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HEL chapter 1- Indo-European Family of Languages Background of English - Developed in Britain and more recently in America - Did not

begin in Britain but was an immigrant language, coming there with the invading Anglo-Saxons in the fifth century. - It developed from a speechway we call Indo-European, which was the source of most other European and many south-Asian Languages. - Indo-European is a matter of culture, not of genes. - Early Europe inhabited by a Paleolithic (old stone age), then replaced by Neolithic (new stone age). - The latter were supposedly replaced by a Bronze age culture (beginning between 4000 and 3000 B.C) spread by a sweeping invasion of technologically more advanced people from the east. - Linguists thought that the Indo-European languages, of which English is one, were spread across the continent by the invading of Bronze age hordes, who came in chariots and wiped out the native population and cultures. Indo-European origins Culture - Considered as advance - Those who spoke the parent language, which known as Proto-Indo-European. - They used gold, silver, copper and iron and drink a honey-based alcoholic beverage. - Words like wheel, axle and yoke make it clear that they used wheel vehicle. - Their religion was polytheistic, including a sky father which commonly known as Zeus. - The cow and the horse were important to the society, wealth is being measured by a count of cattle. How Indo-European was discovered - We can only guess where Indo-European was originally spoken but there clues, such as the name of plants and animals but none for creatures indigenous to Asia, all this point to an area between northern Europe and southern Russia. - The early Indo-European have been identified with the Kurgan cultures of mound builders, lived northwest of the Caucasus and north of the Caspian sea early as the fifth millennium. - They domesticated horses and cattle, which they kept for milk and meat as well as transportation - Using four wheel wagons. - Built fortified palaces on the hilltop. - Their society was a stratified one, with a warrior nobility and a common laboring class.

Highly developed belief in after life, which led them to the construction of elaborate burial sites, by which their culture can be traced over much of Europe.

Sanskrit - Well-made / perfected - One of the oldest language - Can be summarized that Sanskrit was not dead as a written but had a status more similar to Latin in Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Prakrits - Developed long before Sanskrit became a refined and learned language. - Pali- Religious language of Buddhism that achieved high literary status. - Indirectly derived various non-Dravidian language of India. Eg: Bengali, Hindi and Urdu. Romany (Gypsy) - Belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. - Sometimes classified in the Central or Northwestern group within this branch. - Romany derived from rom(human being) and the word Romany has nothing to do with Rome. Iranic - Those Indo-European who settled in the Iranian Plateau developed several languages. - Old Persian is the ancestor of modern Iranian. - Known to the Greeks as Persis whose inhabitants under the leadership of Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC. - Many Persians migrated to India after the Muslim conquest of Iran in the 8th century. - Zoroastrians in religion (became Ancestors of modern Parsis of Bombay. - Avestan was another Iranian tongue. - It was a sacred language. Balto-Slavic - 3 types of Baltic languages: Prussian, Latvian and Lithuanian. - Chief Baltic language- Lithuanian - Lithuanian is quite conservative phonologically, so that one can find a number of word in it that are very similar in form to cognate words in older Indo-European. Eg: Dievas-Lithuanian and Devas-Sanskrit, both of these words mean god. Prussian - Spoken as late as the 17th century - Heathen until the end of the middle ages Latvian - Closely related to Lithuanian

Slavic falls into three main subdivisons: East- Russian, Ukrainian, Belarussian West- Polish, Czech, Sorbian, Sloyak South- Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian The oldest Slavic writing- (Old Church Slavic) we know is part of the bible and certain liturgical texts translated by missionaries Cyril and Methodius (9th century) Use throughout the middle ages Still remained a liturgical language long after it ceased to be generally spoken

Latin - In ancient Italy, the main Indo-European language was Latin - As Rome came to dominate the Mediterranean, it spread its influence into Gaul, Spain, the lllyrian and Danubian countries. - Entered Britain but failed to displace Celtic. - Spoken Latin survives in the Romance languages, i.e. Italian, Spanish, Catalan, Galician, Portugese, French, Provencal and Romanian - Developed from Vulgar Latin (vulgus- common people spoken in the various part of the late Roman Empire.)