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1983 #1

A comparative study of the lecithin content of liver oils extracted from different native fishes
Gloria Abacan, Chona Bustamante, Glenda Gutierrez, Marie Vezth Repunte, Ma Teresa Sarmiento

Fish livers, usually regarded as wastes, were studied for possible nutritional value. Oils were extracted from these livers for a comparative study of their percentage oil yield as well as their lecithin contents. The lecithin contents of these liver oils were then compared to the lecithin contents of two commercial vegetable oils. The results show that Ophicephalus striatus (dalag) has the highest percentage oil yield and (maya-maya) liver oil has the highest average lecithin content. Of the six fish liver oils studied namely dalag liver oil, bangus liver oil, galunggong liver oil, bisugo liver oil, tambakol liver oil, and maya-maya liver oil, all except tambakol liver oil have lecithin content as significant as the lecithin content of the two commercial oils namely Baguio oil and Minola oil #4

The utilization of ubi (dios corea alata) for the production of alcohol
Ma Rowena Abesamis, Kublai Abiad, Dino Rudyardo gasmen, Ma Leilani Tupaz

This study involves the prediction of the amount of alcohol that can be obtained from acid hydrolyzed ubi (dioscorea alata) tubers. Ubi tubers were procured from the local market, washed, peeled and diced into small cubes. These were then osterized and oven-dried into biscuits. The biscuits were milled into powder. Solutions of the powder were prepared and subjected to acid hydrolysis using HCl as agent. By converting the values obtained from the analysis of the reducing sugar content of the hydrolyzed solution, the alcohol yield in percentage was gotten. A prediction of 1.4% alcohol from 100 grams of dried ubi tubers by conversion was made.


Production of ethyl alcohol from Areca catechu (betel nut)

Ma Carmen A Ablen, Alma Victoria F Agbisit, Ma Veronica Y. Cruz, Magnolia Cecilia R Dayrit, Rachelle A Eusebio

The main problem today is not the application of alcohol as a motor fuel its economic production. It is for this reason that a search for a cheap and abundant local raw material source such as Areca catechu was tapped a source of ethanol. After hydrolysis of separate endosperm and pericarp of A catechu and inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae it was found that endosperm hydrolyzates yield an average of 1.3% alcohol while the pericarp yields an average of 1.1% alcohol. Therefore betel nut fruits may be considered as a commendable source of ethyl alcohol. #6

The phytochemical screening and microbiological assay of lonicera japonica (honeysuckle)

Atanacio M Abrenica, Fidel F Balmeo, Jerome V Danan, Teodoro M Leonido, Artemio B Villanueva

The plant, Lonicera japonca, with the common name honey suckle, has been claimed to have versatile healing powers. Hence, the need to find out scientific bases for its purpoted curative properties. Alcoholic extracts were obtained from the plants leaves and phytochemical screening methods were applied to test the presence of biologically active plant constituents. Positive results were obtained for alkaloids, some flavonoids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, and tannins. Negative results were obtained for anthraquinones, polyphenolic compounds and some flavonoids. Microbiological assay methods were then applied on the plant extract in order to test if the plant exhibits antimicrobial activity. Zones of inhibition were present in the culture media of B subtilis and F moniliforme. The culture media of P. aeroginosa, E coli, S aureus, and S cerevisiae displayed no zones of inhibition


Production of protein-enriched mammon from composite wheat and cajanus cajan (Cados bean) flour
Christine C Acob, Carlos T Dequia, Frederick K Scheerer, Wilma S Torres, Ma Regina V Villar

The main objective of this study is the production of a proteinenriched, appealing and relatively low-cost mammon. Protein enrichment was to be obtained by mixing cadios bean flour to wheat flour in different ratios. Protein determination using the kjeldahl Method showed that addition of cadios bean flour does increase the protein of the composite flour significantly. However, using the sensory evaluation results, the most acceptable ratio was found to be the 75:25 wheat- cadios flour mixture. Beyond this ratio, increases in the amount of cadios bean flour produced undesirable results in terms of general acceptability. It can be therefore concluded that cadios bean flour is an effective protein supplement of bakery products, especially mammon, although there is an ultimate proportion of around 75:25 wheat-cadios bean flour, beyond which the acceptability, in order to increase the protein content increase, will be sacrificed. #8

Potentials of coffea excelsa bean pulp as possible feed supplement

Rosemarie Janet Africa, Lilith Bess Idea, Michelle Leilani Jover, Eloisa Palazo, Ma Lourdes Salaveria

Especially nowadays when the more common complaints of Philippine livestock and poultry raisers are the insufficient supply of feed and its consequent high cost, it is recommended to find new sources of feedstuffs that would give the lowest cost without sacrificing much the value of the feed mixture. It is in this light that the researchers have considered the investigation of the potentials of coffee pulp, a commercial by-product, as a feed supplement. The moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, crude fat and crude fiber contents of the pulp of coffea excelsa beans were determined using standard A.O.A.C procedures. It was determined that the coffee pulp contained 31,34% moisture, 9.45% ash, .00558% carbohydrate, 3.206% crude fat, .82% crude fiber, and 35.66% protein. From the results obtained, coffee pulp compares favorably with presently used feed concentrates in terns of its nutritive content. But it is recommended that further studies such as the determination and extraction of probable harmful substances found in coffee pulp and actual experimentation with animals be undertaken.


The tannin content of sawdusts from five different kinds of wood

Vincent Agtang, Ray-Vicente Araya, Ramil Baratang, Fernando Hernandez, Gener Villafuerte

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of tannins were conducted on five different wood sawdusts namely narra, red lauan, apitong, yakal, and tanguile. Qualitative evaluations showed condensed tannins in narra while hydrolyzable tannins were seen in red lauan and yakal. Quantitative analysis yielded the following amounts of tannins: 18.05%, 14.67%, 10.15% and 2.82% for narra, yakal, red lauan, and apitong respectively. Taguile wood sawdust yielded 0% Tannins. #10

Alkaloidal screening and microbiological assay of the young shoots (labong) of bambusa vulgaris (bamboo)
Jude Justine Agsalon, Victor Fresnoza, Romeo Jorge, Edwin Pascasio

Young shoots of bambusa vulgaris (bamboo), are known to have certain medicinal and anti-bacterial properties. These properties, we suspect, may be attributed to the possible presence of quarternary alkaloids in the plant. Extract from the young shoots or labong of the plant was screened for the presence of primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary alkaloids. Results showed and confirmed the presence of primary, secondary and tertiary alkaloids in the plant. However results failed to confirm or even show the presence of quarternary alkaloids. After this, a microbiological assay was done using two bacteria, alcaligences feacalis and pseudomonas aeroginosa, and two fungi, candida albicans and pseudomonas aeroginosa, and two fungi, candida albicans and aspergillus oryaceae. Inhibitions showed in the plates of P aeroginosa and slight inhibitions in the plates of A faecalis but no such inhibitions occurred in the fungi plates. Therefore we can say that quaternary alkaloids were not responsible for the anti-bacterial properties of #11

The use of antioxidants on the stability of cocos nucifera L (coconut) oil

Aila Aguilar, Mary Ruth Alegre, Jasmin Batara, Geraldine Gem Dee, Lily Ann Mangligot

Antioxidants are used as preservatives that check oxidation processes. This study aims to ascertain the effect of antioxidants on the stability of coconut oil which later on might be used as preservatives on commercial fried foods. The antioxidants were tested to determine which reduces or slows down the development of rancidity of coconut oil most efficiently and in what concentration the antioxidant yields the best result. Butylated hydroxy toluene, prophyl gallate and ascorbic acid were the antioxidants that were tested in 0.0125g, 0.025 and 0.0375g concentrations. The A.O.C.S. (American Oil Chemists Society) method of peroxide determination was used to measure the rancidity of the oil. The result showed that antioxidants can reduce the rancidity of coconut oil. Butylated hydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid have better preventive effect on the development of rancidity than prophyl gallate. The variation in concentration do not affect the ability of antioxidants to prolong stability of coconut oil. #12

A comparative study on the utilization of Echiornia crassipes and Castalia stellata as biofertilizers for zea mays

Ma Cristina Alcantara, Judith Dharmdas, Caroline Manzala, Ma Belinda Morallos, Nurlinda Pagilan

Dried water lily and water hyacinth were tested for their efficiency in promoting the growth of corn plants using height of plants, toughness of stems and color of leaves as bases for comparison. The corn plants were subjected to varying concentrations of dried water lily and water hyacinth plants, namely, 4g, 7g, 10g. for comparative purposes, 14-14-14 NPK content fertilizer-treated and non-treated plants were also used. Results showed that dried water lily and water hyacinth have a fertilizing effect on effect on corn since the plants treated with the abovementioned aquatic plants were observed to be healthier, using the defined criteria, than the non treated plants. #14

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean) substitute for glycine max (soybean) in miso


Eddielin Almonte, Carmen Panlilio, Jessica Petilla, Michelle Reyes, Grace Tamesis


In this study, the feasibility of substituting winged beans for soybeans in miso was investigated. The consequent effect of using different inocula aside from Saccharo myces rouxii were also established. The study was confined to four more test inocula, namely: Saccharomyces chevalieri, Endomycopsis fibuligera, Aspergillus foetidus and Aspergillus niger. The miso samples were compared according to the protein content, production cost and palatability. The Kjeldahl method was used as a quantitative analysis of the protein content. Based upon the results of the protein test and the taste analysis, the winged bean inoculated with S rouxii yielded the most protein compared to the other winged bean miso samples and the soybean miso. The winged bean miso, however, turned out to be more expensive. This could be attributed to the fluctuating market demand of the said bean. Hence, in terms of taste and protein content, winged beans could readily be substituted for soybeans in the preparation of miso. #15

Isolation of soybean lipoxygenase by precipitation using various salts

Edwin Arnobit, Gladys Barrer, Alvin Escuadro, Jesus Erwin Pantuca, Ludwig Simpao

Soybean flakes of yellow seeds of the vegetable variety were defatted by Soxhlet extraction. The flakes were then homogenized in 1.2 L of sodium phosphate buffer solution, and stirred in a blender for 90 minutes. The extract was filtered, and then centrifuged. Afterwards, the filtrate was divided into five groups. The first group was treated with ammonium sulfate; the second with potassium chloride; the third with potassium sulfate; and the fourth with sodium sulfate. The fifth group served as the control and was not treated with any salt. The solutions were allowed to sit overnight and were then centrifuged. The supernatants were assayed for lipoxygenase activity and the protein contents were determined. Results showed that lipoxygenase may be precipitated using the aforementioned salts. Protein content of each sample was not greatly affected except in the set-up where potassium is not conclusive since the extent of the effect of other factors cannot be determined. #16

A comparative study on the efficiency of the flavier, escueta, and capalungan methods of extracting proteins from mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), Peanut (arachis hypogaea) and chickpea (cicer arietenum)
Mariela Atendido, Ma Louella David, Affie grace Geli, Ma Catalina Raola, Marivic Remiendo

Ten (10) grams each of mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), peanut (arachis hypogaea), and chickpea (cicer arietenum) were subjected to the Flavier, Escueta and Capalungan methods of extracting protein. They were compared as to which method is most efficient in extracting protein from the given legumes, that is, the one that needs the least manpower, time and effort. Sample extracts analyzed by the Auto Analyzer showed that the Capalungan method extracted relatively high protein and statistical tests, specifically the ANOVA tests proved it. #17

A comparative study of the seed oil content of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) and urena lobata (dalupang)
Vina Z Babaran, Ma Corazon A Carlos, Rachel U Ledesma, Ma Cecilia M Pagdanganan, Ma Rica S Silva

Selected members of the Family Malvacea were collected and prepared for extraction. Seed oil was extracted from okra (abelmoschus esculentus) and dalupang (urena lubata0 using the soxhlet extraction method. The oil percentage of the seeds of dalupang was compared to that of okra which had been earlier studied and found to have significant amount of oil compared to peanuts a commercial source of seed oil. Iodine values of okra and dalupang were also obtained to know the properties or characteristics of the oil which can determine their potential as sources of seeds oils. Results show that oil percentage yield of okra and dalupang seeds are almost the same indicating that dalupang is as good potential source of oil s okra. On the other hand, the iodine values of okra and dalupang seeds showed great differences implying the different uses of seed oils. #18

A comparative study of the phosphorous content of various local laundry bar soaps and synthetic detergents
Peter Banzon, Jonathan Espiritu, Alfredo Las, Nathaniel Rueca, Adelino Sumague

Detergents are commonly formulated to contain phosphates to enhance their cleansing abilities. Because of their extensive use in households and industries, detergents are the largest source of phosphates

that enter our waterways as effluents. However, such an inflow of excess phosphates results in the eutrophication of surface waters. Because of this, there has been increasing pressure to lessen phosphorous inputs to surface waters. This is the reason for the present concern over the composition of detergents. In connection, this investigation aims to determine the phosphorous content of various local laundry bar soaps and synthetic detergents Breeze, Drive, Tide, Ajax, Mr clean, Superwheel, Argo, Perla and Wheel. The procedure consists of the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates to orthophosphatesions through combustion and boiling of the sample at pH 1 or below and subsequent titration of the orthophosphate ion with a base. Ajax is found to contain the largest amount of phosphorous with 8% P by weight, followed bt Breeze, Drive, Tide and Mr Clean with 5%, superwheel with 4%, and Argo, Perla and Mr Clean with 5%, superwheel with 4%, and Argo, Perla and Wheel with less than 1%. #19

Thin- layer Chromatography as a basis for establishing ancestral similarities between members of the mostaza family
William Barcelona, Earlan Bautista, Augusto Fajardo, Karel Jose, Carlo Rojo #20

The utilization of ipomea Aquatica to lower the concentration of manganese and phosphate content in wastewaters.
Ma Cristina Barrios, Honorito Chaneco, Christina Guidote, Rhynna Rivero, Ronald Serrano

Ipomea aquatica (kangkong) is an abundant tropical plant which can healthily thrive even in moderately polluted water. In this experiment, the ability of this plant to absorb phosphates and manganese was tested. The PSHS creek, serving as the water sample, was found out to contain various pollutants. Among these, manganese and phosphates exists in a significantly polluted level. The experimental set-up was divided into two groups having three pails each. The first group was treated with Ipomea aquatica while the second group served as the control. Weekly Hach Analyzer readings of manganese and phosphate levels were conducted. Results show that the plant continued to absorb the pollutants from the pond water during the entire span of the experiment. The positive results support the possibility of using kangkong as an anti-pollutant. #21

Phytochemical screening and microbiological assay of Derris elliptica (TUBLI)

Ma Teresa Bien, Charissa Macabangun, Winnie Mancenido, Bernadette Prado

The phytochemical screening of Derris elliptica (tubli) was done using ethanol as the extracting medium. Microbiologically-active components of the plant were detected, namely, alkaloids, flavonoids, free acids and polyphenolic compounds. Two bacteria, E coli and S aureus, were used against the plant extract in the microbiological assay, with ethanol as solvent. Only S aureus showed an inhibition.


Investigating the effects of Hallucinogenic mushroom extract on some patterns of behavior of mice and cats
Randy Caal, Arsenio Bautista, Anthony Lopez

Some inedible mushrooms that thrive on the waste products of cows, carabaos, and horses and other organic material contain psilocybin and psilocin, both potent tryptamines that induce hallucinations in a similar LSD does. Drug abusers have time and again been experimenting with this new drug, which they reason out, is cheaper than conventional narcotics, not really conscious of the dangers such a drug is detrimental to the health, either physical or mental of the user, besides contributing to the present knowledge of animal behavior. Mushrooms belonging to the species Psilocybe strichper were gathered from the grazing fields of Bacolod City, decocted, stored in sealed flasks and then refrigerated to avoid a possible spoilage. The extract was then substitute for the drinking water f 6 experimental mice for a period of three weeks, Four out of six of the experimental mice began to show signs of hyper activity and sub acute wariness after two weeks of the treatment. They were then subjected to the maze test, supposedly to test for their memory and learning ability and the water tank test, to test for their ability to escape, learning ability and efficiency. #24

Azolla pinnata (Azolla) as a feed for tilapia nilotica (nile tilapia)

Conchita T Capitan, Jewel Eta C Manlawe, Eleanor Q Delos Reyes, Alice S Saliba, Corrinna T Tiongson

Azolla pinnata (Azolla) is an aquatic fern found to be a good source of protein and therefore has been used extensively as animal feedstuffs and as fertilizers. In this study, the effectiveness of azolla as a feed substitute for tilapia nilotica (Nile tilapia) was tested using the following treatments: 25% azolla and 75% commercial feed (treatment II); 50% azolla and 50% commercial feed (treatment III); 75% azolla and 25% commercial feed (treatment IV); 100% azolla (treatment V) and 100% commercial feed (control). The gain in weight and increase in length per week were the parameters measured in determining the effectivity of azolla. Results of the experiment show that among the experimental groups, the fishes fed with the second treatment (25% azolla and 75% commercial feed) had the highest growth increase in terms of average weight and length. Statistical tests performed show that this treatment has no significant difference with that of the this treatment has no significant difference with that of the control and therefore would produce comparable results to that of the control. Hence it was concluded that azolla by itself could no be used as a feed substitute; although it could be utilized as a feed supplement in percentage ranging from 0-25% of the whole feed. #25

A comparative study of the anti-microbial effects of some parts of leucaena leucocephala

Ahrnee Casano, Maricon Esguerra, Marcosa Ordeniza, Ma Eloisa Vidanes, Carina Villos

Leucaena leucocephalaS leaf, bark and seed extracts were tested for their antimicrobial properties. These extracts were tested with a gram negative bacteria (escherichia coli), gram positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus) and a certain fungus (Asperigillus flavus). The method we used in determining these anti-microbial properties was the paper Disc Method. Then, we measured the zones of inhibitions to the nearest millimeter. Zones of inhibition determine whether the antimicrobial properties of the leaf, bark and seed extracts are effective against the microorganisms mentioned above. #26

Tropical leaves as sources of protein concentrates for human consumption

Leo Anthony Celi, Rafael Consunji, Reynaldo Nolasco, Caroline Soria, Carlo Villorente

Leaf protein concentrates from the Amaranthus spinosus, celosia cristata and Ricinus communis plants were prepared using the heat coagulation method., These protein extracts were found to contain aromatic amino acids and sulfur-containing amino acids, which are usually deficient in common protein sources. Using the Kjeldahl process, the A spinosus leaf protein concentrate was found to contain 38.17% protein, the C cristata leaf protein concentrate was found to contain 57.25% protein, while the R communis leaf protein concetrate was found to contain 72.52% protein. It was found that the leaf protein concentrates from these tropical plants have biological values equal to that of the soybean meal. The leaf protein concentrates and the soybean meal had equal efficiencies in alleviating protein malnutrition in mice. Leaf protein concentrates had also been found to be acceptable to the Filipino taste when incorporated into caramel sweet preparations. This study was able to help in the present campaign to close the protein gap in the global food supplies by providing a cheap source of high quality protein from apparently useless naturally abundant tropical leaves. #27

A comparative study on the alcohol yield of acid hydrolyzates of gabi (Colocasia esculenta), Palauan (cyrtosperma merkush) and San Fernando (Xanthosoma sagittifolium),
Ana Maria Chupungco, Maria Teresa Delfin, Portia Grace Fernandez, Raymond Migrio, Delfin Sabido VIII

Acid hydrolysis of the corms of three members of the araceae family resulted in theoretical or potential alcohol yields of 35.90% for gabi (colocasia esculenta), 21.93% for palauan (cyrtosperma merkush), and 26.37% for San Fernando (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) utilizing dried corms for the substrate while values of 23.95% for gabi, 30.70% palauan, and 32.63% for San Fernando were obtained using starch concentrate for the corms. There were no significant differences in the theoretical alcohol yield among the three plant types for both substrate preparations using the F-statistical test. Subsequent alcoholic fermentation for 120 hours using the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded ethyl alcohol concentrations (%v/v) of 0.11

for dried gabi, 0.09 for dried palauan, and 0.01 for dried San Fernando, While the starch concentrates obtained values of 0.67 for gabi and palauan and 0.94 for San Fernando using gas chromatography. High reducing sugar concentrations were observed at the end of the fermentation period. The presence of isopropyl alcohol and acetaldehyde were detected in the fermentation mixture. Alcohol yields indicate the potential of utilizing the three plant types for alcohol production. #28

Phytochemical screening and microbiological assay of Languas Koenig (tagbak) stem extract
Danilo Cruz, Dionisio Mabalot Jr, Albin Nual, Raul Pineda, Immanuel Yap

Languas Koenig is a plant with some possibility as an alternate source of medicinal compounds. Through basic phytochemical screening, it has been found to contain alakaloids, leucoanthocyanins and probably tannins. During a period of twenty-four it was found to have some inhibiting effect, in an ethyl alcohol extract, on the growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa. During the same period no inhibition was observed on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli or Aspergillus oryzae in either water, benzene or ethyl acetate extracts.


Phytochemical screening and microbiological assay of oils from the seeds and fruit of Hibiscus esculentus (okra)
Ma Andriena Ida B del Ayre, Ma Victoria S Belisario, Carina Grace I Diaz, Jenaro V Flores, Annah Rebecca P Valmores

The rising need for medicine and the concurrent increase in their prices are reason why people today perservingly search for low-priced and common herb alternatives. One plant with possible healing potential is Hibiscus esculentus, ordinarily known as okra. In order to investigate if its fruit and seeds have relevant conctituents accountable for its medicinal properties, phytochemical screening was performed. The tests for alkaloids, saponins and tannins showed positive results while the tests for flavonoids, anthraquinones and cyanogenic glycosides revealed negative results. Microbiological assay was performed to find out if the plant extracts could inhibit bacterial growth. Based on the diameter of the zones of inhibition and the paper-disc diffusion method as means, observations showed partial inhibition on Escherichia coli in both benzene and ethanol fruit

and seed extracts, and on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the benzene fruit extract. #31

A study on the effect of nerium oleander leaf extract on the calcium content of quail eggshell
Roberto Devanadera, Erwin Baldonado, Rolando Ursua.

The ill effects of pesticides and their immediate impact on the environment are some of the main concerns of ecologists today. Hydrogen cyanide, a new source of pesticide, is widely-used and available in the Philippines. The proponents wanted to see if there is a relation between varying concentrations of hydrogen cyanide from the adelfa leaf and the amount of calcium carbonate in the quails egg. The study has three experimental groups with two quails each. The first group was treated with 0.2% extract in laying mass (W/W), the second 0.4% and the third, 0.6%. For control, the researchers used the eggs laid by the quails during the adjustment period, when no treatment of the extract was done. Results showed a definite relation between the second and third groups and the calcium content, based on the values gathered from the control group. However, because of limited sample space, the results are not very conclusive. Nevertheless, this study showed that researches on the effect of hydrogen cyanide on the calcium carbonate content of quail eggs are worthy of further investigation. #32

Extraction and analysis of oil from the fruit of bangkal for possible fuel properties
Ellen Diano, Jose Dugo, Uldarico Macatangay, Angelo Perez, Jason Soriano

Bangkal fruits were gathered from a tree in Negros Occidental province. There were two phases of the study. In the fruit phase, oil was extracted from eight 40g batches of fruit using Soxhlet apparatus and petroleum ether s solvent. The extracts were analyzed, using bomb calorimetry to determine the heating value; saponification number and specific gravity were also determined. In the second phase, percentage oil yield was determined. Heat value was found out to be 16281 Btu/lb, specific gravity to be 0.928 at 60 F, and saponification number was found to be 179.3. Average percent yield of 7.226%, as compared to percent oil yield of Euphorbia, was found to be not significant.


Separation and quantitative determination of amino acids in seed proteins of various cucurbits by paper chromatography
Jose Jeffrey V Enejosa, Ma Angela V Baula, Yolanda Arabella T Bernado, Edgar B Cruz, Christine E Navarro

Five samples, weighing 15 each, of seeds from ampalaya (Momordica Charantia), Kalabasa (Cucurbita maxima), sayote (Sechium Edule), upo (Lagenaria leucantha), and patola (luffa acutangula), were each homogenized in 80% ethanol. The resulting homogenates were centrifuged three times, each time, adding 50 ml. 80% ethanol, and collecting all supernatants. The collected supernatants were separated into two set-ups: the second one undergoing preparative steps. Some 0.006 ml. of the collected cocnetrates were placed in the chromatograms and run in two directions. The developed spots were eluted in ammonium hydrate and brought to spectrophotometric analysis. Identification was carried out by comparison with amino acid standards and staitical analysis was carried out using the t-test comparison with soybean. Average amino acid yield from three replicates showed high methionine content in upo and sayote; phenylalanine in sayote, upo, and ampalaya; alanine in ampalaya, sayote, and kalabasa; histadine in ampalaya, sayote, and patola; lysine in kalabasa, and asparagines, serine, and proline in upo, sayote, and sayote, respectively. Yields from samples are directly comparable with that of soybeans.


The effect of extracts of selected Philippine plants on the blood glucose level of rats

Edward Garcia, Jose Mari Gorres, Manuel Macapinlac Jr, Gil Paguio, Gilbert Vitucio

Two plants, kangkong (ipomea aquatica) and banaba (lagerstroemia speciosa), along with Rastinon, a pharmaceutical drug were tested for their relative hypoglycemic effects on rats. Decoctions of the above-mentioned substances were fed to the rats. Blood samples were taken from the tips of their tails which were then subjected to the enzymatic glucose determination test. Six rats were used with a total of three blood samplings for each extract. The results showed that banaba had the ability to lower the blood glucose level by 29%, kangkong by 71%, and rastinon by 37%.


Protein enriched food from the utilization of leaf protein concetrate extracted from hibiscus rosasinensis (gumamela)
Fe Guhit, Stephen Martin, Fernando Roque, Gina Santiago, Antonio Teao

An investigation on the feasibility of gumamela leaf protein concentrate (LPC) as a source of protein for human consumption was conducted. Pandesal was chosen as the vehicle for the LPC incorporation which was set in percentage of 0, 3, 6 and 8 with 0% serving as the control or commercial type. Sensory evaluation tests show that up to 6% LPC incorporation is tolerable an commercially acceptable, except for the color, which was rejected for the 8% incorporation was inconclusive. The average protein content of Gumamela LPC was found to be 30.21% on the average. #37

Phytochemical screening and microbiological assay of oregano leaves extract (Coleus amboinicus vulgaris)
Henry Ma, Ricardo Torres, Stephen Javier, Helen Grace Dizon, Linda Remonte

Phytochemical screening and microbiologicl assay was done on the ethyl alcohol extract of oregano (coleus amboinicus vulgaris) leaves. Additional solvents used in the assay includes hexane, water and ethyl acetate. The phytochemical screening showed that the oregano leaves extract contain steroid nuclei, unsaturated sterols and triterpenes, r-benzopyrone nuclei and hydrolysable tannins. Microbiological screening showed that the oregano leaves extract contain steroid nuclei, unsaturated sterols and triterpenes, r-benzopyrone nuclei and hydrolysable tannins. The microbiological assay showe dthat, on the six micro-organisms used as subjects: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Pseudonomas aeroginosa, Penicillum lilacineum and Aspergillus flavus, no inhibition at all resulted. #39

Phytochemical screening and microbiological assay of anmerta cocculus (bayati) leaves

Ferdinand J Mateo, Victor P Navarra, Perseus G Redillas, Louie R de Velez, Jose Alberto V Villareal

The research work aims to determine the phytochemicals present in the anamerta cocculus or bayati leaves and the microbiological assay of its alcohol and benzene extracts Phytochemical screening was done on the benzene, ethyl acetate, and ethyl alcohol extracts. The microbiological assay was performed on the benzene and ethyl alcohol extracts only. The phytochemicals screened were alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardenolides and bufadienolides, cyanogenic glycosides, saponins and flavonoids. The benzene and ethyl alcohol extracts was tested against three bacteria, namely, S aureus, E coli, B subtilis, and P aerogenosa. Results showed that the phytochemicals present in the plant extracts were alkaloids, cardenolides, and bufadienolides, cyanogenic glycosides, and saponins. The extracts used for the anti-bacterial activity inhibited the growth of E coli. #40

A comparative study on ethyl alcohol yield from hydrochloric and sulfuric acid saccharified amorphophallus campanulatus (Pongapong)

Maximi Tandoc Jr, Noel Garcia, Pauline Lerma, Alelli Sahagun, Earlyn Suministrado

Sixty (60) gram samples of powdered Amorphophallus campanulatus, or pongapong, were subjected to varying treatments of acid (HCl/H2SO4), acid concentration (3%, 4%, 5%) and steam pressure (15/20 psi) for saccharification. Saccharomyces cereviseae was used as fermenting organism. Distillates showed the highest ethyl alcohol percentages in hydrolysis conditions with sulfuric acid (H2SO4), 4% acid concentration, at 20 psi steam pressure. #41

Indoor cultivation of selected edible mushrooms using household waste materials as substrates in plastic bags
Fernand Tansingco, Dennis Merino, Leah Carreon, Joseph Hong, Alvin Jaro

The researchers have developed a procedure which enables urban dwellers cramped for space to cultivate mushrooms at minimum cost. The experiment made use of household wastes as substrate and polyprophylene bags as bed foundation in cultivating kabuting dayami (volvariella

volvaceae), taingang daga (Auricularia polytricha) and oyster mushrooms (pleurotus ostreatus). The mushrooms may be harvested 4 to 4 weeks after planting and provide the city people with much needed protein. The steps in the preparation and care of the beds are described. #42

Acid Saccharification of three grass species

Patricia Agunod, Cristina Arguelles, Danilo Manuud, Tania Villalonga, Valentin Yabes

Three common grasses were used as experimental species, namely, Imperata cylindrica (cogon), Brachiaria mutica (para-grass), and panicum auritum (Aguingay). The samples were dried, milled, then saccharified with hydrochloric acid. In the first treatment, 3% HCl was added to the samples at a 3:1 acid-to-substrate ratio (AR). 3% HCl at a 5:1 ASR, 5% HCl at a 3:1 ASR, and 4% HCl at a 5:1 ASR were added in the second, third, and fourth treatment respectively. The resulting hydrolyzates were analyzed using the Shaffer-Somogyi Method for determination of specific reducing sugars, and for total reducing sugar concentration by the aresnomolybdate Method. However, the Shaffer-Somogyi Method was found to be effective only for solutions of low sugar concentration (up to 3 mg/ml.) Optimum saccharification conditions for I cylindrica and P auritum were found to be 5% HCl at a 3:1 ASR B mutica yielded the greatest amount of reducing sugars (245 mg/ml). an amount twice that of P auritum and thrice that of I cylindrica B mutica also reported by bermejo (1953. Thus B. mutica is a very promising source of reducing sugars.

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