protected areas, for terrestrial areas by 2010, and for marine areas by 2012 (UNEP/CBD/COP/7/L.32, 2004). The COP 7 urged Parties to achieve fully the goals and targets of the work programme while recognizing that Parties should implement the activities of the programme in the context of their nationally determined priorities, capacities and needs. As a Party to the CBD, Pakistan has a commitment to fulfil its responsibilities by efficiently implementing the Convention and supporting its global programme of work. The latter requires an integration of protected area objectives into countries development strategies, and hence contributes to sustainable development. (Table 3) Table. 3. # 1
th

International obligations related to CMPA.


Established at Bonn Year 1979 Signed by Pakistan 1987 Known as Bonn Convention CITES

Treaties Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Convention on Wetlands of International importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNESCO Man and Bioshpere (MAB) programme International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships UN Convention to Combat Desertification Convention of Biological Diversity

Washington

1973

1976

Iran

1971

1978

Ramsar

Paris

1972

1972

World Heritage Convention

5 6 7

Montego Bay Paris

1982 1968 1973/ 78

1982 Supports

UNCLOS
MAB MARPOL

8
9

1996 1979

UNCCD
CBD

Source:(R.Rajagopalan and A. Lakshmi 2003) and (Pernetta, 1993)

8. Strategic, integrated, participatory system planning


The development of an effective CMPA network requires system planning which takes a more strategic and rational approach to PA planning and development than the case by case, ad hoc approach. CMPA system planning enhances the recognition of CMPAs into national priorities, facilitates their integration into other sectoral planning processes (e.g. biodiversity action plan, tourism, coastal development, fisheries), defines roles of key players, identifies gaps in present PA coverage, clarifies management objectives for different categories of PA, and prioritizes resource spending (Davey, 1998). System planning also addresses the linkages and inter-relationships between PAs, and between PAs and the wider context; and should consider the social and economic implications of PAs and issues such as equity and benefit sharing. It should be a participatory process involving national, provincial and local governments, technical institutions, local communities and

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NGOs. The system plan should identify funding priorities and potential funding sources including innovative, pro-poor and sustainable financing mechanisms.

8.1 Linking the CMPA system with Integrated Coastal Management (ICM)
Called for by the CBD, the integration of MPAs into a broader ICM (including marine areas) framework can be based on the combination of the following approaches and tools (Cicin-Sain and Belfiore, 2003): Integrating MPA management into a broader strategy for the coastal area; Integrating MPA management into existing planning processes; Expanding land- and sea-use planning as a system of managing human activities; Integrating MPA management into existing institutional arrangements for coastal and marine management; Mainstreaming coastal and marine biodiversity conservation and use into other sectors; Promoting the coordination of sectoral policies affecting MPAs; Implementing MPA management activities through existing administrative, institutional, research and other frameworks; Establishing monitoring and evaluation and management effectiveness assessment procedures; Ensuring coordination at the regional level; Ensuring coordination of donor efforts.

8.1.1 Integrated Coastal Management


In Pakistan, the need for ICM is urgent. Already, the environmental and social impacts (i.e. pollution, loss of species, human health and loss of food security) of sectoral planning and development of the Karachi coast without environmental concerns are evident. Some of these impacts were generated beyond the coast, notably damming of rivers and diversion of flow for agriculture and other uses which have led to unprecedented shrinkage of the Indus Delta. Although Balochistan has not experienced rapid population growth and rampant economic and industrial development like that of the Sindh coast, several localized areas have or are expected to suffer from similar activities (e.g. Gadani beach, Hab area, Gwadar Headland). The Government of Balochistan recognizes the urgent need for ICM and has listed it as one of the top priority interventions highlighted in the Balochistan Conservation Strategy (Government of Balochistan and IUCN, 2002). The BCS has identified 14 core programmes including the sustainable development of coastal and marine resources which incorporates six priority interventions: Improve coordination and consultation in fisheries and coastal development; Undertake ICM and Planning; Undertake sustainable development of the coastal zone (including sustainable management of coastal fisheries, biodiversity and PAs, etc.) Conserve, develop and sustainably use mangroves, coastal fisheries and renewable resources by establishing and managing PAs; Control land-based pollution of coastal waters; Promote and support local, national and international coastal tourism as an economic incentive for local community involvement.

The BCS therefore recognizes explicitly the role of PAs in sustainable development, and places equal importance to the integration of coastal and fisheries development in the context of sustainable development. Indeed the designation of CMPAs will not be of use if it is done without considerations of their surrounding development pressures and socio-political environments, all of which could impact severely on the viability of the CMPAs.

8.1.2 Sustainable Fisheries Development


Unsustainable fishing practices are already widespread in parts of the Indus Delta, especially near to Karachi (Section 7.1.1). Their impacts on the mangrove associated
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fisheries are likely to escalate with population growth of the fishing communities, and degradation of water quality from industrial and domestic pollution of the expanding city. These causes are in turn the result of the lack of integrated coastal planning which requires coordination between sectoral development agencies, and the failure to enforce environmental regulations, notably EIAs and pollution control. Unlike the fresh water and mangrove associated fisheries which are primarily exploited by local fishermen and used to supply domestic and foreign markets, marine fisheries in Pakistan is very much dominated by foreign operated trawlers and the export market, hence with little benefits to local fishermen and communities. Industrial trawlers, allowed to operate within the 200 nautical miles under the Federal Governments Deep Sea Fishing Policy (1980), are often seen to operate near shore and are known to discard about 90% of their catch (ADB and IUCN Pakistan, 2002). Such practices not only deplete the fish stock, but also damage the marine environment and habitats, and affect the productivity of inshore fisheries on which local fishermen depend. These environmental and socioeconomic implications on the coastal communities need to be investigated thoroughly and impartially. Moreover, with the planned and eventual completion of numerous fisheries support infrastructures (ports, jetties, cold stores and processing facilities, modern fishing gears and crafts) in Balochistan and the already completed coastal highway linking Karachi and Jiwani near to the Iranian border, marine fisheries are expected to grow substantially, both to supply foreign markets and the increasingly effluent coastal and port cities (notably Gwadar Port). Sustainable development of the coastal and marine fisheries will become a difficult challenge, as conflicts between local and foreign fishing operations are likely to increase, with probably a skew towards foreign or high power operators. It is therefore crucial that a sustainable fisheries development strategy is developed, with clear implications on r esource use levels and concerns over equity and benefits for the local communities. While the designation and effective management of the CMPA network (including fish refugia) is an essential tool towards sustainable resource management, it cannot be seen as the remedy for unsustainable practices.

8.1.3 Linking CMPAs with sustainable livelihoods


A network of well designed, conceived and managed CMPAs should contribute to sustainable livelihoods and development, through their roles in sustaining fisheries, maintaining ecosystem integrity which in turn support fishery production as well as nature based tourism. However, such development would only contribute to poverty reduction and improved livelihoods if they are community-driven, or with the local communities, especially the poor, being the key stakeholder. Efforts in community empowerment (both genders), capacity building and awareness raising in the area of sustainable resource use are essential, though time consuming. Awareness is not only required for the local communities, but also for PA planners, practitioners and policy makers so that CMPAs become recognized as an integral part of sustainable development. Often user conflicts could arise as different stakeholders compete for the same resources. Detailed, sitespecific zoning and management plans for individual CMPAs are needed, to minimize such conflicts, and to ensure equitable cost and benefit sharing while maintaining the integrity of the sites. At the larger scale, the effectiveness and sustainability of the CMPA network would depend on sound integrated coastal planning and management, including sustainable fisheries policies, as mentioned above.

8.1.4 Building strong scientific basis


All too often, inadequate understanding of linkages and connectivity concepts in marine ecosystems, and weak or uninformed decision-making processes, have resulted in a handful of small, scattered and ineffective MPAs, selected based on little scientific inputs or reference to the effectiveness of the MPA network design in ecological terms. Indeed, major gaps remain in knowledge of key biodiversity, ecological and oceanographic attributes worldwide, including basic taxonomy and information on species distributions, population sizes and community structures, all factors to be considered when designing a representative and effective network of MPAs (DeVantier et al. submitted). Without a sound
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scientific basis and a systematic approach to network design, the MPAs cannot be expected to deliver its expected conservation goals or resource based socio-economic benefits. Moreover, the awareness and recognition of the present and future impacts of climate change, and the knowledge and understanding of marine ecosystem functions, resistance and resilience to global warming, a even poorer. Compared to coral reefs, re other ecosystems such as mangroves, salt marshes, sand dunes, lagoons, estuaries, turtle nesting sites and sea grass beds, are even less represented in the current global MPA system, in part due to heavy pressures from human activities and competition with other landuse. In Pakistan, efforts have begun to identify important sites for protection and management based on various criteria by various agencies under different initiatives. There lacks however, a systematic, scientific basis, or a synergy of all these initiatives and the information and recommendations involved, to produce a programme of concerted actions that are pragmatic and effective in addressing the complex issues of concern. Due to the lack of scientific research in the area, rumors of Hawksbill turtles using Astola Island as a nesting ground originating from 1989 remains unsubstantiated to this day. Very little is known about the population of marsh crocodiles ( rocodylus palustris), marine snakes C (Hydrophiidae), and cetaceans (17 sighted species) other than the fact that they exist, even though most are found in IUCN s Red book of endangered and threatened species. The ecological functions of specific ecosystems and sites are even less known. The studies which have been conducted in Balochistan have concentrated on terrestrial flora and fauna. Two recent environmental profiles have both noted that lack of basic information on the biodiversity of the coastal marine areas of Balochistan. Without this background, it is impossible to develop comprehensive, effective conservation plans. Anecdotal information indicated the presence of hard c orals around Churna and Astola Islands and Giddani areas. However, no scientific work has been done on corals and their associated communities. To date, no marine biologist in Pakistan is known to conduct subtidal ecological studies using scuba. There is therefore an urgent need for a comprehensive, systematic survey of Pakistans coral and associated communities to generate scientific information on their distribution, composition, community structure and affinities, as well as current and perceived threats, based on which their conservation could be planned. Continuous monitoring and further understanding and appreciation of the dynamic subtidal ecosystems would require training and motivation of national scientists in underwater research techniques and their applications in conservation.

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9. A comprehensive and representative network of CMPAs
The network approach spreads the coverage of biodiversity, conservation opportunities and potential risks of failure. There are at least six key characteristics of a comprehensive and representative network of PAs (Kellecher 1995) and (Davey, 1998), based on which sites may be selected.
Box 1. Criteria for Selection of Priority Areas Biogeographic criteria Presence of rare biogeographic qualities Or representative of a biogeographic type or types. Unique or unusual geological; features. Ecological criteria An essential part of ecological processes or life Support systems( for example is a source of Larvae for downstream area) Areas integrity, or the degree to which the area either by itself or in association with other protected areas, encompasses a complete ecosystem. The variety of habitats. Presence of habitat for rare or endangered species. Nursery or juvenile areas. Feeding, breeding or rest areas. Rare or unique habitat for any species. Genetic diversity( is diverse or abundant in species terms). Naturalness Extent to which the area has been protected from, or has not been subject to, human induced change. Economic Importance Existing or potential contribution to economic value by virtue of its protection ( for example, protection of an area for recreation, subsistence, use by traditional inhabitants, appreciation by tourism and others or as a refuge nursery area or source of economically important species) Social Importance Existing or potential value to the local, national or International communities because of its heritage, historical, cultural, traditional aesthetic, educational or recreational qualities. Scientific Importance Value for research and monitoring International and national significance. Potential to be listed on the World(or national) heritage list, declared a Biosphere Reserve, or included on a list of areas of international or national importance, or is the subject of an international or national conservation agreement. Practicality/ or feasibility Degree of insulation from external destructive influences. Social and political acceptability, degree of community support. Accessibility for education, tourism, recreation. Compatibility with existing uses, particularly by locals. Ease of management or compatibility with existing management regimes.

9.1 Representativeness, comprehensiveness and balance


Including highest quality examples of the full range of environment types within a country; includes the extent to which PAs provide balanced sampling of the environment types they purport to represent (Davey, 1998). In order to design a CMPA network that supports the most remaining biodiversity and enhances ecosystem resistance and resilience to global climate change, it is important to select sites from all representative system types (e.g. fringing coral reefs, patch reefs, hard and soft coral communities, seagrass and algal beds, tidal lagoons, mangroves and mudflats, rocky cliffs and terraces) and across a variety of environmental gradients such as depths, exposures, salinity (Hansen, et al. 2003). In other words, the CMPA network should have as diverse a range of sites as possible, representing all known ecosystems and their representatives from around the country, subjected to different biogeographic, climatic, oceanographic, topographic and other environmental conditions.

9.2 Adequacy (Biogeography, diversity, larval dispersal, rarity and population viability)
Integrity, sufficiency of spatial extent and arrangement of contributing units, together with effective management, to support viability of the environmental processes and/or species, populations and communities which make up the biodiversity of the country (Davey, 1998). The network approach allows the coverage of sites from a wide range of biogeographic and environmental conditions, and supports marine organisms of varying dispersal distances which may serve as source populations for recolonization in other PAs of the network or areas outside the PAs (Done, 2001; Hansen, et al. 2003). The network approach also helps to spread the risk of total loss from a single disturbance event. Sound knowledge of oceanographic conditions and reproductive
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biology of individual marine species is required for understanding and applying the source-sink relation and recruitment concerns in MPA network design and species conservation. In general, sites of high coral species diversity and/or containing rare species confer high conservation value. High coral diversity, abundance and cover are also crucial for the maintenance and replenishment of coral populations (DeVantier, et al. 2004). Though difficult to apply in marine ecosystems, it is nonetheless important to include large enough sites or series of connected sites that together harbour viable species populations. And this is not confined to corals, but other perhaps more prominent taxa such as algae as well as the many other invertebrates (e.g. sponges, echinoderms) yet to be revealed through systematic surveys.

9.3 Coherence and complementarity


Positive contribution of each site towards the whole (Davey, 1998). Each site needs to add value to the national system of PAs, in quality as well as quantity.

9.4 Consistency
Application of management objectives, policies and classifications under comparable conditions in standard ways, so that the purpose of each unit is clear to all and to maximise the chance that management and use support the objectives (Davey, 1998). One of the main purposes of the IUCN PAs management classification is to promote a scheme of PA types based on management objectives, and emphasising that management should flow consistently from those objectives. In addition, a comprehensive review and possible revisions/additions of the existing legislative and institutional frameworks concerning PAs, coastal development and fisheries management, would also enable clear definitions of the management objectives, as well as the legal and institutional arrangements of potential CMPAs.

9.5 Cost effectiveness, efficiency, equity and community support


Appropriate balance between the costs and benefits, and appropriate equity in their distribution; includes efficiency: the minimum number and area of PAs needed to achieve system objectives. (Davey, 1998) In addition to the science based ecological considerations, socio-economic realities and the resources and capacity for management will also be substantial concerns. It is important to analyze and understand the costs and benefits involved in setting up the CMPAs, and aim at equitable/fair distribution of such so that local and especially poor communities do not carry the added burden. Efforts should be made to avoid or keep to the minimum, direct impacts on local communities from loss of access to the resources. Where such impacts are unavoidable, alternative livelihoods or other interventions are needed to reduce the impacts, and gain local support for the CMPAs. Multiple use designs of individual CMPAs also help reduce user conflicts by optimizing use in certain parts of the CMPAs while maintaining adequate protection in others. Moreover, a participatory approach involving the local communities in site identification, zoning design and management, as well as conflict resolution processes, coupled with strong awareness programmes building on traditional values, will strengthen broad-based support for the CMPAs and related conservation or sustainable resource management initiatives.

9.6 Refuge to climate change


In addition to the above characteristics laid out in Davey (1998), the CMPA network should include sites that are less susceptible to rising temperatures caused by global warming. These may include sites in proximity to deep waters, and/or are influenced by strong currents, high wave energy, upwelling or other oceanographic features, that make them temporary climatic refugia (West and Salm, 2003). In addition, sites encompassing heterogeneous habitats should also be included as they are likely to provide more opportunities for survival, and allow for habitat shifts by species, in response to global warming and extreme climatic episodes. Furthermore, degraded habitats (e.g. mangroves and seagrass) with otherwise important ecological functions and/or biodiversity may also be included for protection and restoration efforts to recover their previous values and bring about social and economics return. As mentioned earlier, healthy coastal ecosystems could protect coastal populations and infrastructures from natural disasters, such as abnormal tidal surges and tsunami impacts.
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10. Existing coastal PAs and potential sites for incorporation into the CMPA network
The compendium should be seen as a preliminary collation of all existing and potential sites to be considered for incorporation into the CMPA network. The selection of sites should follow a strategic, integrated and participatory system process (Section 8), and based on the above mentioned biophysical, ecological and socio-economic criteria (Section 9). However, it is important to recognize that for many of these sites listed, the baseline information is insufficient for rational and sciencebased selection as yet (Section 8.1.4). Moreover, CMPA, marine ecology, as well as participatory planning, are all rather new concepts that require sound knowledge and understanding of a wide range of issues, as well as analytical and particular skills (e.g. logical framework analysis, participatory rural and resource use appraisal, conflict resolution, social organization, etc.). Substantial capacity development and awareness programmes are therefore required to raise the capacity and understanding of national and provincial management agencies and scientific institutions as well as the local communities and other stakeholders. The following table summarizes the natural attributes and conservation values and status of all existing coastal PAs and potential sites for further studies and eventual inclusion into the CMPA network. A fact sheet with further details of each site is provided by Table 4. The location can be viewed in Fig 15.

Fig 15. Potentially identified Coastal and Marine area along the Pakistani coast

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Table 4. The Summary of the Proposed Coastal and Marine Protected area. Province / District Site name Status Fish / shrimp breeding / nursery ground + + + + + + + + Sponges, oysters & other invertebrates Terrestrial and/or island flora & fauna

Mangrove & assoc. wetlands

Seabirds, migratory birds + + + + + + + +

Coral communities

Algal communities

Sindh, Karachi

Balochistan, Lasbela Balochistan, Mekran / Lasbela border Balochistan, Mekran

Cape Monze Churna Island Sandspit Hawks Bay Miani Hor Hingol including Ras Malan Ormara Kalmat Khor

Ramsar National Park Ramsar

+ + -

+ + +

+ +

+ + ?

+ + + ?

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

? + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

Balochistan, Mekran Balochistan, Mekran

Astola Island Jiwani Gwatar Bay

Ramsar Ramsar

+ +

10.1 Cape Monze/Churna Island/ Sandspit Hawks Bay turtle beaches/ west coast back water Mangroves 10.1.1 Site description
Cape Monze a high cliff projecting into the Arabian Sea, is located on the extreme south west of Karachi. It was once an estuarine area of the Hab River. The fresh water discharge from the Hab River has been disrupted as a result of construction of Hab dam and there is no fresh water available within several kilometers of the river mouth. The river estuary thus remains mostly dry, except during heavy rainfall or in flood season (July-September). Tidal influence on the estuary extends as far as 3 km upstream of the river mouth. Along the river banks are small rocky hills which rise about 20-25m above mean sea level. There are sandy beaches and rocky shores in the C ape Monze. Several rocky islands and submerged rocks near the river mouth provide partial protection to the coast from the south west monsoonal waves. Near the headland, the beach shores evidence of waves erosion in the form of understanding. The sandy coast line has brown colored sand and the grain size varies from silt to fine gravel.(Snead 1969) At Cape Monze the second largest uninhabited offshore island Churna is located. Its size is 30m x 150m. Within and around this island has the concentration of bio-diversity. There are definite scientific evidences that a big coral community has been lived in this area. Till today the dead corals have been collected by the neighboring villages.
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Turtle nesting

Seagrass

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Hawks Bay and Sandspit beaches are located on the south west of Karachi city. There is gently sloping sand beach on the eastern part of Hawks Bay on the main coastline while the western part has some rocky areas. There are extensive intertidal mudflats and some mangrove swamps behind the beaches. The long sandy bank with gently slopes protects the harbor from open sea and the beach having fine to medium grained sands and sand dunes which are susceptible to wind. Sandspit area is adjacent to Hawks Bay . It is about 15km long barrier bar which connects the rocky headland of Manora with the mainland. In places this barrier bar is less than 200 meters wide. A 60 to 120 meter wide beach, with a gradient of 103 degrees, is backed by low dunes. This is the main resort beach of Karachi. Most of the original dunes have been leveled to accommodate beach cottages. Retreat of this barrier bar is so rapid that remnant muds and clays, derived from former larger mangrove swamp, are now exposed on the beachside. Behind the barrier bar 2 3 meters is tidal lagoon 8 km long and 4 km wide. Clumps of high mangroves shrubs (Avicenna marina) grow along the edges of the tidal channels. Man has greatly changed this swamp by building a series of salt evaporation ponds and filling in the swamp for urban rural expansion. (J. C. Pernetta ed. 1993) Behind the barrier bars are mudflats covered with mangrove stands of different sizes. Where Avicenna marina predominates. There are few mix stands of Rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops tagal and Aegiceras corniculatum. The marine pollution has accelerated the growth of seaweeds which has resulted in covering millions of mangroves seedlings physically and causing mortality each year.

10.1.2 Biodiversity
Along the west coast of Karachi there are small islands carrying mangroves consisting of Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata and Ceriops tagal.. The area has not been managed and an estimated total area falls around 500 hectares. ( SUPARCO-IUCN 2003). These forests are with Port Trust and Karachi District Government. At present the most dominant species is Avicennia marina , which is a good fodder for cattle (Camels). The mangrove ecosystem of Karachi coast provides habitat for wildlife of terrestrial and marine origin. Probably no other habitats in the marine environment are associated with such a variety of fauna as the mangrove swamps does. They provide food and shelter to fish and waterfowl, as well as to many mammals. The mangrove swamps acts as nurseries and nutrient suppliers for economically important fish species. Some of the forest birds move seawards to live on the branches of mangroves, on the surface of mud, while marine animals migrate inland as far as the salinity permits. Many marine animals live on the trunks and roots of the mangroves.( Ahmed 1983b)

Fig .16. The Satellite view of Hawks Bay and Cape Monze area. The mammals of Cape Monze block include dolphins, porpoises and occasionally visited by toothed Wales. Two species of marine dolphin and porpoises have been reported.
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Fig. 17. Dolphin in the area There is little information available on the reptiles of coastal and marine areas of Karachi. Three species of lizards and one species of poisonous snake and two species of marine snakes have been reported. Although about 200 species of fishes have been reported from the delta area, the true resident fish species of delta are few. The mudskippers, mullets, scads, terapons, halfbeaks, silver biddies, pony fishes and some clupeids could be categorized as the fishes which spent their entire life span or most part of its life in the area. Some of the common fishes which move in and out with tides are the sardines, anchovies, herrings, eels, barracuda and snappers. The crustaceans form a major component of fauna. They include crabs, penaeid, prawns, caridians, barnacles and isopods etc. Shrimps are the most important commercial food source in the benthic coastal waters. There are at least 15 different species found around Karachi, of which the large white prawn is known in the trade as Jaira is the most priced and valuable, The demersal fishing grounds are located mostly in shallow waters. Sharks and some of the other species however, are fished in comparatively deeper waters. Important fishing grounds where fishing is done with bottom set gillnets and submerged drift gillnets are located in shallower areas all along the coast. These include Khori great bank off Karachi ( Paradise Point Cape Monze), off Sonmiani etc. Fishing grounds for long liner ( for demersal fish) are located in the area with rocky and reef bottoms especially off paradise point, Cape Monze Churna island etc. Deep sea fishing operation for demersal fish using stern trawler and pari trawler is mostly concentrated in Khori Great Bank and around swatch off Indus delta. The green turtle (Chelonia mydes) and Olive Ridley ( Lepidochelys olivacea) are found on a strech of 35 Km on the shore of Karachi, in Hawks Bay and Sandspit, Both are endangered species. Currently , the marine turtles are in a fortunate position in Sindh, as they have not been accepted as a food source. The eggs are sometimes used in indigenous medicine and considered to have medicinal value as a cure of asthma. The Sindh Wildlife and Forest department and World wide Fund for Nature (WWF) have started a protection and research programme for marine turtle since 1982-83. The inter tidal area of Karachi west coast also provide food and shelter to a number of endemic species of birds. Some of them are migratory. The more common among them are Oystercatcher, Lesser Sand Plover, Greater Sand Plover , Grey Plover, Golden Plover, Little Ringed Plover, Kentish Plover, Sanderling, Dunlin, Curlew, Marsh Sandpiper and Sandpiper. The common migratory water fowl of Karachi coast included a variety of Ducks, Dunlin, Redshank, Coot, white Pelicans, Flamingos and Spoonbills.
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Regarding the inter related ecosystem, the benthic community includes microbes, detritus feeders, small and large herbivore, and small and large herbivore, and small and large carnivore, Pelagic community included powerful swimmers which are exclusively carnivore in nature like predaceous fishes, croakers and snappers, Barracudas, Sharks, Mackerels, Sea snakes etc. Part of the coastal belt beyond tidal influence is dry and deserted and includes characteristic xerophytic vegetation. Through these part rodents, squirrels, lizards, snakes etc enters the system for food and some time for shelter.

10.1.3 Species of significance


There are several group of marine species that have potential resources value, and also have special conservation interest, are threatened by over exploitation as well as by habitat loss. Vulnerable among these are turtles, destruction of mangrove ecosystem and loss of fisheries. Sandy stretches from Sandspit/ Hawks Bay to Gidani are favorite nesting habitats of the marine turtles. Marine turtle spend , almost their entire life cycle out at sea, where they prey upon slow drifting marine organism such as jelly fish or they scavenges on dead benthic animals. Human activities have affected the survival of sea turtle, since prehistoric times, people first hunted turtles and gathered their eggs. More recently sea turtle populations have come under additional threats as a result of human activities not directed at turtles but in form of habitat degradation, pollution and marine debris, and incidental catch of sea turtles in fisheries is considered by many as to be the greatest single threat to the survival of the sea turtle today. Several natural and man made threats to biodiversity are reported. Changes in physical factors such as high temperature, high salinity, upwelling of deoxygenated layers, erosion of the beaches due to negative sediment load from the Lyari river have caused considerable stress to animal community.. Disappearance of certain bivalve mollusc including Oyster and calm from, the Karachi coast is specially mentioned. Several invertebrate species were reported to have disappeared from the inter tidal zone due to pollution and due to ecological changes and over exploitation e.g. Lingula spp; Oyster; sea cucumber; sea urchin etc. Mangroves cover along the west coast is reported to have decreased from 43% to 17% in 2003, threatening the survival of the natural resources and thereby the livelihood of a large number of fisherman. References were made to the indiscriminate exploitation and its deterioration, which was attributed to changes in the environmental condition in the coastal areas. The overall productivity of the mangrove areas has been reported to be high ( 365-378 2 2 gC/m / year) compared to coastal waters( 50 gC/m / year) which accounts for greater potential for fisheries yield in the former area. Apart from over exploitation of fishery resources, the loss of fisheries area attributed towards high salinity regimes which often extends into the distant parts of creek on account of reduced fresh water flow into the estuarine system . Other factors , which have been reported as affecting the fisheries include increase pollution and destruction of mangrove forest, which endangers the potential nursery grounds and in particular the shrimp fisheries which accounts for significant contribution in foreign exchange.

10.1.4 Socio-economic environment


Fisheries activities in the coastal areas of Karachi are at present concentrated at Karachi Fish Harbor, and to lesser extent at Korangi. There are other settlements along the coastline where fishing is the predominant occupation. Important fishing settlements along the west coast of Karachi are Shamspir, Baba island, Salehabad, Bhit island, Adamabad, Buleji, Bunglow and Gasrison. Fish harvesting is done with indigenous fishing gears and crafts. Deep sea trawling, bottomnet gillnetting, beach and boat seines and by stake net fishing. A major part of the gillnetters include horas and rachins. These boats not only operate in shallow waters but some of them fish in comparatively deeper waters up to a depth of about 60 meters. Main targets are croakers, grunts, pomfrets, sea breams sole, snappers and other

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food fishes .The catch is mostly tanned in chilled form. Good quantities of demersal fish is also caught as by-catch.

10.1.5 Current and perceived threats


Changing conditions in coastal and marine environments associated with degradation of environmental quality and the health of coastal ecosystem threaten the survival of certain species and communities in the area. The coastal domain is dramatically affected by changes in sea level, ground water level, salinity, wave patterns. Physical changes themselves result in a wide variety of biological changes at the population , community and ecosystem level, which in turn affect the stability of the coastal zone and its resource for use by human population. Amongst the coastal ecological systems, fish and coral communities, mangrove ecosystems etc. are most vulnerable to severe changes. The unsustainable exploitation of fisheries resources, non adaptation of conservation methods and damage to the ecosystem has been going on for some time. Karachi coastal and marine areas, are open to exploitation of shrimps and fish resources using all possible means. In the absence of an alternative resource mangroves also serve the under privileged inhabitants of coastal communities as a valuable resource of timber, charcoal and fodder for domestic animals. The mangroves support a variety of invertebrate fauna dominated by crustaceans and provide food and habitat to a large number of larval and juvenile fish and shrimps. The pollution problem have arisen due to mainly the indiscriminate discharges of effluent from industrial sources and disposal of untreated liquid and solid wastes generated from domestic sources into the coastal environment. In addition, the coastal development activities involving man made alterations of the coastal environment have also accelerated the impact of pollution leading to the deterioration of coastal environmental quality, depletion of coastal resources, public health risks, and loss of biodiversity. Recently economic policy reforms made by the Government of Pakistan have opened u p commission for offshore oil and gas exploration. Sensitive coastal area such as corals around Churna might be damaged simply form initial exploration, regardless of whether deposits are found or not.

10.1.6 Existing recognition and/or management


The Sindh Forest and Wildlife department has been working on conservation of green turtles and Olive ridleys for over two decades at Hawks Bay and Sandspit. The project had been initiated by WWF in 1979, and subsequently executed by the Government of Sindh with meager funds, has been made possible only by the commitment of the project staff. Project activities have focused on protection of eggs and hatchling and monitoring of population status of the turtles. From 1979-96, the project protected 1.5 million green turtle eggs and releasing about 1 million hatchlings. The programme has also tagged more than 1000 green / Olive ridley turtles. IUCN 1996-98 in collaboration with Karachi Port Trust initiated a mangrove rehabilitation project at Sandspit and Hawks Bay area. Over 50,000 saplings were transplanted and 12,000 container plant nurseries were established along the west coast of Karachi. The existing stocks of mangrove were protected from cutting and camel grazing in the back waters. The horticulture staff of Port Authority and local fisherman was trained for conservation of mangroves. WWF- Pakistan established a wetland centre in 2001 for public awareness and promotion of ecotourism in the Sandspit mangroves forest.

10.1.7 Priority actions for the site


At present, the Pakistan coastline is neither understood, nor managed as the single, interdependent ecosystem. More efforts are needed to achieve a more integrated approach towards managing and conserving the coastal and marine systems. Establishment of CZMPA system is a step in the right direction.

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Community awareness of the coastal- marine environment and the importance of sustainable use of natural resources is growing in some areas (e.g. Karachi), but is still not sufficient enough. Rapid population growth in the coastal zone and associated economic hardship has stepped up pressure to develop and exploit already used resources. The need to provide short term relief to economic problems makes it difficult to carry out necessary research or to implement the management practices required for long-term sustainability of natural resources. One of the main problem is the lack of public access to environmental information, which forces government to act without proper resource management plans. Land based pollution problems in particular could be solved more readily with greater public awareness and understanding.

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10.2 Miani Hor 10.2.1 Site description
Miani Hor is a lagoon situated about 90 km from Karachi on the easternmost part of Balochistan cost. It is a 60 km long and 7 km wide tortuous and contorted body of water which in connected by the sea by a 4 km wide mouth. The lagoon takes immediately a left turn in westerly direction, a short distance from the mouth.

Fig. 18. Satellite interperatation of Miani Hor. It then runs parallel to the shoreline in the shape of an arc, the extreme end of which almost lies in the same line as the mouth itself, except that a strip of land intervenes in between. Two seasonal rivers enter the bay (Saifullah 1982), Porali River drains through the Bela region and empties into the central part, whereas Windar River enters it near the mouth of the bay. The total area of the site is 60,000 ha. Miani Hor represents 42% (3434 ha) of the total cover of mangroves in Balochistan. The three species of the mangroves in this area are :Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronta.

10.2.2 Biodiversity
It is an important staging and wintering area for migratory shorebirds, cranes, and flamingos. 52 species of water birds have been recorded from the area. With the exception of a few pockets of mangroves there is hardly any significant vegetation. Behind the beach area, the sand dunes appears mainly dominated by salt tolerant shrubs and vines are found; these consists of Salsola foetida, Calligonum polygonides, Haloxylon salicornicum; and the vine Ipomea pescaprae , Often found on the coastal dunes but generally growing several hundred behind the salt spray, are desert plants of the sandy plains.

10.2.3 Species of significance


Flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber), Dalmatian pelican( Pelecanus crispus ), turnstone ( Arinaria interpres ), great knot( Calidris tenuirostris), sanderling ((Calidris alba) and sandpiper ( Calidris ferruginea) are the important species of the area. This is the only place where the three species of mangroves are found in natural stands on the Pakistan coast.

10.2.4 Socio-economic environment


There are three villages in the area Viz Sonmiani, Bheera and Damb. These villages are directly dependent on the coastal resources specially fisheries and mangrove forests. Of the three villages, Sonmiani and Damb have the basics civic facilities while Bheera has a few. Both Sonmiani and Damb are accessible by a matalled road but Bheera is not and it becomes isolated during high tide. Water is piped to a communal tank from where the villagers collect water for their daily use.

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The main occupation is fishing (85%). Only a few people (2%) are employed in local govt. departments or are engaged in trade (2%). Some own arable land and grow castor oil plant. The Hindus have their temple in Sonmiani.

10.2.5 Current and perceived threats


There is a serious threat of silting of the mouth of the lagoon which may cut the inflow of water to the lagoon from seaside. The villagers depend mostly on the mangrove resources for fodder and firewood. The indiscriminate cutting of mangrove and camel grazing has deforested a major part of mangrove area in Miani Hor.

10.2.6 Existing recognition and/or management


The area has declared as Ramsar site in 2001. However, 294 ha(727 Ac) of mangrove forest in two blocks i.e. Guruchella and Pir Hayat were declared as protected forest in 1958.

10.2.7 Priority actions for the site


Action is already being taken for saving the mangroves through communities based conservation efforts by WWF P and other NGOs. There in an urgent need for the dredging of the channel leading to the lagoon so that the supply of water to the lagoon may the ensured. Long term mangrove rehabilitation program should be initiated to increase the breeding grounds of shrimp and fishes and to check and reduce the soil erosion.

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10.3 Hingol National Park 10.3.1 Site description
Hingol National Park is situated at a distance of 250 km northwest of Karachi in the districts of Lasbella, Awaran and Gwadar. It was created in 1980 with an area of 1,65,000 hectares. The park has a long stretch along the coastline on its southern boundary. The southern part of the park between the hills and the seacoast has the desert habitat. River Hingol traverses the park from north to south before falling in the Arabian Sea at Poti Bandar. There is a small estuarine area and a large riverine flood plain area ( Khan et al 2004) The park was extended in 1997 to include Hingol estuary, offshore area upto 5 fathomes which supports a significant diversity of birds and fishes.

10.3.2 Biodiversity
The important mammals of the park are: Indian gazelle, urial, Sindh wild goat, fox, Jackal, porcupine and hedgehogs. The estuarine area is very important for the waterbirds. Species of special concern are: spot billed pelican (Pelecanus philippinus), dalmatian pelican ( Pelecanus crispus), black stork ( Ciconia nigra), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), crab plover (Dromas ardeola), stone plover (Burhinus ocdinemus ), golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria), sociable lapwing (Vanellus gregarious), broad billed sandpiper (Limilicola falcinellus), wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola), green sandpiper (Tringa ochropus), sooty gull (Larus hemprichii), and whitetailed sea-eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). Hingol river is important for supporting marsh crocodile and Mahseer. Coastal area is important for the nesting of green and pacific ridley turtle. Bottle nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), and finless porpoise (Neophocaena phoceanoides) are seen near the coastal area (Azam 2004). The major part of the park which is hilly supports sparse vegetation of Salvadora, Capparis and Euphorbia etc. There are a number of plain valleys between the hills, some of which have the agriculture fields. Acacia and Zizyphus are common in the valleys. Adjacent to the coastline, there is a vast desert area with prominent sand dunes. Suaeda and Salsola spp. are quite common in the area

10.3.3 Species of significance


The estuarine area is important for supporting spot billed pelican, Pelecanus philippinus. It is the only place in Pakistan where this species is found. Hingol river is important for supporting marsh crocodile (Crocodyhus palustris) and Mahser (Tor pititora).The coastal area, particularly Ras Malan area is important for waterbirds alongwith marine turtles and the cetaceans.

10.3.4 Socio-economic environment


About 3000 people are living in the park in different villages. Kund Malir is the main coastal village. Livestock rearing is their main profession, but some are involved in fishing as well. Hinglaj is the important area for the Hindus. The Nani Mandir area is visited by thousands of Hindus for pilgrimage in late April. There are mud volcanoes in the area.

10.3.5 Current and perceived threats


At present, there are no serious threat to the are except drought which prevailed from 19992001 in the area. The biodiversity of park is much protected due to the presence of the local base of Pakistan Coast Guards at Aghor.

10.3.6 Existing recognition and/or management


The area is a National Park declared as such in 1988. Later, Dhrun National Park was also merged in it as Dhrun Wildlife Sanctuary. The area is managed by the Balochistan Forest Department. A Project, funded by the GEF is underway for the management of the Park.

10.3.7 Priority actions for the site


An update of primary information is needed for effective management.

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10.4 Ormara turtle beaches 10.4.1 Site description
It is a sandy beach extending about 10 km along the shores of the Arabian Sea connecting a large mountain block (Ras Ormara), some 20 km long and upto 8 km wide, with the main land. This structure defines an extensive bay on each side, a west bay and an east bay, the former here being particularly well marked at its western end by the cliffs of a low mountain ridge known as Kamgar, and the eastern tip of a low coastal ridge, some 25 km long, known as Ras Sakani. Both bays are edged by a continuous sandy beach, that of west bay extending for about 24 km between Ormara and Kamgar. Because the area falls in the subduction zone of the Indian Ocean tectonic plate moving northward, clusters of mud volcanoes have developed along the shore, where gas charged water escapes to the surface. The vegetation is composed of salt tolerant and arid area plants.

10.4.2 Biodiversity
The site supports a considerable number of marine turtles, particularly the endangered green turtle, olive ridley turtle and possibly the hawksbill turtle as well. Nesting takes place along the beach at the foot of Kamgar hills at the western end of the west bay. Here the beach is in parts somewhat steeper in gradient then elsewhere around the bay. It is also edged by a near horizontal rocky foreshore platform for part of its length, and is backed at a distance of around 50-100 m by the precipitous Kamgar cliffs. The nesting beach extends for around 4 km in all, with the fishing village of Tak being sited about a km from its northern limits. West of Ormara west bay, there is sparse nesting along some 15 miles of the coast, extending west to Ras Basol. Migratory water birds visit the site but not in great numbers. The following species are quite commonly seen there during the season: oystercatcher, redshank, lesser sand plover, avocet, Kentish plover, ringed plover, dunlin, curlew, little tern, Caspian tern, black bellied tern, sandwich tern, whiskered tern, herring gull, slender billed gull and sooty gull Egyptian vulture and griffon vulture have also been recorded.

10.4.3 Species of significance


The three species of marine turtles are the main species of the area. A large population of migratory bird also visit the extended west bay of Ormara.

10.4.4 Socio-economic environment


Subsistence on commercial fishing is the primary economic, social and cultural activity of the local communities and drying fish is an important source of employment.

10.4.5 Current and perceived threats


Exploitation of marine turtles for exports has been the major threat to the species. This has been discontinued now as marine turtles have been declared protected species and their export has since been banned.

10.4.6 Existing recognition and/or management


The area is a Ramsar site. Jinnah Naval Base has been established in the area.

10.4.7 Priority actions for the site


Surveys are needed to determine the present status of the biodiversity of the area

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10.5 Astola Island Kalmat Khor 10.5.1 Site description
Astola is situated at a distance of about 20 nautical miles east of Pasni. It is locally known as Haft Talaar. It is the only significant off shore island along the north coast of the Arabian Sea. The major portion of the island consists of rocky hills which are about 200 meters above sea level and cover an area of about 3 km in length and about 1 km in width. The eastern portion of the cliff is mostly sandy and faces a continuous process of erosion by the strong wave action. The coastline along the base of the cliff is a small area of sandy cum rocky beach. Fig. 19. A distant view of Astola It has a great potential for biodiversity and is inhabited by a variety of marine invertebrates with typical flora. The sandy area of the beach is the nesting site for the marine turtles as well as a staging and wintering ground for the water birds. The upper plain area of the island is also rocky cum sandy. Most of the area is flat with some depressions and crevices towards the northern edge of the cliff. Kalamat Khor resembles the shape of a tree from an aerial view with trunk representing the entrance and canopy the actual lagoon. The entrance is a narrow 7 Km long and 2 Km wide channel and only 12 meter deep. It widens abruptly into a 198 Km long and 27 Km wide enclosed body of wat er with irregular contour. The total area is 102.25 sq. Km. The distance of this Khor is around 30 Km Northwards from Astola and 60 Km westward lies Pasni. Mudflats are widely developed in almost the entire lagoon, which are covered with shallow water at high tides. There is not a direct river discharge into the Khor, however Basol river falls some 15 Km east of Khor. The area is extensively dry and barren and the lagoon occasionally receives freshwater from the hill tract from the north.

Fig. 20. Satellite image of Kalmat Hor.

10..5.2 Biodiversity
Though large mammals are not known to have existed on Astola island, small mammals such as rodents were once common. Their population later declined due to the introduction of domestic cats on the island in late 60s to control the population of rodents which were destroying the fishing nets. At present there are 12 to 16 cats on the island. Marine mammals like whales, dolphins and porpoises are reported to be seen in the surrounding sea water occasionally.

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Shorebirds, gulls, terns, egrets and herons are common in the winter and utilize the area as a staging/wintering ground. Waterbirds migrate through the area both in autumn and spring. Sooty gull (Larus hemprichii) used to nest in the area three decades ago. Their breeding has been affected by the predation of cats on their eggs and chicks. At present, there is no evidence of seabirds breeding on the island. Quails have been regularly sighted here during September and October. Summer residents include the small passerines. Of these, the desert wheatear, crested lark and warblers are common and found throughout the year. Other birds observed during the season include: gray heron, reef heron, gray plover, curlew, black-tailed godwit, little stint, herring gull, slenderbilled gull and Indian courser. The area, particularly the upland habitat is rich in reptiles. Orange-tailed skink, Eumeces scheneideri and reticulate desert lacerta, Eremias acutirostis are fairly common. The endemic saw-scaled viper, Echis carinatus astoli has been recorded from the type locality. The green turtle breeds in the area. There is likelihood of hawksbill turtle also nesting in this area. Demersal and pelagic fishes such as catfish, mullet, croaker, pomfret, sardines and tuna etc. are common. The area also supports oysters, lobsters and corals. Although about 20 species of fishes have been reported from the khor area, the true resident fish species of Kalmat are few. In addition to shrimps, and mudskippers, mullets, terapons, half beaks, silver buddies, pony fish and some clupieds spent most part of their life span within the khor

10.5.3 Species of significance


Saw-scaled viper, Echis carinatus astoli is the endemic species. There seems a great potential for endemism in reptiles and plants of Astola. Astola is also important as a breeding/nesting site for the sooty gull and hawksbill turtle. The area is also in important site for the oysters, lobsters and the corals. Kalmat has been given importance due to the natural mangrove stands showing clear zones. An estimated 21.4% area of the lagoon is covered with Avicenna marina growing under stress.

10.5.4 Socio-economic environment


Astola island is not easily accessible and almost uninhabited. Fishermen use it quite frequently for stay during the fishing season. There is a shrine and a prayer-yard on the island. A small solar-operated beacon has been constructed on the top of the cliff for the guidance of the navigators. Around 150 fishermen visit the island seasonally from September to February for netting lobsters, sole and surmai fish. From March to August the island remains free from human interference due to rough sea condition. Kalmat lagoon area is inhabited by poor fisherman community with meager educational and social information. They were not aware to have any alternate source of income during the off season; that solely made them dependent on Mangrove resource, ultimately resulting in rapid degradation of mangrove resource.

10.5.5 Current and perceived threats


Feral cats and disturbance are the main threats on Astola The Kalmat khor lacks basic facilities and alternate income generation system.

10.5.6 Existing recognition and/or management


Astola is a Ramsar site. The area also has a strategic importance.

10.5.7 Priority actions for the site


Baseline surveys are required to determine the present ecological and biological importance of Astola and Kalmat Khor areas
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10.6 Jiwani Gwatar Bay 10.6.1 Site description
The Gwatar Bay lies between the headlands of Iran and the rocky platform of Jiwani, bordered by the swampy area of the delta of River Dasht. There is a wide beach along the bay running from Jiwani to Ganz. Jiwani is a small town of district Gwadar situated at a distance of 70 km from Gwadar. It is spread over an area of 676 sq. km and consists of 7 villages viz Bandri, Okar, Panwan, Bandi, Ganz and Daran. The area contains a variety of habitats such as hills, desert, scrub forest, cultivation, estuary, river, freshwater reservoir, marshes, mangrove forest, coast and the sea. The estuaries, wetlands including mangroves and coral reefs are the high priority area on the basis of their diversity and productivity.

10.6.2 Biodiversity
The area is rich in mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes. Ghalib e al (1979) recorded 30 t reptilian species from Makran area including Jiwani. Roberts (1991-1992) mentioned the distribution of 105 species of birds and 33 species of terrestrial mammals from Makran coast. Ahmad et al (1997) gave the distribution of 108 species of fishes, 83 species of birds and 6 species of reptiles in mangrove swamps of Balochistan coast. Arshad. et al (2002) conducted a periodical biological assessment of Mekran Coastal Complex that includes areas of Jiwani Tehsil. They reported 125 birds, 11 mammals ( both marine and terrestrial) and 12 reptiles. In flora, the team recorded 11 tree species, 13 shrubs, 15 herbs and 7 grass species. WWF-Pakistan (2002-2004) has recorded 112 species of birds from Jiwani, under its project on Conservation of Biodiversity in Gwater Bay ( Jiwani) on Balochistan coast. Occurrence of two species of marine turtles i.e green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) and olive ridley ( Lepidochelys olivacea) and their nesting population on Jiwani beach was also recorded under the project. The large mammal population is now scarce. It has been reported by the locals that once chinkara was caught through the racing four wheels drive in Dasht area but now it is rarely seen. Hyaenas and jungle cat and desert cat are distributed in the area. Jackal (Fig. 22) is still commonly found. Among the marine mammals, humpback or plumbeous dolphins are commonly observed offshore and black finless porpoise has also been reported from the area. Whales are also observed off the shore.

Fig. 21. Satellite images of Jiwani

Fig.22. Jackal in Mangroves

10.6.3 Species of significance


The area offers rare or unique habitats for cetaceans ( Ganz), marine turtles ( Daran Tak, Shaheed Tak, Deedlo Tak, Charlo Tak), mangroves (Gwater Bay), marsh crocodile ( Dasht river near mating town), marbled teal, black stork, common merganser and

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red breasted merganser ( Saji dam) and Dalmatian pelican ( Dasht river estuary) and corals (Jiwani)

10.6.4 Socio-economic environment


The population of Jiwani tehsil is estimated to be 30,000. The majority of male population i.e 65% is engaged in fishing, 15 % in trade, 5 % in labour, 5 % in livestock keeping, 3 % in agriculture and 7 % as Govt. employees. The society is responsive to social changes. At present, there are no ecotourism activities but the area may be developed as a resort for its scenic beauty, climate and biodiversity (turtles, crocodiles, waterbirds & mangroves.)

10.6.5 Current and perceived threats


Due to difficult access, the area is safe from developmental activities. Small scale hunting and trapping of falcons takes place during the season. There is small scale mangrove cutting for feeding the camels by the semi nomads from the Dasht area. After completion of the Coastal Highway from Lyari to Gwadar, access road is being built from Gwader to Jiwani. As real estate business has now started in Jiwani, so construction and developmental activities will boost up. This will affect the naturalness of this ecologically sensitive area in the time to come. Priority action is therefore required by the protecting the area through designation as an MPA.

10.6.6 Existing recognition and/or management


Jiwani Coastal Wetland is a Ramsar site ( Wetland of International Importance). WWF has identified important biological regions in the world, known as Global Ecoregions 200 which aim to conserve the global biodiversity. It provides a road map for areas deserving greater attention from world leaders and conservationists. The Gwater Bay falls into the Global Ecoregion 232 ( North Arabian sea)

10.6.7 Priority actions for the site


1. A detailed survey needs to be done to determine the present status of the biodiversity of the area. 2. The area has a potential to be declared a Wildlife Sanctuary to protect the mangrove forest, marine turtle, marsh crocodile and the water birds. ``

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11. The way forward
The coastal and marine areas of Pakistan are among the most productive area in the world; with the largest arid mangrove representation on the globe. The coastal and marine wealth in terms of natural resources is of vital importance in both ecological and economic context. These resources are under tremendous pressure by indiscriminate use: It is high time to put effort for conserving what is left behind before its too late. The identification and declaration of protected area is an approach towards the sustainable use of resources without inflicting major damages to the habitat. The approach is integration of conservation and development with sustainability. It is imperative to demarcate a national representative of coastal marine protected area; the need has been strongly identified and endorsed by a workshop on coastal marine protected area, organized by the Centre of Excellence for Marine Biology, Karachi University and the British Council Karachi. The participants urged the government agencies and nongovernmental organizations to play their role for the establishment of a coastal marine protected areas. The workshop appreciated the countrys commitment to f lfill the regional u and global obligations and initiatives. The innate requirement for declaring CMPA is sound planning system, which considers the interest of all stakeholders otherwise, negotiates with them in context of national and international priorities. It also facilitates the integral role of different sectoral processes like; (Biodiversity action plan, Coastal development, Forest , Fisheries and Tourism etc) . The system also defines the role of different stakeholders, identify gaps and develop linkages at national and international levels. It outline its role in the context of social and economic implications of CMPA and issues such as equity and benefit sharing by adopting participatory approaches. ( Davey 1998). This report recommends priority areas and actions for the establishment of national representative system of CMPA. It is intended to provide strategic guidance to the donors and other organizations for investment in coastal and marine biodiversity conservation. The next phase would f cus on the development and implementation of specific proposals for the o establishment of new CMPAs . The sites of highest priorities are preliminary identified in this report, however the need of additional investigation is also identified to set specific priorities in CMPAs. The following are to be taken: Review of the document by experts. A workshop has be organized inviting all the interest group to formulate the modus operandi for declaring national representative of Coastal Marine Protected Areas identified in this document and strengthening the initiative by scrutinizing more potential CMPAs.(Pakistan has no CMPA) The recommendation/s would be forwarded to the concerned Ministry for appropriate action. Collaborating with, the Government to tak e initiatives and to facilitate the process for developing national CMPA system.

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12. References
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