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The Epistles of St. Paul written after h

3 1924 031 232 717


oiin.anx
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Library

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tine Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in


the United States on the use of the text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031232717
The Epistles of St. Paul
WRITTEN AFTER HE BECAME A PRISONER.

ARRANGED IN THE
PROBABLE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER,

Viz. EPHESIANS, COLOSSIANS, PHILEMON, PHILIPPIANS.


I. TIMOTHY, TITUS, and II. TIMOTHY.

WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES.

Eext of ^Tisdjentujrf,

WITH

A CONSTANT COMPARISON OF THE TEXT OF


TREGELLES, AND OF WESTCOTT
AND HORT.

BV

JAMES R. BOISE, D.D., LL.D.,


PROFESSOR IN THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY AT MORGAN PARK, ILLINOIS.

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
I, 3, AND 5 Bond Street.

1887.
Copyright, 1887,

By JAMES ROBINSON BOISE.


PREFACE.

The notes on the first four of the following Epistles were


printed in 1884. Some typographical errors have been cor-
rected in this edition. The notes on the last three Epistles
are now published for the first time. My aim is stated in
the Introductory Note following the Greek text and prefixed
to the commentary. It is similar to that of the International

Revision Commentary on the New Testament ; with the dif-

ference that the original language, instead of a translation,


is taken as the basis of the notes.
In addition to the excellent helps which are elsewhere
referred to, I can now mention Thayer's Greek-English Lexi-
con of the New Testament. This I have used constantly,
and with increasing satisfaction, since its first publication.
I cannot speak too emphatically of its value. To every
student of the Greek New Testament who aims at anything

like thoroughness, it is indispensable.


It is my intention, should life and strength be spared, to
prepare another volume, corresponding to the present one,
containing the Greek text of those Epistles of Paul which
were -written before he became a prisoner, also with notes.
In the hope that this work may aid the student and the
pastor in the careful and intelligent study of some of the
more difficult and important portions of the divine word, this

volume is now submitted to the public.

tneologtcal seminary,
Morgan Park, III., 1887.
EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS

AT THE FOOT OF THE PAGE IN THE VARIOUS


READINGS.

H, edition of Westcott and Hort ;


[H], the same editors, to
indicate a probable interpolation ;
[[H]], to indicate omissions in
" Western " documents alone, or in " Western " and " Syrian "
;

also to indicate " important matter apparently derived from extra-

neous sources."

H§ indicates a difference in H from Tischendorf ; yet retained


by Tischendorf as a marginal reading.
H* indicates the same, except that the marginal reading is

included in brackets ; Ht indicates the same, except that the

reading is included thus, H h , "to indicate a word or words


similar in character to the ' Western ' interpolations already
mentioned."

h is a marginal reading of H: Hh I- a marginal reading included


thus : H h.

T indicates the reading of Tregelles ;


[T], T§, T*, see above,

[H], H§, H*.

t is T in the margin ;
[t] a marginal reading included in

brackets.

Ti indicates Tischendorfs eighth larger critical edition, where


it differs from the text of Tauchnitz, third edition.
nP02 E4)E2IOY2.

'^
'
JTaCXos airo(TTo\o<; Xpiarov Irjaov Sea deXrj- ^i.^'
''"' '•

fiajo<; 6eov tok djioi,(; ro2<; ovcnv [ef 'JE<^6(76)]

Kai TnuToif kv Xpiaro) 'Irjaov. ^ %"/"? vfuv kui


eiprivr] airo deov Trarpo? rjfjiwv Kai Kvpiov Irjaov
Xpiarov.
^ Ev\oyr]TO<; 6 6€0<s Kai iraTrip tov KVpiov rjficov 3- = Cor. i. 3.

'Irjaov Xpiarov, 6 evXoyT^aa<s fjp.a'; ev iraar) ev-

\oyia irvevfiariKy ev rot? eTrovpavioii ev Xpiaro),


*Ka6o)^ e^eke^aro rjp.a'i ev avrm irpo kuto^oXtj^ 4. coi. i.s2.

Koafiov, eivai rjfj,a^ dyiovf Kai afiwyiovi Karevoi-


TTiov avTov, ev ayairrj ^ irpoopiaav rjfiav eit vio-

6eaiav Sia 'Irjc^ov Xpiarov et? avrov, Kara rrjv


evSoKiav rov 6e\r]/j,aro<: avrov, * et? erraivov Bo^rj<;

T^9 •)(apiro<; avrov, jj? e^apirmaev rjjj.a'; ev rat

rjyarrrjfjLevm, ''
ev at e^ofiev rrjv arroXvrpcoaiv Bia ?• coi. 1. 14.

rov ai^aroi; avrov, rrjv a^eaiv rS>v irapaTrrw-


fiarosv, Kara to Tr\ovro<; rrj^ j(^aptTO<! avrov, ^rj^

eirepiaaevaev ei<s rjfi,a<s ev rraarj ao<j>ia Kai <j)po-

vrjaei "^
yv(opiaa<s rjjiiv ro fivarrjptov rov deXrj/jia- 9. iii.3;coLi.26.

Tos avrov, Kara rrjv evBoKiav avrov, rjv nrpoedero


••
ev avrm '° eii oiKOvojiiav rov 7r\rjpo)fiaro<! toji' JJ, p^^;,^;-.

I. I, T^ ev e^fCTD) 4* T'H avrov €V ayairrj^


8 nPOS E*E2I0Y2. I. II.

Kaipwv, avaKecfiaXaiaxraadai ra iravra ev t^


Xpiarm, ra eTn roii ovpavoi^ Kai ra eiri t^? "y^?,

II. III. II. tv avrm, " ev m koI eKkrjpwdrjfiev irpoopiiavevTet

Kara irpoaeaiv rov ra iravia evepyovvTO'i Kara


rtjv ^ov\rjV rov 66\T)p,aro<! avrov, '^
6« ro eivat

7]fj,a<; ei? eiraLvov So^r]<; avrov, toi/? irporfKiriKorai;

l^J^'iS'
' '^°''
ev rm Xpicrro)' '^ ev a> km vfiel<s, aKovaavre<; rov
\oyov TJj? aXrjdeiai, ro evayyeXiov rrj^ crcorrjpiat
vfjLcov, ev ft) Kal •iri<rrevcravre<! ea^payiadtfre ra>
ayia, '^ eariv
rrvevfiari t^? errayyeXia'i ra> o?
appa^av t^? KXrjpovofA.ui'i tj/j,wv ei? atroXvrpaaiv
rrj<! •jrepnroirjaeci}';, et? eiraivov rrj<: So^rji; avrov.

IS. Col. i, 9.
'^ Aia rovro Kaya, aKovaai rrjv Kad vfiai
TTiariv ev ra> Kvplai 'Irjaov koL rrjv ayamjv tt/v

Rim.!""^'"' ^" rravra<; rov; ay cow, '^ou rravofiai €V)(apia-rwv

virep vfiav fiveiav rrotovfievo^ em Tcii' rrpocrevj(5>v

fiov, '' iva 6eoi rov Kvpiov rjfiwv Itjitov Xpt-


arov, 6 rrarrjp rrji Sofi;?, 80017 vfuv wvevfia ao^ia^
^^''- ' '3 i
/cat airoKaXvifrewi ev eTriyvcoaei avrov '^
ve^m-
g;,

Ticrfievovi row o^daXp,ov<i t^? Kaphia<; vfiwv, ei?


TO etSevai vp.a<i ra eariv rj tXira t^? KXrjtretoi

avrov, Tt? d ttXoutos t^? Bo^rj<i rrj<} KXtjpovofiia^


avrov ev roll ayioit;, '' xai, ri ro vTrepffaXXov
fieyedoi; rrjv SvvafJ,€a><i avrov et? 'rjfiav tou? irt-

arevovra^ Kara rrfv evepyetav rov Kparovt rrji

SO. ii.6iPs.cx.i. t<7p^V09 avrov, i)V evr}pyr)Kev ev rm Apurrto


eyeipa<; avrov eie vexpStv xai Kadi.cra'; avrov (v
ai. coLii.io. Be^ta avrov tv rois irrovpavioK " xnrepavm rraarjs

I4. Of; t H' o I


H ij/ioiv, I5. [t] H om Trjv ay<nn)V
17' h 8o>n V. Sm I
TH cv (myv. aurou, 18. H Tijt Kaph.
[vfiav]. 20. T' h tvr)pyrfiTtv \
TH om avTav SC.
;

2. 8. nP02 E*E2I0Y2. 9

ap-)(rj'i Koi e^ov(7i,a<; Koi Bvvdfieo)'; Kai KvpioTTjro^


Kal iraPTO<! ovofjLaTo<; ovofMa^ofievov ov fiovov ev
" " " \
'
TtB aiaui TovTta
'
aWa
'^
^
km
^ ^ »
ev to) ueWovri,
-v 22
Kai
^ 22. Ps. viii. 7
icor. xv. s,;

Travra virera^eu inro tov<s iroSai avTov, Kai av-


Tov eSwKSV Ke^aXrjv inrep travra ttj eKKXrjaia,
^^^Tt? ea-nv to awfia avrov, to ifKrjpaijjia tou 23- coi. i. is.

T(z iravTa ev iracnv TrXripovfievov.

II.

'
Kai viMa<; ovra<s veicpov<s Tot? Trapainaiiacnv 11. i. coi. n. 13.

Kai TOi? dfiapTiaK vfioiv, ^ ev ai<; irore irepie- 2. coi. iii 7, 6.

iraT-rjcraTe Kara tov aiwva rov koct/xov tovtov,


Kara rov ap^ovra ttj? e^ovaia<; tou aepoi, tov
TTvev/Jbaro^ rov vvv evepjovvro^ ev Tot? vwl'i ttji

aireiOeiaf, ^ ev ot? Kai T]p,el^ •jravre'i avearpa^rj-


fiev TTore ev rot? e7ndvfj,iai<; t^? aapKo<; rjfiwv,

TTOiovvTe^ Ta 6e\T]fiaTa T'tjv crapKO<; Kai rwv Sia-

voiwv, Kai rjfieua re/cva (pvaei opyrji; co? Kai 01


XoiTToi '
'*
he 6eo<s irXovcrio^ cov ev eXeei, Bia
T'qv "TToXXrjv ajairrjv avrov rjv rjjaTrriaev rj/iat,

5 Kai ovTUi rjpav vexpov; Tois •7rapaTnu)ixa<Tiv aw- s coi. ii. «.

e^cooTTOirjcrev tw Xpiarm, ^apiri ecrre aeauxr-


pevoi — ^ Kai avvr]jeipev Kai avveKaOiaev ev 5.1.20.

roll: eirovpavioit ev Xpiaro) Irjaov, ''


iva evSei-

^rjTM ev roi<i aiaxriv roi<; eirep'^ofievoi'i to virep-


^aXXov ttXowto? tjj? ')(apno'; avjov ev ')(pr]crTOTrjTi

e<^ rjfj.a'i ev Xpia-Tut 'Irjcrov. * Ty yap ')(api7i

ecTTe aeaaa/xevoi Sia nricTTeco'i, Kai tovto ovk e^

II. 2. H aweidias 3. t <f)vcrei tckvu |


H Xotjrot 5- h
ev TO) xp.
lO nP02 E*E2I0Y2. 2. 9.

vfj-cov, deov TO hwpov • ^ ovk ef epytov, tva fiT]

. 10. Tt? Kav^7]<r'qTat, • avrov yap ecTfiev •jronjp.a, kti-

a6ivTe<; ev Xpiarm Ir)<jov em €pyoi<; ayaSolv,


019 TTpoTjToifiacrev 6 0eo<s tva ev avroK •jrepiira-

TTjcrasfjiev.

.iL2«. ^'
Aio fivrj^ovevere on Trore vfiel^ tu eOvij ev

aapKi, 01 Xeyofxevoi UKpo^vcrria vtto t^? \eyo-


iz.
Heb.
Rom.\^^-
xi.
* fji,evr}<; TrepiTOfirjv ev aapici •)(ei,po7roir)Tov, "on
rjTe 7a> Kaipm eKeivm ')((i)pi<s Xpiarov aiTTfKXorpir-

(Dfievoi TTj? TToXneca'} tov IffparjK xat ^evoi twv


hiaOrfKcov rrji eTrayye\ia<;, eXiriSa fit] e')(0VTe'; kclI

13. Is. ivii. 15.


aOeoi ev ra Koafim ' '^ vvvi Be ev Xpiarat Itjctov
v/iei<! 01 TTOTe OJ/T65 fioKpav eyevrj6T]Te tyyv^ iv
roi aip,an rov XpicrTov. '* ai/TO? yap eariv rj

eipr)vr] rjiiaiv, o iToir]aa<} ra a/j,^oTepa ev Kai ro


15. Col. ii. 14. fiecroTOCX^ov rov (ppayfiov Xvaa's, '^ ^fjp e^Opav,
ev rjj aapKL avrov rov vofiov rS)v evroXiov ev
Boyfiaaiv Karapyrjo'a'i, iva rov; Bvo Knar) ev
avra> et? eva Kaivov avOponrov rroiav eipTqvqv,

16. Col. i. 20, 22. '^ Kai aTTOKaraXXa^TTj rovi ap.^orepov<s ev evi

trwfiarc rp Beat Bia rov aravpov, aTTOKretva's rrjv

17. Is. Ivii. 19. e^6pav ev avrm, '^ Kai eXdoav evrjyyeXiaaro
eiprjvfjv vfilv Tot? fiaKpav Kai eiprjVTjv tois eyyi'?,
isjii. 12; Rom. 18 ^.^j
gj avrov e'x^ofj.ev rriv rrpoaay(oyr}v ol d/xtfio-

repoi ev evi nrvevfian irpot rov rrarepa. '' apa


ovv ovKeri eirre ^evol koI rrdpoiKoi, dXXd eare
». Is. xiviii. 16. avvrroXirai roiv ayioyv Kai oiKeioi rov 6eov, ^ eiroi-
KoBo/MrjOevrev em ru> 6efj,eXi<p rwv avoardXav
Koi rrpo^rjrav, ovroi aicpoycovialov avrov Xpi-

15. H 7-. cx^pai/ (V I


TH tv Tq trapki avrov, | H fv ufro)
16. H aravpov airoKT. 19. T a-vfinoK
'

3. 10. nP02 E*E210Y2. I I

(TTOU 'Ir/aov, " ev at iraaa oiKoBofir) avvap/xoXo- 21. iv. l6; I


iii. x6.
Cor.

yoviMevT) av^et, «s vaov ayiov ev Kvpia, " ev oa 22. i p«. u. 5.

Koi v/jLel'} avvoiKoSofjbeiffOe et? KaroiKrjTqpiov rov


6eov ev TTvev/iaTi.

III.

'
TovTov vapip eyo) IIav\o<s o Sec7fii,o<; rov iii. i. iv. i.

XpiaTov virep v/j.S)v twv eOvcbv — ^ etye rjKOvaaTe

T^i/ oiKovofiiav Trj^ ^aptro? rov 0eov t^? Bodeicrr]^

fioi 6ts v/iai, ^ OTi Kara airoKaXv\}nv eyvapccrOi] 3.1.9; c^ui.i^.

fioi TO fivaTTjpiov, Ka6a)<; irpoeypayfra ev oKcym,


* Trpos b Bvvaade avayivaffKOvre'; vorjcrai, tt)V aw- feom?xv[l';s.^
' » « f n »^ A e A <. Col. i. z6: I
e(TLV fiov ev Tea fjbVffTrjpia) rov Jipia-rov, ^ o tor. a. 7ss. (Eph.

erepai'; yeveav'i ovk eyvwpiavr] roi'i vi,oi<; tiov

avdpcoirwv to? vvv aireKoXv^d'q toi? dyi,ot<! atro-

<7To\ot? avTov /cat, vpoiprjTaLi ev TTvevfiaTi, ^ eivai 0. Cai. iii. 28s.

Ta edvT) avvK\rjpovo/J,a Kat avvacofia Kai crvvfie-

TO'x^a TJj? eTrayyeXtai; ev Xpicrrw Irjaov Sta lov


evayyeXlov, ' ov eyevqOrjv Sia/covo^ Kara ttiv Sa>- 7. coi. i. 23, 25.

peav T^s j^apiTos rov deov rrj<! hodeia-r}<! fioi Kara


rrjv evepyeiav t^? Swd/ieo)'; avrov. * efiol tw Lm^f.'s Tcof i!
27s. Rom. xi. 33.
;

eXai^tffTOTep^) iravrcov dyi,u>v eBodrj rj 'xy-pi'i avTij,

To2<i eOvecyiv evayyeXiaacrOai, to ave^i'^viaaTov


•irT^MVTOi Tov XpicTTOV, ' Kai <f)eoTiaai, Tit r) oiko- |j

vofiia TOV fivcTTtjpiov TOV aTTOKeKpvfMfievov airo


Twv atwvcov ev tw 6em tw to iravra KTiaavTi,
10. 21 Cnl
tva yvcopKTUT] vvv Tat? ap'x^ai'; Kai Tat? e^ovcriai'} x6 ,
i.

Koni.
i

xi. 33.
i.

III. I. xpuTToV. TH add n^a-ov 3- H [oti] Kara 5. T


a-yiojf, 6. T avyKXrjp. et a-uiiiieT. ys. H Swa/i. ttj? avrov
— cfioi T(o (X. 77. ay. eS. j; x^P- "'""'/ — 9- <l>aiTi(rm : T h add
TraiTay
12 nP02 E*E2I0Y2. 3- "
ev Tolf ktrovpavioi'i Bia rrj^ etcKXTjaiai rj ttoXv-

I. 9.
I.I s Tim.
^oliciXot a-ocj)ia tov deov, " Kara Trpodea-iv rav aico-

vmv r)v eiroiT]a-€U ev rii Xpiar^ Ij]<tov rm Kvpim


i=. ii. I8:
V. 2 ; viii. i5i I
Rom. p*^^,***
ev m e^ofiev
rjfj,Q}v,
V
rr]v
/
Trapprjaiav Kai irpoaa-
V

yayyTjv ev ireiroidricrei, Bia Trj<! wtffTeo)? avrov.


'^ /Jio evKaKe'w ev rai,^ OXi-yfreaiv
13. Gal. vi. 9. ai,Tovfiat ixT)

M- (Acts XX. 36.) fJ-ov inrep vfiwv, r]Tt.<: ecncv Bo^a vfiwv. ^* tovtov
')(o.pw Kap/ina) ra yovara fxov irpo<; tov -iraTepa,
'
ef ov iraaa irarpia ev ovpavoLf kul eiri 'yr]<i

Ii; ic'or.fvfis! ovofia^sTat., '^


iva Ba Vfuv Kara to ir\ovTO<; t^?
Bo^rjv avTov Bvvafiei KpaTaiicOfjvat Bia tov trvev-

17. John liv. 23. fiaroi; avrov ets tov eaa> avOpcoirov, '^ KaToiKrjaai
TOV XpKTTOv Bia Trj<! TTKTTea)? ev Tali; KapBuii<s
'*
vfiwv, ev aydirr) eppt^oofievoi Kai redefieXico-

fievoi, iva e^LO-^varjTe KaTaXafieaOai aw traaiv


T0t9 dyioK Ti TO vXaTO^ Kai firixoii Kai, /Sudo;
'9- • =3- Kai vy]ro<;, "' yvwvai, re Tqv vTrep^aXXovtrav t^s
yvo}ffea)<! ayixTrriv tov XptaTov, iva TrXr]pti}6TJTe

eii irav to irXripasfia tov Seov.


SOS. Rom. xvi.

25SS. Ta> Be Bwajxevw vrrep iravra Troirj(7ai inrep-

eKirepiaaov wv aiTov/xeOa rj voovp,ev Kara t^i/

BvvafiLV TTfV evepyovjxevqv ev rjfj.iv, " avroi r] Bo^a


ev Ty eKKXrja-ia kui, ev Xptar^ Irjaov ei<i Traaa<;

Ttt? yevea<s tov ai,covo<: t<ov aiuvav •


afirjv.

IV.

IV.
1,0.
1. iii, 1 •
CoL I TT
llapaKaKw ovv
..*«9P«>\»p,/
tjco o oeafiioi;
vfj,a<!
1

ev Kvpia,
a^KO'S 7repcvaTrj<Tai Trjt KXTjaeat ^? eKKXT]6r)Te,

13- T cyKaKfiv 17s. H ev t. KapS. vfimv ev aycrmi •

18. T!H' K. v\jroc K. (Saflor I9. nXrjpaSqrf tis : h nXrjpaiOt)


4- 1 5- nP02 E*E2I0YS. I
3
^ (leja iracrr)!} 7aTreivo(f>pocrvvr]<; koI vpavrr)jo<;, ,. coi. ui. uss.

fiera fiUKpoOvfuai;, ave^^d/jievoi aWi^Xaiv ev ajdirr],


' <nrovoa^ovTe<; Tqpelv ttjv evoTrjra tov TTvevfiaTOi
ev ra> ffvvheafiai t^? elprivr)';. ^ ev aa)/j,a koI ev
irvevfia, Kadcov km eK\rjdr}Te ev fita eXTriSi rrji
«X7jo-ea)S viJi,a)v • ^ eh Kvpw^, /Mia Tr/uTt?, ev /Sa- li.'s?'' "t..!'

TTTiafia' ^ 6t? Oeo'i Koi iraTTjp "ttcivtcov, 6~ eirl

"JravTwv Kai Bia iravrajv Koi ev Tracnv, ' ev), Se


eKaarcp ^fiwv eZodrf rj p^a/jt? Kara to fierpov ttj^

Bcopeav TOV Xpia-Tov. * Sio Xeyei •


ava^u'i elf a. ps. uvia. 19.

111/ro? yxM-oKajTevaev ai^fiaXcocriav, eSm/cev Sdfiara


roif av6pa>Troi<!. ' to Se ave^t] ti eajiv el fir]

OTi Kai Kare^r] et? ra Kararepa fieprj rrj^ yfj^ ;



o KaTa^a<i avrof ecniv Kai, 6 ava^ai; vTrepdvo)
iravTcov tcov ovpavwv, iva TTArjpoxTr) ra ttuvtu.
" Kai avro<; eBcoKev tovi fj,ev aTToenoXovf, rovf 11. zc0r.xn.3e.

Be TTpoc^TjTa?, row Be ei/ayyeXtcrTa?, tou? Be irov-


fieva<} Kai BiBacrKuXovs, " Trpo? rov Karapriaphv
t5>v dyicov 619 epyov BiaKoviav, et? olKoBofj,7jv tov
aci}p,aTOf TOV XpicrTov, '^ fie'X^pi KaTavTricrco/j,ev 01

•n-avrei; et? ttji* evoTrjTa Trft TTto-Teto? Kai- 717?


€Triyv(ocTea)<! rot) viov tov 6eov, et<; dvBpa TeXeiov,
61? fieTpov ^XiKia<s TOV vXijpw/jiaToi; tov XpioTov,
''
iva fir]iceTi tofiev vryirioi, KXvBcovi^o/jbevot Kai
Trepi(f>epofj,evoi iravTi avep.m t^s BiBaaKaXiai; ev
Ty Kv^ia Ta>v avffpwrruiv, ev iravovpyla Trpo? t^v
fiedoBiav t^? TrXavi]<!, '^
aXriOevovTe'; Be ev dydirr] g,, '; ^^ " "^ '

av^Tjaafiev 6t? avrov tu iravTa, 6s eaTiv r] Ke<^aXrj,

IV. 2S. t fc ayanr] arrovha^. 3- H fiprjvris •


4. t H (ca-

ntor [icat] 7. T[H] cm fj 8. eSoiKfv : T[H] pm km 9. xa-


re^r/ : h add TtpiOTov 14. T Kv^eia T Travovpyia, T jjiedoSfiav
\ |

2
'

nPOS E*E2I0Y2. 4- i6.


14

,6. couiui,. Xpiaro<s, '*€^ ov irav to awfia ffwapfio\o'yo6,x.f-


vov Koi avv^i^a^oixevov Bia irdaiTi a^^? t^S

ewi'X^op'ijyia'; kut evepyeiav ev p,erp<p evot exa-

arov fiepovi 77]v av^Tjatv rov awp-aToi iroienai


etf avrov fv ayatrr).
otKoBofj,r]v

Tovro ovv \eyco Koi fiapTvpoiMM ev Kvpcai,


'">

liTfKeri vp,a<s "TrepnraTelv KaOw's koi ra evin} vepi-

18. Col. i. 21. Trarel ev fjtaTaioTTjri toO vooii avTwv, ' eaKOToa-

fievoi 7y Stavoia ovrei, airriXkorpuoixevoi tt;?

fw^s Tou 6eov, Bm rr]v ayvoiav rrjv -ivaav ev

avTol<;, Sia t^i/ nrmpuxriv rrjv KapBiaii avTonv,


"' oirivei dirrjXyTjKOTei iavrovv nrapehuiKav ly
aae\yeia et9 epyaaiav aKavapaia<i iraffrjv ev TTKe-

ove^ia. ^°vfj.eh ovx owrm?


Be efiaOere tov

Xpiardv, " etye avTOv ^Kovaare Kai ev avrm


eBlSax^VTe Kaddx; eariv d\T\6eia ev rm Irjaov,

52. Col. IB.,. " dirodeaOal vfid<: Kara T'^i' -Trporepav avaarpo-

^riv TOP iraXaiov dvOpwirov tov ipdeipofievov Kara


TO? enriOviuat t^? aTraT?;?, ^' avaveovcrdat Be t&j

24. Col. iii. lo. TTvevfiari tov voo'i vfiSiv '* Kai evovaaavai tov
Kaivov dvOptoTTov TOV Kara Oeov KTicoevra ev

BiKaioavvr) koi ocndrriTi ttj? a\r)6eiai.


25. zach. viii. i6.
^^ Alo d'TTodefievoi TO yfrevBo'; XaXeire aXtjdeiav
e/ca<TTO? fiera tov 'ir\T]<Tiov avTov, oTl etrfiev aK-
26. Ps.iv. 5. XTJXav iieXr}. ^ opyi^effOe Koi firj d/xapTdvere

6 ^\ios /xri eiriBveTQ) CTTt "Trapopyiff/ia vfiaiv,

''' "* o KXetrTeav


fjLTjSe BIB0T6 Toirov Tft) Bia^dXtp.
firjKSTi KXeiTTeTcd, fidXXov Be KOTTiaTto epya^o/te-

16. T a-ufi^i^. I
fiepovs '. h fjLf\ovs TH \ otKod. cavrov
21. H edi8a)(6riT€, |
H' Ka6a)s tarw h aXijdcia,
\ 23. tavave-
ovtrBc 24- t evSutrac^c
;

5- 6. nP02 E$E2iOYS. 15

vot rat? iBiUK ')^epacv to ayadov, iva e-^r) fiera-

SiSovai TO) ')(peiav e^oi/rt. "^TTa<! \oyo<i aavpot


€K Tov a-TOfJ,aTO<! v/Moov fir] eKVOpevecrdo), aWa ei,

Tt? ayaOo'! irpo'i oikoBo/jL'tjv t^? ^peia';, iva hat

')(apiv Toi^ uKovovuiv. ^ Kai fir] XvireiTe to 30. 1. 13.

wevfia TO ayiov tov deov, ei> a e<x^payio^0rjTe

ew Tjfiepav airoXvTpcoaeaq, ^' iraaa Tn/cpia Kai 31. coi. a s.

Ovfj.o'i Kai opyr] Kai Kpavyj) Kai ^\a(r<f)r]fj,ia ap-


drjTco a(j) vfia>v aw •jraai] KUKia. ^' yiveade Se 32- coi. m. 12s.

€4? a\XT;\oii? y^pria-Toi,, evcrirXayx^voi, yapi^ofievoi,

eavTolt Kudai'i Kai o 6eo<i ev XpidTU) evapiamo


VfUV.

V.

' Tiveade ovv fiifirjTai tov 6eov, to? reKva aya-


Trrira, ^ Kat, TrepiiraTene ev ayarrT), Kadcoi Kat, EiJi^^'Je"'
XpKTTO's rjyairrfa-ev vfiat Kai, TrapeSatKev eavrov
vtrep rjjjLaiv Trpoa(f)opap Kai dvaiav Ta> deut €is

ocTfirfv euaSta?.
^ Tlopveia Be xai aKadapa-ia iraaa r) vXeove^ia
IJ,r]Be ovofia^ecrdco ev v/uv, Ka6o><; irpeirei dyiOK,
* Kai aia'^poTrii rj /lapoXoyta ^ evTpaTreXla, a,

ovK avrJKev, aWa fiaWov ev)(^apiaTia • s


^oj^^ 5 Gai.y.=i!

yap tare yiva><TK0VTe<!, on, Tra? iropvois rj axdOap-


T09 T) vXeoveKT'T]'!, b eaTiv eiZonXoXaTpr)';, ovk
e^^et KXrjpovofiiav ev Ty ^acriiXeia tov Xpia-Tov
"
KOI deov. ^/ttijSets a-rraTaTO) Xoyot? ^ J TJ=^
vfj.di /cei^ot? • 3

Sta Tavra yap ep^eTai rj opyr) TotJ 6eov eirt row

28. H' om tSiais 32. t H yiv. [Se] |


vfitv : t h rj/iiv

V- 2. rj/xavH' v/xav
: 4. ?; pr : TH xai &H car€i£uis
6

1 nPOS E$E2I0Y2. 5- 7-

vlovi T^ aireideU';. ^ fir) olv rfiveade crvvfiero-


8. I Thess. V. 5. p^ot aVTCOV, * ^TC ^ap 770X6 CKo'tO?, VVI/ Se 9QJ9

9. cai. V. M. ei; Kvpup ' <BS TiKva (peoTO<; irepiTrareiTe, — o

yap Kapnoi rov ^ojto? ev iraatj ayaucoavvp Kai


lo Rom. lii. J. hiKaioavvT) KOI aXtjOsLa, — '° SoKi/ia^oinei; ri

e<niv eiidpea-TOv ra> Kvpia, " Kai fit] avvKoivco-

velre rolt epyoK rots a/capTrot? tov <tkotov9,

fiaWov Se kui eXey^ere. " ra yap Kpv^r} yevo-


/u^fa w avTwv ata-'x^pdv ta.Tiv xal \eyeiv • '^
ra
Se Trai/ra eXeyj^o/ieva inro toi) <^<btos <f>avepovTat •

'AvV%\'' " "*" 7"P "f" <}>avepovfievov ^oxs eaTiv. ^* Sio

Xe'yei •
eyeipe 6 icadevtaiv Kai avaara e/c twv
veicpaiv, KOI eiri^avaet aoi 6 Xpiarof.

15. Col. iv. 5-


'5 BXeTrere ovv dxpL^oj'; tto)? vreptTraTelTe, nv
a><; aao<f)oi, aX\ (oi ao(f>oi,
'''
e^ayopa^ofievoi top
Kaipov, OTl ai rifiepat •jrovrjpat eiaiv. '^'Sia tovto
fiT) yiveaOe aifipouev, aXXa avvcere ri to deXri/ia
'' oivw, ev
IS. Prov. ixiiL 31. fov Kvpiov. Koi fiT) fxedvcTKeaOe a>

l<jTiv aawTca, aX\a TrXijpovffBe ep wev/juni,


19s. Col. lii. 165.
'' XdXovvre'i e'auTot? tfraX/Jio2<; Kai vfivoK Kai

u)hai<i irvev^uiriKa1<s, oSorTC? Kai •^aXXovTe? Tp


KapBia vfj,a)V rat Kvpi^, ^ ev)(apiaTOVVT€<: irav-

TOTe inrep irdvTtov ev ovofiari rov Kvpiov Tj/jLoyv

Irjaov XpKTTOv too 0€a Kai irarpi, " viroTaaao-

fj, '^ij;
'" " ' p-evoi aXXTiXoK ev ^o/Sw Xpia-Tov. " at yvvaixe'i
21
Hi. 3.
1. 22 Cor.
,j-o2<i iSioi<; avSpdaiv <»? too Kvpim, '^ on avTjp

tariv Ke<}>aXTi t^? yvvaiKO<; w? Kat o Xpiaio<i


Ke^aXt] rr}<; eKKXrja-iais, ai/TO? acoTTjp tov a(o/iaTO<:.

7. T a-vfi/ifT. II. T a-vyKoiv. 15. T' srws aKpifi.


19. yjfa\iioK: [t] li pm ev |
n; xapSta: T pm [{»] 22. av-
Spatriv : T* h add viroTatrireaSaxTav 23. h nnjp Kt<f>a. tor.
6. 2, nPOS E*E2I0Y2. 17
^^ aWa MS t) eKKXrjaia vTroTacrcreTat 7a> XpKTTM,
oi/Tfij? Kat at, jvvaiKe<s to2<; avhpa<riv ev iravrL
'^ Oi, avSpe<s, ayavuTe ra? yvvalKw;, Ka6cov kcu l^eS^w'-'j.'^'

o XpiffTOi riyaiTTjaev rriv eKKKr/atav Kat, iavTov


TrapeSwKev vtrep avTrj<i, ^^ iva avTTjv dyiacrr) xa-
dapicrai: Tu \ovTpoi tov vSaro? ev fn^fiart, '^ Iva "'
^;^',^°l'

irapaa-TTja-rj avro^ eavrm evBo^ov rrjv tKK\r]aiav,


fit) e')(pvcrav airlXov 77 pvTiSa t] ri twv rotovrcov,
aW iva fi ayia Kul afiQ}/j.o<;. ovt(0<; o<p€i,\ov-

aiv 01 avhpe's ayairav ras eavrwv yvvatKa^ ws to,

eavTtov ao}fj,aTa. 6 ayairuv rr/v eavrov yvvalxa


eavTOV ayaira '
"' oi^S«? yap TTore T^f eavTOV
aUpKa e/jLiarjo'ev, aWa eKTpe(f)ei km ffaXirei avrr]v,

Ka0(a<s Koi 6 XpicTTO'; t^v eKKKrfaiav, '° OTi fieXtj

/v-
eafiev tov
\eifjrei
o-aj/iaTO?

avOpwirof tov vaTepa Kat


V
avTov •

I
^'
vx/
avri tovtov icara-
ttjv /j,i)T€pa kcu
JJitfifx.'s;'*'
\i Cor. vi. 16.

7rpo(7Ko\\T]dr}creTat, t^ yvvaiKi, Kai eaovTai ol Bvo


6ts aapKa fiiav. •*
to p,v<TTripiov Tovro fieya
ea-Tiv, eyo) Be Xeya et? Xpiarov Kai et? t^v e/c-

^'
KXrja-iav. ttXt/j/ Kai u/*et? 01 Kad' eva e«:a<rTO?
TTjv eavTov yvvalxa oi/TtB? ayaTraTto <»? eavTov,
t] he yvvr) iva <f>oj3r]Tai tov avBpa.

VI.

'
Ta TeKva, viraxoveTe rot? yovevaiv vfimv ev vi. i. coi. iii. x.

Kvpio) ' TovTO yap ecniv BiKaiov. ^ Tip,a tov m. ex. xx. k.

Trarepa aov xai ttjv firjTepa, rjTiq e<rTiv evToXri

28. otjifiXovinv : T[H] add km 30. avrov : t add


[_eK Trjs crapKos avrov Kat ck toji/ otrreoyv avrov"] 3I. T[H]
om TOV T[H] om Trjv |
Th ti; yvvaiKt avrov H irpos rrjv
yvvauta avrov 3^. H (cat [f<y] VI. I. TH [fKKi/pjo)]
8

1 nP02 E*E2IOY2. 6. 3.

n-punr] tv eirayyeXia, ^tva ii) ffoi yevrjTai km


4. Col. ill. 21. eat] /MOKpo^povioii eVi ttj? 7^?. '' Kac 01 7raTfpe<;,

fiTj irapopyl^eTe ra reKva vp-Siv, aWa €Krpe(f>eTe

avTo. kv iraiBia koI vovOeaia Kvpiov.

?:of^i.isi"hiL
' ^* BovKoi, vTraKovere rot? Kara aapKU Kvpi-
otv fiera <f>d^ov Kal rpdfiov ev aTrXoTTjTi KapBiai;

6ss. CoL iii. 23S5. V/LIUV tU? TM XpKfTa), * flTj KUt' 0^da\floBov\iav
(B? av6 pcoirdpeaKoi, aW tu? Sot}\ot Xpiarov
iroiovvTe<; ro OeKrjfia rov 6eov eK •^vj^'i, ''/ler

€vvoi,a<i SovXevovrei ms to* Kvpla Kai ovk avOpco-


voK, * elBoTei OTi eieaa-TO<; edv ti Trotrjo-j; ayaOov,
TovTO KOfnaerai irapa Kvpiov, eire Bov\o<; etre
9, Col. It. I i ill.
e\ev0epo<!. ' Kai ol Kvptoi, ra avra Trotetre Trpo<i

avrov<!, avievrei Tr]v aTreiXriv, etSores on Kai


avTuv Kal vfiSiv 6 KvpiO^ eariv ev ovpavoit Kai
•jrpoaoiVoKTjix-^ia ovk eariv trap av7u>.
'° Toil Xoiirov, evBvvafiovade ev Kvpim Kai ev
Tco Kparei t^? tcr^uos avrov. " evBvaaffde r7)v

nravoir'Kiav tov 6eov vpo<: "ro Bvvaadai n/ia? (nrj-

vai •7rpo<; to? fj,e6oBia<; tov Bia^oXov, " on ovk


ecrnv rjfjLiv rj ttuXt) irpo^ aifia Kai aapKa, aKKa
wpo'! Ta? ap-^af, trpo'i ras e^ouffia?, iTpo<i tovs
Koa-fiOKpdropa<; tov okotov^ tovtov, tt/sos ra
•nvevfiariKa t^? trovrjpia'i ev Toit evovpavioit.
'^
Sta TOVTO dvoKa^ere Tr]v TravotrKiav toC ^eou,
n/a SvvTi6rjTe avTiffTijvai ev ttj rjfiepa Tjj TrovTjpa

"^'u\Z\^'i^'
*"" airavTU KaTepya<rafievoi aTqvai. ^* ffTijre

2S. h irpioTri, (V cTrayyfXia iva 4' TH iraiScia 5' TH n/t


KapSmc 6. T r,^6dKfu^ov\euiv 6s. TH rov ^ov. V'^X'!' tie

juer fup 7- 1" twotos, |


H hovKtvovrtt, 8. fni/ rt : T o av
10. \\hvvanov<T6f It. T /lefloSfiar 12. r)fuv: i\\ vfiiv
6. 24- nP02 E'I'ESIOYS. 19

ovv "Jrepi^cocru/xevoi T-qv o<i(j>vv vfiwv ev a\r]6eLa,

Kai evSvaafievoi tov Owpaxa Tr}'} BiKaiocrwr]^,


''
xai inroSrja-afievot tows TroSa? ev eTOifiaaoa rov 15. is. lii. ?.

evayyeXiov t^? etpr^viji, '* ev iracriv avaXa^ovje^


Tov ffvpeov T^? 7rto"TecB?, ev a> Zwrjoreade iravra
7a ^eXi] TOV irovripov ra ireirvpmfieva a^eaav.
''' Kol T'^i' irepiKe^aXaiav tov acoTrjpiov Be^aade, '^^2%l"'''''

Kat, Tr]v fiw^^aipav rov TrvevjxaTO^, o eaTiv prjixa


'* irpoa-
Oeov, Zia Trd(Tri<; •jrpoaev^r}<; koX SeTjo-eo)?

evx^ofievoi ev •travrt Katpa ev Trvev/Mari, /cat et?

avTO aypyTTVovvTet ev Traat) TrpoffKapTepTjaec kui

Serjaei nrepi ttuvtcov twv dycav, '' /cat virep 19s. coi. iy. 3s.

efiov, 'iva fioi hody \oyo<; ev avoi^ei tov aro/^aTo^


fiov, ev irapprjo-ia yvcapiaai to /j,v<7TT}piov tov
evayyeXiov, '° inrep ov Trpea^ev(o ev dXvaei, iva
ev avTa> Trapprjaiaacofiai <»? Set fj,e XaX'fjaai.
^'
Iva Be Kai v/j,el<! eiSrJTe ra /car e/te, rt su. coi. iv. 7s.

irpacrffo), irdvTa yvrnpiaev vfxiv Tv^iKO<i o aya-


TTt]TO<i aBeK^ot xai TriaTO^ BiaKOvo^ ev Kvpiai, '^bv

eTrefiyjra Trpo<; vfidii eis avTO Tovro, iva yvS)Te tu


irepi rjfiav /cat irapaKaXear) ra? KapBiav vfjiwv.

^3 Eiprjvrj To2'i aBeX<f)OK Kai ayaTrr) fiera iriaTeca<:

UTTo deov iraTpo<; Kai Kvpiov Irjcrov XpiaTov. ^* t]

')(api<: fiera ttuvtcov tSjv ayairwvTwv tov Kvpiov


rjfjLwv Iriaovv XpiaTOV ev a<()0apaia,

16. TH [to] TTfjTupwji 18. H Seijo-fffls, 19. H [tou fU-


ayyfXiou] 21. H' eidrjTe Kaivjiets |
H tux'kos 24. T sub-
set. Trpos e<jie(Ttovs
nP02 KOA022AEI2.

iji. Eph. i. 1 '


UavXov airoaroXo^ Xpiarov Irjaov Sia 6e-

\?7/iaT0? Oeou Koi Tifn.odeo'; o a8eX.<^os ' roL<s ev

KoXoaa-ali dyloK koi, irt,<noi<; aSe\(f>ol<; ev Xpi-


CTO). %apfS vfj,(,i> Kai eiprivrj airo tfeov iraTpo'i

r]fj,a>v.

3. Phil. 1 3.
' Evxctpi'0"''ovfiev TO) 6ea) xai iraTpi tov Kvpiov

Tjfiaiv 'Irjcrov XpiffTOv iravTore irepi vfiwv nrpoa-

^afm^'^'
^^''
evxd/J^voi, * aKOva-avje^ Ti}V iri(ntv Vfiuiv ev Xpi-
o-TM 'Irjaov Kai T'^v ayaTrrjv )]v e^eTS et9 iravTa^
SjEpii,!. 13 i
T0U9 ayt'ou? ' Sta t^v eXiriSa ttjv airoKei/jievriv

vfuv ev Tois ovpavoci, tjv "TrporjKOVffare ev to)

Xo'yw T^9 a\r)9eiai tov evayyeXiov * toi) Ta-


pdvroi 6t? i5/ias Kad<i)<; icat ev ttuvti tod Koa/jLoa
e<77iv, Kapiro<^opovp.evov Kai av^avop-evov Ka6(oi
Koi ev vp.lv, acf) jj? rjp.epa<s ^Kovaare Kai eveyvoDTe
T'^'' '''"'^ ^fioi^ e" a\r]6eia • ' Ka6a><i ep,a6ere
7. iv. a. X"/""
airo ETra(f}pa tov ayatririTov avvhovXjov ^fiwv,

69 eariv iriaTot virep vfia>v BiaKovo'i tov Xpiarov,


6 Koi BrjXmo'a^ rjpiv rrjv ip,S)v ayairrjv ev irvev-

Inscr. TH wpos KoXa(r(raei9


I. 2. T KoKatraais 3* ^ ^^ '^'** 1
^ [xP'fTTouJ |
rrfpi I

Th virfp 4. H [?;v f x'"] 6. TH f tr u/ios, Kadcos k. (v jr.

To> K. eiTTtK Kapnofpop. 7- v/awv : T'H' rjfiav


1.20. nP02 KOA022AEI2. 21

IxaTi. ' Ala TovTo kol ri/j,el<;, a(j> rjf rjfiepa<s 9- Eph. i. s.

rjKovaafiev, ov iravofieOa vvep vfiS)v nrpoaev)(p-

fievot, Kat, aiTOv/xevoi iva ifKrjpiodrjTe 7t}v ttn'^vw-


ffiv Tou 6e\r]fiaT0^ avrov tp iracTTj (ro(f)ia km
(Tvvicret irvev/jLaTiKy, '° vepmaTrja-ai a^tws Toii ". Eptiv.' t
Kvpiov ei? iraaav apecTKiav, ev iravri, epytp aya-
6u> Kapiro^opovvTe^ xai av^avofievot, tt] eTriyvaaei.

Tov 6eov, " ev iraar) Svvafiei Svpa/xovfievoi Kara


TO KpaToi; T^5 So^r]<! aVTOv et? Traaav VTro/j,ovriP

Kai fia/cpoOv/xiap, fiera j(apa^ " ev^apiarovprei


T&) TraTpt Tra iKavcocraPTi, Vfiav 649 ttjv fiepiSa
70V KKrjpov rS}p dyioiP ep Ta> 0(BTt, '^ o? epvaaro

r]fj,a<: ex rrjv e^ovaiav rov cr/coToi/? kcu fiereaTrjerep


Ci? Trjp ^aaiXecap rov vlov t^? ayaTrr)<s avrov,
"* ev oi e-^ofiep tijv aTroXvTpwcnp, t^i/ a^eaip tup 14. epk. i. 7.

dfiapriaip, '^ 6? earip eiKcop tov Oeov rov aoparov, >s- 2 cor. iv. 4.

rrpojroroKoi; TTuaTjV Kri(Tea)<;, '^ on ev avra> e/rrt- i6- Eph. i. 21.

o-^t; ra rravra ep rot? ovpavol<; Kai eiri rrjij yrj<;,

ra opara Kai ra aopara, ene dpovoi eire Kvpio-

Ti/re? eire apj(a.i etre e^ovaiai. ra rravra Si

avrov Kai ets avrop e/cricrrai, '' Kai avTO<; earip


rrpo rraprwp Ka\ ra rravra ep avra> avvecrrTjKep,
'^
Kai avro<; eurip rj Ke<pa\-^ rov aafiaro';, rri<: fi^f'i^;"'
eKK\7](Tia<i • o? ecrriv ap')(r), rrpcororoKO^ eK rwv
peKpwp, iva yevr]rai ep rraaiP avro<i irpmrevcop,
^'^
on ev avrw evBoKijaev rrap ro rrXripaj/jia KaroiKi)- ^^l^'-'i^^^^'

aai '° Ka\ hi avrov arroKaraWa^ai ra rravra eii

10. T ap€(TKfLav I
H apeuKiav ev II. TH fiaKpodvfiLav
y-era )(a.pas • (H ;;(a/)ar,) 12. iraTpi : h pm 6ta> \ vfias :

T' h rjiJias 14. h eiT)(Oiiev 16. T kol [to] tm 17. H '4(ttli>

18. apxr) : H pm [?;] 20. T [H] om 61 avrov sc.


nP02 K0A022AEI2. I- 21.
22

avTov, elptjvoiroiria-av Bia rov al/J.aTO<: tov aravpov


aiiTou, Bi avTov, e'lie ra em, ttj? 715? etre ra ev

I'.l'^^'"''^' TOi? ovpavoh. " Ka\ vfiav -JroTe ovrat d-rrr{K\o-

Tpieafiivov<: Koi t'X^Opov'! rr/ hiavoiq ev tok epyoK


Eph. V.
^Q-y aTTOKarriXKa^ep '^ ev ra>
1.4
27; TTOvrjpoi'!, vvvi Se
<TU)fJ,aTi Trji <7apK0<s avTOv Sia lov oavaTOV, irapw-
OTrjaai, vfia<; djiov^ Kai a/iico/iou? Kai aveyKXrjTov^

23. Eph. iii. 7. KaTevwTTtov avTOv, ^3 etye eTri,fj,eveTe rrj iriarei re-

GefieXiafievoi koI eSpaloi Koi /j,t] fieraKivov/tevoi

aVo TTj? eKTrlBo<! tov evayyeXiov ov rjKovaaje,

ToO K'rjpv'xPevTO'; ev iracry kti<t€i t^ vtto tov ovpa-


vov, ov eyev6fi7]v eyco IIav\o<s oiaKovoi;.
'* Nvv yaipco ev toZ? TraOrjfiaaiv virep v/jlwv,

Kot dvTavairXrjpS) ra vcneprjfiara twv 6Xf^ea)v


TOV XpicTTOv ev Ty aapKi fiov virep tov o-tu/ttaro?

25BS. Eph. iii.


eKKKrjcTia, ^5 ^? eyevofirjv eyao
aiiTov, o ecTTiv Tj

hidicovo^ KaTO, T'^r oiKovofitav rov 6eov ttjv oo^et-

adv fioi eU vfia^ TrXrjpaxrai tov Xoyov tov deov,


^^ TO fivarripiov to aTTOKeKpv/ifievov atro Twv aico-

vav Kol diro twv yevewv, vvv he e^avepwBrj tok


a?. Eph. 1 18. dyioK aiiTov, ^' oh rjOeXriaev 6 Beoi yvatpiaai ti

TO irXovTO's T?}? So'^? TOV /jLvarrjptov tovtov ev


Toh eOvecTLV, 6? eariv Xpt,(TTO<; ev vfiiv, tj eXTrt?
^^ 01' 5j/i6i? KOTayyeXXo/Mev vov6eTovvTe<:
TJj? 80^7;?,

TrdvTa avOpcoTTOv kul Bi,BaaK0VTe<s ttuvtu avBpioTTOV


ev Trdcrt] a-o<f>ia, iva TrapaaTrjawfiev Travra avOpca-
29. I Tim. iv. 10. TTOV TeXsiOV eV XptCTTO) ^' «? O KM KOITKO

ay(ovi(,ofievo<i Kwra ttjv evepyeiav avTov Tt}v

evepyovfievTjv ev efioi ev Swa/xet.

2 IS, H — vvvi Se anoK. ev to> . . . Sta T. Bavarov —


21. th aTroKaTrjKXaytjTe 27- TH^ o for, ^p.
nP02 K0A02SAEIS. 23

II.

'
QeXm yap n/xa? ecSevai tjXikov wyaiva ej^co 11. . iv. 13.

vTtep vfiwv Kai rwv ev AaohiKia xai oaoi, ov^


eopaxav to irpocrwirov fiov ev aapKi, "
iva irapa- s. \. =7-

K\ridS)(TLV at KapBiat avTWV, avp^i^aadevTe<s ev


aydirrj Koi ets irav wXouto? t^9 "n-Xripoipopw T^s
o-uvecretB?, «s eTriyvaaiv tov p.vcTTr)ptov tov 6eov,
XpicTTOv, ^ ev m eiaiv Travre? 01 Brjcravpot T'T)';
lir^fil'
^''

<To<p!,a<i Kat yvwcrecov airoKpv^oi. "•


tovto Xeyta
iva firfBeii vp.a,'} •jrapaKoyi^-rjTai ev nriOavoKoyia,
^ ei yap Koi rfj aapxi aireifii, aXka tou irvevfiari 5. i cor. v. 3.

aw vfilv eifii, 'xaipav Kai ^Xeirosv vp^av ttjv rd^iv


Kat TO aT£pecop,a tjj? €is XptaTov TricTTews vp,wv.
* fli ovv TrapeXa^ere tov XptaTov Itjctovv tov
Kvpiov, ev avrm TreptTraTeiTe, ' eppi^a>p,evot Kal
eTroiKoSop,ovp,evot ev avTot Kat fi€^aiovp,evot Ty
TTiaTet KaBcov eBtSw^O-qre, TveptaaevovTe'i ev ev-

^(apta-Tta. ^ ^XeireTe fii] ti<s vp,a^ ea-TOt 6 avXa-


ycoyav Sta ttj? <f>tXoao^ia'; Kat Kev'^<i airaTj]^
KUTa Trjv vapaBocrtv tS>v avOpaneav, Kara to,

(TTOf^eta TOV Kocrp,ov Kai ov Kara XpiaTov, ' oTt 9. i. 19,

ev avTO) KUTOtKet -jrav to TrXi^pap^a t^s QeoTtjTO'i


a(op,aTiKa)<;, '° Kat effTe ev avTm 7re7r\T]po)p.e'voi, os lo. Eph. i. 21.

ecTTiv T] Ke^aXr) Tratrjj? ap'^rj<; kui e^ovaia'S, " ev


cp Koi jrepteTfjtT^OrjTe -rreptTopy a')(etpoirotTiT(p, ev ttj

aireKhvaet tov <To}paTo<; t^s aapKo^, ev TJj irept-

Top,y TOV XptaTov, " crvvTa^evTe^ avTtp ev Te3 Eph!'™;^'""

II. I. T Xao8iie«a T eapoKav | 2. H o-ui/^t/S. | itXoutos : T


pm [to] I
T 6€ov xp'oTou, h f 4- tovto : T add [8f] 7. ttc-

pi<T(Tev. : t H add \ev avrq] 8. h eorai u/iar 10. t o eartv


24 riPOS K0A0S2AEIS. 2. 13.

fiaTnla-/j,ari, tv u> Koi (TvvrjyepdT]T6 Sia t^? iri-

CTTeo)? rr}^ evepyelav tov deov rov eyeipavrot

13. Eph. ii. J, s. avjov eic veKpwv • '^ Kai, ufj.ci'; pexpov; oj/ras rot?
•7rapaina)p,aaiv koi tt? aicpo^vcrTia t^s aapKOi
vfiwv, (Twe^cooTroiT/crev v/xa? ffui' aura), yapiaa-
14. Eph. ii. 15. iievo<: rjfuv iravra ra TrapaTrrw/J-aTa • '* e^aXei-
i|ra? TO Kad' '^fiaiv j(eip6jpa^ov Tolt Boyfiaaiv o
rjv v-irevavTLOv rjfuv, km avro rjpKev iK roii fieaov,

'!rpoc77]Xo)(7a<! avTO t&) a-ravpo) '


''
aireuBvaafievov
Ta<; ap-^a'! Kcu ra? e^ovcnwi iBeiyfiaTiaev ev irap-
prjata, 6pia(i^evaa^ av-rovi ev avrw.
"^ Mr) ovv ri<; vfiav Kpiverco ev ^pwaei 7] Iv

iroaec ij ev fiepei eop-Tri<s 7] vovfiriviwi rj aafi-


1.1. paTwv, 'a ecTiv <TKia tuv ixeWovTtov, to be
'*
(Tcofia TOV XpicTTov. fj.TjBei'i Vfia<; Kara^pa-
/Sei/ETO) BeXcov ev TaTreivo<f)poavv7] koi ffprjcTKia twv
ayjeXcov, a eopaxev e/ti/Sareuoji', eiKrj ^vaiovfievoi;
Eph. iv. .5s. VTTO TOV VOO^ TTj'i (TOpiCO'i aVTOV, '' KOI OV KpaTOIV
19.

TTjv Ke<f)aXr]v, e^ ov irav to aS>p,a Bia tuv d<f>o)v

Kai avvBecTfitov e'niyppTqyovfievov Kai crur/StySofo/ie-


vov av^ei ttiv av^rjaiv tov deov. ^° Ei aireddvere
cvv Ji.pio'TO) airo twv aTOiyeicov tou KOfffiov, Tt o)<;

^a>vTe<: ev KOdfim BoyfiaTi^eade ^' /i'^


SI. Lev. V. 2. •
ay^f) firiBe
sz. Is.
Mat. XV,
xxix. 13 ;
yeva-Tj firjBe Oiyrji;, "a etTTiv irdvTa et? <f>8opav tt)
9,

atro^priaei, kutu Ta evraXfiUTa Kai BiBaaKaXiav


Tcov avBpwiTwv ; '^ uTiva eaTiv Xoyov ixev ej^pira

12. T ^aimtriiat « |
tcuv vcKpav 1 3. v/ias SC : h rjnas
15. H napprjaia Spiafi^. 16. ^ pr : t H» leai |
TH vfOfiijMny
17. th o fCTTiv 18. dfXav — f^jSaTfutov: hf TH 6pr]-
|

a-Kfia I
T eapoKcv 19. o-vi/i)3i(3afo/i. 23. T cdc\odpi;crKcui
I
H [kqi] a</)ei8. ktX h t
3- 12. nP02 K0A02SAEIS. 25

aot^tat ev edeKo6prj(TKia Kai TaTreivo^poavvTj koI


a^eiZiq aa/iaTOV, ovk ev Tifiy rivi "rrpo^ •ir\r]afio-

vrjv TiiJ? arapKoi

III.

'
El ovv avvTjjepOrjTe rm Xpicnm, to, avto m. 1 ps. d. .

fijretTe, ov o Xpia-To<s tanv ev Se^ia tov 6eov


KaBrjfievo's • ' tu avm (jjpovelre, fii] to, £7rt t^s
yr}'!, ^ UTreOavere yap, Kai r) ^wij vnSsv Keicpv-
Trrai aw Ttp XpLcnm ev rm 6em • ••
orav 6
XpiaTo^ (pavepcoffy, rj ^iotj vfia)v, Tore Kai vfieit

aw avTtp ^avepwdrjaecrde ev Bo^rj.


5 NeKpmaare ovv ra fieKr) ra etti t^? yrj't, irop- 5. Eph. v. 3.

veiav, aicaOapaiav, irado<;, eiridv/itav kuktjv, koi


TTjv TrXeove^iav tjtk: ecnlv etStaXoXarpeta, * Bi' r^\ Is."
'

a epx^Tai tj opyt) tov 0eov. ^ ev oh Kai vfieK %Sil\'?,]^^,


irepieirarrjaare ttote, ore e^rJTe ev 70vtoi<s •

vvvi oe airooeaue Kai vfiei^ ra rravra, opyrjv


ffvfiov KUKiav PXa<Tprip,iav aia-j^po'Koyiav ex rov
arofiaroi vfimv, ' fi^ -v^euSeo-^e ei<s a\\7]\ov<;, 9. Eph. iv. sks.

aireKBvaafievoi rov rraXaiov avOpcairov aw rati


rrpa^eaiv avrov ^° koI evBvaaiievoi rov veov tov 10. cen. i. 27.

avaKuivov/Mevov ei<s eiriyvaaiv Kar eixova rov


KTiaavrof avrov, " oirou ovk evi E\\r]v Kai ". cai. iii. 28,

lovBaloi, rrepirofir] Kai oKpo^varia, ^ap^apo<!,


SkvOt)'!, Bov\o<;, eXevdepoi, aWa rravra Kai ev
rraaiv Xpiaro'i.
^p"- '"--
'^'EvSvaaade ovv «? e/cXexTot roi Oeov ayioi 5|f=-

KoL riyair7}p,evoi a'ifKay')(ya oiKripfiov, 'x^prjarorTjra,

III. 4. t H' rjfUDV 5. H etSwXoXarpta II. T ra


navra 12. h om km
3
2b nPOS KOA022AE12. 3- 13-

raTr€ivo(l)poavvrjv, irpavrrjTa, fiUKpodv/xiav,


"' ave-

^ofievoi aWriXeov Koi ^api^ofievoi eavToii, eav


Tts •jrpd'i Tiva e^rj fj,ofi(fir\v, Ka9a>^ Kai o Xpi(rto<s
'• iraaiv
fX^apicruTO vfilv ovtcds Kai vyLtet?, eTTt

he TovTOK T^v dyd-Trrjv, o eariv crvvBeafiof Trj<:

IS. Phil. iv. 7. reXetdrriTO';. '^ koi rj eiprjvr) 70V XpiaTOv ^pa-
iSei/ero) ev rats KapSi,ai<i vfiaiv, ets rjv koi eKKrj-
67)T€ ev evl atofiaTi • Kai ev)(apii7Toi •yipeaOe.

i6s. Eph. V. 19s.


'*
o Xoyo? rov XpiaTov evotKenm tv vfiiv irKov-

a'KO'ij ev TTaffT) ao^ia BiBaaKOVTei xat vov06TOvvTe<;


eavTOV<!, y]ra.\/j,oi<s vp.voi<i coSat? Trvev/iaTiKai^, ev

rj] yapiTt aSovTe? iv rat? KapSLai<i vfimv Tut

0e<p, '' Kol trav o rt av iroirjre ev \oyw r) ev

epycp, Travra ev ovo/j,aTi KVpiov Itjoov, ev^api-


arovvTe<s rm 6e^ •narpt Bi avroti.

?p«.''ui'7i."'
^^ Al jwalxe';, inrorda-creaOe Tot? avBpdaiv,
j9j, Eph. V. 2s ; jJiy dvrJKev ev Kvpia. "' ot avBpe<:, ayairuTe rai
Eph. to
20SS. vi. I,
ryupaLKa'i Kui /MT] iriKpaiveaffe vpoi avrai.
re'xva, vTroKoveTe tol<s yovevaiv Kara vavra •

TOVTO yap evapetrrov eaiiv ev Kvpitp. " 01


TTorepes, fir) epeOc^ere ra Texva vfiwv, iva fir)

Ti'It'iihi' aOvfiwaiv. " 01 BovXoi, inraKoveTe Ka,Ta iratna


Tot? Kara aapKa Kvpioiv, firj ev o<f)6d\.iJ,oBov\iaii!
ft)? avOpaTrapetTKOi, a\X' ev aTrXoTijrt KapBuiv
s3ss.Eph.vi.7ss. <f)o^ov/J.evoi rov Kvpiov. '^o eav Trot^re, e* yfrv-

^jj? epya^eaOe <a? tw Kvptco Kai ovk avOpfoiroK,

13. T ( ) I
^pitTTos : TH' KvpLos 15" H tv [evi] cro/z.
16. ;](pi(rrou : h Kvpiov \
H irXovirtas fv Traen; |
TH o-o^to,
(H ) Sid. K- vovS. eavTovs i/faX/iois (Hj) ufivoir, abais jrwu-
/HiTiKair €v TT) (H' om ttj)
x^P'" (H,) 17. ok: TH eav
22. T oc^^aXfiodouXfintf h o0flnX/io8ouXia | T nXXa
4. to nPOS K0A022AEI2. 27
^ 6tSoT6? OTi a-jTO Kvpiov wTC oKr) fi^^eo 6 s rrjv avra-
irohoaiv Trj^ KXypovo/Mw;. tc3 Kvpi(p Xpicrro)
SovXeuere • '^ 6 yap aSiKwv KOficelrai b rihUrj-

aev, Koi ovtt eartv •7rpoaei)'iro\7]fi,y}na, (^V.) '04


KVplOl, TO SlKMOV KM TTjV laOTTJTa Toll SoiXoii
irape^ecrOe, eiSore'; ort Kai vfielv ^X^'^^ Kvpiov ei>

ovpavo).

IV.

^p*^"-
' T^ irpocrevxj] irpoaKaprepeiTe, ypi^yoyaoi'i'Tes J^'.°^'

ev avTii ev evxapKma, ^'jrpoaevxp/ievoi a/xa Kai


irepi rj/Moip, iva deo<i avoi^y rjfuv Ovpav rov
Xojov XaXTjcrat to fivffTrjpiov 70U XpKTTov, St

b Kai BeBsfiai, * iva ipavepcoaco avro to? Bel /xe

\a\rjcrai. ^ Ev ao(j}ia •irepnrarelTe •7rpo<} tov? s. Eph. v. 15s.

e^£o, Tov Kaipov e^ayopa^ofievoi, * o Xoyo<! vfiwv & Eph. iv. 59.

•JTiivTOTe ev ^apiTf, aXart rjprvfJLevo^, eiBevai Trois

Set v/jLUi ivi eKaffTO) airoKpiveadai.


^ Ta Kar efJ.e irdvTa yvcopcaet vfuv Ti/T^tKO? 7s. Eph.vi.21s.

o dyairrjTO'! aSeX^o^ km "Kicnoi; hiaKovo<! koI


(TvvBovXoi; ev Kvpia, * ov eirefiy^a irpo's vimi ei?

auTO TovTo', iva yvaiTe ra irepi rjjjiav Kai irapa-


KaXear) ra? KapSiwi vfiav, ' trvv Ovr)aifim to) 9. pmiem. 10.

WKTTOJ Kai dyatrTiTM uBeX^m, b? eixTiv e^ vfiwv •

irdvTa v/jHv yveopiovaiv ra coSe.

'°'Acnrd^eTai v/ji.a'; ' Apia-Tap^o^ 6 crvvaijQid- 10. Actsixvn.j;

\a)TO? p,ov, Kai MapKOt 6 avei^to? Bapvd^a,


<7repi ov eXd^ere evToXa?, eav eXOrj irpo'i v/J,a<:,

25. H KoiiKrerai IV. 3. t fit ov Kai 7. H tvxikos


9. H yvajpi<TOV(Tiv lo. TH (nept ov . . . de^atrOe avTov)
28 nPOS K0A0S2AEIS. 4. II.

Se^affBe avrov, — " koI 'Ir](7ov<; 6 \€yofJi£vo<i 'lov-

o-TO?, ol wTe? eK vepiTOfir}^ omoi /jlovoi avvepyoi


6t? r-^v^aaiXeiav tov deov, o'nive<s eyemjdrjaav fioi
IS. I. 7; Fhllem.
vaprjyopia. " affva^erai vfiai; Eira^pat o ef
Vfia)v, 8ot}\os Xpi<7Tov iTjaov, TravTore aywvi^ofie-

ros vtrep vfiwv Iv Tats irpoaeiy)(cu<;, iva ffTaOiJTe


TeXeioi, Kol 7re'7r\7]po<f>opr]ij,evoi, kv vavii 6e\7]fiaTi

13. iL ToO Oeov, '^


fiapTvpca yap avroi oTi c^et iroXw
irovov virep v/xwv koL tSiv Iv AaoZtKia Koi tojv
14. Phiiem. =4. ev lepairoKeu ''•
aatrd^erai, v/iia? AovKa<i 6 la-

15. Rom. ivi. 5. Tpo? o aya7rr]ro<! xai /ti}fia'}. '' aairaaaaOe row
ev AaoSiKia aSeX^ovv km Nvfi^av Koi r^v /car'

oiKov avT&v eKKKTjaiav. '*


km orav avayvwadji
trap vfilv 7] eiri<TTo\7], iroiriaare iva km ev ry
AaoSiKeeav eKKXriaio, avayvmady, km ttjv ex Aao-
17. Philem. 3. hiKiWi iva Kai v/xet; avayvwre. '' kui ei-iroTe Ap-
j^tTrTTQ) • /SXeire rr)v SiaKoviav r/v TrapeXa^ei ev
Kvpicp, iva avTTjv irKripoK.
'*
x&sThC5S.iii.l7. 'O aaTraafio^ t^ e/j,rj j^et^ot TlavXov. fivr)-

fiovevere fiov twv Beaficov, t) -^apit fieO' vixSiv.

II TH TrfpiTo/iT/f, 1 3, 1 5. T XaoSiKEta 13. H Ifpo


IloXet IJ- t H nv/jiipav k. t. kot. oik. aimjy fKKXi;(r. 16. T«
XaoSiKciar l8. T subscr. npos KoXatrcractr
'

nP02 <E)IAHMONA.

'Uai/Xo? SeV/itos Xpicrrov Irjcrov koI TifjLodeo<} ^.',';^'Tim.''i.'8.

6 aSeXcfio'i ^iXrifiovi, ra> a'ya'jrr]Ta> Kai avvepym


tjfjiav ' fcal AiT<pia ry aSeXcprj Kai Apytinrm ^,coi.iy.n.

TM a-vvcTTpaTio)Tr) rjfiwv Kai rrj Kar oikov aov


eKK\r)<ria. ' XcipK vfuv Kai ei,pr]vrj airo 6eov 3. Rom, i. 7 etc

Trarpos rjfiav km Kvpiov Irjaov Xpiajov.


* Ev)(api(TT5> Tftj deal fiov iravTOTe (iveiav aov %^^\)i^^^'
•7roLovfi€vo<s eve Tcav Trpoaevx^wv fiov, ^ aKoveov aov 5.001.1.4,955.

Tiji/ ayaTrrjv Kai Trjv iriaTiv i]v ey^eit Trpo<s tov


Kvpiov Irjaovv Kai eit iravTa^ tov; wyiavi,
* oirm<! rj Koivwvia t^9 TTKJTea)? aov ev6pyr]<i

yevrjTai ev eiriyvmaei iravro'i ayaOov tov ev vfuv


6ts XpiaTov. ^ j^apav yap TroXkrjv eay(pv «at 7. scor. vu.<.

irapaxXTjaiv eiri tt) ayavrj aov, on ra aTrKay)(ya


Tap dyimv avaireiravTai Sia aov, aSe\^e. * ^10
TroX\7]v ev XpiaTm Trapprjaiav e^eov etnToaaeiv
aoi TO avrjKOV, ' hia ttjv ayavrjv /laXKov irapa- » «•

KaXa, ToiovT0<: wv cos UavKo's Trpea^vTr)<s, vvvi


he Koi heaiiio<s XpiaTov Irjaov, — '° irapaKaXSi couv."'
"' '^

ae irepl tov efiov TeKVOv, ov eyewqaa ev Tolt

Sea/jioiv, 'OvTjaifiov, " tov Trore aoi w^prjaTov, vvvl

S- npos: T§H5 Eis 6. T [H] om tou |. u^u' : T'H« jj/itv

9 irpetT^vrrjs : hf I
>''"" h mv
nP02 *IAHMONA. 12-25.
30
Se Koi vol Kal e/iol ev)(piqcnov, ov ave7re/j.-<jra

aot, auTov, tovt eariv ta efi,a tnrKay^va.


'3 01; e'lym efiavTov KaTe'xeiv, iva
e^ov\6fjLr]v "Trpix;

inrep aov fioi SiaKov^ ev Tot? BeafiOK tov evaj'


yeXiov, '* p^fBpt? 8e t^? ffj}? yvw/aj;? ovBev rjOeKriaa

TTOirjaat, Iva /xij to? kuto. avayKrjv to ayadov ffov

D aWa Kara eicovaiov • '' xaj^a "yap Sia loino


e)(a)pia6r] irpo<i iapav, Iva aicoviov avTOv a-Trep^i;?,

16. 1 Tim. vi. 3.


'* ovK CTt £0? Soi}\ov aWa virep SovXov, aSe\<f)ov
ayavr)Tov, p,a\i<na e/ioi, Troaa Be fiaXXov aot
Koi ev aapKi Kal ev Kvpito '
'' et ovv fie e-x^em

Koivcovov, irpoaXa^ov avrov «? e/ie. '*


et Be ti
rjBi,K't]aev ae rj o<}>ei,\ei, tovto e/u>\ eWoya.
.5..Thess.m..7. '' cyo) JIavXo? eypa-^a -rr) eny x^v'' ^7^ "'^°-
Tiaco • iva fit} \eyai aoi on Kai aeavTov /loi
TTpoao^elXeK. '° vai, lyoj aov
aBe\<f>e, ovaifiriv

ev Kvpcm • avairavaov fiov to ffirXayxva ev


Xpicnm.
" TIeiToi,6w<; ly inraKori aov typat^a aot, eiBtot

oTi Kai virep a Keyco TTotrjcret?. afia oe xat


eroifia^e fiot ^eviav • eXTrtfw yap on Bia TOiv

irpoaev^Siv vp,S)v •)(apiadr\aop,ai Vfuv,


33. Col. i. 7.
^' Aawa^erac ae E'7ra<f)pa<i 6 avvai-^Qia'KcoTO'i

xivu.'^i^Tfm! p-ov ev XpiaTO) 'I-qaov, ^'^


MdpK0<;, ' ApLaTap')(p'i,
'*
Arip.a<!, AovKOM, 01 avvepyoL p.ov.
2s^ Phil. iv. 23 25 'JJ ^(apK Tov Kvpiov Iijaov Xptarov /uera
rov irvevfiaTOt v/jtwv.

II. TH' om KOL pr 12. avrov ; t pm [cru Sf] |


OTrXayx"" •

t add [irpoerXa/Sou] 25. Kvpiov : Th add ij/iuk | T subscr.


npo2 ^iAinnH2ioY2.

2 Cor. r
' IlavXoi Koi Ttfiodeof BovXoi Xpiarov 'Irjcrov Itl'-, Acts
1.

xvi.
Z2 etc.
iraaiv tok aytot? ei* Xpt(7Ta> 'Iijaov rot? ovaiv
ev viXiTT'Troii; aw eTricTKonoK koI BiaKovoii.
' Xa/3t9 vfitv Kot airo 6eov
elprjvri •jrarpo't ^/xuv <,. Rom. i. ^ ar..

Kai Kvptov Irjffov Xpiarov.


aEi'
"
"'*/l^
HivyapicTTco tco tfem iiov
'^
e-Ki
f
"Traari
«
tw 1^
aveia
/3S.

Rom.
thcss.
i.

i.
8
=s.i
:

t' ^* I Eph. i.iss.


f « / ) J /
vfiaiv * •jravTOTS ev iraarj Berjaei fiov virep irdv-
Tcov vp.aiv fieTU ')(apa'i Trjv Serjaiv iroiovp.evoi ^ eirl i-jl^°\-'-^-

Ty Kovvwvia vfiwv ets to evayyeXiov airo t^s


•n-parrji; ^/xepa? a^pt tov vvv, ^ ireiroi.Bco'i ooto *Ti^°J;.y
''

TovTO, on, o evap^a/ievo<s ev vfxiv epyov ayadov


eTrneXea-ei a')(^pi Tjfi,epa<! Xpiarov Irja-ov, ^ KaOayj ?. = cor. vii. 3.

ecTTiv BiKaiov efioi, tovto <f>pov£iv (nrep irdvrtov


v/jicov, Sia TO e-)(eiv fie ev rrj KapBia vp.a'i ev re
rol<s Secrfioi<: fiov koi ev tt] airoXoyia koI ^ejSai-
cocrei, TOV evayyeXiov avvKoivcovovi fiov Trj'; %a/3i-

TO? 7ravTa<i vfiav ovia^. ^ fiapTVi yap p,ov 6 fcS^y.'il'


0eo<}, to? einnroOa) Travras H/ua? ev (nrXay^voLt;
XpiaTOV 'Irjaov. ' Kai tovto irpoffev^o/j,ai, iva ? ^ph. i. s.

Tj ayaTTT) vficov ert fiaWov Kai /jiaWov TrepiaaevT/

1.6. T a)(pis 1
H' i7)crov p^ptcrrov / T avyKoiv, 9. th
TrepifTirevaT)
32 npo2 *iAinnH2ioY2. i- 10.

Rom. ii. ifi '° et? to ooKtficv-


. 2; (Acts €v eirtyvaxTei, koI Trdar) al<70r}(Tei,
iv. i6.)

i^eiv vjjbai ra hia^epovra, iva rjre eikiKpivet'i kui


ii.^Eph. "irenXTjpcafie-
[ii. .9;
aTrpocrKOTTOi eh rjfiepav Xpia-Tov,

voL KapTTOV SiKaioavvr]'; top Bia Irjcrov XpiaTov,


6ts So^av Koi eiraivov 6eov.
" TivaxTKeiv Be vfj,a<s ^ovKofiai, aoe\<f)oi, on
ra KaT e/u.6 fioXKov ets •jrpoKO'irr]v tov evayye-
13. iv. 22. Xcov iXriKvdev, '' cacrre tou? BeafJ,ov<i /mov (pave-

poii? £1' XpL(na> yeveadai ev o\a) rm TrpaiTtopiO)

Kol rol<i XotTTots Traaiv, '"'


koi tou? -irXeiova^ ratv

dBeX<f>a>v ev Kvptca ireTroidoTai toI<s Be<Tfiol<s fiov

irepiacroTepaxs ToXfiav a^o^mt rov Xoyov tov


Oeoii XaXelv. '^ Ttve? fi,ev Kai Bia ^dovov Kai
epiif, Tive<! Be xai Bi evBoKiav tov Xpitnov kij-

'*
pvaaovaiv ' ol jxev e^ ayair'r]'!, etSoTe? oti ets
evayyeXiov ''
oTToXoycav tov Keifiai, 01 Be e^
epi6eca<! tov XpicTTov KUTayyeXXovaiv ov^ ayvSif,
'^
olo/ievoi dxi'^iv eyeipeiv Tot? BeafiOLi} fiov. ti

yap ; ttXtjv oti iravTi Tpoirtp, ene •7rpo<f>aaei

eiTe aXr]6eia, XpiaTOl KOTayyeXXeTai, icai ev

19. Job xiii. 16. TOUTft) •)(aipa). oXXa Kai ')(apT]tTOfj.ab • '' oiBa yap
OTi TOVTO fiot a'TTo^r](7eTai et? atoTrjptav Bia ttj?
v/jiajv Ser]o-eo)9 Kai e'in')(opriyia<i tov irvevfiaTO'i
20. Rom. vni^i9,
Jrjffov XptffTOV, '° KOTU TTjV WTTOKapaBoKUlV Kai
1. 8

i
I Cor.
""./c.
eATTtoa
tr J

fiov OTl ev ovoevi aia'^vtfr](70fiai,


>f\» n ' '-v-v'"
aXX ev

TraiTT) Trapp7)(na wt travTOTe Kai vvv (leyaXvvOrf


creTai XptcxTo? ei* too aoofiaTi fxov, eire Bia ^oj^t

Gai.u.°m';''*' ^'^e Bia OavaTov. '' Efioi yap to ^rjv XpiaTo<!


Rom. xiv.Vs. V - ^
V
^
Kai TO a-TToOaveiv
,
f / 22 t^' (-- > '
Kepoo<;. "ei be to ^rjv ev aapKi,

17. H epiSias I
T [tov] )^picrTov h p^pKn-ow 1 9. yap:
;

npo2 *iAinnH2ioY2. 33
rovTo fioi KapiTO^ epyov, Kai rt, aiprjao/iai ov
yvtopl^a. ^^ awe'^ofiai Se ex twp Bvo, t^v evi- l\iJ:°^;];^'

6v/iiav e^fov et? to avaXvaai Kai avv Xpiarm


eivai ' iroWa yap fiaXXov Kpeiaaov • '^ to he
eiri/xeveiv ry capKi avayKaiorepov Bt vfia<;, '^ koi
TovTO ireTroi,6a><! otSa, oTt jievSy km irapajjbevS)

Traaiv vfuv ei<s rrjv vfiwv vpOKOirriv Kai ')(apav


T^<! iriaTecat, '^ iva to Kav^rjfia vfiwv irepiaaevj) j^jcor. i. loj

€v Xpia-TO) Ir)(70V ev C/Uot Bia Trj^ e/irj'; irapov-


aia<; ira\iv irpo<s v/xav.
^' Movov d^la^ Tov evayyeXlov tov Xpia-rov Eph??v.i.'°'

iroMTeveatfe, iva eire eKoaiv Kai looov n/ici? etTe

airtov aKovQ) ra irepi vfia>v, on (TTrjKere ev evi

irvevfiari, fiia "^VXV o'vvad\ovvT6<s t^ "jrKTTei tov


evayyeXlov, ^' km /jltj irTvpofievot ev fj,7]Bevi vtto =8. i pet. 3, 14.

rwv avTtKeifievcov, t/tk eartv auTot? euBei^i's airio-

Xeia?, vfiwv Be (r(OTr}pia<!, Kai tovto airo Oeov'


^' on vfiiv e')(api(T0T] to virep Xpicrrov, ov jxovov
TO ets avTov rma-reveiv aWa Kai to virep avTov
iraa'^eiv, ^° tov avTov ayava ej^ovje'i olov eiBere
ev efjLoi Kai vvv aKOuere ev efioi.

II.

'
El Tt? ovv •7rapdK\r}<TK ev XpiffTm, ei ti

TrapafivOiov ayairrj'i, ei tk Koivcovia irvevixaTO'i,

ei ni airXayyva Kai oiKnpfioi, irXrjpoxTaTe jjlov n. 2. Hi. 16.

TrjV yapav tva to avTO ^povrjTe, ttiv avTtjv aya-

22. h aiprja-ofiai 23. t [yap"] /taXX 24. h ciri/iei-

vm T ej/ TI) aapKi 25. TH oiSa on. 28s. H (ryris e<mv



I

virep avTov irao'X^"') 11 . 2. T a-vp^^v^oi \


ev: h avro
npos <i>iAinnHsioYS. 2. 3.
24
^povovvre?, firjSev
•miv exovTe<;, <rvv<Jrvxot, to ev
'

Kar epideiav /iv^e Kara KevoBo^iav, dWa rrj

TUTreivoippoavvp aWTjXous ^jovfievoi virepexovra';


4. 1 Cor. ..24. eavTwv, *M to. eavrwv eKUcnoi aKOTrovvTe<;,

dWa Koi TO, irepcov eKaarou. ' toCto ^povelre

eu vfj.lv o KM ev Xpiarm 'Irjaov, * os ev p,op^^

Oeov VTTiipxo" o^X dp-rrayfjiov rjiyrjaaro to eivai

7. Rom.viu.3- 'laa 6ea>, ^ dWa iavrov eKevcocrev fiop^rjv hovXov


Xa^wv, ev ofiotaiiMaTt dvOpwirasv yevo/ievoi koI

o-;^7J/.iaTt evpedeh m avOpcoiro';, * eTaireivaxrev

eavTOV yevdfievo'i inrrjKOO^ f'^XP''


^''v"-'''ov, Oava-

Tou 06 aravpov. ' 010 Kai aeo<! avrov virep-


vyjrwaev Kai exopt-cro-TO avra> to ovofia to wep
Rom?iiv."i.?' "Jrav ovofia, '°
tva ev ray ovofiari 'hjcrov irav yovv

Kd/ji-Jrri eTTovpavLCOv Kol eiTLyeicov Kai KUTaxOovicov,


" Kai iraffa yXwaaa e^o/ioXoyrja-eTai on, Kvpvot

'IfjCTovf Xpia-Tov eZs Bo^av 6eov iruTpo^.


""ilare, dyairr)Toi, /iov, KaOoo'i iravTore v-irr)-

Kovaare, fifj w? ev rrj irapovcri.a fiov fiovov dKKa


vvv TToWeS fiaXKov ev 7jj airovaia fiov, fiera

<})60ov Kai rpo/j-ov t^v eavrwv awTripiav Karep-


yd^ecrOe • '^ ^eo? ydp eariv 6 evepymv ev vfilv Kai
TO Bekeiv Kai to evepyelv VTrep t^? euSoatas.
14. 1 Pet. i». 5.
"* irdvTa iroLecTe ^eopt? yoyyv(Tfj,a>v Kai hiaXoyi-
15. Dcut. Kxii. 5. afiwv, '^ iva yevrjade aiMefj/moi Kai axepaioi,
TeKva 6eov afj,a>/j,a fieaov yeveat <TKo\ia'i Kai
ZiecTTpap,iiev7)<s, ev ol<; ^aiveade a)<; ^oxTTr/pe? ev

3. H epiBiav 4- fKinTot pr: th enaaros 4s. h ercptov.


€KaoToi TovTo ^S. TH yevofievoSj (H -fievos ') Kai <r;^i;f*.

ovp. (as avdpoinos eraneLV. 9* H V7r€/)u\/^<»(rey, II. T^H


e^oiioKoyi](TrjTai 12. H p?; [cos] 15. yevrjo-de : t rjTe
2- 30- npos *iAinnH2ioY2.
35
KOCTfiai, '^Xdjou f(M^9 eVe'p^ODTe?, eU KavxvfJ-a
"
fcail'ii'")'

efioi ei? rifiepav Xpiarov, otv ovk eh Kevbv eBpa-


fiov ovSe eU ksvov eKOTrlaaa. '^
^x\a el km .?. = Tim. iv. 6.

cr-rrevBofiai, etrl Ty Oyala km XeiTovpyla t^? tt/-


cTTew? v/iii/, %a//3a) KOt <Tvv)(^Mpa iraaiv vfiiv
TO Be avTO Koi i5/xet9 %aipeTe km awxaipere iioi. is. lii.ij iv.4.

'^ £\7r(5(» Se ei* Kvpiay 'Irjaov TifioOeov ra-


X^d}^ Tre/A-v^at Vfuv, iva Kayo) ev\frvxa> jvoi/^ ra
•Trept vfjLOJv, ^ ovBeva yap ej^oj ladyfrvxov, oo-Tt?
ra irept ifiSiv /lepif^vrjaei
yv7](Ti(o<i " oX •
iravTe^
yap TO eavTwv ^r}rovcnv, ov ra Xpicnov ^Irjaov.
Tt]v be ooKtfiTjv avjov yivaxTKere, oji &>? irarpi. =2. i Tim. i. =.

TeKvov avv efioi eSovXevaev et? to evayyeXiov,


^^ TOVTOv /Mev ovv eX-jrl^o) irefx-^ai w? av d(f>iSa)
ra irepl e/ie e^at^r^? • '* -rri-TroiOa Be ev KVpim on
Kai avTo^ rapjjeo)? eXevcrofiai.

Avayxaiov Be r]y7]a-dp,r]v, Eira(^pdBiTov tov


^'
^

aoeX^ov xal avvepyov Kai avvarpaTmTrjv fiov,


vfjLoiv Be airocTToXov Koi XecTovpyov tjj? vpeto?
/lov, wefi'yjrai irpoii '^
' Vfj,a<;, eireiSr) eTrnroOcov rjv

TTavTai v/iia<i Kat aBTjfjLoviov, Bidri rjKovaare on


rja-Oevrja-ev. xai yap rjaOivrjo-ev irapairXricyiov
^'

uavaTU) • aXXa 6 Oea rjXeTjtrev avjov, ovk amov


Be fiovov aXXa koi ep,e, 'iva /jlti Xvtttiv eiri Xvirriv
^^ (TirovBaLOTepwi ovv
<r^6). eirefx'^^a avrdv, 'Iva

iBovTe<! avTov vaXiv ^^a/OTjre Kayco aXvirdTepa a>i

'^ iTpoa-Bexeade ovv avTov ev Kvpiw fiera •jrda-r]';

Xapa.<;, Kai tou? toiovtovv evrifiovs e%6Te, '° oVt 30. i cor. xvi. 17.

17- T <Tvyxaipa> 18. T crvyxaLpfTf 21. T h irjn-ov

Xpiarov 26. H navT. vfi. [tSeti'] h vjjLas navras 27. H


36 npos *iAinnH2ioY2. 3- '•

Bia TO epyov Xpia-rov ixixpt OavuTov r)yyiaep


irapa^oKevadiievot ry '^^XV' *"" avairXttpuxry

TO vpjSsv vuTepofia rrjv tt/sos /^e Xenovpyiav,

III.

ni. I. ii. i8i I


y^ XotTToV, aSe\<])oi fiov, '^aipere ev Kvpico.

TO. avTo. ypd<f)eiv Vfuv e/j,oi fiev ovk OKvrjpov,

Vfjbiv he d<T(j>a\€^, ' ^Xeirere T0115 ievva<;, pke-


irere tov<; kokov; epyuTat, /8\eireT6 t^i* Kararo-
fi-^v. ' Tjfj.ei<; yap ea-p-ev rj •jrepirop.t], 01 •jrvevp.ari

Oeov \aTpevovTe<! koI Kavx^up-evot ev Xpiar^


'Irjaov Koi ovk ev aapKi TreiroiBoTe^, * Kaiirep

eyas eyasv Treiroidrjcnv Kai ev aapKi. ei Tt? Boxei

5. Rom. ii. I. a.Wo'i ire-TToidevai, ev aapKi, eyw p.aX\ov, ' -Trepir

TOfiy OKraT]p,€po<!, ex y€vov<! IffparjX, <f>v\rj<!

Bevt,ap,eiv, 'E^palov e^ E^paiasv, Kara vop,ov


6. Gal. L 13s.
^api<Taio<;, * Kara ^ri\o<; Bucxav t^v eKK\r)aiav,
Kara SiKaioavvTjv rrjv ev vop,a> yevop,evo<! ap,epr-

TTTO?. ' ariva r]v p,oi KepSr], ravra riyrjpMi Sia


rov XpiaTov ^rjfiiav. * aWa fievovvye Koi
rjyovp,ai, Travra ^r)p,tav etvai Sia to mrepexpv rrjt

yvtoffetoi XpiffTov Irjaov rov xupiov p,ov. Si bv


ra iravTa e^ri/j,iwd7jv, xai Tjyov/xai OKV^aXa iva
9.
lii.
Rom. X. 3SS,
aiss.; Gal. ii.
:x7"
ApuTTov
^
KepoTjao),
C'' o^'/l"'
^
»#*
Kui evpeou) ev avrm, p,7]
Nv
e^iov
ep,r)v Bucaioa-vvrjv ttjj/ ex vop,ov, aWd rr/v Bia
7ri(7T60)? XpiaTQv, Tr]v ex Oeov BiKatoavvr)v, eiri


10. Gal. vi. 7. Tfi iTKnei, ToO yvwvai avTOv xai rrjv Bvvap,iv

30. xp'O^"" t H' Kvpiov H rjyyicrcv, Trapa/SoX. rq yfrvxri



I

i"a III. IS. H aa-(j>aK€s, SKtircre J. anva : T [t] H


pm aWa \
t ^ot rjv 8. ^evovvye : T fjLfv ovv
3- 21. npos *iAinnH2iOYS
37
T^? avacTTaa-eu)^ avrou Kai Koivojviav iradrjixdraiv
avTov, avpfj,op(f)t^o/j,evoi tip ffavuTm ainov, " f'l-

iTeo<s KaTavTTqaco 6t9 rrju e^apacnaaiv ttjv etc

vexpav.
'^
Ov^, OJi TjSri eXafiov t] r/Sij Tere^e/cu/xat,

BcwKO) Be et KaraXa^co, e<j) ou koI KajeX.ri/j,d>6T)v

VTTo XpiOTOv Irjerov. '^


aBe\<f)Oi, eyo) e/xavrov
ovna> Xoyi^o/xai KaTeiXr]<J3evai • '''
ej' Se, ra fiev

OTTiaco eTTiKavOavofj.evo'i, rot? Be e^tTpoaOev eirex-


reivofievo^, Kara aKOtrov Biw/ceo et? to ^pa/3e2ov
TJJ? avto K\T](Tea)<; tov 6eov ev Xpiujo) 'Irjaov.
'5 ocyoe. ovv reXeioi, tovto ^pova>fj.ev •
Kai ei, ri
erejoa)? (f)poveire, Kat tovto o 0eo<i vfuv avoKaXv-
yfrei • ' irKrjv et? b €<p6aaafj,ev, t« avrm crToi'^eiv. i6. cai vi. .6.

''' Svvfiip.i]Tai fiov ryivecrOe, dBe\(f>ol, Kai o" /to- f^; j^;
' '''''

Tretre toi/? ovto> •jrepnraTovvra'; Ka^aj? e^ere


'*
TVTTOV rifia^. TToXKoi jap irepnraTovaiv, ou? is. cai. vi. 12.

TToWa/ct? eXeyov VfUV, vvv Be Kai KXaicov Xeyco,


Tou? e')(6pov<; tov aravpov rov Xpio'rov, '^ wi' 19- = Pet. u. i.

TO Te\o? uTTcoXeia, cop deo<; rj koiXlu Kai rj Bo^a


ev T7] OKT'^vPTj avToyp, oc Ta emyeia ^popoiivTe^.
rjfitov yap to TToXirev^a ev ovpavoii virapyet,
ef ov Kai crajTrjpa aTre/tSe^o/ne^a Kvpiov Irjaoiip
^'
XpKjTov, b? fieTaa'^rj/iaTia-ei to crSifia t^? Trt-

Treivaxretoi rjfiav avpfj,op(f>op tw crwfiaTi ttj? So^tj^

avTOv, Kara rijv evepyeiav tov BvvaaOai avrop


Kai vTTOTU^ai avrm Ta Travra.

10. T H avfiiioprpi^ofx. 12 fi : T H add km T [H] om \

iTyaou 13. ovnto: T* h ou 17. T trvfifitfiriT. 21. TH


tTvi^^opipov J
avrto .*
H /avruj
4
38 nP02 *iAinnH2ioY2. 4- i-

IV.

IV.
I
I.
Thess.
i. 8
ii.
;

19.
'"l2<TTe, a.B6\<f)ol ixov dya-mjTol Kal eirnrodijToi,

Xapa Kol are<l)av6<; /j^ov, outo)? arrjKeTe ev Kvpio),

ayairrjToi.
=. ii. =. ^ EvoSLav TrapaKaXay kcu SvvtvxV JrapaKaXai
!„'';?'' ^^- TO avro <f>povelv ev Kvpiw. ' vai, iparco xai, ere,

yvTjcrie irvv^vye, avvKafi^avov axnai<;, aiTtvev tv

Tto eiiayyekltp awr\6\7)(iav yMt fxera Kat, K\r]ij.ev-

TO? Kai rwv XoiTTCou avvepycov fiov, cov ra ovo/iaTa

f-ThSvi'ieV *XaipeTe ev xvpia iravTore' irdXiv epw, yal-


pere. ' to £Triet«e9 vixoiv yv(oa-6riTeo Traaiv av-

Kvpio^ eyyii?. ^ fi'r]Bev fiepifivare,


6payiroL<f 6
aW' €V TraviX rrj -Trpocrevxjj '^<»'
'''U
Serjcret fiera

evyapicrria^ ta alTr)fj,aTa vfiaiv yvcopi^eauo) irpo^

Tov 6e6v. ' KoX Tj eiprjin] tov 6eov t] virepeypvaa


nrdvTa vovv cfipovpTjcret rav KapBiat vfioiv Ktu ra

vorjfiara Vfiaiv ev Xpia-ra Ir)aov.


* To Xoiirov, aSeX<f>oi, oaa eariv aXrjOrj, oira

a-efiva, oaa Bi.Kaia, ocra dyva, otra irpoo'tfiiXrj, otra

ev<p7]p,a, €4 Tt? aperr) koc ei Tts erraivo^, rama


lv.'"'3''; ThSs. Xoyi^eade' ^ a xal t/iddere km irapeXd^eTe Koi
• 23
qKovauTe Kai elBere ev efioi, raura irpaa-aere,

Kui o 0€o<; Trji eipriv7]<; earai fie9 Vfiwv.



E-^aprjv Be ev Kvpup fieyaXa><i on rjSr) ttote

aveOaXere ro inrep ep,ov (jypovelv •


e<^ o) xai e(f>po-

veire, rjKaipelaOe Be. " ovx on, Kaff va-repr)(nv


Xeya> •
eya> yap efjuadov ev ot? et/it auTapicr]<;

IV. I. ayainjToi sc : h add )jlov 2. TH oTin-ixr'


3. h Suv^vye 6. H fi T
'

4- 23- npo2 *iAinnH2ioY2. 39


eivai. " oiZa Kai Ta-neLvovadai, oiBa Kai irepia-

creveiv • ev ttuvti Kai ev iracnv /xefj,vr]fA,ai, kui


j(,opTa^ea-dai Kai weivav, Kai irepicraeveiv teal

varepelcrdai. '' Travra la'^vw ev Ta> evBvvafiovvri 13. i Tim. i .=.

fte.
''•
7r\riv ^aXois eTTOi-qaare (rvvKoivcovrjcravTe'}
'
fiov ry BXiyfrei. "' otSare Be Kai v/iet?, ^iXiinn)- J'corF°i.' ?s

fftot, on ev ap'x^ tov evayyeXiov, ore e^fjXdov


aiTo MaKeBovia<;, ovBefiia fioi eKK\7](Tia eKoivco-

vijcrev et? \6jov Soo-ems Kai \7ifj,yfrea)<; ei fir] vfj,ei<;

fiovoi, '*
on Kai ev QeacraXoviKr) Kai aira^ Kai
8t? €1? Trji* )(peiav fioi eirefiyjraTe, '' ov^^ on
eiri^rjTa) to B6/x,a, aWa eiri^-rfTai tov Kapirov tov
^^
trXeova^ovTa et? Xojov vfiaiv. aTre-^o) Be Travra is. Eph. v. 2.

Kai irepiaaevo), TreTrXT^pccfiai Be^afievo^ vapa E-rra-

^poBirov ra Trap vfiwv, oo'/u.rjv eva)Bia<s, Ovcriav


BeKTTjv evapecnov rm 0ea, '' o Be 6eo<; fiov

TrXripiwirei, ircKrav ^peiav vfiwv Kara 70 ttXouto';

Xpiaru) '°
avTOv ev Bo^t) ev Irjcrov. to) Be Bern

KOI irarpL rjfiwv rj Bo^a et? tok? aia>va^ tcov aioy-

vcov, afi7]v.
" 'AaTracracrde iravTa ayiov ev XpiCTTm Irjaov. 21. cai. i. 2.

aairatfivrai vfia<; ot aw epoi aBeX<f>oi, '^ aaira- 22. 1. 13.

^ovTai ifiaf; iravre'; 01 ayiot, fiaXtara Be 01 eK


T^? Kaiffapa oiKia?,
^' 'H vapi's TOV Kvpiov Irjaov XpiaTov fjiera n- cai. vi. a.

TOV •7rvevfiaT0<i vfiaiv.

14. T a-vyKotvaivrja: 23. T subscr. irpos ^iXiirirrjinovs


nP02 TIMOeEON A.

I.

1. 1. Tit. L I etc.
' IIav\0<! alT0(TT0\0'i XpiffTOV 'It]C70V KUT CTTt-

Tayrjv ffeov (rcoTr]po<i r]/j,ci)v /cat Xpiarov Irjaov


rrjif e\7rtSo? r]/j,a>v ^ Tifj,odeq> •yvTjffta reKvtp ev

TTicrrei. '^^apiv, e\eo?, eipT}i/r] atro deov iraTpov


Kol XpLffTOV IrjCTOV TOV Kvpiov rjflCOV.

3. Acts XX. 1.
^ Kado)^ irapeicdkeffd ae Trpoa-fieivat ev 'E^etrto,

iropevofievo's et? MaKtZoviav, Iva TropoyyetXi;?


l|.Tit. 1. 14; Tca\v fir) erepoBiBaaKaXeiv ^ fj,r)Be Trpoae'^etv pv-

6oi,<! Kai yeveaXoyiuK aTrepavTOK, atrti/e? ex^tj-

T^o-et? irape'x^ovcnv p.aX\ov rj oiKovopMv deov rT]v

fp^'T.S'''''^' *" "TiaTii' 'to Se reXo? t^? jrapayye\ia<; ecniv


2 Tim. i. 5. J
ayairrj
/ s
ex
/I* C«' ^ ^'
Kaoapa<s Kapoiat; Kai avveLOTjaeiov

aya6rj<: /cat TTicTTeQ)? avviroKpirov, * cov Tive<t acrro-


6. (V. 15.)

7. Rom. ii. ai.


j^'jo-ai'Te? e^eTpaTTTjaav ets paraioXoyiav, ' 0e\oi/-

T6? etvat I'O/u.oSiSao'/caXot, /tTj voowxe? Mi)T6 a


8^
Rom. vii. 12,
\eyovcTiv pr)Te irepi Tivasv Bia^e^aiovvrai. ^ 01-

Bap,ev Se on KaXo'i vofj,o<!, eav rt? aurca vop,i-


/io)? 'X^prjTai, ' etSo)? tovto, oti BtKaim ro/ito? ou
Kelrai, avop.oit Se /cat ai/UTrora/cxot?, atre^eai Kai

a/iaprmXot?, avoerioiv /cat ^6^r]\oi<!, TraTjOoXpat?



/tat p,rjrpo\a)ai<;, avSpo(f)OVOi'i, •rropvoi';, apaevo-
KOcrai<:, avSpaTroSto-Tat?, >/rei/crTat?, eTrtop/cot?, /cat

et Tt erepov t^ vyiawovarj BiBaaKaXia avTlKurai,


2- I- nP02 TIMOGEON A. 41
" Kara to evayyeXiov Ttji So^rif rov fiaxapiov
deov, b einarevOtiv eyta. " X'^P''" ^X^ ''"^ ev^v- k. (Phii. iv. 13.)

vafiuiaavTt fie XpiaT^ Irjaov rat Kvpio) rj/icov,

on, iTKTTov fj,6 r]yric7aTo 6e/J,evo<: eh SiUKoviav, '^


to J^-. '^^"J:^,
.

irpoTepov ovra ffXacriprjfiov Kai SiccKTrjv /cal v^pi-


(TTijv • aWa T)\er]6riv, on ayvowv eTrnirjaa ev
airitrria, '* virepeirKeovacrev Be rj ^apt,<! tov Kvpiov
rjfiQJV fiera irio'Tea)': xai ayuinj'; rrj'i ev Jipiaro}
Ir/aov. '5 TTto-jo? 6 Xoyo'i Koi irdar}^ a7roSo;)^^9 ^^^
ifi'ii.''

agio's, oTi Xpiaroi Iriaov<i rfkOev et? jov koct/mjv


a/jLapTcoXovi awcrai, wv 7rpa>To<; eifjn eyco • '*
aWu
Ota Tovro ri\er]dr]v, Lva ev efxoi irpmrai evZei-
^Tjrat Itjgov^ XpicrTO<i ttjv avaaav fMaxpoOv/Miav,
irpo^ vworvTratcTiv rav /MeWovrcov irtareveiv eir
avjw et? ^(o-qv aiwviov, ''too Se ^aaiXel Ta>v Yuif^ct^''"
actovwv, a(j)6apTq) aoparip tiov(p j9em, rifir] Kai
oo^a ei<! TOvs aiwva^ twv aiaivwv • a/j,r)v.

'^
TavTTjv T^i; irapayyeXiav irapaTidefial aoi,
TeKvov Ti/Modee, Kara rai trpoayovaa'; eiri, ae
irpo^r]Teia<;, iva o-TparevaT) ev aurat? t-^v KaX-qv
cnpajeiav, '' e^aiv Triartv Kat ayaOrjv avveiB-qatv,
"qv rive<s aTTcoaafievoi trepi tt)v itlcttiv evava-
yncrav '° av eariv 'Tfievaiov Kal '^XeJai/S/ao?, "•
fc.J.'^'"-."-

ou? TrapeSwKa tcS Garava, iva iraiBevdwaiv fxr)

^\aa-<f)rifie2v.

II.

'
UapaicaXS} ovv irpwrov iravrcov TroielaOai

SeriaeK, irpoaev')(a';, evTev^eiv, enj^apto-Tta?, virep

12. h evBvyaiiovvTi. 16. TH* xP'o^o^ iTjtrovs 18. t H*


42 nPOS TIMOGEON A. 2. 2.

TravTW avdpwTTWv, ^ virep ^aciKecov Kai iravTmv


Twu €V vnrepoj^ri ovrav, iva r)pe/J.ov Kav rjcrvy(^tov
^lov Biaycofiev ev iracrr) evae^eia km cre/j,voTr]TC.

' TovTO KoXov Kac uTToBeKTOv evwTTiov Tov am-


"'Tila!,^^'' rrjpoi r]ixS>v ffeov, • o? irdvra'i aydpanrovs deXei

3. Gal. iii. a>. cTwOfjvai Kol 64? eTTi'yvuiaiv oXriOei.a'i eXdelv. ^ «?


yap 6eo<i, eh Kai fieaLTrj^ 6eov xai, avdpatTrtov,

6. Tit. iL .4. avOpCiyiro'i X/3Ktto? Jtjo-oi)?, ^ o Sou? eavTOP av-


TiXvTpov Virep iravTWV, 10 fiaprvpiov KaipoK
kom^l™.'i:
"' iSioiv, ' 6t? b eTedrjV eyco Kijpv^ Kai a7ro(7To\o?,

aXriOeiav Xeym, ov yjrevSoftai, SiSaaKoKoii eOvoJv


ev iriarei a\rj6ei,a,
^
ffouXofiai ovv irpoaev)(e<Tdai tow? avBpa<; ev

iravTi ToTTft) eiraipovTav oaiovi '^eipa's %a)/3t?

9. Pet. ffi. 3SS. opyrj<; Kai BiaXoyiafJiov • ' (0(TavTW<; yvvaixat ev


KaracTToXt) KocTfiia>, fiera aiBov'S Kai c7a)(f)potTvvT]'i

KOfffieiv eavTa<s, firj ev vXeyfiacrtv Kai ^puffco

r] fiapyaplTai<; t] l/iaTiafim iroXvTeXet, '° aXX o

irpe-Trei yvvai^iv e7rayyeXXofievai<; ffeoaefieiav,

Bi' epy(ov ayada>v. " Twrj ev r]<TV)(^ia fiavda-


vero) ev iraarj inroTayri • " BiBaaKeiv Be yvvaiKi
ouK etrirpeiTa), ovBe avOevreiv avBpo<s, aXX eivai

Geii!£°7iS.'' ev riav^ia. '^'ABa/j, yap trpSnots eirXaafft}, elra

14. Gen. w. 6. Eva, "* Kai ABufi ovK ^TTaTTjOr), t) Be yvvr)

e^aTraTTjOeiaa ev Trapa^aaei yeyovev, '' atoOri-

aerai Be Bia ttJ? Teicvoyovta<;, eav fieivaaiv

ev TTicTTei Kai ayanrj xai ayiaa/iot fiera


(Tco^pocrvvrj^.

II. 3- Touro : t add [ya/)] 8. H^ dtaAoyi<7jixQ)v 9. a»irai'-


Tws : T add [koi] |
Koafiua : h Koo-^uur | H^ p^puo-is? 12. T
aXAa 13- H eva
3' IS- npos TiMoeEON A.
43

III.

' Uto-TO? o \oyo<: ' « rt? t-jnaKoiTrj'; opeyeTai, m. ,. i. ,5.

Kokov epyov eTridvfiet. ' Sel ovv tov eiria-KO'irov 2. Tit. i. 6ss.

aveTriKrjuirTOP eivai, iiiat yvvaiKO'; avBpa, vrj-

^aKiov, (ra)<f>pova, kocjxiov, (piXo^evov, BtBaxTi-


Kov, ^117] irapoivov, firj irXTj/crrju, aX\a eirieiKi),

afia'^ov, a^iKapyvpov, '*7ov iSiov oikov Ka\a)<;

•TrpoiaTafievov, rexva e^ovra ev viroTayrj fieja


iraCTft (refivoTqro'i, — ^ ei Se rt? rov iSiov otKous-v. 8.

irpo(7Trjvai ovk oiSev, ttm? 6KK\.'rj(7ia<! 6eov eTrt-

(leKTiaerai ; — *
fi-q ve6<pVTOV, iva fiT) TV(f)co6ei<;

64? Kpifia e/jmear) tov Sia^oXov, ^ Sel Se Kot 7. s Tim. h. 26.

fiaprvpiav KaXrjv eyeiv airo tuip e^adev, Iva /iij

«? oveiBtafiov efiirear) kui irayiZa rov Bia^oXov.


* AiaKovovi; w(7avTa><; defivov^, SiXoyov;,
fj,T) p^ri

oi,v(p TToXKat vpoaej^ovTa'i, firj aic7')(poKepBelv,

''e'XpVTa'} TO iivcnrjpiov rrj^ 7rt(7T6G)? ev KaOapa


'° icai ovrot
avveiSrjaei. he SoKifMa^eadeoffav
TrpcoTov, ena SoaKOvetrcocrav aveyic\7]Toi, ovrei;.

" yvvaiKa^ (oaavTOit; aefivai;, firj Sta/3o\ou?, !<?;- n. Tit. ii. 3.

'^
^dKiovt, iria-Tw; ev traaiv. Staxovoi earaxrav
fiiav yvvaiKo<; avBpe<;, TeKVwv KoKai'i trpo'Cara-

fievoi Kai Twv iBieov oikcov. '^


01 yap Ka\a>'i

BiaKOvriaavTe<i ^adfjLOV eavroi'i koXov irepiiroi-

ovvTai Koi "TToW/rjv irappTjatav ev irKxret, ttj ev

jLpiffTO) Irjaov.
''t
TavTci (Toi ypd(f>a} eXiri^ojv eXdelv •jrpo'i ere

rdytov • "' gav Be ^paBvvco, Iva etfi^? ttw? Set

III. I. H moras Xoyos Ei ns 14- H [Trpos i/e] (


44 npo2 TiMoeEON a. 3. 16.

ev o\kw deov avaarpe^eaOai, tjtk earcu eKKXijcria


6eov faJi'TO?, o-TuXo? Kav ehpaiwjia t^? aXTjOeiat.
'* ecnlv to t^? ev-
Koi 6/j,o\oyov/j,ev(o'} fjueya

cre^eia^ fivcnripiov •
09 £<f)avepco6rj fv aapxi,
eStKaifodj) ev -rrvevfiaTi, axpdr] ayyeXoK, exripv-

^(ffrj ev edveaiv, eTnarevdrj ev Kocrfia, aveXTjfitpdij


ev So^r).

IV.

iihisS'
" ^"^ '
^ ^^ irvevfia pijT&is Xeyet oti, ev vaTepoK
KUipoK aTTOdTrjiTOVTai rtve<i t^? TrtffTeo)?, Trpocr-

e^ovrei "Trvev/iaaiv irXavoi': xai BtSaaxaXiaK


-. Tit. L 15, Saifiovcwv, ^ ev vnoKpiaei ^IrevSoXoyav, KeKav-
<TT7)piaap.eva)v ttjv iBiav avvechrjaiv, ^ KtoXvovriov
yafielv, aire')(e<idai ^pcofidrtov, a 6 ^eos eicTiaev
€t? lieTaXTjfjLyfrtv fiera ei/^aptCTta? rot? 'irt(TToi<;

KM eireyvcoKoac ttjv aXrideiav. * ort Trai' KTiafia

deov KoXov, Kat, ovBev airoffXrjTOV fiSTa ev^api-


a-Tcai Xa/j,^av6fievov • ^ dyia^erai yap Bta Xoyov
Oeov Kat, evrev^eco'!.

6. 2 Tim. ui 10.
^ Tavra VTTOTiBe/ievo'i Toi? aBeX^oiv kuXoi;

ear) Bia/covoi Xpiarov 'Irjaov, evTpe^oiJLevo<s toi?

Xoyoii rr]<s Tnorea)? Kat TJ7? KoXrj'! BiBaaKaXiav


r) irapriKoXovOr}Ka<; • ' tow Be ^e^r\Xov<i Kat
ypaaBeK (ivdovv irapanov. yvfiva^e Be aeav-
saTim. i. I. 701* Trpo? evae^eiav, ^ rj yap trccfiariKT] yvfiva-
aia irpo'i oXtyov effriv iocf)eXiixo<! • •q Be evcreff eca
irpo'i iravTa oxpeXifiov eariv, eirayyeXiav e-^ovaa
9. i. IS. ^oi)rj<s T»}? vvv Kai riy? /ieWoi/o-T;?. ' iriaTO's o
Xoyo<! Kai aTToSo^ij? '° touto
13. Col. i. 35. Tra(T7]<; a^iov. et?

IV. 3. Ka>\. yaixiLv, anf)(((rdM : hf 6. h irnj'< XovBqaus


S- S- nPOS TIMOGEON A.
45
yap KOTTicofiev Kat, djwvi^d/jjeda, oji ^XirLKafieu
eTTt 06<p ^a>vTi, 6? iariv ocorrjp Trdvrwv avdpas-
TTOiV, fJ,a\l<7Ta TTtajWD,
" napdyyeWe Tavra koL ZlZaaKe. " fj.rjBei'i H Ji*;';;^-
<Tov Try? veoTr]To<t KaTa(f)pov€iTcd, dWa tutto?
jivov tS>v inaTwv, ev Xoyw, ev dvacrrpo(f>rj, ev
ayairr), ev TTKTTet, ei* dyveta, ''
ecu? ep'xpfiai
TTpocre')(e tj) avayvwaei, trj vapaKXrjcrei, ttj Si-
Baa-KaXia. '*
fjbrj dfieXei tov ev crol yapiaiiaTot, l*--ii^^il:'"-

o ehodr] aot Sia '7rpo<f)r}Teia'! fiSTo, eTrt^e'ffeto? rwv


^eipmv TOV irpea-^vrepiov. '^ raina fieKera, ev
TOVTOlf latli, iva <7ov rj nrpOKOTrr) (pavepa rj -Traaiv.

'*67r6j^e aeavTO) koI ttj StSa(7Ka\ia, eiri/xeve


Jc^^x's^L'
avTo2<! ' rovTo yap nroiuiv Kai aeavrov ao}(7ei<s

KM Tou? aicouovTa<; gov.

V.

'
IIpea^VTepq) ix-q eTrtTrXTj^ij? aWd irapaKoKei,
»? iraiepa, vecorepow to? d^ekjiovi, ^irpea^v-
Tepa<i coi /j,7]T6pav, veanepa<; to? aheX^at ev
iraffTj dyveia. ' lZ.r\pa<i Ti/ia Ta<; ovTto<; y(T]pa<;.

* ei Se Tt? X^P*^ TSKva rj ^xyova 6%", fiavdave- v. 4. a. 3.

Tcocrav •irpanov tov iBiov oikov ev^e^elv Kai ap,oi-

/3a9 aTTohifhdvai Tots Trpoyovoi'; • tovto yap


eoTiv diroBeKTOV evcatriov tov 6eov. ^ r] Be ov- 5. jer. iibi. n.

tcoi YTjpa Koi p-efiovcofievrj rjXTTiKev eiri 6eov KaX

Trpoafievei Tali Berjaeciv Kai rat? Trpoaev')(cu<!

10. aya-ii^ofieOa : th ovei,hi^ojxe6a \


h rfKiria-afiev 12. H
ayvia 16. H SiSacTKaXia V. 2. H ayvia 5. T (m [tov']

0eov H fTTi [tov] 6eov h e-m Kvpiov


46 nP02 TIMOGEON A. S- &•

vvKTot Koi rjfiepa'i • ^ r) Ze ffiratdKaxya ^waa


TedvrjKev. ^ Koi ravra -rrapayyeWe iva aveiri-

XTj/iiTTOi Sscriv. * et Se' t(? tIdv iSiwv Kai fiaXiara

o'lKeiQJV ov irpovoelTai, ttjv iricniv rjppijTat xat

ecTTiv aTTia-TOV '^(etptov.


9 Xi^pa KaTaXtje(T0(o p-rj eXaTTov eraiv e^rj-

KOVTa yeyovvta, evoi avbpo'; yvvT], " ev epyoi^


KaXoi<; fiaprvpovpevT], ei ereKvorpoiprjcrev, ei e^evo-

So'yrjcrev, et dybcov TroSa? €viyfrev, et 6Xi^op,evot<!

evripKecrev, ei TravTL epym aya6a> etrTjKoXovdrjffev.


" veaiTepat; he p^Tj^o? irapanov • orav yap KaTO-
aTpr/viacrwaiv toO Xpitrrov, yap,eiv OeXovffiv,
" ej(pvaaL Kpifxa on ttjv irpanTjv tnariv rjOerrf-
crav • '^
apa Be Kai apyat pavOavovaiv irepi-

ep-xppevai Ta<i oi,Kta<;, ov povov Be apyai aXXa


Kat, (pXvapoi Kai irepiepyoi, XaXowai, ta pri
"*
Beovra. fiovXopai ovv vewrepa^ yapeiv, TeKvo-
yovelv, oiKoBeairoTelv, pr]Bepcav a(j)oppr]v BiBovai
Tw avTiKeipevq} XoiBopia<} 'x^apiv ^^rjBr] yap Tivei
''
e^erpaiTTjaav ottcctco tov aarava. et Tt? iriarr]

€)(ei 'yripat, eirapKei,a6a) avraiv, Kai prj fiapeiadco


rj eKKXrjata, iva rat? ovTCOi 'xrjpat's eirapKear).
Thess.
17. 2 V. '' Oi KaXw^ irpoetnSne': irpecr^viepoi StwX^f
TtjCtTj? a^tovcrOcoffav, paXiara ot KoiriwvTe's ev

^oy?* Kat BiBaiTKaXia,. '^Xeyet yap ypai^rj'


!'

>./ r]
'
xxiv^is ? Cot*
ix. 9, 14 ; Mat. X. /^«)-«
povv aXocovTa ov
/
Kaf
Ve, * > /
loetc. <pt/tio)(76t?, afto? o epyaji]^
19. Deut. xix. 15. TOV piO'doV UVTOV. '' KaTa TTpeC^VrepOV KOTT}-

yopiav pt) irapaBe-^ou, ekto? et pr) eirt Bvo r]

Tpiwv papTvpcov. 1 ovt apapravovrat evw-

8. t a^ wpovod 16. .H' en-apxtiTu 20. H tovs [StJ


afjiaprav.
;

6. 4- nPOS TIMOGEON A.
47
•Kiov "TTuvTcov cXeyi^e, tva Kai ol Xonrol ^6j3ov

" AiafiapTvpofiai evwrriov rov 6eov /cat Xpi- 21. 2 Tim. iv. i.

<7T0t) Irjaov Kat tuv eKkeKTwu ayjeXav iva ravra

(f>v\a^<i J^WjOt? TrpoKpifiaTO^, fj.ijSev iroicov Kara


irpoaKKtcnv. " X€ipa<; Taj^e'a)? firjSevl i-TriTiOet, f-^f^-^"^''"'^'

fi7]Be KOivcovei a/iapriaK aXXorpiai'i. aeavjov


dyvov TT]pei. ^^ fiij/ceri vSpoirorei, aWa oLva
oXiyco j^po) Sia top trrofiaj^pv koI Ta<; •rvkvo,';

aov affdeveiat. '^ Tivwv avOpcoTrav at dfiapriai


irpdBrjXoi eicnv irpoayovaai ei<: xpicnv, Tiacv Se

KOI eiraKoXovdovaiv • ^^ a><TavT(o<t km ra epya ra


KaXa irpoSrjXa, Kai ra aXXm<i e'^ovra Kpv^rjvai
ov Bvvavrai.

VI.

UffOt ei<nV wo CvyOV OOVXoi, TOUS lOlOV^ VI.


Eph.
1. Tit. U. gs.;
Ti. s.i Col.
„ , , , , ,,
^'
SecTTroTas Trao-i;? Tt/irJ? d^covi riyeiadwaav, tJ'a j'kTyT''"'

IJbr) TO ovofia Tov deov Kai rj BiSacrKaXia ^Xaa-


<f>r]/irJTai. ^ ol Be Tncnoiif e^^ovre^ SecrTTora? firi ^- ^Ji'=P; ;,*.•

KaTaqypovetTacrav, on aoeXcpoi eiaiv, aXXa fiaX-


Xov SovXevsTOiffav, ori iria-roi, eiaiv Kai, ayairriToi
01 T^? evepyeaiai; avTiXafi^avofievoi.
Taina BlBaaKe irapaKoXei. t{? irepo- 3-i.3;Gai.i.
-i^vN koL
^ et,

Spt
loaiTKaXei Kai fir)
/
irpocre'x^eTat
'

f/
vyiaivovaiv
.^/
'

Xoyoi<;
OSS.
Tit.
2 Tim. 1. 13
;

1. 13 ; ii. I.

TOW TOV Kvpiov rj/lWV IrjtTOV XpiCTTOV Kai Trj

BiBaaKaXia, * TeTU^tarat,
KUT evae^eiav /tijSei' 4. ^ Tim. il 14.

tTTi(jrafievo<;, dXXa voawv vepi ^r]Tri<Tei<; Kai

Xoyofj.a')(^iai;, ef u)v yiverai <j)6ovo<;, ept?, ^Xacr^rj-

21. t 7rpoa-K\r]a-u> VI. 2. h ayawrjToi, 01 3. TH


irpoafpxeTai | H Xoyois, Tois tou Kvp. rjp.. irjix. xp«n"ou,
48 nP02 TIMOGEON A. 6. S-

5. 2 Tim. iii, e. /i/at, inrovoiai irovrjpai, ^BiaTrapaTpi^ai Bie^Oap-


f ? /I ' '^ « V ) f

fievav avopanrcov tov vow kui, aTre<n£pr]fieva>v

T^9 aXTjOeiwi, vofjii^ovTcov 7ropia-p,ov eivai, tt/v

tvcre/Seiav. ^ ecniv he '7ropi<T/j.o<i fieyaq ^ evcre^€ia

/jLera avTapKeiai;. ^ ovBev <yap eiarjvejKafiev ek


TOV Koa/iov, oTi ovSe e^eveyKelv rt hwapkeOa •

* eyovTe'; he BcaTpo^av Kai aKeirao'fiaTa, TouTOt?


apKea-drjaofieffa. ' ol he ^ovKoiievoi vKovrelv e/*-

iriTTTOvcnv et? Treipaafiov Kat irayiha kui ein-

Ovfiiai TToXXa? aforjTovs Kai ^Xafiepa^, aiTive<!

l3vdi^ovffiv Tous avOpairovi en oXeOpov Kai aira>-


xo. Luke xiL ij. "keiav, '°
jotfa yap iTavjwv twv KaKwv ecriiv rj
<f>iXapyvpia, ^<s Ttves opeyofievoi d'Treir'KavriO'ijaav
OTTO T^? TTtffTetB? Kai eavTovi irepieireipav ohv-
vatt TToWat?.
II. 2Tim.iiLi7. ^' Sv he, 0) avOpayrre 6eov, Tain a ^evye' hcmxe
he hiKaio(Xvv7]v, evae^eiav, vta-riv, ayuTnjv, vtto-
15. i. IS; I Cor. fiovTjv, 'TTpavvadcav, " aytovi^ov tov kuXov
lis. I Acts xvi. 2.'''
ay cava tjjs
" '
Trtcrreo)?,
''v/3'^'^
eTTtxapov
fq<i
''
aicoviov
(*"
^(orjv,

et? j^f eK\7j67]<s Kat, tofioXoyrjo-av t^v /caX^i/ o/mo-

13. Rom. iv. 17. \oyiav evcoTTiov TToWwv fiapTvpav. " irapay-
yeXXcD evannov Beov tov ^a>oyovovvTo<; to vavra
Kai Xpio'TOU Iijffov TOV iiapTvprjoavTOi eiri

DiuT.'x.";?'?'
2 Mace, xiii' 4.
TIovTiov JJeiXaTOV
aai
,
(re
vj-vv-jA
ttjv evToXrjv
ttji; Ka\7]v ofioXoyiav, '^TTjprj-
acnriXov aveTriXrjfi-rrTOV fiei^^pi
/

Trjv eTTi^aveiat tov Kvpiou rjfiwv 'Irjaov Xpicnov,


'' r]v KUipoi^ ihioi^ hei^ei 6 fiaKapio's kcu fiovov
hvvaoTT]^, 6 fiaaiXevii tS>v fiacriXevovTmv xal

7. oTt ouSe: hf 8. 8iaTpo<l>j]v 1 1, h tov Oeov \


T irpav-

itaBeiav 1 3. jrapayyt XXa : TH add am \


TH tou 6fov \
t h
6. 21. npos TiMoeEON A.
49
Kvpio^ 7WV KvpcevovTOJv, "^
d fiovot e^wv aOava- k.. = Tim. u. .a.

aiav, ^0)9 oirKwv airpoanov, ov elSev ov8ei<;

av6p(oira>v ovBe iBelv BvvaTai • cu Ti/xr) koc Kparo'i

"' Tot? TrXouffiotij Lukexn.


tj/ Tft) j/Ot' aoaivi "TrapayyeWe 'J-

/li?; v-^rfKa (ppovelv, /iriSe r]\-mKevai c'ttI ttXovtov


aorjXoTTjTi, aW ein, veu) t&) irapeyovTi rjfiiv

iravja irKovaica^ ei<s aTToXavaiv, '*


ayaOoepyelv,
vXovTeiv ev epyon Ka\ol<;, evfisraSoTov^ etvai,
KoivaviKov;, '' airodi]aavpi^ovTa<; eavTolf ffe/xe-

\iov KaXov ei? to fieWov, iva e-7ri\d^a>vTai t^?


oz'Tftj? ^(i)r}<!.

'°'I2 Tifiodee, T7]v nrapaO^KTjv ^vXa^ov, €K- i°\l^''"-^'*-

T/jeTTO/i.ei'o? Tw; /SeySrJXou? Kevo<pQ)via<! koI avrt-


BeaeK t^? •t^evBavvfiov yvataew;, ^' rfv rti'e? 2>- » Tim. n. is.

€irayye\ofj.evoi irepi ttjv irtuTiv Tjaro^ijcrav.

H '^api'i ned' vficjv.

17. T H' v^jrr]Xo<lipoveiv \ deal h pm rta 21 ficB u/.<a

t /lera <tov |
T subscr. jrpos nfiodfov a
1 :

npos; TiTON.

1. Rom. 1.
1 ,
JTatlXo? BovXov 0eov, aVocrToXo? Be 'Itjtov

XpiOTOv Kaia TTLffTiv evXeKTOiv 6eov kul eiri-

2s. 2 Tim. 1. 5s. lyvcocTiv a\r]6eca<; tjJ? kut evae^eiav ^ stt eXiriSi

^(B^9 aiwvLov, rjv sTrriyjeiXaTO o a^jrevBqv deot


3 iTim. Lii. irpo '^povcov aitovicov, ' etpavepwaev oe fcaipoi,<;

i,Bioi<; Tov Xoyov avTov ev KTjpvyuuTi, b eintnev-


KOT eTTtray^v tov aanrjpo^
4.
aTim.
I Tim.
i.
i.

2;
z;.n7/
^
6r]v eycii

liTcc yvTjaiq) T€KV(p


// Kara
V v/
kocvtjv ttlcttiv.
r/fiayv ffeov,
/
yclpi';

Kat, etprjvri airo 6eov irarpof xai Xpicrrov Itjo-ov

TOV aanripo^ rji^wv.


5. Acts xiv. a3 c rn ' \ ' ' ' '
r^ ' » ^
2 Tim. ii. 2. = i ovTOV ^apiv aTreMTTov ae ev Js prjTTj, iva tu
XeiTTOVTa eTTiBiopOuxTr] Kai KaTaarrjO'rj'i Kara tto-
Xiv irpea^vTepovif, cj? eyco aoi, BieTa^afirjv, ' et rt?

ecTTCU aveyKXr)T0<;, /ita? yvvaiKOt avr]p, leicva

e^tov TTKTTa, fiTj ev Karrjyopca aaQ)Tia<; r) avviro-


75s. I Tim. iii.
TUKTa. ^ Bel yap lov eTri<TKOTrov aveyKXrjTov eivai

oj? 6eov 01K0V0/J.0V, fir/ avdaBr], fxr) opyiXov, fiq


nrapoivov, firj TrXr^KTrjv, firj aia-'X^poKepBrj, * aXXa
(f>iXo^evov, (f>iXaya6ov, a(o(f>pova, BiKaiov, ocriov,

eyKpaTT], ' avTe-^ofievov tov Kara ti;i; BiBaj(r]v

I. I. h ;(pi(rrou [i?;crou] 2S. H atii>"ia> • e(j)^vepa^eii 5e

Katp. iStotr, r. Xoy. avT. ev K-pjy}iaTi o 5. H' afffXfiTTOc


1

2- r- npos TiTON. 5

TTtcFTov \oyov, iva Svvaro'i Kat, irapaKaXelv ev


f)

TT} 0iSaaKa\i,a trj vyiaivovarj koi toii? dvTiKe-


jovTUv eXey^eiv. '°
Eicriv yap ttoWoI dvvTro-
TOKTOi, /xaraioXoyoi Kai (ppevairuTab, fiaXiaTa
01 SK TTjs TrepiTOfirjt;, " oi»9 Bel eiricnofill^eiv, o'l

rive<; o\ov<s otKons avarpeTTOvaiv Si.8ao"«oi/T69 a

/u,ri Bel accr'^pnu KepBovi j^dpiv. " elwev Ta e^ av-


Twv toioi; avTwv Trpo<fir]TTjv • T prjre<; aei yfrev<TTai,
Kaxa 6ripia, yaoTepe^ apyal. '^
^ fiaptvpla
avrt) ecTTiiV aXrjdrjt;. Bt r}v atriav eXey^e avTovi
aTTOTOfiQ)?, iva, vyiaivcocrcv ev iridTei, "^ /irj
rfj

•7rpo<Te^ovTe<; IovBalKol<i /j.vdoi'} Kat evroXalf av-


Opwireov airocTTpe^onevayv t7]V aXrjOeiav. '^ ttuvtu 's- Rom. xt

Kadapa toI<; KaQapol^ • jolv Be fiefj.cafi./u.ei'oi'; kul


airiinot'i ovBev KaOapov, aXXa fiefxiavTOL avrcov
^ '
'^ ^ ' '^ i6 Zl ^ ' -\ '^
i6. 2 Tim. iii
Kai vov<! Kat rj avvetorjcnt;. veov ofioXoyov- 5, ,,.

(Tiv etBevat, rolf Be epyoi<; apvovvrat, ^BeXvKTot


oinei Kat oTret^et? Kai irpo'i irav epyov dyadov
aBoKifiot.

II.

'
^v Be XdXet a irpeirei rrj vytatvovayj BiBa-

ffKaXta. " irpecT^vTaf vi)^a\iov<; elvat, aefwovs,


<7(og>pova<;, vyiat,vovra<i ttj Trtcnet, rrj ayairrj, ttj

VTTOfWVTj • ' 7rpe(7/3vTt8a9 (ocravray; ev KaTacnr]- ";|,.'^''"'

fiari 'tepoTrpeirel';, ju.r) Sta/SoXou?, (xriBe otvto iroKXa


BeBovXeop,eva<;, KaXoBtBaffKoXov;, * tva ato^povt- t- Tim. v.

tovcTtv Ta? vea<; <}>iXavBpov<; etvat, ^iXoTeKvov;,


5 aa>(bpova<:, dyvw;, oiKOVpyov^, ayaOa?, inro- s- • Pet. iii.

I2_ H [fv] r?) II. 3- /iijSc : h M-l 4- H a-atjipovi^axri.

J.
T olKOVfiyoiis dyafl..;,
52 nPOS TiTON. 2. 6.

Ta(T(TOfieva(; rot? iBioi<s avBpaaiv, iva jxi) o \oyo^


roil deov ^\acr(j)7}iJ.rJTai. * Tovi veunepovt aiaav-
7. 1 Tim. iv. 12. T(B5 TrapaKaXei aax^poveiv ' irepi iravTa, aeamov
vape^yofievoi tvttov KaXwv epycov, ep ry SiSa-

aKokla a<f>6opiav, aefivorrjTa, * \6<yov xjyit] axa-


rdyvcocTTOP, "va 6 e^ ei/ovTta? evrpairy firjBev

t\7^i?'sfi'Au e)(a>v Xeyeiv vepl r)p,S)v ^avXov. ^ Aov\ov<s IBiok


Seo-TTOTflt? vTroTaaareadai, ev iraaiv evapecrrov;

etvai, p,r] avriKeyovrw;, p.7] voa-cpc^ofievovi;,

dXXa irda-av vicrTiv evZeiKvvp.evovi aya6r\v,

Iva T^v SiSaaKaXiav Trjv tov atOTripot tj^iwv

deov Koa-fioxTcv ev irdffiv.


ijohn
II. iii. 4-,
"'Eve^din^ yap r] ^apts rov Beov ao>T7)pio<;
vaaiv avdpcoiroK, " iraiievovcra t]ij,a<:, iva apvij-
adfievoi rrjv aaeffeiav Kai ras Koa-fiiKa^ evidv-
fiia<s Gm^povtat Koi hi,Kai(o<s Kai evaE/Soi? ^rjaapev
ev Tco vvv atcovi, '^ TrpoaSe^o/j.evoi t^v p,aKapiav
eXiriSa kuX eiri^aveiav t^? Bo^^ tov fieyaXov

VrS^itS- Oeov Kuc amTripo^ rjfiwv Xpiarov Irja-ov, '* o?


Eiod. lix-s eooDKev eavTov virep rjficov iva XvrpaxrrjTai rjfia<!

airo vaar)^ avop,ia<s Kai KaOapiarj eavra Xaov


irepiovaiov, ^rjXcoT'^v kuXcov epyav.

15. 1 Tim. iv. IIS.


'^ Tavra Xa\et kui wapaKaXei Kai eXey^e /xeTci

TTaarj'i eirnayrj'; • /iTjSet? aov trept^poveirco.

III.

"l!: 11. •''2 T'im.


''Tirop.ip.vrfaKe avTovt ap-)(ai<; e^ovaiaK vito-

Taaaeadai, veidap'^eiv, irpot irdv epyov ayaOov

6s. TH (Ta^povfiv^ (H •) Trepi iravra afavr. 7* ^ KoK*


€pytav fv Tjj dtdacTKoXm, 9. H u7rora(7(rf(7^ai €v Tratriv,
10, firj: h firjbe |
itlotiv (vbeiKV. ayadrjv: h evdfiKVVftevovs
ayanriv 13- h Tjiiav, |
h 4i)(rou xpiarov
3- H- nP02 TITON. 53
eroijjbovs eiuai, ^ firjBeva ^Xacr^rjixeiv, afiw^ovi; s. i Tim. a. 24s.

eli/ac, eTTieiKeli, macyav evBeiKVUfxevovv irpavTTjTa


irpo'; iravTa'i avdpcoirov^, ^ rjfjiev 'yap Trore Kai
ijfiei,^ avoTjToi, airetBec';, Tr\avci}fj,evot, Sov\evopTe<;
eiriOvfiiai'} Kat i^hovaa iroLiciKai<;, ev xaxta kol
(fiBovm Biayovref, aTvyrjToi, /j,i<70VVTe<; aX\-^\ov<; •

"•
0T6 Se Tj '^p7]<7T0T'r]<! Kat t] ^cXavdpanria ev€cj>dvrj 4- "• n-

Tov (Tcojrjpo'i T]fj,a)v deov, ^ ovk e^ epywv iwv ev s- 2 Tim. i. 9.

Siicaiocnivrj a eiroirjaafiev ^/xet?, aWa Kara to


avTov e\eo<} eacoaev rjp.a,'; Bia Xovrpov iraXi.v-

jeve<n,a<} icai avaKaivwaea)<; wevfj-aro^ dyiov, ^ ov


e^c^eev 6^ 'qfJ.a'; •ir\ou(ji,o}<i Sta Irjaov Xpicrrov
TOV <7a)Tr]po<; tjucov, ' iva ht.Kaia>6evTe<; t»7 eKeivov
^apnt KKrjpovofxoi <yev7jdS>iJbev kut eXTTiBa ^oirj'i

aLCOVlOV. TTtCTTO? O A.O'yo?, Kai Trepi TOUTtBZ' s. iTimiv. 9;

^ovXofiai ae Bia^e^aiovadai, iva ^povTt^aaiv


KaXaiv epyccv Trpo'CaTaaBai 01 TTeiriGTevKOTe'; Oem.
TavTU eaTiv KaXa Kai axpeXifia toI<s av6panroi<; •

^ ficopa^ Se fT^TTjCTet? /cut yeveaXoyiai xal epiv g- iTim.netc.

Kat /j,a'^a<; vop.iKa'; TrepuaTacro • eiatv yap avco-

Kai fiaTaioi.. '° atpsTLKOv avOpanrov p,eTa


<f>eXei<;

fiiav Kai BevTepav vovOeaiav irapaiTov, " eiBco^

OTi e^eaTpaTTTai toiovtoi; Kai dp,apTavei cov

avTOKaTaKpiTO'i.
'^
Orav irefjL'^o} ApTefJiav Trpo? ae rj Tv^ikov, 12. aTim. iv. 9.

CTTOvBaaov eXOelv Trpo^ fie ei<s NikottoXiv •


exei

yap KeKpiKa Trapaj(eip,aaai, '^ Z7]vav tov i/o/it- 13. Acts xvui. 24

Kov Kai AttoXXcov oTTOvBaico^ irpoTre/xifrov, wa


fj,r]Bev ai/Tot? Xittt). '"*
fiavOaveToocrav Be Kai ot

III. 5. T TraXtyyfi'. 9 T epeis 12. Yi tvxikov 13. T


QTroXXo) I
TH' XelTTI)
54 nP02 TITON. 3- '5-

I'jfieTepoi KaXSiv epyoiv irpoCaiaadai, ei^ to?


> / / r/ \ 9 V
avayKaiav -^peM^, tva fit] lotrw uKapiroi,
2 Thess. liL
I:;.
IS etc.
'5
' Aa-ird^ovTai, ae ol fier' efiov iravTei;, aaira-

crat Tovi <^i\ovvja<! rjfiat ev TrtffTet.


'H ^u'/ats /JieTo, irdvTfov vfiw.

15. T subscr. irpos titov


nP02 TIMOeEON B.

^"'^ '
'
naiiXot aTr6(TToXo<; Xpi<7Tov Irjaov Sia 6eXri- \i%l

fiaro^ deov kwt eira'y^ekt.av fto^? t^s ev Xpiarm


Irjaov ^ Tifj,o6ea> ayaTrrjTO) TeKvq>. )(api'i, eXeo'i,

eiprjvr] ano deov irarpoi Kac Xpicnov Irjaov loO


KUpiOV Tj/MCOV.

^ Xapiv e^a> tou dew, o) Xarpevoa airo irpojoviov 3^


^Rom'!"'
'*

€v KaOapa a-vveiBrja-ei, a^ aSiaXeiTTTOV e'^co Tr}v

•n-epi (70V fivelav ev Ta2<; Serjcrecnv /iov vvkto<; Kai


r)tiepa<i, "*
eirnroOav ae iBeiv, fiefjLvr]fievoi aov ratv

SaKpvcov tva ')(apa<; irXrjpcoOoa, ' virojivricTiv Xa^cop


T^9 €1' aot avwoKpnov Trto-Tem?, r^rii; evmKrjcrev

irpaiTov ev rjj /lafi/ir) aov AaiChi, xai Ty firjTpi, crov

tivviiKT], Treireifffiai oe on Kac ev aoi. At jji* «. i Tim. i». 14.

aiTiav ava/JLifiirrja-KQ) ere ava^coTTVpeiv to j^apicrfia


Tov 6eov, eariv ev aoi Sia t^? eTn6e<Tea)<; tSjv

•^etpwv fiov, ' ov yap eBioxev rjfuv 6 ffeot irvevfia 7. Rom. vui. ij.

SetXta?, aXXa Bvvafieca<; Koi ayaTr?;? koI aastppo-


vt,<7fj,ov. ' /iij ovv eirat,a')(yv6ri<; no fiaprvpiov rov
Kvplov rificov fXTjBe efjte tov Eea/Mov avrov, aXXa
crvvKaK0Trddr](70V Ta> evayyeXia) Kara Bvva/icv 6eov,

I. 2. ;(pi(rr. tr/crou : \ Kvpiov irjtTov ^pimov h icvpiou irjcrou

3s. TH 8ei;(r. fiov, vvkt. k. ruiepas einnod. 8. T truyKaxoTr.


56 npo2 TiMoeEON b. i. 9.

ov Kara ra epya rjfjuoiv aXka Kara loiav irpoueaiv


Kai )(^apiv rrjv Bodelaav rjfilv ev Xpiarai Irjaov
TTpo ^povojv atwvicov, '°
(pavepoodeiaav he vvv Sia
T^? eTTK^aveLW; tov aanripo<; rjjxwv Xpiarov
Itjctov, icaTapyr)(TavTO<t fiev tov Bdvarov, <^(i>ri-

cravTo^ 8e ^corjv Kai a(pdap(7iav Sta tov euayye-


"' ' ^iov, "€11 b eTe0r]v eyo) xripv^ koI diroaToXoi
"aUL^i,"''

12. Eph.ui. 1,13. Kai oioacTKaXoi; '


'^81 rjv aniav Koi Taina ird-
ff-^w^ aXk ovK eTraia'^vvofj.ai ' oiSa yap a> Tre-irl-

aievxa, Kai 7reveic7/j,ai, ori, ovvaTO'i ecniv T7;r

irapadrjKTjv /j,ov ^vXa^ai ei? €K€Ivt]v ti]v rjfiepav.


'^
13 i»-3- viroTVTTOiaiv e^e vyiaivovTav Xoycov tav "Trap

tfiov r]KOvaa<! ev iriaTei xal aydirr) ttj ev Xpi-


"Totf 'Irjaov' '* Trjv Ka\T]V TrapaO^Krjv (f)v\a^ov Sia
it'ol^yii.'^i.'°''

TTvev/j.aTO'! ayiov tov (voikovvtoi ev rj/xiv.

15. iv. 10, 16. '' Otoa? TOVTO, tTi airecrTpa(f)r]aav fie TruWes
ot ev TT) Aaia, (ov ecniv ^'vyeXoi Kai Epfioyevrji.
'^ Bcpr}
16. iv. 19. eA,€o? o Kvpiot; Ta> Ovri<Ti<^dpov oikw, oti
TToWaKii /J.e aveyjrv^ev Kai ttji/ aXvcriv /lov ovk
eTraia-^vv67), '' aXXa y€vop,evov ev 'Paifir) airov-
Baimi e^r]Tr)(jev fie xal evpev. '^
ha>r] 6 Kvpiot
evpeiv eXeo? Trapa KVpiov ev eKeivq Ty r)fiepa.
Kai oaa ev Ei^eam BiTjKovrjaev, fieXTiov av
r
yivuxTKeii.

II.

2,v ovv, TeKvov fiov, evovvafiov tv ttj '^upiri,

TTj ev Xpiaro) Irjaov, ' Kai a, rfKOvaai Trap

10. t ii](rQv )(piaTnv II. fii5ao"KaXo? : T add f6 at


13. w: lif 15. TH ipixoycvtjs
2 '7- nP02 TIMOeEON B
57
e/j,ov Bia TToWwv fiapTvpwv, ravra napdOov
7rtaT049 avdpuiirot,^, otTtve? Ixavoi eaovjai, kclI

erepovi ScSa^ai. ^ avvKaKOTrddTjcrov ri? «a\o? n. 3. is; iv.s.

(TTpaTKOTT)^ XpiCTTOV ItJCTOU. •*


OvSel'i GTpaTSV-
ofj.evo<; e/xTrXeKerat. ract tov ^lov irpayfiaTiaii;,
iva To> (XT paToXoyria'aiiTi apecrrj. ^ edv Be koi
uOXtj Tts, ov cnei^avoxnav eav /J,rj vofiip.co'i ddXijcrr].

Toi> KOTTicovTa yewpyov oet wpcoiov tojv Kapncov


/jL€7a\a/j,^aveiv. ' voet, b \eyco • Swaei yap croi

o Kvpioi crvvicnv ev iraaiv. * Mvrjfidveue 'Ir/aovv f •


fi^'nf "J;/.'

JLpiaTov eyrjyepiJLevov sk veKpwv, e/c (nrepfiaTO^


AavelB, kuto, to evayyeXidv /jlov, ^Iv m KaKoiradas fis,*'=''
'"'''"•

/ie^pt Beafiwv co'i xaKovpyo^, aXXa 6 X6yo<i rov



Oeov ov SeSerai, Bia tovto nravja virofievoa

Bia TOvv eKXeiCTov<!, iva Kai avroi aci)Trjpia<; tv-


-XUXTiv Trjv ev Xpiarcp 'Irjcrov /leTO, Bo^rji aiaviov.
" iJt<7To? o Xoyo<; • et yap a-vvairedavop-ev, xai koAXu's'"'^'

(TVv^Tja-Ofiev • " et, inrofievo/j,ev, xai avv^aaiXev- '^^^''^^^'''"


crofiev • et apvrjao/MeOa, KaKelvo<! apv7}creTai rjfiav
'^
ei airtffTovfiev, eKelvo<; -TntrTO^ jMevei, apyrjcra-

ffdav yap eavrov ov Bwarai.


'* TavTa vTToiJ,ifj,vr}(7K£, BiafiapTvpofievoi evw- « ("• >)
TTiov TOV Oeov nr) Xoyofia')(eiv, ev' ovBev )(^pr\(Tip.ov,

6774 Karacrrpo^y twv aKovovrmv. '' avovBaaov


aeavTov ooki/JjOV "rrapaaTqaat too vew, epyuTQV
aveiraicr'XyvTov, opdoTOfiovvra tov Xoyov t^? aXrj-
'^ to,'; Be /Se/STjXous xevocjiwvLa';
deca<;. "'e/at- j\|^|-l"-,9!

KTTaao ' eiri irXewv yap TrpoKo-^ovaiv dcre^eiaif,


'^ Kal 6 Xoyo<; avrSiv <o? yayypaiva vofj.fjv e^ei. .7. i Tim. i, 20.

II, 3. T {TvyKciKOTT. 4- T TT/ av^tarf tatff 9. H KaKovpyos.


12. TH o-u,u,3jo-iX. 14. BfoV. th K-j^n u
58 nPOS TIM09E0N B. 2. rS.

'*
i8. I Tim. vi. 21. wv ea-riv 'Tfjuevaio^ Koi ^iXrjTdt, obTivet Trepi

Trjv d\r\6eLav ^crro^ria-av, Xe'yoi'Te? avaaracTLV


rjhr) jejovevat, Kai avaTpeirovaiv rrjv rwrnv iri-

(xxi^Tti'L/v; ''Ttv. ''o fievTOV arepeof 0e/j,e\io^ rov 6eov


xxiv. x6. r/ V ^ J •"
^ ' ^ '
eo'TTjKev, S'^wv t7)v acppaycoa TavTTjv • e'yva> kv-

pia Tov<; ovTa? avTov, Kai ' aTro(nr]T(o ano aoi-

Kom.S.'ii"'
'"
' ":'«? "a? 6 OVOfJid^CaV TO OVOfia KVpCOV. ^ €V
fieyaXr] Se oiKia ovk ccttiv ixovov aicein) ')(^pvaa

Kai apyvpa, aWa Kai ^uXiva Kai oarpaKiva,


21. 2 Cor. vi. 17. Kai a fiev et? ti/jitjv a Be ets arifiiav • ^' ear ovv
Tt9 eKKaOapr) eavrov anro tovtwv, ecrrai cr/ceuo?

et? TifiT]v, riyiaa^ievov, evx^prjcrrov tq) SeairoTr),

"•/jT'"^.'"'"' €t? Traf epyov ayadov rjToifj,acrp,evov. " ras Se


vetinepiKO,'; ivi6u/Mia^ (jjeiye, SicoKe Be BiKaioav-
i/j^v, TTicTTiv, ayaTTr}v, eiprjvqv fiera rwv eiriKa-

23. t Tim. iv. 7.


\0VfieV0)V TOV KVpiOV €K KuOapO.'i KOpBia'i. ^^ TUS
Se /Citapa? /cat aVatSeuTOu? ^rjr7j(jei<; irapanov,
24. Tit. i. 7, 9. eiBwt oTi yevvaxTiv fiw^at • '^ BovXov Be Kvpiov
ov Bel /xa^ecrOai aWa rjinov eivai Trpo? iravTa's,

BiBaKTiKov, ave^iKaKov, ^^ ev irpavij^Ti TraiBevovra

Tou? avTiSiari6efievov<;, p,r)-rroTe Buyij auxots o


26. 1 Tim. iii. 7. 0eo9 fieTuvoiav en eTriyvasaiv a\r]6eia<;, ^'' Kai
avavr]y^a>cnv eK trj^ tov Bia^oXov •irayiBo';, f^***"

ypr]/j.evni vtt' avrov ft? to exeivov 6e\7)fjta.

III.

Ill Tim TI " ^^ ' */ > > / ' '

iv.i.
T T 1
lovTo 06 yivwaKe, on ev ecr^arat? 7,/j.tpai<

2SS. Rom. i. S9SS. €V<n7}<T0Vjai KUlpOl ^aXeTTOt. CCTOl'Tat "ytt^ 01.

17. H cpCKijTos l8. arao-rao-ii': [t] h pm Tiji' 21. T eis

Tijxr]" rjyiacriJ.. 22. ^era: [t] h add navra' 2$ ll 8<i,i)


:

3- 'S- nP02 TIMOGEON B. eg

avapcoTTOi <f)t.\avTOi, <j)i\dpjvpoi,, a.\a^ove<;, vvepri-


(jiavoi, 0\acrif)r]/j,oi, jovevcriv a-rreodeU, a)(^apicr7oi,
avoaioi, 3 acTTopyoi, aairovhoi, Sia^oKot, aKparel';,
av-qi^epoi,, a<pi\aya6oi, * TrpoSdrat, TTpoTreret?, rerv-
(pco/xevoi, <f)i,\riSovot. /xaWov rj ^iKoOeoi, ^ eyovrev
fiop<f)0}aiv ev(re^€ia<; ttjv Be hwafiiv ainr}<; ^pvij-
ixevoi • KaL Tovrovf airoTpeirov. tK tovtcov yop
etcnv OL euBwovTei et? xa? olxta'; koI al-^/xa\w-
Ti^ovTet; yvvaiKupia creacopevfieva dfiapriaiv, djo-
fteva eTTidv/jLiait; voiKiXaK, ^ -iravTOTe fxavdavovra ?. i Tim. .i. 4.

Kai /j,r]S6TroT6 64? eTTiyvaaiv a\'r]6eia<; eXOeiv Svvd-


fieva. ^ bv rpoTTOv Se 'Iavv7]<! Koi la/ci/Sp?;? oi/t- « Exod. vu. „,

ecTTTjaav Mcovcret, ovtco^ kul ovtoi av6iaravTai


rrj aXrjOeia, avOpooTToi, Kare^dapfievoi tov vovv,
aSoKifiot irepi ttjv iricrriv. ' aXk ov irpoKO- 9. i Tim. v. 24.

yjrovcnv eiri, irXecov • tj yap avoia avrwv eK.BrjXo's

earai •jraat.v, w? kul 77 exeiixov eyevero. '°


Xv 10. i Tim. iv. 6.

Se irapTjKoXovOrjaats /xov Trj BiSa(7KaXia, ry aya-


yU> irpodeaei, ttj Trto-ret, t^ fiaicpo9v/Mia,

T)7
" ^
"^V

ayairrj,
f
ttj
*fvTrofiovj},"ii*^
rot?
'^

oi,coy/j,ot,<;,
"^ii. Acts
rot? xiv. 2 ;
xiii.
lii. 22.
w

va6r]p,a(Tiv, ola fioi eytvero ev AvTio')(eia,

ev Ikovio), ev Avtrrpoif •
oiovi Bicoyfiov; vrrr]-

veyxUj Kai €k -navToiv /j,e ipvaaro o Kvpco^.


'^
Koi iravTe<; he ol 6e\ov.re<s ^rju euo-e/Sai? e'l'
jo'i,"x"'i7''°'''

XpicTTw Irjaov BiaT^6r]<7ovTai. '^ trovrjpoL he


avdpwTTOi Kai "yoTjre? TrpoKoyfrovaiv eirv to ^et-
pov, irXavavTei; Kai -rrXavaipjevoL. ^* crv Se AnI'ivi! i'.'''

/jLeue ev ok ep.a6e^ km eTriarcod'rj'i, etSoj? irapa.


'^ oti a-no ^pe<j>ovi; lepa ypa/j,-
rivcov ep,a6ev, Kat,

III. 10. h TTapr]Ko\ov6rjKas 15- T [ra] Lfpa yp.


6o npo2 TiMoeEON b. 3. 16.

/jjUja otSa? xa Svva/xeva ere aocpicrai, et? oto-

TTjpiav Blu TTtcTTea)? rrji ev Xpicncp 'Irjaov.


'^ ypaipq Kai
Tracra 6eoTrvevcno<! a)(f>e\ifio<i tt^o?
BiSaaicaXiav, irpov eXeyfiov, Trpo? eiravopOaxTiv,

i;. 1 Tim. vi. n. TTpof TTaiBiav TTjv ev Bi/caLoavvT), '' iva apTio<;

fj
o Tov 6eov avdocoTTO^, •npo'i vav epyov ayaOcv
e^r]pTi(jfiei/of.

IV.

'7; Tit'.u.'Ti."'
^ ^lafiapTvpofiat evumiov tov 0eov xai Xpi-
(TTOV Irjaov tov /jbeWovroi; Kpiveiv ^ayvTai xai
veicpov;, Kai ttjv eiriipaveiav avTov Kai ttjv /Saat-

\ei,av avTov, ^ Krjpv^ov tov \6yov, eTri<TTi)6i

evxaipcoi uKaipfO'j, eXey^ov, irapaKoXeaov, enriTi-


fj,7](Tov, ei) Tracrr) jxaKpoOvftia Kai StSa^^p. ^ einai
yap Kaipot OTe T77? vyiaivov<Tr)<; BiSaffKoXia^
ovK ave^ovTai, aWa Kara ra? iBia^ ejriOvfiia^

eavTolt eiriauypevcTovcnv BiBacrKa\ov<; Kvrjdofievoi,

T))v aKorfv, * Kai airo /lev t^? uXrjOeiai; tijv

aKorjv airo(TTpe\jrova-iv, eTU, Be tou? fivOovi sk-

s. ii. 3.
rpairr](T0VTai. ^ av Be vr]<f>e ev iraaiv, koko-
TTuOrjcrov, epyov ttoitjctov evayye\i<nov, rrjv

6. Phil. ii. 17. BiaKOViav trow TrXrjpo^opijo'OV. ^ Eyco yap ijBt]

trirevBofiai, xai 6 Kaipot TT]<i avaXva-edi'i fiov


7. I Tim. vi. IS. e(f>e(TTr)Kev. ' Toi' KoXov aya>va '^yoovifffiai,

TOV Bpofiov TereXeKa, ttjv irtcrTiv rer-^pijKa •

S Jas. i. la. XoiTTOV UTTOKeiTai fioi 6 Trjt BiKaioavvTj<;

aTe<}>avo';, ov airoBcoaei fioi o Kvpio<i tv exeivrj

TTj rjfiepa, o BiKaio<{ KpiTi^i, ov ixovov Be ffioi

l6. TH TTi.iSfiai' IV. I. h KpivctL 2. TH' fjri-t^ija-.


1

4- 20. nPOS TIMOGEON B. 6

aX.\a Kai iraat, ro'l'i '>}ya'7r'>]Kocn Tt}i> eTn(f>dv6iav


avTov.
' ATTOvSaaov eXQelv it pot /le rayeo)?. ^°AT]fia<i "°^- '^°^ '"

yap /i,6 eyxaTeMirev ayairrjcra'! lov vvv aiwva,


Kai eiropevdr} eis 6e<rcra\oviKr]v, K/aijcK??? et?

PaWtai', TtTO? «9 AaXfiaTiav • " .dou/ca? ecrrij/


/j.ovo'} fier efiov. MapKov dvaXa^mp dye /tero.

creavTov • ecrriv yap fioi eu^/ajjcTTO? ek 8ta-


Koviav. " Tv^iKOV Be dtreaTeiXa eli "E^ea^ov.
'^ Tov (^eXovrjv, ov anreXiirov ev TptpdSi irapd
Kapvm, ep'x^Q/ievois <f>epe, Kai ra /3i/3\ia, fidXi-
ara ra? fiefi^pavat. '* AXe^avBpoi o )(aXKev'i Aits'JL"''-^"'
iToWa fioi KUKa eveoei^uTo •
airooaxrei avrco
o Kvpiot Kara ra epya avrov, '^
oj* Kai av
^vXatraov • Xiav yap avTeaTrj rots ^/jLerepoK
'*
Xoyoi'i. ev ry '!rpQ)Tr) fiov airoXoyia ovSei<;

fioi TTapeyevero, aXXa TravTe<! fie eyxaTeXi-


•nov '
fit) avTOLi XoyiaOeiTj • '^
o Se Kvpio<; fiot. i?. Dan. w. ».

"TTapecTTr) Kai, eveBvva/icocrev fie, iva Si efiov to


Kripvy/xa irXrjpotfiopriO^ Kai aKOvaaeriv irdvTa ra
edvrj, Kai epvadrjv '^
eK o-To/iaro? XeovTO'i. pv- la. iu. u.

creTai fie o Kvpio<! awo iravToi epyov irovr)-

pov Kat craiaet. et? T'^i' ^aaCXeiav avTov rrjv

errovpavtov • a> tj oo^a et? tow aiwvat rcov aiw-


ftuy, afxrjv.
"'
Acrizaaai TIpiaKav Kai AKvXav koi '..'
toi/ xviii. »^: *"=
r 2 etc.

Ovr]ai(})opov oikov. '° Epacno<; efieivev ev Ko- " KimivLsj;

pivdw, Tpo(j}ifiov Be aireXtTrov ev MiXrjToy aaOe-

10. H' eyKaTeXeiTTfv \


yaXXt.T'.* T^H yaXartav 12. H tv-
XiKov 13. H' aTcXcin-oi' 16. H' fyKoreXimov 20. H*
c— -Xei;rnv
6
62 nP02 TIMOeEON B. 4. 22.

vovvTa. " criTovhaaov "Trpo ^et/iaJvo? eXdecv.

acTTra^erat ere Ev^ov\o<s Kat JlovSrj^ kui Ai-


vo<i Kai KXavBia Kai 01 aSeX^oi irav7e<!,

vxX^'zi''''' '^'O Kvpiof fieTo. Tov TrvevjjLaTo'i aou. ^ X''P^''

fieO vfjLwv.

21. H [Traj/rcj] 22. Rvputs: h add irjdovs | -T siii,scr.

TrpoS TljXodfOV /?
NOTES.
INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

For collateral information, the student is referred to the well-

known bible dictionaries, the bible hand-books, the introduc-

tions to the study of the New Testament, to Conybeare and

Howson's, and also Farrar's, Life and Episdes of St. Paul.

It is an important practical question whether it is better to

study these works somewhat extensively before reading the

New Testament, or after having read it, or as a collateral study.

My own preference is very decidedly for a middle course. As


in the best colleges the classic authors axe studied in connec-

tion with the history, the geography, the archaeokjgy, and the
literature of the period, so the New Testament may be, I think,

most thoroughly studied in the same way. If the first course

is adopted, and the so-called Introductions are taken up first of

all, the student is liable to get little or no farther than the Intro-
ductions. If the last course is adopted, he fails to acquire

much valuable information which will greatty aid him in under-

standing the divine word. Therefore, the middle course is very


decidedly recommended. At all events, let nothing whatever

cheat us out of the careful, critical, thorough, prayerful study of

the word itself. Nothing should take the place of this.

In the hope of encouraging such study these brief notes have


been written. They are intended as an aid to the student, and
iv INTRODUCTORY NOTE.
the minister who has not had the opportunity to become thor-

oughly conversant with the language or has not been able to


keep up a critical acquaintance with his Greek. With this

end in view, many notes have been written and suggestions

made that may seem to critical scholars too elementar)'. Such


notes, as they do not occupy much space, can easily be passed
over by those who do not need them.
The order — Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon — has been
adopted because these three episdes are supposed to have been
written about the same time and to have been sent together
by the same messenger ; while the epistle to the Philippians is

thought to have been written a little later.

The commentaries that have been most frequently consulted


and that have furnished the most aid are those of Ellicott,

Alford, Meyer, and Braune (in Lange's series). Other weU-


known commentaries of an earlier date, and the New Testa-

ment Grammars of Winer and Buttmann, have often proved


very helpful.
In the hope that these notes on some of the most important
and difficult parts of the New Testament may be not less ser-

viceable than those which have preceded them, and that ear-

nest, critical study may be encouraged, the editor now submits


them to the use of his pupils and of others who are in similar

circumstances.

Theological Seminary,
Morgan Park, III.,

1885.
"

EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS.

Alf. .... Alford.

Att Attic.

Beng. . . . Bengel.
Butt Buttmann (New Testament Grammar).
B. U. ... Bible Union Version.
C£ Latin confer, i. c. compare.
Chrys. . . . Chrysostom.
EU Ellicott.

Erasm. . . . Erasmus.
et al et alii, and others.
ff. following.

fr from.
Good. . . . Goodwin (Greek Grammar).
Had Hadley
H-A, . . . Hadley-AIlen
KTc. . . . /cai Tct erepa = etc.
L. & Sc. . . Liddell and Scott (Greek Lexicon).

LXX. . . . Septuagint.

O. V. ... Old Version (of i6i I).

R. V. ... Revised Version (American).


St stead = instead of.
Theod. . . . Theodoret.
Theoph. . . Theophylact.
Van Oost. . . Van Oosterzee.

W-H. . . . Westcott and Hort.

It is thought the remaining abbreviations require no special


explanation.
EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS.

GENERAL OUTLINE.
Chs. I.-III. a sublime outburst of emotion in view of the
glory and blessedness of the salvation wrought by Christ. Chs.
IV.-VI. Chiefly hortatory. an exhortation to Christian
First,

unity ; and then, to avoid various immoral practices to which


they had been accustomed before their conversion.

Chap. I. Vv. i, 2. Address. — Vv. 3-14. The blessings of the


elect. The Father has chosen them to be holy ; has predeter-
mined them to the adoption of sons ; has bestowed grace on them
in the beloved. The Son, in the riches of His grace, has purchased
for them redemption through His blood; has bestowed on them
wisdom, in making them acquainted with the mystery of His will;
has obtained for them, under Himself the one head, according to the
purpose of the Father, an inheritance. The Spirit, after they have
heard and believed the word of truth, has sealed them, and has
become the earnest of their inheritance. —
Vv. 15-23. Thanksgiv-
ing for their faith ; and a prayer that they may have the spirit of
wisdom and revelation, to understand more fully the glory of Christ,
and of their inheritance in Him.
Note. — The above scarcely indicates the contents of v^-. 1-14. There is perhaps no
paragraph in the Epistles of Paul, in which every clause is so freighted with meaning.

V. I. dirdoToXos Xp- 'lT)<roO. Comparing this w. Sou\os Xp- 'Ir/cov

(Rom. I. i), the gen. seems rather to denote the idea oi possession than of
source. —
Sia OcXifJiiaros 6eov, through the will of God {6e\7ifi-f that which
has been willed: made definite by the limiting gen. fleoC. Win. p. 125).
The two clauses, an apostle of Christ jfesus, through the will of God, call the
8 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
attention of the readers of the Epistle to the fact that the words addressed
to them have divine authority. — tois a-yCois, to Ihe saints; i.e. to those
who are consecrated to God. The word Christian had not yet come into
general use. It occurs but three times in the N. T. — Iv "Ect^Vio is brack-
eted by W-H. as well as by Tisch. It is strongly defended, however, as
the true original reading by Meyer, words were omitted Ell., et al. If the
in the original MS., the simplest explanation is that the epistle was prob-
ably intended to be read to more than one church, and that a blank space
was left here to be appropriately filled when the epistle was publicly read
to any given church. —
iv Xp- 'lT]<roB, w. TriaTots (not w. wyiois),faithJul
in Christ jfesus : iv denotes the element, the life-sphere, abiding in. The
article is omitted before ina-rois, and thus this clause is united more
closely to the preceding. We can hardly imitate the Greek const, in an
Eng. idiom.

V. 2. Cf. Rom. I. 7, note.

V. 3- EiXoYTfrds (verb. adj. fr. cuXo^e'a), blessed ; in the sense, worthy to

be praised, worthy to be blessed: /iaxJipios, blessed; in the sense, happy. Sc


rfi), optat. of wishing, blessed be etc. Note the emphat. position of fiXo-
•fi\T6%. — Tov KupCov ktI. Whether this gen. limits both irariip and 9c({i

(Blessed be the God and Father ofeXc. ), or only the word iroi-^p (Blessed be
God and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ), is not certain, either gram-
matically or logically. That the former is not doctrinally incorrect may
be seen from verse 17. Ell., Meyer, et al. prefer the latter construction.
For a similar point, cf. Gal. i. 4, note on thiUv. — o ev\oy<i<ras ^(ws, who
blessed us. How He blessed us (made us praiseworthy) is explained by
4v . . . iy . . . iv. His blessings to jware substantial benefits; oar blessing
in relation to Him consists in praise : i)ims, us, i. e. Paul and those whom
he addressed ; including also the idea of all believers. Note the repeti-
tion ^v\QyT\T6s . . . ev\oyfi(7as . . . eiiKoylif (blessing, i. c. the possession of
that which makes us worthy of commendation). Iv toIs br-, in the heav- —
enly (places): "the region and sphere where our true home is (Phil. 3.
20) where our hope is laid up (Col. 1. 5)
; and whence the blessings of ;

the Spirit truly come (Heb. 6. 4)." Ell. So also Alf., Meyer. Though
the expression has been variously understood, this meaning seems most
natural. —
hi XpioTu (emphat. posit.), in Christ. All is summed up in
Him. Cf. vv. 10, II. This is the leading thought of the Epistle. The
three clauses w. euAo-y^iros (iv . . . iv . . . iv) denote, in what respect, in
what place, in what person.

V. 4. Confiirmation and further explanation of fvKoyiiaas xri. — KaOus,


even as, denotes here both manner and cause. — I^A^aro (iK-\eyai) iypas,
chose us out for Himself (from the mass of mankind). Cf. iK\(irri%, elect,
chosen : iKKoyrt, election, choice. — kv avrcji, in him, i. e. in Christ, the
CHAPTER I. 5. 9

sphere in which the action of the verb was accomplished. — irpb Kar-
Koo--, before the foundationof the world. Article omitted in Greek. Win.
p. 137. The two clauses answer the questions, how, and when, God chose
us out for Himself. —
elvai ktI., the purpose that we shottld be holy :

(i.e. consecrated \.o Him: same word rendered saints in verse i) and with-

out blame (or without blemish) ; the two adjs. express the positive and the
negative characteristic. Cf. Eph. 5. 27. — KanviS'Triov airoB, before Him,
i.e. in the sight of God; judice deo ; not simply to human view. — Iv

oiYdirTi may be joined with what precedes, either w. ^|e\e'{aTo, or w. ay'iovs


KaX afid/j-ous (so W-H., Alf., Vulg., Coptic, Erasm., Luther, Calvin, Beza,
et al.) ; or w. what follows (so Tisch., Meyer, Ell., Braune; the Peshito,
Chrys., Theod., August., Jerome, Bengel, De Wette, Olsh., Lach., and
many others). Standing, as it does, midway between two most important
statements, is it necessary to limit its force entirely, either to what pre-
cedes, or to what follows ? May not the thought,
i?t love, i. e. God's love,

extend over both ? If, however, we must choose between the two views
above presented, the latter (connecting iv iydTrjj w. Trpoopitras] seems to
us the most natural and forcible.

V. 5. Iv d^ttirTj irpooptcas T|jJLas, Jiaving in Icrve pre-determined us : irpo-

opiaas, fr. and SplCw, to determine ; '6pos, a boundary, Lat. termi-


irpif, before,

nus. This seems the most literal and exact rendering "foreordain " (fr. :

Lat. ordo, a row) means primarily, to set in a row, to set in order : "predes-
tine,'' akin to the word destiny, makes on the mind an impression which

does not belong to irpoopi^w. Whether 'jrpoopl(ras, having pre-deiermined,


denotes something antecedent to ^^cAe'loro, chose out for himself, is a
question not answered here as the aor. particip. may denote " a simple
;

occurrence without regard to time," Good. Gram. § 204, Note 2 or " a ;

simultaneous action," Win. p. 342. Cf. yvaipiffas, verse g. Ell. views the
action of irpoopia-as as antecedent to, Meyer as synchronous with, that of
^|€\€'|aTo. The Greek particip. certainly does not settle the point, and it
is not important to us that it should be settled. It is better to fix our
minds on the great, all-important fact stated in the entire sentence. eis —
vloQiu'Cav, an end in yievf,for adoption as soifs. 8id 'I- Xp-, through Jesus —
Christ, tells how this is accomplished. No other plan has been devised,
or is needed. —
els airov (defines more exactly and emphasizes eis vlo-

6faia.v),for himself: i\s denotes not merely the idea of approach, but that
of entrance into, "inward union " (cf. EU. in loco : also Ell.'s note on ei's

Xpi(rT6v, Gal. 3. 27), The three clauses [els . . . Sia . . . els . . .) are closely
united in idea. — Karol (the rule, or measure) T'fiv «48oKCav icre., according
to the good-pleasure of His will {that which has been willed by Him). It is

not necessary to try to define more exactly, as many do, the meaning of
fvSoKiaf here, or to attach to it any other idea than that which ordinarily
belongs to it (and also to eliSoKtu) in the N. Test.
;:

lO NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
V. 6. as ^oivov ktI. (the primary, the great end, finis primarius. Cf.

Phil. I. ii], for the praise of (the) glory of His grace: ZHi\t made definite
by the limiting gen. Win. p. 125. — fjs (attracted from the ace, cognate

ace. w. {xnpi-ruaev, to the case of the anteced. xiip'TOj) Kre., which He gra-
ciously bestowed on us. — kv tw ^-yairr]p.4vij} (Ayoirow), in the beloved : the
sphere in which all this is accomplished. " iv is not here interchangeable

w. 5i<£, or equivalent Xo propter, but retains its full primary meaning." Ell.

V. 7. «v <3 "i^io^xv, in whom (and only in whom) we have (not we sluill

have, nor we have liad, but we have, are having). — Ti|v diroXvrpwoT.v, our
redemption, R. V. the redemption, the long promised and now known and
realized redemption.
j

Ell., Alf., Lange, B. U. die Loskaufung, Meyer.


;

810 ToB alfuiTos airoO (defines more particularly iv $) through his blood.
Paul does not say, through his perfect and beautiful life as an example,
nor through his divine teaching, though he spake as never man spake
but through his blood, without which there could be no i(pe(ris. Cf. Heb.
9, 22. —
T^v d(J>e<riv TOV TTop- in explanatory appos. w. t^v aTroKirpiiKriv
:

the forgiveness (the remission, the putting away) of our transgressions (Alf,
Ell.) ; trespasses (R. V., B. U.). Cf. the use of vapaTTuim in Rom. 4. 25,

5. 15, ff. — Kara t^ irXovTOS


w. exoyitev, we have according to the
kte., . . .

riches (the wealth) of his grace. (Note the later form t4 tcXoittos, St. Att.
-rhv irXoinav.) If our redemption is proportionate to the riches of his

grace, it will certainly be complete.


V. 8. ^s, attracted fr. the ace. to the case of its antecedent x'^""^ \

obj of iirtpiaa-evtrev { trans, here ; f r. Trepiaaivia, to make irepiaa6sf abun-


dant, over and abcrve) which he made to abound. Some view the verb as
:

intrans., and ^j as attracted fr. the dat. but this const, is less probable. :

els ^(ids, towards us ; or more exactly, (entering) into us. His grace is
not something simply towards us, or surrounding us, but that which enters
within our hearts. Cf. Lange. — ev irdoT] o-o(^C(} koI <f>poWj<rci. Do these
words belong w. what precedes or w. what follows ? The former connec-
tion seems more natural and is generally preferred. So R. V., B. U.,
Meyer, Ell., et al. Again, the question arises, are these words spoken of
God, or of us ? The latter seems to be the correct view. So Meyer, Ell.,
et al. : in all wisdom (that wisdom which pertains to our eternal welfare,
— the only wisdom worthy of the name) and prudence, or intelligence
(Ell.) : (pp6vri(ris, fr. tppovia, is the act of using the mind, the application
or exercise of ao^ia (the generic word for wisdom). The thought of the
verse, with the above explanation, is this which (grate entering) : into us
he made to abound in all wisdom and prudence.
V. g. 'yvup'o'as (yvapi^u) i\y,tv: having made known to us etc. TMs
was the great exhibition —
explanatory of v. 8. The particip.
of his grace
here, as in verse 5 (irpoopfo-aj), seems to denote an act synchronous with
that of the verb. — xb |tv(rriipu)v toO 6«X- avrav, the mystery (that which
).
;

CHAPTER I. 10-12. II

had been hidden from the world) of his will, respecting his will (obj. gen.).
— Kard Ti\v €iSoK£av airov : w. yvaplaas. Cf. verse 5, where also it is

connected w. the particip. preceding it. — i\v irpo^Bero €V airii (iv aiiTtf,

Meyer, Ell., Alf., et 3.\.),%uhich he purposed [setforth] in himself ; or, which


lie purposed in him (in Christ). This latter interpretation, referring outi^

to Christ, certainlyseems forcible. So it was understood by Chrys.


and many ancient scholars ; also by Luther, Calv., Bengel, and others in
modern times. The R. V. seems to favor this view.

V. 10. els KTE., looking into, with a view to, was Gott im Aiige hut
( Meyer)— oUovo)i.(av, a
. in order, setting dispensation, an orderly unfold-
ing. The clause may be rendered, with a view to the orderly unfolding of
the fulness of the — times. dvaKE(|>aAaiiicra<r6ai ; infin. denoting purpose ;

explanatory (epexegetical) of the preceding clause : to sum up (for himself


etc. In this, the ol/covo/ila ktI. would consist. This grammatical explana-
tion is simpler than to make the infin. depend on irpocSero. — rd irovra . .

Tiisyns all things in Christ, the things in (or upon) the heavens, and the
:

things upon the earth. What does this statement mean ? There is danger,
on the one hand, of making it mean more than the words properly signify
on the other hand, of improperly restricting the meaning so that the most ;

various and forced constructions have been put upon it. " Any reference
to the redemption or restoration of those spirits for whom our Lord him-
self said rb irOp t6 aliiyiov (Matt. 25. 41) was prepared, must be pronounced

fundamentally impossible." EU. The words, strictly interpreted, do not


signify any such idea. They assert the ultimate dominion, the headship,
of our Lord. Even wicked spirits acknowledge and dread his power and
authority. Under this power, this headship, we who have believed oc-
cupy a very different place from them, as the apostle now goes on to
show. — €v avTw, expressed for perspicuity and emphasis.
V. II. Iv M Kol «KXnpii>9T]f<.£V {K\rip6a. fr. xKripos, a lot, u heritage, an
inheritance). This whom also we were made a heri-
may be rendered, in
ta<^e (i. c. a heritage of God) or, in whom we were even admitted to an in-
;

heritance, were made partakers of the Messianic inheritance. The former,


R. v., Ell., et al. the latter, Meyer et al. The latter seems to me better
;

suited to the connection. — irpoopio-SlvrEs (pass, particip. fr. irpoopl^w. Cf.


irpoopltras, verse 5, note) :having been predeterTnined. — Kard irpdOc'r-iv

(cf Trpo46ero, verse 9) /ere., according to a purpose (or the purpose) of him
who works etc. — Kara t^v Po-uX'fiv toB OeX- a^ToS. according to the counsel
(the plan, design) of his will (that which has been willed).
V. 12. els t4 etvat fifias ktI. (the end in view, in connection with the
combined idea ixXripSBrifiev Trpoopi(rB4i>Tes) to the end that we (should) be :

etc. Observe that -^/tar, which up to this point has denoted believers, both

Jews and Gentiles, is here contrasted w. u/ue:s, verse 13, and thus denotes
the Jewish Christians —
els ^iraivov ktI ,for the praise etc., the end in

7
;

12 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
view. — Tois irpoTiXiriKiros {'"piy iXiri^a) Kri., w. i)nat : those who liave

hoped fAc.
before The prep. irp(i seems to point to the predictions of the
Messiah in the O. T., and to the hopes which the Jews had before the
coming of Christ. So Meyer.
V. 13. iv ^ Kol iiyj&^, in whom ye also (ye, i. c. converts from the Gen-
tiles). — t}i tvaY^ftiov KTi , descriptive of \6yov T^r iX-, the word of
rfu/

truth, the gospel of your salvation. The gospel was then, and is still, the
word of truth par excellence. — 4v <S, repeated for emphasis and perspicu-
ity. — KaV TrKTreio-ovres, a particular added to iKoicravrts : in whom having
believed {^having exercised faith) also. ye were — C(r4»pa'yUr6T(r€ (trf^payt^aj),
sealed, and thus confirmed as heirs of the Messianic kingdom. tu irveii- —
\i.aTi KTc.,with the Holy Spirit of promise. The gen. denotes the idea,
belonging to rij) 07/p is added for solemn emphasis thus, with the Spirit
; ;

belonging to the promise (in fulfilment of the promise) the Holy (Spirit).

V. 8s: relat. pron. agreeing w. the pred. appaffdv (Win. p. 166),


14.

mho an earnest of our inheritance. An earnest was a first instalment


is

paid in advance as a pledge a security for the payment of the whole ;

sum. —els a-TToXvTpwo-Lv KTk.,for the redemption, (directing the mind into)

the redemption, of the purchased possession (Ell.) the full redemption of His ;

purchased possession (Alf.). els ^iratvov —


avToO for the praise of His . . . :

glory. The former clause expresses the end in view with respect to man
the latter, with respect to God. airov refers to the P'ather, and is —
connected by Meyer with both clauses (t^j irtpiTroi^o-ems and t^j SoJtjj).

v. 15. Aid toCto : On this account, referring to what precedes, partic-

ularly to vv. 13 and 14. — Ka-ycS (=/tal i-^Ji), I also ; i. c. Paul as well as
those whom he is addressing. —
dKo«o-as, having heard, etc. naturally

refers to"the tidings which he had received since he last saw them. Tf|V —
Ka9' viias irCo-n-v a form of expression not occurring elsewhere in Paul's
:

epistles, but found in Acts 17. 28, iS. 15, 26. 3, and often in the later
Greek writers the faith which is amougyeu, yourfaith.
:
Jv tu "IncroB, — . . .

in close connection w. iriariv. Note the omission of the article after


irlffTiV. —
Kal T-f|V d-ydirriv Tf|v els ktc. and your lit-.r which (ye have) :

towards etc. article repeated, thus making the two thoughts, love and
:

the objects of love, more distinct. W-H. omit aydwTtv rfiv, and Alf. in-
cludes them in brackets. The clause would then read, having /uard of the
faith in the Lord Jesus (which is) among you, or in you, and which (ye shmi)
towards all the saints.

V. 16. ov . . . cAx<ipi<r^''V (agrees w. xayd, >-.


15) : f do not cense etc.

Mever speaks of this as a popular hyperbole. Perhaps so ;


yet the state
of heart (which is more than any form of words) implied in euxapiOToii'
may be unceasing. — vpirip v^iuv^for you, coneernirrg you. Cf. Rom. i. S,

note. — )i.vclav iroioviievos : making mention (of you), or making (to my-

CHAPTER I. 17-19. 13

self) a remembrance (of you). It does not necessarily imply any form of
words, but simply the idea of remembrance. Cf. Phil, i- 3, i Th. 3. 6,

2 Tim. I. 3. — tirl w. the gen., in the time of, or simply, in. The whole
expression corresponds to that which is now often used, rem-embering you
in my prayers and ; this state of mind and heart may be unceasing.
V. 17. I'va KTe., closely connected w. vpoa^xdv, prayers, that etc. —
o Bebs KTe., the God of our Lord Jesus Christ. Cf. verse 3. Christ himself
also uses the expression 6Us /lov, John 20. 17. Cf. Matt. 27. 46. — t.'s

8d|T|s, descriptive gen., or gen. as a periphrasis for an adj. Butt. p. i6t.


— Scpi]. optat.==Att. Soi'ij. Lach. has Sdri (iota subscript under rj) = Att.
5(^. W-H. give both readings. The optat. after Iva is very rare in the

N. T. If seems to be in keeping with the idea of a wish


adopted here, it

contained in irpotrevxHv. See Winer, p. 290 Butt. pp. 215, 233. TrveOjJLa ; —
o-o{|>tas KTe., a spirit of wisdom and revelation, R. V. or the Spirit {the ;

Holy Spirit) of wisdom and revelation. Meyer, Ell., Braune. The latter,
in connection with the thought of giving (8^7)), seems more natural the :

Holy Spirit who imparts wisdom and reveals truth. (Article omitted, as
with a proper name.) hi liri-yvucrei airov, in the (distinct, definite)

knowledge of Him, i. e. of the Father. So Ell., Alf., Meyer, et al. Yet


Calvin, Beza, et al. refer airoD to Christ, ec denotes here, as often,
" the sphere or element in which the action takes place " (Ell.).

V. i8. ircijxdTLcriJLevous (0«Ti^a)) tovs 6c|)6aX.(io{is ktI. Is this clause


the object of Sijjt), or ace. abs., or does the particip. by a change of const,
'occurring in classic Greek) refer to \i(llv, while Toi>s ix^ becomes ace. of
specification ? All three constructions have been advocated. The last
is now generally preferred ; thus, may give to you etc., being enlightened in
the eyes of your heart ; or freely rendered, as in R. V., may give to you
etc., having the eyes ofyour heart enlightened. to the — els tJi elSevai v|ias :

end that ye may knoia closely joined in thought with irf^anurixivovs ktI
;

— tIs (fem. agreeing w. ^ eKvhy the direct interrog. pron. in an indirect


question. Often so in classic Greek) ccttiv tj eXirVs kt€., what is the hope
of his calling ; i. e. what is involved, how much is implied in the divine invi-
tation (t{)s KX-^<rewj, gen. of cause). Note the three points in Christian
experience here presented (verses 15, 18) : faith, love, hope. — The next
clause presents the object of hope ; ti's h irXoCror what the wealth of
/ere.,
the glory of his inheritance: avroS, as above, refers more naturally to God
the Father, and may be viewed as objective or subjective gen. ; the inher-
itance belonging to him, or the inheritance which he gives. The latter
idea is made prominent by the context. — Iv tois a-yCois (masc.) denotes
the sphere, or the location, of the divine inheritance. There is no glorious
inheritance for men beyond this.
V. ig. A continuation of the same construction. The apostle labors
to Hve expression to his ecstatic emotions. After indicating that which
"

14 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
is hoped for, the power which is to accomplish this is naturally referred
to. — Kal tC TO . . . (li^cOos kt4., and what («>) the surpassing magnitude of
his power toward us who have faith. Kard t^ cvip7«av kt€. indicates —
the measure of this power according to the working of the strength of his
:

might etc. Note the extraordinary accumulation of words denoting


power and activity, —' Svv'dfiecos ivepyeiav Kpdrovs itrx^°^' I-.
.'
. . . . . . .

seems less natural to connect this clause logically w. TrKmiomas.


V. 20. <^v (sc. ivipyetav) lvT|pYi)Kev (perf. fr. ivtfryiu), which he has
wrought. Ell. et al. read here iviipyriaev, which he wrought etc —
i^jitpas . . Ka6((ras manner or means action simul-
: participles denoting :

taneous with that of the verb (Winer, p. 342), in raising him in mak- . . .

ing him to sit. Meyer, Ell., et al. read iKaSurev, and he made him to sit. —
Iv Sc^i^ avTov, the place of honor. The usual form of expression in the
gospels is iK hi^mv. — «v toIs iir- : cf. verse 3, note.

V. 21. virepdvu irooTp Apxfls ktI., up above (or far above) every sover-
and authority, and power, and dominion :
eignty, a series of words — nearly
synonymous for the sake of emphasis. ev tw aUovi tovtw — . . , Iv tw
)UXXavTi (sc. aiavi) : in this world (age, era) . . . in that to come. 6 ulur
ovTos in the N. T. is the period in this world's history up to the irapomrla:
i aliiv /leAAuv is the period beginning with the vapovcria and extending
onwards.
V. 22. The former verse presents the exaltation of Christ as the high-
est conceivable ; this verse, his unlimited and absolute sovereignty. —
Kal irdvTO imera^tv (tnto-rJuriTai) ktc., and he put all things in subjection
(lit. he arranged all things under) under his feet: more expressive than —
if he had said under him. Note the repetition of the thought in fir- inrt.
The emphatic word is Kivra, (as above iriio-Tjj and irainis), all things, i. e.
all created things. — Kal oirbv ffiuKcv, and gave htm. Observe, it is not
IflTjKEK, or iaTt\aiV, placed, or appointed ; but ISwKev, gave. Christ in his
exalted position was a divine gift to the church. — KC(|>aXT|v, appos. w.
auT6v, (as) head, or {to be) head. iiirip iravra (in the — same emphatic and
comprehensive sense as just above), over, or beyond, all things : rp iKKkr)-

irlf (dat. comm.), to, or for, the church (in the collective sense).

V. 23. The figure, naturally suggested by mi^aXifii, is carried out ; and


Ihe relation of the church to the head presented. — iJTis, «/ quae (Meyer,
Kiihner), quae quidcm (Ell.), so that it (is), or which indeed (is). to o-u|ia —
auTov. The same figure found often elsewhere. Cf. 2. 16, 4. vv. 4, 12,
is

16, 5. vv. 23, 30. — Th irX^pufia (fr. it\i\p6ai denoting result. Good. § 129,
4; Had. 461), that which has been made full of him who fills all in all.
The church, the body of Christ, is " that which is filled up by Christ
(Eadie, Ell.) ; "das erfiillte Christi, d. h. dasjenige, was von ihm erfiillt
ist" (Meyer). The last expression, rov . . . itKr^povixivav, is understood,
therefore, to refer to Christ, not to the Father. The particip. is best
:

CHAPTER II. 1, 3. IS

viewed as mid. and 4ii wuffn/ as the sphere In which the action takes
place : lit 0/ the ofte wlio in all tilings fills {J'or himself) all things ; or,

more of him luho fills all in all : ra vi.vTix like ra irai/Ta, verse 10.
briefly,

The sublimity of this conception, in fact of all the conceptions in this


chapter, can be felt only by those who have been taught by the Ho!y
Spirit.

Chap. II. Vv. i-io. You also, who were dead, he hath mn-'e
alive with Christ, through' grace. — Vv. 11-22. The Gentiles, n t

less than the Jews, sharers in this salvation through Christ.

V. I. Kal ijias, And you,


You also, addressed particularly to the
or.
readers of the epistle them an application of what has just
; making to
been said. The structure of the sentence, through the rush of thoughts
in the mind of the writer, is broken and the verb governing u/tSy is first
;

expressed in verse 5. —
ovras veKpovs, being dead, or more freely rendered,
when ye were dead ; the particip. ivTa.% being present with respect to the
leading verb a-vve^aoTroiva-iy. That the readers would understand this of
spiritual death can scarcely be doubted, and is made still plainer by the
datives of manner or means directly following 6y, or, through, your tres- :

passes and sins. irapdirTu/jLa {a fall aside, f r. irapa-iriTTTto) denotes properly


some overt act ; a/mpria, the generic word, denotes a state of mind and
heart as well as an act ; an omission as well as a commission.
V. 2. (V als, in which : iv denotes here, as often, the sphere in which
the action takes place. Of. iv Traam, I. 23. — irore, once ; with a verb of
past tense, as here, formerly. — irepieiroT/icraTe (Trepi-TroTeoj), ye walked
about, ye lived. — Kara tov aUova kte., an expression difficult to render
exactly. For the meaning of aXiv, cf. I. 21, note. It suggests the idea of
the present moral condition of the world. Cf. Rom. 12. 2, 2 Cor. 4. 4.
b k6(tii.os means the world, primarily with reference to physical arrange-
ment and order. According to the course (the present era) of this world
means, therefore, according to the present spirit, the present, tendency, of this
world. — Kara
tov fipx°'^<' "^^v according to the prince (or the ruler) of
the power (or the authority) of the air. The thought seems to be that the
air which encompasses this physical world (kiJct^os) during this present
era (aX&v) is pervaded with evil that the prince of evil has his authority
;

(e'louirii), or his empire, in the air : koti{, according to, i. e. in obedience to,
the laws and requirements of this ruler : toC de'por, of the air, or in the
air. Note the dif. bet. ai\f, the lower atmosphere, and sifl^p, the higher
and purer air. — toS irveifiaTos ktI. It seems siniplest in grammati-
cal const, and in idea to make this depend, like i^auains, on 4px'"'Ta
according to the ruler of the authority in the air (the ruler) of the Spirit that
now works {is now active) in the sons of disobedieme. This const, is pre-
l6 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
ferred by Winer, Meyer, Ell., et al. Note the expression, sani oj d.iohcdi-
ence," a disobedience to which they belong as children to a patent." til.
See Winer, § 34, 3, b. Note 2.

V. 3. iv ols (cf. iv als, verse 2), amon^ whom, i. e. the sons of dis-
obedience. — KaV ilH^^S inivTes, we also all etc. ; the Jews, not less than the
Gentiles described in verses 1, z. — dvt<rTpd(t>T)}i€v (a.vaa-Ty,i(i>a) ictc., were
turned to and fro ; lived. — iv rats ^i-Oujitais Krk., a more definite de-
scription of the life among the sons of disobedience ; and this is pictured

still further in iroioCvrcs ra fleV ktI., doing the things willed, the desires,
of the Jlesh and of the thoughts (those things passing through the mind:
Siavotuy, fr. Stiyota, and that fr. Sid and vovs). — Kal 4^)i.e6a (Att. fifier) . . .

ApYTJs, and were children by nature of anger. Distinguishing bet. fivjuiis

and opT^, the former is perhaps best rendered wrath, and the latter anger.
The question has been much discussed whether this verse means, we were
by birth, or at our birth, by descent, children of anger ; whether, in other
words, we find here the doctrine of "original sin." The majority of ex-
positors and theologians decidedly favor the afiirmative of this question.
Meyer, however, argues at length against this interpretation and under- ;

stands <t>i(rei, not of the nature with which we are bom (as though we had

here 7ei'eV£i) but rather, of the nature which we acquire iy growth after
;

our birth. On the meaning of ipitrts, as denoting (rowih, see L. & So. Cf.
also (pva, Luke Heb. 12. 15. Whichever view is correct, it should
8. 6, 8,

be noted that <t>virft is not emphatic in position so that the thought was ;

not prominent in the mind of the writer. If he had said ipiaei ^/lefla

(cTt., then <l>i(rfi would have been emphatic; and the statement would,

have been, iy nature we were etc. As the sentence now stands, the em-
phatic words are ^^ue^a and ipyiis, we were, we used to be (before we were
in Christ Jesus) children by nature of anger. Whose anger is here meant
cannot be doubtful. —
&% Kal ol XoittoC, as the rest [of men) also, in dis-
tinction fr. rifieis above.
V. 4. The sentence begun in verse I is here resumed by the adversa-
tive conj. St, because this verse stands in opposition to the relative sen-
tences in verses 2, 3. The const, is, i Si 9e!is . . . fi/ias . . avyf^aiawolTta-tv
Ttti Xp-. — irXov<rios &v ev &Ja, being rich in tnercy, da er reich ist an
Erbarmen ( Meyer ) ,
since he is rich in mercy. — 8id w. ace. on account
cf, because of. \\i[g. propter etc. iKtos, mercy: iydirri, loT'c: "the rela-
tion of species to genus." Meyer. — tJv w. J|-ydin](rev, ace. of cognate
meaning.
V. 5. Kal fivTas ^|ias, e7'en when we were: particip. present with re-
spect to the principal verb. — cruve^uoiro(ifcro> (o-u-foio-iroieoi) Tiii Xp-, made
us alive with Christ. The verb may be spoken either of spiritual or of
physical life. Some have limited the thought here to the former; some
to the latter of these two ideas. Perhaps Alf. is right in understanding
CHAPTER II. 6-10 17

both. " Our spiritual life is the primary subject of the Apostle's thought j

but this includes in itself our share in tlie resurrection and exaltation
(ver. 6) of Christ." (Alf.) If we view the verb as referring specially to
the resurrection of Christ, then the certainty of our own resurrection is

assured by that of Christ; but the certainty of our spiritual resurrection


is also assured equally by that event. — x°''P''''''
'fift (r€crij(i.cvoi (o-iiSfw),

by grace (emphat. posit.) have ye been, and are, saved (pf.), made partakers
of salvation ; the fact, and the means by which it has been accomplished,
are here unequivocally affirmed.

Vv. 6, 7. Kal o-vv^'ycipev (avv, iyeipw) Kal <n)veKii6i.or€V {criv, Kael^w),


and raised us up with him and made us sit with him. In like manner, as
his resurrection was an assurance of our own resurrection, both physical
and spiritual, so his glorious exaltation was the assurance of that which
awaits us. — Iv rots ^ir- iv Xp- 'Iijo-ov. Cf. i. 3, notes. — Hvo cvS£(£7|Tai
KTk., the object in view in all that is affirmed, vv. 5, 6, that he might show
in the ages that are coming the surpassing wealth of his grace. iv XPT''- — • •

ijlias: the manner


which this grace appears.in ev Xp- 'Ii](roO (emphat. —
posit.) the sphere in which this exhibition of grace has been made. Note
:

the emphatic repetition of the loved name, verses 5, 6, 7, 10, t^ Xpia-r^


, , . 4lf XpttTT^ 'iTJffOV . . . 4v XptffTtp 'l7}ir0V . . . ill XpiffT^ ^iTiirov.

Vv. 8, 9. Confirmation of the words just used, the surpassing wealth


of his grace, by a recurrence to the parenthetical clause in verSe 5, and a
fuller expression. — rfj '/Jufvry,
(emphat. posit.), dat. of cause; causa effi-

ciens (Meyer). — Siok irfoTsus, through faith, causa apprehendens (Meyer). —


Kol toSto, and this, the fact just stated. — ovk t| v|ia>v, sc. iarlv, («) not
of (lit. out of) yourselves. — BeoO rb Supov, sc. iativ. Note the emphatic
brevity of the Greek : and this not of yourselves, the gift of God; not of
works, that no man may glory. I often heard in my childhood an elderly
lady in New
England (my own grandmother) repeat verses 8 and 9 as a
text from which she had heard " the good Mr. Whitefield " preach (She
pronounced the word Whitefield.)

V. 10. Confirmation of ovk e| tpywv. — a«Tov (emphat.) . . . iro(i]|jia

[a thing made, fr. iroiiui], for we are his workmanship (handiwork. Ell.);
referring-to the new spiritual creation of the believer in Christ. — KTio-Otv-

TES (/CTi'fa') • eirV Krk., having been created [^X. \.\i^ x\&^ Wxi^) for Ac. —
ols (attracted to the case of the anteced. ipyois, direct obj. of irpoijToijua-
<re», fr. irpo-frotii.i.^ai) . . 8e6s, which God prepared beforehand. What
does this mean ? The note of from a sermon of Beveridge)
Ell. (citing

gives a satisfactory answer ;


" God, before we were created in Christ, made
ready for us ;
prearranged, prepared a sphere of moral action, or (to use
the simile of Chrys.) a road, with the intent that we should walk in it, and
not leave it: this sphere, this road, was ip-yaayaSi,." — I'va, purpose: that
— ;

l8 NOTES ON EFHESIANS.
speaks o£
we may walk in them (i. e. good works). Note how often Paul
but as the out-
works, good works, not indeed as a ground of justification,
the Christian
growth of a vital Christian faith, or as the sphere in which
The tfya of the Christian, here mentioned, on which James also
walks.
dwells with so much emphasis, are very different
from the lp7o viiLou,
verse The active life of Paul is one of
works of law, and the .'^70 in 9.

the best illustrations of his meaning.

V. II. Awi (Aio 0), Wlierefore, i. e. "because we have become partak-


" Not in
and undeserved benefits, verses 4-10 (Meyer).
'"
ers of so great
declaratory portion of
exclusive reference to verses 4-10, but rather to the
the foregoing paragraph, verses 1-7." (Ell.). (ivtipoveiere (pres. imperat.), —
bear in mind, keep in mind habitually as a motive to
gratitude. on irore —
4^is KTk. (sentence unfinished in this verse ; const, resumed in verse 12,
t6. before generic
Sti ^Tf KTt.), that once you. Gentiles in the flesh:
Ifl^Tj,

article, may be omitted in rendering ; -ri. not repeated before eV o-apK.', the
<rap(c.' here in the primary, physical
two clauses being closely united :

sense, the reference being to circumcision, "the


corporeal mark" (EU.)
tmregener-
yet this almost necessarily suggests the derived, spiritual sense
ate (so Theoph., Ambros., Grot., Peile, et al.): article often omitted w.
<rapKi, Win. § 19, Butt. § 1 24 yet the English idiom
;
requires us to express

the article. — 01 \e-y- (appos. w. ra l&- iv trap-), those who are called nncir-
contemptuous expression.
ciiincision: a vnrb —
-irepiTOjiTis gen. of agent . . .

or doer, by that which is called circumcision : aKpo^varla and Tepiro/i^,


names denoting the two classes of persons. ev cropKl x«'-P*^o''^toi> (adj. —
of two endings, qualifies irepiTo/ijjs), in the flesh, made by hand, — only that
and nothing more no change of heart all external
I ! 1

V. 12. 8ti ^ts: const., begun in verse 11, here resumed: tS Kavp-i
iKelvcfi corresponds to trore above that you were at that time separate (x^-
:

pi's) from Christ. — aTnjXXoTpuiievoi (kir-aKKorfmu, fr. aAA.i!Tpios, of or he-


longing to another, Lat. alienus) -Hjs iroXiTetas Krk., alienate J from, estram^cd
from, the commonwealth, or the citizenship, of Israel. voXmia occurs in
N. T. only here and in Acts 22. 28, where it is rendered citizenship, R. V.
Ka\ |4voi Krk., and strangers, foreigners, in respect to the arvenants of the
promise (objective gen., or "gen. of the point of view." Ell.) or strangers
from etc. (gen. of departure from, gen. of privation) : the covenants of the
promise, that of the Messiah, made with .Abraham and subsequently re-

newed with the other patriarchs; also wnth Moses. — iXirffia (emphat.
posit.) ji^ 2)^ovT€s Krk.. not haz'ing any liof-e (i. e. hope with respect to a
future life) and without God in the world. Truly a most tragic picture I

V. 13. viivl 8^, in contrast \v. tcJ Kaipu iKelvif. — «v Xp- 'Itio-oC, in

contrast w. X'^P^^ Xpto-roD, But now in Christ fesus. — viicts . iyeWi-


0i|T€ ^VY^S; yon, li'lio once were fir of}', have been brought (lit. became) near.
CHAPTER II. 14, 15. ig

The writer is not content with having said in the beginning of the sen-
tence iv XpiffTijJ 'iTjiroS, he now adds the emphatic and more definite
expression 4v tou Xpiirrov, in the blood of Christ.
tif aijAari He does
not say, by the teaching of Christ, or by the beautiful life of Christ; but,
iti the blood of Christ I Iv w. the dat. denotes here, as often, the element,
or the sphere, in which an action takes place. In ch. i. 7, we have an-
other form of expression, eV ^ . . . 5(a tqv ai^aros avTov, in whom . . .

through his blood.

V. 14. 13. oiris 7dp, For


Confirmation and explanation of verse —
he himself (Lat. ipse), —
our peace ; peace in the
he alone. TJ elpVjvT] i^jiuv,

widest sense not only, as the connection indicates, peace between Jew
;

and Gentile, but also, as the writer goes on presently to show (verses
15-18), peace between both parties and God. 6 iroi^jo-as, who made, or —
as the particip. often has a causal force, since Jie made.— to, d|i,4>0T£pa 'iv,

both parties (Jew and Gentile) one, united [unum). — Kal , . . Xutras, and
broke down {loosed so that it fell down) the middle wall (fr. fieaos and Tot-

Xos, wall of a house, Lat. paries) of partitioti : tov ippayfiov, gen. of appo-
sition ; the middle wall which served as a partition, which separated the one
from the other, the Jew from the Gentile.

V. 1 5. Tf|v ?x®P'''' ™*y ^^ viewed as in appos. w. tJ jimiToixov rod


ipp-, and the obj. of Kitras (so Meyer, Al£., Ell., Hodge, Riddle, et al.) ; or
as the obj. of KaTapyfia-as (so R. V., Bib. Union, et al.). comma
Again, a
may be placed after ix^P'^' ^'^^ none after outoO (so Tisch.), or a comma
may stand after both words (so Alf., Ell., et al.), or the comma may be
removed after ep^flpov (so W-H.). With all these various pointings, the
sentence is grammatical, and the general sense is not materially affected.
"With the pointing of Tisch., the verse reads, the enmity (appos. w. what
goes before), having in his flesh abolished the law of commandments [con-
tained) in ordinances ; that etc. With the pointing of W-H., the sen-
fence would read as in the R. V. — t^v ?x®"> ^^^ hatred, i. e. primarily betw.
Jew and Gentile ; but this was also, as appears from the context, closely
connected with alienation from God. C£. note on fip^vri above. — ev
T-g o-apxl airov, in his flesh. For a fuller expression of the idea, cf. Col-
1. 22. ^v T^ (TdijuaTi TT\s ffapKhs avTov 8ia rod daydrov, in the body of his
flesh through death. — riv v<5(«)V . . . S6'Y|Mt<ri,v, the law (generic and col-
lective) of commandments (the specifications in the law) embodied in de-
crees. "The gen. -rSiv ivToKav denotes the contents of the law, and
iv SiyfiaiTiv the essential /orm in which the 4vT0\ai are given." Meyer. —
KaTapY^jo-as, f r. Kar-apyeco, to render apy6s, idle, inoperative. — ilva .

ktCitt) (aor. subjunc. fr. (CTifa) ktI ., that he might create, build, the two in
himself into oru new man, making peace (the particip. denoting means as
well as time, while making, and by making) eip-livriv, as above, verse 14, :

peace between Tew and Gentile, and between both and God.
20 NOTES OM EPHESIANS.
v. i5. Sc. Vi/ct before xal aTroKaraWd^ri {aTro-KaT-a\K(i<r<ra) ktI., and might
fully reconcile tUem both (lit. the both) in one body (i. c. united in one body) to
God through the Cross : iv iv\ (Ttifian has been understood by some as
referring to the body of Clirist ; by others, more naturally, I think, to both
parties united in one body. So Era.sm., Calvin, Olsh., De Wette, Winer,
Meyer, — aTroKTcfvas (the notion of time and the means),
Alf., Ell., et al.

after and by having — S^flpav points


slain. more clearly here
tt|v still

to the enmity between man and God. — a^«, in the Cross, as kv it^ i.e.

the sphere in which the result was reached. So iv.ain^ is now generally
Uiiderstood (not in the sense iv auT^i, in himself).

Vv. 17, 18. Kal dAi>v, and having come. When? Verses 15, 16 for-
bid our referrmg this to his advent in the flesh. must refer to some- It

thing subsequent to his crucifixion. The usual and most natural view is
that it refers to his coming by his Spirit and by those whom he com-
missioned to preach his gospel. —
evq-yYcXto-aTO ktc., preached the good
tidings of peace to you who were afar off (meaning the Gentiles) and
peace (an emphatic repetition) to those who were near (i. c. the Jews). For
the meaning of /iuxpdv and iyyis, cf. verses 12, 13. Brt ktI. It is —
often difficult to decide with certainty whether 3ti is better viewed as
causal or as declarative. Perhaps it may convey both ideas at once.
So Ell. views it here " as it is a fact that " etc. Yet the causal sense
:

seems more prominent here.yi^, seeing that. 8t' airoS ktI., through him —
we have the access (or our access) both (emphatic in position and definite,
lit. the both) in one Spirit to the Father. This verse defines very clearly
the kind of peace just mentioned, iv M Trveiiuvri is usually understood
to mean here the Holy Spirit, as the sphere in which all is accomplished.
The verse then presents the three persons of the Godhead through him ;

(the Son, Christ Jesus), in one Spirit (the Holy Spirit), our access, our intro-
duction (Ell.), to the Father.

V. 19. A conclusion, how joyous, fr. verses 14-18; and a fuller decla-
ration of the thought in verse 13. — |^voi, strangers, foreigners, those who
belong to another government or country irapoiKoi, sojourners, perh. an :

Alexandrine word, meaning the same as the classic /ueroiitoi, resident aliens,
those who reside in a place without the rights of citizenship. Both to-
gether form the opposite of av\nro>Cirai. aXXd i<nk. Note the emphatic —
repetition of the verb : but ye are etc. — tuv olyCuv. Some fanciful mean-
ings have been given to this word here (as the Jews, the patriarchs, the
angels) ; but it is better to understand it in the ordinary N. T. sense, tlu
saints, i. e. Christians, the church of Christ. — oIkcloi. tov fieoiJ, an emphatic
addition to the clause tmnroX'iTai rav ay-: fellffiu-citizetis with the saints,
and bclom^inc to the household of God : oUf'toi following (rvvTroKtrai, and
contrasted with ItVoi and irdportoi is best viewed as a subst.
CHAPTER II. 20-22. 21

V. 20. The metaphor in oiVefoi toP fleoS is continued and more fully
presented in this verse. — 4iroiKo8o(iTie£VT€s {iiv-oiKaSoiMew, fr. oIkos and
of etc. (i. c. when ye became Chris-
Se/iu) eirl ktI., /i«;7/ !i/o« the foundation
apostles and proph-
tians) the foundation of i. c. the foundation laid by the
;

ets. So it is usually understood. The foundation consisting of etc. (gen.


of appos.), or the foundation belonging to (possess, gen.),
seems less natu-
ral. Cf. I Cor. 3. 10. Whether irpo(priTav here refers to the prophets of
Either refer-
the O. Test, or to those of the N. Test, is not very certain.
ence makes good sense in the connection. The older
commentators gen-
erally understood the reference to be to the O. T.
prophets (so Chry.s.,
It is now
Theod., Hieron., Erasm., Beza, Calvin, and many others).
more generally understood of the N. T. prophets. The order of the
is thought very decidedly to
favor this view
words, apost/es and prophets,
(soMeyer, Ell., et al.). Yet this reason alone is not very weighty as the ;

writer might very naturally mention the nearest object first.


The omis-
sion of the article before irfo'p- unites the two more
closely in thought.

Apostles and prophets were engaged in one work ; laid one foundation.

SvTOS aKpo-ywviaCov (S/cpos, at the point, highest; ywvia, corner, angle) . .

'Itio-oB,Christ Jesus /«>««// (himself alone) being the chief corner stone, the
highest point, "the head-corner stone" (EU., Alf.). "The doctrine of the
Apostles, i. c. Q\ix\%t preached is the OeiieXios ;
Christ personal, the axpoya-
viaTos; Christ mystical, the irK'fipaiiA.a; cf. 1.23" (Ell.). " This view ele-
ch.
vates evangelical preaching, while it sends us back of councils and creeds
to Christ for our doctrine " (Riddle).

Vv. 21, 22. ev (^ refers most naturally to the nearest anteced., in


whom. — irdo-a olKoSo|j.4i is rendered by the revisers, both English and
American, each several building, or every bicilding. So also Meyer. Yet
Alf., Ell., Braune, et al. render, all the building. The first rendering seems
preferable. In one vast temple are many olKoSoixai. Cf. Matt. 24. 1.

rets oiKoSofi^s rov lepov, the buildings of the temple. — a-vvap}u>Xo'YOV^vi]


{avv-apfioKoyeai, it. apiA.6s, a fitting or joining, and x6yos), fitly joined to-

gether. — aXfy\. {ai\ai, usu. av\i,via) in the active sense here (cf. i Cor. 3.

6, 7, 2 Cor. 9. 10), occasions growth. The metaphor does not seem tn


be that each several building grows, or increases in itself; but rather
that every building, by being carefully framed and joined to every other,
causes the growth of the whole into a holy temple in the Lord. The
metaphor each several building, or every building, may represent the
various bodies of Christians {iKK\t\(ilai) in different places. — hi KvpCu,
Iv iJ, in the Lord (i.e. the Lord Jesus), in whom etc. — Kal \s^vi,you also,

addressed to the readers of the epistle. — (n)votKaSa|i.ei(r6£ (note the force


of the pres. ), are being built together i indicating a progressive work. —
€is KaToiKT]T^piov . . . irvEijp.aTt, into a habitation [a dwelling place) of
God in the Spirit. Note here, as in verse 18, the distinct recognition of
;;

22 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
the three persons in the Godhead : eV ^, in whom, i. e. Christ Jesus . . .

Tou Beov, of God, the Father, iv irveiiiaTL, in the (Holy) Spirit. Note also
that iv $ is connected with the verb, in whom you also are being built
together : iv irvivfiaTi, w. KaTOiKi)r-f\piov tov deov, a habitation of God in the
Spirit. God dwells in the church in and through his ever-present Holy
Spirit.

Chap. III. V. i. Paul the prisoner of Christ for the Gentiles.


— Vv. 2-12. An outburst of emotion view of mission in his to
ihcm. — V. Prayer for strength. — Vv. 14-19. Prayer
13. those for
addressed. — Vv. A doxology. 20, 21.

V. I. TovTov x^'P'-") On view of the


this account, referring to 2. 22, in

fact there stated. — 6 S^<r)i.ias ktI., sake


the prisoner of Christ, i.e. for the
of Christ, because of Christ. It will be recollected that this epistle was

written after Paul became a prisoner whether at Caesarea, as Meyer ;

argues, or at Rome, as the majority think, is not certain. — wip v|j.uv

KTk., in This reference would naturally excite


behalf of you Gentiles.
emotion on their part. —
The sentence here begun is usually viewed as
broken off and resumed at some subsequent point as most expositors
; ;

think, with verse 14. Vet Meyer (5th edition), following the Syriac,
Chrys., Theoph., Erasm., Beza, et al., supplies clfii after TlavKos and
makes thus a complete sentence, Ojt this accotmt I Paul am the prisoner

of Christ for you Gentiles. This last expression, in an emphatic position,


leads the writer to dwell on the thought that he was especially commis-
sioned as apostle to the Gentiles. Whichever grammatical construction
we adopt, the argument of the chapter remains the same.

V. 2. Confirmation of the words for you Gentiles. {tye, if at least —


certainly (this is so) if etc. —
f|K0«(raT6, aor., is here best rendered into
English by a perf., ye have heard of. — tJiv oIkov- . . . toO 8eov, the dispen-
sation of the grace of God. To express the thought in another form ; it at
least ye have heard ho7tj the grace of God was dispensed. Tfis SoSeioTjs —
(iittatii) Krk; [the grace of God) that which was given me toyou^vard: €ts
vfias {direction of the thoughts and purpose), to enter into the midst of yen
and labor there.

V. 3. 8ti, that ; introduces the explanation of riKoiaare tjji/ oIkoi^ irri.


— Kari dirOKdXvi|nv, denotes manner ; according to, or fy way of, or sim-
ply iy revelation (R. V.). — fyvupCirOi) {yvtapi^tn) . . .\>.v<rTl\pi.ov, the mystery
(that which is stated in verse 6) was made inown to me. — KaOus closelv
connected with the preceding clause (not with Kari airo)C(i\in('i>'), the mys-
tery was made known to vie, as T wrote before in brief, ox as I have written
above briefly, referring (as is now generally thought) to 1. 9 ff., 2. 13 ff.

not to a former epistle now lost.


:

CHAPTER III. 4-6. 2^

V. 4. irp^s 8, directing attention to which, in vie'cu of vliich, or simply


by which which he had above written {TTpoeypa\fiaj.
; 8 refers to that —
Svva<r8e ovayiviiirKOVTes, ye are able while, and by, reading: particip.
denoting time and means. —
voijcrai ktI., to perceive my understanding in

the mystery of Christ. The gen. is understood by many as objective ; the


mystery relating to Christ, by which the Gentiles and Jews became united
in him by many, however, as gen. of apposition, or identity, the mystery of
:

which Christ himself is the embodiment. (So Alf., Ell., Meyer.) Cf. Col.
I. 27. "In either case 'the mystery' here refers to the whole wonderful
scheme or purpose of redemption in Christ, of which he is himself the
centre." Riddle.

V. 5. 8, which, i. e. the mystery of Christ. — ercpais Ycveais is best


viewed as dat. of time ; contrasted w. vvv : in other generations (so
Meyer, 5th edition, et al.). It is not necessary to give yevfdis any other
than its ordinary meaning here. — ovk lyvupCo-Sr] {yyaptCa), was not mode
known. — Tots uU>is tuv dv9-, to the sons of men, a very general expression
(only here and in Mark 3. 28) ; corresponding to the Heb. BTS~"^_52.
This mystery may have been known, at least imperfectly, to Abraham
(cf. Gal. 3. 8) and a few others (Rom. 9. 24-29, 17. 9-12) who had gone
before, but not to the sons of men in general. — cos vvv dir€KaXv<|>0Tj (airo-

KoXiTTTw, to uTtcover, reveal), as now (under the Christian dispensation) //

has been revealed, yvtapi^ta means simply to make known, and is spoken of
any fact : h.-noKaXvTrTa, to rnake known that which was previously hidden,
to uncover. — rots a-yCots (belongs w. both nouns) d-ir- ktc., to his (refer-
ring to Christ) holy apostles and prophets (the prophets under the new
dispensation) used here, as it is often used in addressing the
: ayiots,

churches. There is no lack of delicacy in applying the word here to


apostles, among whom Paul himself would be reckoned. To the holy
apostles and prophets this mystery of Christ was revealed in a much
clearer light than ever before ; and this was done iy irvei/iaTi, in the Spirit,
" the life-sphere, within which the revelation is accomplished " (Braune).

V. 6. Explanatory of ri /ivtrr'fipiov in verse 3. — toL i6vr\, subj. of cTvat

trwK\Tjpov6fia KTe. adjs. agreeing w. ra ^9- : thai the Gentiles are heirs
together, and in a body together, and partakers together ; note the repetition
of <TMV' . . . (Tvv- . . . (Tuv-, emphasizing the idea together, i. e. together with
the Jews. — Tjjs liraYY^^'O'S) of the promise. The well-known promise is

here referred to, made centuries earlier :


" in thee shall all families
of the earth be blessed." Gen. 12. 3, 28. 14. Cf. 2. 12. — iv Xp- 'Itjo--

Sid TOv eva-y-, in Christ yesns through the gospel, belongs w. the whole
statement ^vai ra %Btni Krk., not simply w. eVayyeXias. In how far the
nature and the scope of this promise was understood by the patri-
archs and prophets is a question which is very differently answered by
different persons.
8
24 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
V. 7. it. a stem iiaK
SiAkovos (perh. derived SitoK, in SkSkm), not =
essentially different inmeaning from Inrrjperris (used in the epistles but
once. I Cor. 4. i): a servant. (The English word minister has now
acquired a technical sense quite different from that of Sn^Korai.) Bepiiruv
(but once in N. T., Heb. 3. 5), a waitiug-jitan, attendant, servant: SovXos,
a bond-servant. — i'^evi\iT\v [yiiio^ai or yiyuo^ai), Att. iy€v6p.T}V. The aor.
of yivvaa is iyiViri]Bt\v (double vv). — Kara T-fjv Suipeav kt€., according to
the f7-ee gift (^Swpov). This office, a servant, or minister, of the gospel,
was the —
free gift. Tiis x^'P" '""^ 9«oO, of the grace (a descriptive or quali-
fying gen.) of God. — ttis 8o6eC<nis (i aor. pass, particip. fr. Si'Soj/ii) (loi,

•which was given to me. Meyer et al. read here r^v SodeTtrdy /xoi, agreeing
w. Sapeav. —
Kara rfiv ivipy- ktI. (closely connected w. the particip.
ioBiifnjs), according to the working, the effi.ciency, of his power. It was this
which converted a Saul into a Paul. Nothing short of this ever wrought
such a change.

V. 8. ejioC repeats with emphasis the unemphatic iiol (enclit.) in verse


7. — Tu IXaxurroT^pcp (a comparative ending, attached the superlative to
iK^xiffTos), the one than the — iravTwv
less of An least. a.yUav, all saints.
expression of humility, much stronger than that in i Cor. 15. 9; but rest-
ing,no doubt, on the same ground, the oft-recurring recollection that he
had been a persecutor. —
toIs ^Sveiriv tudyy-, explanatory of t\ x^P^s aSnj,
to preach to tlie Gentiles etc. — ri dv€^i\v£ao-Tov (o priv., v euphon., i^
\.XVii.^ai, to trcue out, fr. i\, Ix^os, a track) irXoBros toB Xp-, the riches of
Christ which have not been, and cannot be, traced out. Those who seek to
trace out these riches may surely find the best material, and enough, for
their sermons.

V. 9. Kal <|>tiiTi(roi {iparTi^ui) tCs (fem. agreeing with) \ olKovojiCa ictI.,


and to bring to light what is etc. Many editors ( Alf., Ell., Meyer, Braune,
et al.) read (paiTlaai irinTas rts ktI., to enlighten all men {as to) what is etc.
or to make all men see etc. This infin., like fvayye\i(rair9iu, depends on
4SieT) T) xipts aSr?;. — i\ olKovo|i(a : cf. I. 10. — toO |iu(rTT|pCov the same
:

as in verses 3, 4 and explained in verse 6.


; — toO diroKeKpv)i|i^v (axo-
KpiiTTa) Iv Tip etiS
. . .KTio-avTi [Krl^a), tohich has been hidden
. . .
in . . .

God who created all things; and hence had the power and the right to
arrange all things, this /ivar-fipiov included, as pleased him; iirh rav
aX<i>vav,froin the ages (denoting time, the terminus a qi:o, dating from the
creation of all things).

V. 10. Vva ktI.


Closely connected in thought w. fua7T6X(o-o<rflai and
^arlaai, to preach to bring to light . in order that etc. (the divine
. . . . .

purpose). —
-yvupureiii (aor. pass, subjunc. fr. yvapiia) vOv, there might be
made known now. rats dpxoCs —
«iro«pav£ois, to the principalUies and . . .

authorities in the heavenly places (cf. t. 3, note); namely, to the angels.


CHAPTER III. 11-13. 25

So Alf., Ell., Meyer, et al. This is one among the many suggestions of
the interest which the inhabitants of the other world take in the affairs of
this world. — 8101 w. the gen. through, by means of. — ifi iroX-uiroCKiXos

(iroAii, much; ttomIKos, variegated) manifold wisdom of o-oiJ)Ca kts., the

God. Among the manifold exhibitions of divine wisdom, the revelation


of this mystery was prominent. We may note also what is here implied,
that the angels advance in knowledge, obtaining ever and anon a clearer
insight into the plans and the wisdom of God.
V. II. KaTOL irpd6£(n.v ktI. Closely connected w. 'ha, yvtupiaOy kte ,

that there might be known . . . accordi?ig to the purpose of the ages. —^


h!ol.tfre) Iv t^ Xp- which (purpose] he made, i.e. carried out,
'Ii^r- ktI.,

executed, in Christ fesus our Lord. (So Meyer, De Wette, Olsh., Ell.,
Braune, et al.) Or many understand ^iroi'rjo-ev thus: which he formed,
purposed etc. (So Calvin, Beza, RUckert, Hofman, Alf., R. V., et al.)
The verb may have either meaning, and both ideas are pertinent in the
connection. Is it not just possible that the writer had both, as one com-
plete idea, in his mind, —
the forming of the eternal purpose and its
execution .'

V. 12. A reference to their own experience. — Iv & ^x"!''"'


"'''^•j "'
whom we have, are having, etc. ; the declaration of an actual and con-
tinued fact. —
T^v (may be viewed as the generic article, or as an
unemphatic possess, pron., or as denoting that which is well known)
i7appT]o-iav Kal irpoo--, boldness and access (R. V.), or our boldness and
access (Alf.), our boldness and our admission (Ell.), or the (well known)
boldness etc. — Iv Tr€iroi8li(rei., in trusting, in confidence. The access is

not timid, embarrassed, restrained ; such as is often felt in coming into


the presence of a superior; but, in confidence. — Sid expresses the
ktI.
means through which this confidence is secured — through our faith
;

(or the faith, Alf.) in him, i.e. Christ (avrov, object, gen.). The boldness
{irappria-iav) here spoken of is properly and primarily, boldness, openness,
frankness, in ^-^^^xw^', freespokenness (L. & Sc.) : the access is to the
Father. Cf. 2. i8. Paul doubtless knew by his own experience how
true this verse really is : and we may all, if we will, have the same
experience.

V. 13. Aid, Wherefore, referring to the entire foregoing declaration,


beginning with verse 2. — alTov|iai p.'fi Ivkukeiv (iv, kukJs often used in
the sense without courage, withozit heart), I entreat you not to lose heart
(Ell.), / beseech you not to be dispirited (Alf.). So it is understood by
Meyer and the majority of commentators. The rendering, / ask that I
may not faint, though equally grammatical, seems to me less suitable in
the connection. — Iv rats 9Xit(»- . . . ii(i.mv, in my for you, as
afflictions

the apostle to the Gentiles. Bear in mind that this epistle was written
after Paul became a prisoner. — fJTis . . . ii(imv, inasmuch as it is your
26 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
irloiy (Ell., Braune), seeinf^ that they are your glory (Alf.) %-ni (qui qui- ;

ilem, quippe qui), though relating to the pieceding thought, agrees w. the
predicate S<i|a. This clause is intended as an encouragement to the
readers o£ the epistle not to lose heart.

V. 14. TovTov x^P"-" (<^f- verse I, note) : On this account, "referring to

the train of thought at the end of ch. 2, and to the ideas parallel to it

in the digression" (Ell.); i.e. because ye are built together in Christ


into a habitation of God in the Spirit. — K4p.-irTa> to. ^dvard jiou, I betid
my hues : « signo rem denotat (Calvin), by the sign lie denotes the thing:
KiixTTTu, pres. denoting what is habitual. It does not imply, as some
have understood it, that he was on his knees at the time of writing or
dictating the words. The expression naturally indicates "the earnest-
ness and fervency of his prayer" (Ell.): irpbs riy iraTepa, the person
addressed ; the direction of the supplication.

V. 1 5. I| oS, /rom whom, as the source. — irdira iraTpid. Note the


paronomasia, irarepo . , . Trarptti, to the Trartpa, from whom every vaTpid
. is named : not easily rendered by a corresponding paronomasia.
. .

The thought is, to the Father, from whom every family (or race, possibly
we may sa.y fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named, i.e. derives the
)

name Trarpiii. irda'a —


oipavois, every family in heaven. Cf. i. 21,
. . .

Col. I. 16. We find in these passages the conception of families, princi-


palities, dominions, powers, among the heavenly inhabitants. The ren-
dering, the whole family in heaven and on earth, is not accurate. Cf. 2. 21,
The word fimily here is to be understood, not of a single
Tao-o oiKoSo/n^j.
household, but in the wider sense of race, ytved or yevos, Lat. gens.
Note that the words rov Kvplov rjfjLWV 'Iritsov Xpia-rov after varepa
are omitted ; so that i( o5 refers directly to vartpa and can refer to
nothing else.

V. 16. iva 8^ i|tiv, that he may give to you etc., the purpose and the
contents of the prayer. — Karoi xri., according to, in proportion to (indi-
cating the measure of the gift, cf. 1. 5), the ric/ies, the wealth, of his glory.
— Suvd|ji«. KpaTaui>6f)vai (KpaTon6a>), with power to be strengthened, to be
powerfully strengthened. — 8td toC irv6V[i- a^ov, the means by which this
is to be accomplished. — rhv fo-u
tls &v6p(iiirov, in the inner man: lit.

into the inner man (Alf.); "direction and destination of the prayed-for
gift of infused strength. The inner man is the recipient, the subject 'into
whom '
the Siiva/nij is infused " (Ell.).

V. 17. KaTotKfjo-ai rhv Xp-. This may be viewed grammatically as par-


allel with the preceding more fully developing the thought
infin. clause,

(so Calvin, Meyer, Braune, et al.) or as "appended to Kparaua9T\vai with ;

a partially climactic force, but a somewhat lax grammatical connection"


(Ell. So also Alf., Winer, Bleek, Riddle, et al.). That verse 17 is both

CHAPTER III. i8, 19. 27

explanatory and climactic in its relation to verse 16, seems to me very


plain ; but at the same time I cannot see any objection to maliing botli
depend grammatically on S(f, as the simplest view of the construction.

8i.d Tijs means, and the only means, by which this indwelling
irCoTcws, the
of Christ is possible. —
iv rais KapSiais ifiiav, in your hearts ; not in any
mere outward profession, or badge, or sign ; but within your hearts, the
essential condition of every true conversion and oh how often for- ; !

gotten Note again in this connection how distinctly, and in what rela-
I

tion, the three persons of the Trinity are presented, irpij r'bv narepa —
. . . Sia TOv irvevfiaTOS aiiTov . . . rhv Xptardy.

V. 18. 6V o-ydirn is joined with what follows by the punctuation of


Tisch. So also R. V., Alf., Ell., Meyer, et al. ;
yet W-H. place a colon
after iydnri, thus joining it with what precedes. It makes good sense
with either pointing, but seems more closely connected with what follows.
— «ppi,Jw|i4voi {fiiC6a>) Te6e(i£\im|i6'voi {eefieKida) agree w. the subj. of
. . ,

^itrxi(TriTi, but are made more emphatic by preceding '/ra : in order that,
being rooted and grounded having the foundation laid) in love, ye
(lit. may
be fully able, may be strong, to apprehend {to comprehend, Alf., Ell. ; zu
begreifen, Meyer). — cvv irdo'iv tois 0,7^015, together with all the saints.
The highest attainments in Christian knowledge and experience belong
to no select class, but are a possession in common of all who have the
faith and love here spoken of. —
tC to irXdros ktI., obj. of KaraAa^eVfloi.

Of the many explanations, the simplest is to understand with these accu-


satives that which is suggested by the next verse, t^s dyan-Tjs toD Xp-,
to comprehend what {is) the breadth and length and depth and height
(of the love of Christ). W-H. prefer the order koX v^o^ koX ^cidos, and
height and depth. So also R. V. A great number of fanciful interpreta-
tions of this clause have been given. The following, from Oecumenius,
may serve as a specimen : " it is indicated that redemption and the
apprehension of Christ were determined from eternity {)i.riK.os), that they
extend over all (irAaros), that they reach with their power into Hell
(/3o9oj),and that Christ has ascended above the heavens (Bi(/os)"! Inven-
tion and ingenuity could scarcely go beyond this, yet other expositions
equally remarkable might be cited.
V. 19. 'yvwvaC t€, and to know. Same const, w. KwraKa^iffQai — ttjv . . .

dYa7n]V tov Xp-, the love of Christ (toward us) which surpasses knowledge ;
more literally, to know the knowledge-surpassing love of Christ. Note the
striking oxymoron :
" suavissima haec quasi correctio est " (Bengel). Any
attempted explanation of a paradox, or an oxymoron, must fail to make
the thought any clearer even to the common mind, and must divest it of
its striking features (cf. Matt. 13. 12). — iva irXijpuBfjTe (K\rtp6a) ktI., w.
KaraXa^iffdai . . . yi/uvai re ktI., in order that ye, (entering) into all the
fulness of God (and thus being surrounded with it on all sides), maybe
28 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
iimde f.ul. Such is my view of the construction and meaning of the
sentence Cf. 5. 18, Tr\npoi)a-9e iv iryfiJ/naTi, {being) in the Spirit be filled
[made full). Of the many other interpretations, that of Chrys. seems
the best; Scttc irhnpova-Bai irda-i)s aperijs ?is v\-iifnjs ia-rlv <S fleiij, so that

ye may be filled with every virtue of which God


(So Olsh., Alf., is full.

EU., et al.) The R. V. conveys substantially the same idea, tlmt ye may
be filled unto all the fulness of God. The O. V. suggests what is impos-
sible, that ye might be filled WITH all the fulness of God. For the force
of CIS w. a verb of rest, cf. Had. 618, a. arks fis fictroy, coming into the
vtidst and standing there. Good. § 192, Note 6, Kuh. § 300. 3. (b), Winer,

§ 50, b. ivrtT\i\iyy,ivov fh eVa tSwod, wrapt together (and put) into one
place. Butt. p. 328. /t^ KT-f](nj<r6e XP^'^^^ **^ "^^^ C'^vas, do not get gold
[in order to put it) into your girdles. I much prefer to view the eis thus
ill this verse, entering into etc.

Vv. 20, 21. The prayer (vv. 14-19) is ended, but the overflowing emo-

tion of the apostle now leads to a solemn and expressive doxology. —


virip irdvra Troifjcat (closely united in sense), to do beyond all things. —
tiircp€Kir€pMr<ro€ 3tv far beyond, surpassing exceedingly, what
. , . voov|i€v,

we ask or have in mind Ziv attracted from the ace. to the


(conceive of) :

case of the antecedent (rolnasv understood) and the anteced. governed ;

by uirepcKTrepiffO'oD. —
Kara t^v 8vva|j.tv kt€., according to the power that
works (is working) in us, connect closely in thought w. iroiriaai. avru —
expressed for emphasis and perspicuity. —
t| 8<i|o (sc. tftj, optat. without

6,v denoting a wish), the glory, that which is his due. Iv t^ 4KicXT|<r£^ —
Kol tv Xp- 'Itjo--, in the church (the public manifestation) and in Christ
Jesus (the spiritual sphere in which the divine glory especially appears).
— €1? irdo-as rds ^evtas ktI., lit. into all tlu generations of the age of the
ages, — an intensive form of expression.
Chap. IV. The first three chapters mainly doctrinal, the theme
being the glory of the church of Christ. The last three chap-
ters hortatory. In this chapter, verses 1-2, an exhortation to walk
worthily of their calling; verses 3-16, to preserve Christian unity;
verses 17-24, no longer to walk after the manner of the Gentiles;
verses 25-32, special exhortations.

V. I. irapaKoXA oJv 4|Jias, / exhort (or beseech) you therefore; par-


ticularly in view of the leading thoughts expressed in ch. 3. e'^i 6 —
S^o-jiios ev Koptm gives weight and pathos to the exhortation ; T the pris-
oner in the Lord ("denotes the sphere in which captivity existed, and
out of which it did not exist." Ell). In 3. 1, i StV/uios toS Xp-, the pris-
oner of Christ, states the same fact in a different form. — d|Cci>s . . . IkXVJ-
;

CHAPTER IV. 3-6. 29

walk worthily of the calling (the divine invitation) with


6r|T€ (/co\eai), to

which you were called (^y attracted to tlie case o£ the anteced. apparently
from the dat. Cf. 2 Tim. i. 9).
Vv. 2, 3. |«Td TTcto-ns ktI., descriptive of TrepiiroTTJo-ai, with all low-
liness and meekness: ndirris w. both nouns, cf. i. 8. — iieTd |jiaKpo6v)i.Cas,
same const, w. the preceding and w. the same verb. — a,v(\6\Ltvoi . . .

iv a^dirji, forbearing one another in love, the proof and exhibition of


tianpoBu/ila. The participles di/exrf/nfi'oi, o-irouSofoi'Tej, nom. "as if the
exhortation were direct, vepnraTia-aTe." Win. p. 572. aKK-fiXaiv, gen. w.
dytX". ^ frequent const. —
•ri\v iv6n\Ta. ToO irv«v(i.aTos, the unity (the one-

ness) of the {Holy) Spirit ; belonging to the Spirit, "wrought by the


Spirit." Ell. — Iv t<3 otiv- kt^., in the bond (the binding together) of peace
belonging to peace : iv denotes the element or principle in which the
oneness is maintained.
Vv. 4, 5, 6, corroborate and emphasize the thought to keep the one-
ness of the Spirit. Note the asyndeton, giving point to each clause. —
tv <ril)(ia, sc. IstIv, one body, meaning the entire body of believers viewed
as one whole. Cf. :;. 16, Rom. 12. 5, i Cor. 10. 17. — %v irveC(ia, one Spirit,
which pervades all believers and thus unites them in one body, the mys-
tical body of Christ. —
KaSus, even as, introducing another instance of
oneness. —
Kal ixiA^rfn iv )ii<^ IXirCSi, ye were also called in one hope (" the
moral element in which the KX^ais took place." Ell.). rf^s KXTJo-ews —
xr|iuv, gen. of possess. (Alf.) ;
gen. of cause (Ell., Meyer). Cf. 1. 18. The
gen. may be viewed either way ; in fact both ideas may be contained in
this one construction. — a.% Kvpios, one Lord, Christ Jesus, the head of
the one body. — |i£a "niim^, one faith, ^e^ subjective principle; perhaps
not to the exclusion of the idea one common object of faith. — hi pdirri-
er|io, one baptism. As faith is one and the same with all believers, so
baptism one and the same with all the former, as the inward expe-
is :

rience, the latter, as the outward sign. The oneness is also true in another
view. As faith is exercised once for all and becomes a permanent pos-
session, so baptism (the ending -jua in fidirTKrua signifying a completed
act) is administered but once in this respect differing from the Lord's
:

Supper, which is celebrated often. eis 6tbs ktI., one God and Father —
of all. Note the distinct mention of the three persons in the Trinity, —
%v iri/evfia eh icipioi
. . . eTy 0e6s. 6 eirl kt4., who is over all and
. . . —
through all and in all ; " i. e. God is the God and Father of all believers
in every conceivable relation; (ruling) over all, (working) through all,

(dwelling) in all (filling them with his Spirit)." Win. p. 419. The thought
is expressed with the utmost possible emphasis. As believers, and only
believers, are spoken of in this connection, the emphatic declaration here
can refer only to them. There have been many fanciful and ingenious
interpretations of the several clauses which go decidedly "beyond what
:

30 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
is They rather diminish the emphatic force of the clauses taken
written."
together. The words irivray, irai'Taii', ttSo-iv, are best viewed as masc,
not neut. For a similar emphatic form of expression, cf. Rom. ii. 36,
^1 ai/Tov ... St* aiiTov els avr6v. . . .

V. 7 introduces a connected line of thought continued through verse


16; in seeming diversity, the principle of unity is exhibited, distinctly
brought out in verses 13 and 16. —
kv\ 84 iKooTip ktI., But to each indi-
7<idual of us was given the grace : 5e connects the notion of the individual
with the all, so emphatically expressed in verse 6 evl . kxaartf more ; . .

emphatic than iKaffrif) alone. In the general distribution of gifts not one
however obscure, is overlooked. ^ X'^P">
individual, ^^^ S^"^') i- ^- 'lie

well known and needful grace, was given, by Christ. — Kara rb |i«rpov
kt4., according to the measure of the gift ("gen. of connection." Had.;
''possessive gen." Ell.) of Christ (gen. of source. Good.), i. e. imparted

by him ; in other words, according to the measure which Christ freely gave.
V. 8. 816 Xe'-yci, God) says: confirmation of verse 7,
Wherefore he (i.e.

by a citation from the O. Test. A belief in the inspiration of the O. Test,


on the part of the writer and the readers of the epistle is distinctly and
necessarily implied. Cf. ch. 5. 14. —
ava^ois ds fiij^os icre. A free citation
from the LXX. Ps. 68. 19. Having ascended on high {into {the) height) he
led captivity captive, he took captive a company of captives : QxyjiaKwr^liw =
oXxP'OXuni^a, akin to aXyjtAKttyros, taken by the spear, a captive, a prisoner
in war (fr. aix/i'f), and a\am!i, taken, fr. hxiaxofuu,
the point of a spear,
to be taken) : company of captives.
aix/taAoKr/ac (abstract for concrete), a —
JSuKEv icre., he gave gifts to men. The words are taken from a song of
triumph, representing Jehovah's triumphal entrance into Zion, and the
words are here cited as applicable to the Messiah. In this application,
who can be meant by alxnaKaxrlav, a cotnpany of captives ? Perhaps the
most natural answer is, the enemies of Christ; including those in Hades,
— Satan, sin, and death. So Chrys., De Wette, Meyer, Alf., Ell., Hodge,
et al. It is possible that so literal an application of the words did not

occur to the mind of the writer, but that he cited a familiar expression
simply to denote the glorious triumph of our Lord. {3ukc StSfuiTa ktI. —
reiterates the thought in t^s StupcSs, verse 7.

V. 9. tJ> w. a.vlfir\ (Win. p. 109): 84, continuative. A'tc the {state-


ment], he ascended. — tC Scttiv «l (i'f| 8ti, what is it, what docs it imply
except that. —
Kal KaWBi), he also descended (as well as ascended). The
one, says the apostle, involves the other ; thus implying the pre-existence
of the Son with the Father. Cf. John 3, 13.— els tA KaTu-npa ktI., into
the lower parts of the earth. This has been understood in two ways
into the Imoer parts (lower than the heavens), namely, the earth (so Cal-
vin, Bcza,De Wctte, Hofm., Hodge, Eadie, Winer). In this view, t^s
y%s would be gen. of appos. The other view is, into the 'mver parts
of
;

CHAPTER IV. 10-12. 31

the earth, namel}', into Hades (so the ancient expositors ; and among
modern scholars, Krasm., Beng., Olsh., Delitzsch, Evvald, Meyer, Alf.,
Ell., Braune). By this interpretation, which on the whole seems prefer-
able, T^s 7175 may be governed by the comparative, lower tliati etc. or by ;

fit'pi?, the lower parts of the earth ; the under-world, Hades, being viewed
as parts of the earth itself.

V. 10. A conclusion from verse 9. Note the asyndeton, imparting


rhetorical force to the statement. —6 KaraPas avros e<mv Kal 6 dva^ds.
He who descended, he himself is the one who also ascended: avT6s is the
intensive pron., Lat. ifse : & ai/rSs, the same, Lat. idem : kcU is regularly
connected with what follows {here w. d avafids)' — virepctvci) . . . ovpavuv,
u/> aioz'e, far above, all the heavens. The plur. of ovpavis is very frequent
in N. T. Greek. Never so used by classical writers (L. & Sc). The form
of expression here is plainly intended for emphasis, to denote the highest
conceivable exaltation. — Iva . . . irdvra, that he might fill (make full) all
things. The omnipresence and universal dominion of our Lord are thus
clearly expressed. The aor. suiijunc. irAr^pdJo-jj denotes the simple fact,

without any reference to continued or repeated action (pres.), or to fin-

ished action (perf.).

V. II. Kal avros Sukev- And he himself (after he descended, and


again ascended far above all the heavens, in order that he might fill
all things) gave etc., a resumption of the thought in verse 7. The inter-
vening clauses, between verses 7 and 11, impress the thought of the maj-
esty and power of the giver. — tovs |«v . . . Toirs Se ktI., as in classic

Greek, some . . . others etc. — dirocrrdXous . . irpo(|>'fiTas ktI., apposition


some (to be) apostles ; others, prophets ; others, evangelists ; others, pastors

and teachers. The prophets here mentioned are those of the Christian
dispensation, whether in the more special sense of persons foretelling
the future (as Agabus, Acts 11. 27), or of preachers who spoke under
the direct influence of the Spirit (cf. 3. 5). The who
evangelists, those

told the good news, helpers of the apostles (cf. Acts 21. 8). The pas-
tors teachers, not two distinct classes
and but one and the same, as is ;

indicated by /tai, and the article touj which belongs to both nouns; per-
sons who discharged the duties of pastors (shepherds) and teachers else- ;

where called iiria-KiTrov! (cf. Acts 20. 28). With this entire classification,
cf. I Cor. 12. 28.

V. 1 2. irpbs rev Karap-'-Tjibv (only here in N. T. ; cf . KaTopri^cc, to put


in complete order) ktI., luith a view to the perfecting of the saints for the
•work of Tninistration (Ell.) ; rptiy w. the ace tendency towards ; els, into,

denoting the end in VKVt.for ; epyuv, work, the generic word, SiaKovia,
service, cf. Sidnovos : €^$ epyoif ZtaK-,for service work, or the work of service.
Of course Christian service is what the writer has in mind. By the
32 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
punctuation of Tisch., also of W-H., els epyov Sia/c- is closely connected
with what precedes ; but the next clause, els olxoSoiiiiv . . yipunov, /or the
building up of the body of Christ, belongs to the combined idea irpij rii/

KOT- . . . Sio/towaj. So also Meyer, Lach., et al. omit the comma after

k-fiuiv. With
the expression body of Christ, cf. I. 23. The entire verse is
-'-losely connected w. axyrhs eSuKev, verse II.

V. 13. |iEXpi KaravT^o-wficv (aor. subjunc. fr. Karavrdw) ot irAvrts,

tintii we Note the omission of i.v after ii^xpi- Cf. Win. p. 297,
all come.
" often occurs in later authors.'' Note also the article before Triims, we
all, the whole number of us (Christians). €ts t^v evoTTjra Krk., into the —
unity [the oneness) of the faith (cf. verse 5). — Kal tt^s eirL-yvtuo-cois ttrrk.

(same const, w. rris irlaTeais, limits evdrTjTa), a7zd of the knowledge (the
distinct, definite knowledge)of the son of God (objective gen.). tis —
dvSpa T^eiov, into (the estate of) a full-grown man : contrasted w. i^irioi
verse 14. — els (Urpov ktI. (added to the preceding clause for explana-
tion and emphasis), into the measure of manhood (maturity) siuh as belongs
to the fulness of Christ, or proceeds from the fuln£ss of Christ. For the
meaning of ^Aixia, cf . L. & Sc. : the fulness of Christ, i. e. the fulness
which he imparts. Cf. 1. 23, 3. 19, notes.

V. 14. Closely connected w. the successive statements, verses 11,12,


13. He himself gave . . . with a view to the perfecting . . . until we all come
into . . . in order that we may no longer be children. — KXvS(i>vi^O)ievoi (fr.
kKv^wv, a wave, billow) Kal ir€pi4>€pd|i€V0L, tossed on the 7vaves, or tossed like
waves, and borne about. —
ttovtI dve|jiu Tfjs (generic article) SiSocnc-, by
every wind of doctrine. The expressive metaphor will not escape notice.
— ^v T-g KvpCo or icuPcCf., L. & Sc, et al. (fr. Ki$os, Lat. cubus, a cube, used
in playing dice) twv av8-, in the dice-playing, the chance game, the sleight,
of men. " The prep, appears to denote the element, the evil atmosphere as
it were, in which the varying currents of doctrine exist and exert their
force.'' Ell. — Iv iravovpYCq, (the conduct of a iravovpyos, fr. itav and
Ipyoy, one who is ready for any and every kind of work without any scru-
ples of conscience, a trickster and knave) irpbs Tf|v |xc9oS(av or fuOoScIaVi
L. & Sc, et al. (cf. iJ,f$oSeiw, to use cunning devices, employ craft) Tfjs
•irXdin]s, in craftiness, ttnprincipled conduct, tending to tlie wiles, the cunning
of error ; in astutia ad circumventionem crroris (Vulg.).
devices, the trickery,
In the same construction with the preceding clause. A terrific descrii)-
tion and yet how true of those who have not received the grace
;

mentioned in verse 7, and the fulness mentioned in verse 13.

V. 15. The const, in verse 14 continued, sc. Tvo. — aXt|8«»iovT«s (ere.,

but (iu order that) speaking and acting the truth in lore 7cv may grorc in all
things into him. Note the full meaning of aXtjdfia), to be true, whether in
word or act ; tv ayiir^ is connected by some with 4A7|8ei(o«Tes, by others,
CHAPTER IV. i6. 33

with av^'qaufKv (av^ii'ai). Why not with both, thus modifying the whole
clause ? iydirri, Chrisiian love, is the element, the atmosphere, in which, the
being true, and the growing into Christ, both at once, the one not less
than the other, are possible. —
tls airov, into him, ; " cis not implying

merely *
in reference to '
(Meyer), — a frigid and unsatisfactory interpre-
tation of which that expositor is too fond, nor 'for' (Eadie), nor even
simply '
unto,' *
to the standard of (Conyb. ; cf. eis ^i^Spa T^\€toy, verse
13), but retaining its fuller and deeper theological sense into." Ell.

Christ is here presented in ets aiirhv tA Trdfra as the absolutely perfect


standard and the goal of Christian growth. — 8s iirnv r\ KE(j>aX4i, Xpio-ros
(explains airov, making the reference perfectly certain ; and serves as a
connecting link with verse 16), who is the head, [even) Christ: XpiiTT6s,
though explanatory of airSy, agrees with the relat. Ss, quite in accordance
with a classic Gr. const.

V. 16. 6^ 0^,/rom whom, out from whom, viewed as the source: eis
avriv presents him as the goal, the end. The figure ^ Ki<t>a\'l) and irSv —
t6 <rai/ia presents forcibly the idea ev tru^a /col iv Trveiiia verse 4. — irdv
rh <ra\La o-uvap(io\oYOtijj,€Vov {frvv-apixo\oyeco, to join together ; fr. apfiSs, a
joint, or a joining, and Xeya, to pick up, to gather) Kal <nivPipa£a|ji,evov {axiv-

^i0dCw, to cause to go together), all the body being jitly framed a7id brought
together, compacted: usually rendered knit together, although the metaphor
to knit is not in the original and is hardly in keeping with the metaphor
f.tly framed. The participles denote both time and means. — Sid ird<rT|s

a<f>fis. The exact meaning of a^r^s is much disputed. This passage must
be interpreted in connection witlr Col. 2. 19, where the plur. a^aji' is used.
Chrys., Theod., iVfeyer understand ai^i\ here to mean alaBriais, perception ;
and connect this clause w. TroteTrai ; thus, all the body . . . through every
perception of the supply . . . effects for itself the growth of the body. Hof-
mann takes ai^^ in the sense contact (fr. Stttho, to touch) ; thus throuo-h
every contact with the supply. In Col.,
understood in the same ai^iav is
sense, the (bodily) perceptions, die (leiblichen)
Empfindungen (Meyer).
Braune understands the word in about the same sense by means
of every ;

grasp of contribution ; and in Col., in the sense, nerves. This meaning


seems to be that which the etymology and the ordinary use suggest and ;

is certainly supported by very weighty authority. (Cf. the same word in


modern Greek.) The other rendering, /mK/, and in Col. the ^\m. joints,
seems to be generally preferred but the expressions, through every joint
; ,

of the supply, and in Col., through the joints and bands, are certainly no
clearer or more 'natural than the expressions, through every perception
ofthesupply (or through every contact with the supply) and in Co\.,through ;

the [bodily) perceptions, the nerve-actimties, or perh. the nerves, and bands.
I prefer, therefore, the interpretation of Chrys., Theod., Meyer, Braune,
et al. Those who understand h.<^-i\ to mean joint, usually connect the
:;

34 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
clause with the preceding participles. — Kar kvipyiMV . . .
(Upovs connect
w. TToieiTai : according measure of each individualpart
to a working in (the)
or more freely rendered, according to a working commensurate with, in pro-
fortion to etc. or if we understand kut' iye/ryfiav, as Riickert et al., with
;

an energy, an activity, the thought seems still clearer ; thus, all the body
. effects for itself the growth of the body with an activity commensurate with
. .

{the growth of ) each individual part : i.e. the whole grows as each part
grows. —
tls olKo8o|j.'f(V airoS Iv A'ydiri] (emphat. posit), yi»- the building

itself up in love. Such seems to me, on the whole, the most intelligible
and exact interpretation of this very difficult sentence. The leading
thought of the paragraph, unity in diversity, and the dependence of the
whole for its growth on each individual ]3art, is most impressive. The
value and importance of each individual member of the Christian church,
however humble the station, is here strikingly presented. Let us all

think of this I

V. 17. ToBto oiv Xiyoi . . . ev icupCcj), This therefore I say and testify in
the Lord : toCto points to what follows: o8>', resumptive of the thought
in verses 1-3: testify ^s one under oath, solemnly declare: in the Lord,
thus putting himself in the back-ground, and adding solemnity to the
Statement. — |xt)k^i {iyJa.% irtpiiraTetv (combines vrith the idea of a declara-
tion that of an exhor-tation), that ye no longer walk. In verse i, the thought
appears in the positive form ; here, in the negative. The exhortation
seems to be addressed particularly to the converted Gentiles. — Ka6tbs
Kol . . . TTtpiiraTti, as the Gentiles also walk. The xai suggests, as ye once
walked before your conversion, and as the Gentiles now walk. Iv —
pATai(STT]Ti KTk., denotes the sphere in which they walk in the vanity, :

i.e. in the emptiness (empty of truth and principle, Wahrheitslosigkeit," *'

Meyer) of their mind {'*ihres Denkens und Wollens^'' their thinking and
willing, Meyer). Note the form vo6s, 3d declens. st. Att. vov, 2d declens.
V. 1 8 gives a twofold explanation of the preceding clause. — ImcoTu-
pivoL (o-KoTidi)) . . . SvTes: agree in case w. ri tSvr\, but adopt the gender
of the persons implied (cf. Win. p. 526). Of the two particips., the former
is perf. denoting completed action, the latter, pres. denoting action or
state continued in the pres. time. The const, is unusual, but forcible
having been, {and still) being, darkened in their understanding {in their
thought, their intellect). — a'?rT|WoTpuii|ji6'0i (avaKKoTpiitu) kt4., haz'i'ig
been alienated from the life of God (from the which belongs to God
life
and which God imparts. Cf. SiKoioo-iJn) OeoO, ROm. i. 17 " life " herein :

the ordinary N. T. sense; not "manner of life" avairrpatpii]. 8ii = —


T'fiv A-yvoiav (tre., on account of the ignorance which exists in them, explains

the alienation from the life of God. Sicl r^v iriipoxriv ktI., on account —
of the hardening of their heart, is perh. best viewed as explaining the clause
ju.st preceding.
CHAPTER IV. 19-22. 35

V. 19. o"tiV5S, ivko^ suck as. —


diT'!]X'YT]K6T€S [an-aXy^w, fr. ^Kyos, pat'n),

having been removed from pain, particularly that which is occasioned by


wrong doing being past moral) feeling. The particip. assigns the rea-
; (

son of what follows lourois irapeSoj/cav rp atFe\yeia, delivered them-


;

selves (the emphat. word, "with terrible emphasis." Meyer) up to


debauchery, dissipation. — €ls Ip70<r£av ktI., (entering) into a working of all
uticleanness ; pointing especially to the gross sensual vices so prevalent
among the heathen. Cf. Rom. i. 24 ff. €V ir\«>v4'<}' denotes the frame —
of mind in which all this is done in greediness, covetousness, avarice, a:

grasping and over-reaching disposition. Cf. irK^oviKr^lv, I Thess. 4. 6,


2 Cor. 7. 2. In Rom. I. 26, it is said 7rape5w«ei/ avTohs & debs /ere., God
de'ivered them etc. The connective there (5ii toSto) shows why God did
this. The statement agrees perfectly with the thought here.
Vv. v?(i€is and t4v Xpurriv, both emphatic.
20, 21. But you (in dis-
tinction from those just described) did not thus learn (note the litotes,
suggesting forcibly the opposite thought, the actual learning of something
very different) Christ (a word which sums up all that pertains to Christi-
anity. Cf. Phil. I. —
15, 21). et^e, if at least, w. the indie, the supposi-
tion of an actual fact. — avrbv (in the same comprehensive sense as thv
Xpiffriv) -fiKOvo-are {a.Ko6w) . . . e8L8tt\0T]T€ (SiBdiTKCD), ye heard him, and
in him were This in no way implies that they had personally lis-
taught.
tened to the words of Jesus as they fell from his lips but they had heard ;

Christ, the sum of Christianity, in listening to the preaching of Paul.


Cf. I Cor. 3. 2. —
KaSus itrrw Krh. (closely connected with the preceding
clauses) according as, or, in the way in which (Meyer), there is truth in
fesus. W-H. read KoBdts etrriv /ere., according as there exists truth, or truth
exists, in Jesus ("embodied, as it were, in a personal Saviour and in the
preaching of his cross." Ell.). The clause seems to be best viewed as
describing the manner and character of the teaching.
V. 22. diro96o-8ai that ye put away, as one would put off ^ gar-
xpjitts

ment. Meyer makes depend on the clause just before it. Thus Paul
this
does not say in general what truth in Jesus is but only in its application ;

to the conduct o£ the persons addressed. viewed as de-


It is generally
pendent on f:li.li.x^i\Ti (so Alf., Ell.). This connection would be clearer
if vjt,a%, subject of airofleVSm, .were omitted. Braune makes it depend on
the entire preceding thought : Stier and Bengel on the first part of verse
17 (in the same const, w. /iT/KtVi vjiS,s wepnraTuv), I say and testify ; recog-
nizing, however, a reference to the thought in v. 21. This last view is in
keeping with the involved and extended structure of Paul's sentences. —
KaroL T^v dva<rTpo<|>T|v, so far as relates to the former manner of life,
. . .

denotes in what respect they were to lay aside the old man (rhv iraKaibv
HvBpamoi/, obj. of airoBfa-Bai). — tov ()>6£ip<$)i,Evav (pres. tense, denoting what
is going on and continued ; a motive, with the clause following, for laying

36 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
aside the old man) Kara ktc., who is being corrupted according to etc.
TTJs airdTT|s (emphat. posit,, contrasted w. t^s aKtideias, verse 24), 0/ de-
ceit (" personified," Meyer).

Vv. 23, 24. dvav«o<)<r3ai. (ava- veSofiai) 8e, ((«(/ that ye be made new, be

renewed. — tw Trvei|j.aTi toO vobs ijiuv may be viewed as dat. of instru-


ment, by the Spirit of etc. (so Alf., Ell., et al.). In this case -Trceiz/iaTi is
understood to mean the Holy Spirit as belonging to, or dwelling in, the
human heart, or as identical with the renewed human spirit. Usually,
however, it is regarded as dat. of reference, in tespect to, or simply in, tlic

spirit of your mind (so Meyer, 5th ed., Braune, R. V.). I much prefer the
last view. — Kal and that ye put on etc., con-
€v8v<rcur6at (^i/Suo/iai) Krk.,
Note that these two verbs are aor. infin., im-
trasted w. aTToBecrSai Krk.
plying an accomplished fact the fact which we usually speak of as
;

conversion ; but avaveowBai is pres. infin. implying something conti.iued,


which we sometimes speak of as " growth in grace " sometimes, as
;

"progressive sanctification." — t6v Kaivbv fivOpwirov, the new man; the


new spiritual nature of the Christian personified, a striking figure ; con-
trasted with the old man, the unrenewed nature. —
rbv Kara Oebv kti-
o-6e'vTtt (kti^ui), who after God has been created, or was created. The const.
who is after God, created etc. is not generally preferred ; icori Bdv, after
God, i.e. after the image of God. Cf. Gen. 1. 27, kot' emcfva fleov Wo'ii\a^v
ahr6v. Col. 3. ID, ttoT* ^Xk^vo. tov KTia-avros a.vT6v. " The image of God in

Christ is a far more glorious thing than Adam ever had, or could have
had; still the kwt' ^1x6110, Beov ^ xara flfoV is true of both.'' Alf. — €V
SiKaiooTJV)] . . . TT^s dXT]dECas (limits both datives ; is contrasted with ttjs

&.Tra.T7is), in righteousness and holiness of truth ; if w. the dat. here denotes


the state, or the equipment, in which the new man, who has been created
after God, appears. It is not necessary to distinguish sharply between
and i<TtiTriTi, yet the latter word seems more directly con-
SiKaioffiirri

trasted with ^Kadapfflas, uncleanness ; and the former, with ifffA-yefa, dissi-
pation or wantonness, and also with irXfoi/ef/a, greediness or cavcLvisness,
verse 19. In classic Greek, Sfxaios, righteous, sanctioned by law. whether
human or divine; o<nos, hallazued, holy, sanctioned by divine law. See
L. & Sc.

Vv. 25-32. Some special exhortations founded on what precedes.


V. 25. Ai(5, wherefore, a conclusion especially fr. verses 22, 23, 24.
T^s a,\T]9ela,s naturally suggests the first exhortation. — diroS^^icvoi, aor.,
denoting an accomplished fact \aXfiTe, pres., denoting something habit-
:

ual having laid aside, having put aivay, falsehood, speak [habitually) truth.
:

No doubt, the tendency to falsehood, anger, theft, corrupt speech, among


those who had but recently been converted from heathenism, would be
particularly strong. — iSKao-ros (appos. w. the subj. of A.o\6?re, emphasiz-
ing and individualizing the exhortation) . . avroC, each o.:e witb lis
CHAPTER IV. 26-29. 37

mighbor, Cf. Zach. 8. 16, XoKiiTS h.'K^Q^t.av e/catTTOs irpbs t)3v TrKTj<riov av-

ToS. — 8tl . . . li^Xr) (cf. verses 12-16), because we are members one of
another. If one member, or set of members, is false to the other mem-
bers, the efficiency of the whole body is in danger of being utterly
destroyed.

Vv. 26, 27. 6p7C5€(r8£ Kal ^^ aiiaprdvcTt. A citation from the LXX.
Ps. 4, 5. The original Hebrew is understood by Ewald et al. to mean,

tremble (or stand in awe, E. V.) and


Hengst. et al. agree with
sin not.
the LXX as to the angry and sin not. What,
meaning of the Hebrew, be

then, does this mean ? Is the first imperat. conditional ? Thus, Ifye are
angry, or though ye are angry, or while ye are ajtgry, sin not. It has been

understood thus by many. Cf. Win. § 43, p. 311. The most, however,
understand the imperat. in its ordinary sense yet closely joined with the ;

following words. Be angry and sin not, implying that there is an anger
without sin, which is undoubtedly a fact. This does not contradict verse
31, where the connection indicates the kind of anger there meant (so
Kadie, Alf., Ell., Meyer, et al.). The exhortation here may well be ad-
dressed to those who look, or seem to look, with indulgence, with " char-
ity," on wicked conduct. —
6 -fjXios ^\ lirtSuerw (Itti, 5iJw or Sui/(w) ktI.
These words are added by Paul. They are not a part of the quotation,
Lei not the sun go down on your irritation, wrath, exasperation (irapopyttr/x^,
a rare word, fr. Trapii, 0^7(^0)), i.e. the irritation should not be continued.
There is perh. some emphasis on v^jiSiv, your irritation, as contrasted with
that of men generally, who so often harbor resentments. (j.T|8i 8101- — . . .

pdXu, and do not give place, do not give any room, to the Devil ; an addi-
tional direction in carrying out the exhortation. Be angry, etc. The
imperatives in this verse are all pres. tense, thus denoting a general
precept.

V. 28. 6 KX«TrT<ov . . . KXeiTT^Tw, Let him who steals steal no longer.


Cf. verse 25, note. — (laXXov 8t KoiridTu [itoTnaa) ktI., but rather let him-

toil,working with his own hands that which is good, the opposite of —
thieving (note that W-H. omit IStais). tvo ?XT1 i^'''e;in order that he —
jnay have (the means), may be able, to impart to him who has need, who is in
laant, — always a worthy Christian motive for labor. Some Christians
understand this motive, but alas I how few !

V. 29. iras X<S70S <rairpbs . . . (J.'?! lKiropev)^<r9a), lit. Every corrupt


speech let it not proceed etc., an emphatic construction ; a Hebrew idiom.
English idiom, Let no corrupt speech proceed etc. a'a-rrpSs, properly, rotten,
pitrid ; hence the idea worthless, as well as offensive, contrasted with
what follows. —
dXXtt el! tis (sc. x6-yos iSTiv) a.-^oXo% irpbs ktI., but if
(there is) any [word) good for etc., let this word proceed out from your
mouth. —
ciYaSbs irpbs ktc \\t. goodfor, or towards, <i building up of the
,
38 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
need (a building up of that which is wanting, or lacking). — tva 8$ tcrk.,

in order that word) may give grace to those who hear. I see no rea-
it (this

son for understanding xlfw here in any other than its ordinary N. T.
sense, spiritual assistance^ or benefit,

V. 30. Kal p.'fl Xtm-tiTe ktI., And do not (by using any \iyot aairpds)
grieve the Holy Spirit of God. Note the solemn form of expression
rh TTveviia rb &yiov rod Bead, presenting, in connection with the idea of
grieving him, the personality of the Holy Spirit. Iv if l<r<|>paY{<r6i]T€ —
{fr(ppayi^u)f in ivhoni whom, as the holy sphere and
you were sealed; *^in
element of the sealing." Ell. In i. 13, we have the expression, ;« so/Jotz
(referring to Christ) you were sealed with the Holy Spirit ofpromise. The
two verses together show the unity in sphere and action of Christ and
the Holy Spirit. —
els ^[i^pav diroXirrpcio-euSj^or (looking forward) into,

the day of redemption ("the day when redemption shall be complete in


glory." Alf.) : cnroXirpoMris, properly, the act of redeeming, or ransoming:
looking forward into the day when the act of redeeming shall be com-
plete.

V. 31. irao-a irixpCa, every (feeling of) bitterness, all bitterness. The
force of Taira is connected with all the following substantives. — 6ii|i^
op7<i, nearly the same thought, repeated for emphasis Sv/iis, wrath, Lat. :

animus ; oprft), anger, Lat. ira. —


Kal Kpavyf) Kal pXcur)|n)|iCa (the out-
ward signs of iriKpla, 9vfi6s, opyii), and clamor (loud and rough crying, as
when one is under angry excitement) and evil speaking (not limited to the
idea in English of blasphemy). — dpOriTia (oJ/w) dxj)" {i|uiv, let (all these)
be liftedup and taken away from you. —
<r«v irdo-n kokC^ together with all
malice. The word #c<uc/o is thought to denote here, not wickedness in
general, but that feeling from which the bitterness etc. spring the foun- ;

tain of all. Note the connection in which h^y^ here occurs. Cf. verse 26,
note.

V. 32. A contrast to the foregoing. — -yCverec, become ye (it is not 6<rTf,


he ye) : xp^c'rol, good, hind : eS(nT\ayxvoi (eS, well,favorable ; and (nrXiyx"^
pi., the seat of the feelings, the affections), tender-hearted.
x°4>4'^H^vot (the
feelings just mentioned in action), showing favor (xifp's) or kindness: usu-

ally understood here in the limited sense, forgiving. Cf. 2 Cor. 2.7, 12. 13.
— lowrois, each otlier, in later Greek nearly = oAAiiXoij. Cf. Col. 3- 13- —
Ka9<!)s Kal o Oeis . . . v|iiv, even as God also in Chrtst showed frvor to, or
forgave, you : the great motive to forgiveness. —o Bebs iv Xpurrif : cf.
2 Cor. 5. 19, ffeis ^v iv XpitrT^ xri. : also Eph. I. 6.

Chap. V. Exhortations continued. — Vv. Become imi-i, 2.


tators of God and walk in love. — Vv. 3-14. Exhortation avoid to
various vices and errors. — Vv. 15-21. Exhortation to exhibit in
CHAPTER V. 1-4. 39

their conduct the discretion, the decorum, the thankfulness, and the
subjection of the Christian. — Vv. 22-33. The particular duties of
wives and husbands.

V. I. A conclusion {ovv) from 4. 32. — rivcirSe Kri., Become therefore


imitators of God. There is force and propriety in yiveaSe (not ecrre, tie ye)
both here and in 4. 32, become ye (so Ell., Braune, et al. Cf. Meyer,
"nicht sondern weretet."), directing the thoughts and efforts more
j-«</,

distinctly to something not yet fully attained imitators is a more exact :

rendering of ixi/j-vTai than follcmers. So in other passages of the N. T.


where fiifn}Tai occurs (six places), ws T€Kva d-yairqTd, as children be- —
loved; an expressive comparison. The imitation of the affectionate
parent is always one of the marked traits of belmied children. Note the
repetition, dyaTnjTa . . . AydTrij . . . iiyd^Tjaev.

V. 2. Kal . . . iv ayaiTT), and walk (lit. walk about, pres. tense, de-
noting something continued, habitual) in love, the sphere, tlie atmos-
phere, in which the Christian is exhorted to walk. — KaSois Kai 6 Xpio-rds
ktI., even as Christ also (the great example of love) etc. — koI irapcSu-
KEV kavTov, and gave himself uj> (the proof of his love). iiirJp T||tuv (or —
u/nwi/, W-H.),for us, or for you. There seems to be no reason for chang-
ing the person of i5|Uaj just before. I prefer, therefore, the reading v/tiui',

St. 7))JLUv. The idea instead of (hini) does not belong to iirip, but is in-

volved in irpofftpophv k. Bvaiav. Cf. Rom. 5. 6, note. — irpoo'<|K}pav (fr.


TTp6s and <l>4pw) k. 6ii(rtav (fr. 8io>, often used m the sense to sacrifice, i- c.

by slaying a victim), an offering and a sacrifice. The latter word defines


the more general meaning of the former (Meyer). to! Bew, dat. limiting —
the entire preceding clause irapeSasKiv , . . Bva-iav (not the verb alone,
nor the substantives alone). — els oo-n'fiv (i(oSias,for an odor of sweet smell
(hajiLT) is the smell as inhaled, eiaSia is its quality. Winer.). The entire
conception is in keeping with the idea of a sacrifice ; as presented in th6
O. T. See Lev. i. 9, 13. 17, 2. 12, 3. 5, and often.

V. 3. TTopvcCa SJ . . . ixt]8^ dvo|j.a^€a'Oci> Iv xrntv, Bzet fornication and


all uneleanness, or covetousness, let it not be even navied among you- ; a strong
form of expression : let be even spoken of among
them not exist so as to
you. Where a thing does not exist, name to it. If sin had we give no
never entered the world, how many words now found in all human lan-
guages would have had no place. Note how often the vices here spoken
of are condemned in the N. T. —
KaSus irplirei a^Cois, as is becoming to
saints {to persojts of moral purity), i. e. it is becoming to them not even to
name, not even to mention, these vices.

V. 4. A continuation of the same const. — Kal alo^porqs (fr. aitrxpis,

disgraceful, obscene) ^ (i.copoXo'YCa (fr. fiap6s, stupid, silly; and \6yos.


40 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
speech, discourse) eirpoireXCa (fr. «J, well; and -rptitai, to turn) ; atidfilthi-
<J

ness [obscenity), or foolish talking, or jesting, sc. let them not be named
among you. — h. o4k dvf|Kev {ay--liKa), which were not (and by implication
are not) befitting. Many editors read here ri ovk h.vi\KOvra, the things not
befitting. — dX\d (uiXXav rfxapurrCa, sc. taTa, or jiviaSa, iv iitlv, but
rather giving of thanks (sc. let this be among you).
V. 5. TovTO points, I think, to what follows, on ktI — t<rre (the better
authorized reading, not eVrt or icTt) is now usually viewed as indie, j'f

know etc. Whether with yivdiaKovris it is to be understood as a He-


brew idiom, ye certainly know, ye know of a surety (R. V.), or is to be
taken as distinct (Braune, Meyer, Eadie, ye know, being Alf., Ell.), this

aware etc., which of these two constructions is preferable, is by no means


certain. Many of the older scholars view the clause as imperat (Vulg,
Luther, Beng., et al,), scitote intelligentes (Vulg.), sachez (De Sad). In
favor of viewing tatf as imperat. is the fact that ofSarc, occurring very
often, isused in nearly every other place, perhaps in every other place, in
the N. T. for tlie indie. For this reason I would render the clause as
imperat., retaining the words in the R. V., and only changing the order,
For this know ye of a surety, that etc. It makes really but little difference
whether we regard tarf ytviiirKorres as a Hebraism or not. ytyicxu, as
distinguished fr. olio, denotes more definite and positive knowledge, to
form a judgment by observing (cf. L. & Sc.) ; cf. KKraytyviaKu, to decide

against, to condemn ; linytyviiaKa, to decide definitely, in a particular in-

stance (ytvdiTKai, yivofiai, later forms for Attic yiyv^a-Ku, ylypoimi). We


may then render Itrre yivtiaKovres, know ye deciding definitely and posi-
tively, i. e. know ye of a surety. — frri iras iripvos . . . ovk ly(fi., lit. that

every fornicator etc. has not, fails to have etc. In an Eng. idiom, no forni-
cator has etc. The Greek order seems more forcible, every fornicator etc.

fails to have. Cf. 4. 29, note. —8 (st. »j) . . . elSo)\oXdTpT,s, which [thing),

which (character) is an idolater [a worshiper of an idol). For the use of

i here, cf. Mark 12. 42, 15. 42, John 1. 42, 43. The covetous man is an
idolater in that he makes gain his idol. Cf. Matt. 6. 26, ye cannot serve

God and mammon. How many idolaters now, in nominally Christian

nations I
— KXT)povo(i£av (fr. KXflpos, lot, allotment, portion ; and w>o,u<u,

have a portion, to possess) : observe that the verb is in the


, to distribute, to

pres. tense, expressing a general truth, a law of God's government fails ;

to have an inheritance, a portion, an inherited possession, a great and fear- —


ful contrast between the believer and the unbeliever. ^ ttj pacriXclf —
ToO Xp- KaV eeoB, in the kingdom of Christ and God (one and the same
kingdom the intimate union of Christ and God strikingly presented).
;

Through the pres. tense the certain future relation is brought before us
vividly, and made present (cf. Meyer). With the statement here, cf. Gal.

5. 21.
CHAPTER V. 6-11. 41

Vv. 6, 7. {Ii^SeVs . . . diroTciTco (iiraroai) xri., Let no one deceive


you with empty words. The connection adds force to this exhorta-
tion. The characters just described have no inheritance in the king-
dom of Christ and God ; let no one by empty and untrutliful words
persuade you to the contrary. — Sid raira 7dp 8p)^€Tai xri., For on account
of these things (the vices and sins just named) comes etc. t| 6p-yf| toO —
©€©0 is usually translated the wrath of God; so also, b dvfj.hs rov Bsov
(Rev. 14. 10, 19, 15. I, 7, 16. l), the wrath of God ; yet where opyii and
iuix6s stand together, hpyi\ is rendered anger, and flu/niis, wrath (4. 31, Col.

3. 8). The verb ip7£fofiBi is rendered sometimes to be angry, sometimes,


to be wroth. Would it nut be more consistent to distinguish between the
two ; and render ri opyfi, anger, dp-yl(ofj.ai, to be angry ; 6 Bv/ios, wrath,
ivfkiaixat, to be wroth ? Cf. 2. 3, 4. 31, notes. The expressions, God is

angry, the Lord was angry, etc. are frequent in the O. T. Therefore, I

would render this expression, the anger of God. — eirl. Tois utois ttjs
dirEiSeCas, upon the sons of disobedience, those who are disobedient to the
gospel. Cf. 2. 2, note. The question is raised by the expositors whether
the anger of God in this life, or in the future life, is here referred to.

Clearly the statement is a general truth with no specified limitations.


Wherever the sons of disobedience are, there the anger of God comes
upon them. —
oiiv 'ytveo-Oe ktI., Become not therefore partakers (partici-
|j.-fj

pators in these sins) with them (the sons of disobedience), lest the same
punishment come on you as on them.
v. 8. fJTe (emphat. posit.) 709 ttotc o-Kdros, For ye were once dark-

ness ; not merely living in darkness, but ye were yourselves darkness.


With ^re here, cf. Rom. 6. 17, ya.p introduces the reason for the forego-
ing exhortation. — vBv (opposed to ttote, once, formerly) Si (sc. eVre) <j)o)s

hi KvpCti), but now (ye are] light in the Lord (the sphere, and the only
sphere, in which ye are light). —
us rcKva 4>a)Tbs ir«p-, walk as children of
Note the asyndeton (omission of oSx), making the exhortation
the light.
more pointed and forcible. TeVva, a word indicating more tenderness
than viol. Cf. Rom. 8. 16, 17.

V. 9. A parenthetic
clause ; a motive for heeding the exhortation. —
6 -ydp Kopirbs (sc. iaTiv) KTk.,for the fruit (an expressive metaphor) of
light is in (appears, is manifested, in) goodness and righteousness and truth
(striking qualities of Christian character in its relations to men).

Vv. 10, II. SoKijui^ovTcs (agrees w. the subj. of infnraTe'm] ktc., testing,
proving, what is well-pleasing to the Lord. " The one point of the Chris-

tian's ethical investigation is. Is it well-pleasing to the Lord ? " Eadie. —


Kal f,i\ cmvKOivuvEiTE {(riv and Koivavis, a companion, partner, sharer), xrk.,
and have no fellowship with etc. — rots Sp^ois rots aKdpirois toO o-kiStous,
with the works, the unfruitful (works) of darkness. They are unfruitful as
bringing nothing good. Cf. ipya t^s aapKh (Gal. 5. 19), epya d(re/8eias Jude
(
4-2 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.

1 5). Cf. also Gal. 5.22, note. — [laXXov . . . tXe-yx'^'' ^"' rather men riprove
them, or convict than. Do upon them with complacency, with
not look
" cha-ri-ty" but express by word and act your disapproval. Of course, this
should always be done in a Christian spirit, in meekness and fear.

V. 12. Confirmation (711/)) of verse 11. Have no participation in the


unfruitfulworks of darkness, but rather reprove them for they are too ;

disgraceful even to speak of. They may be reproved without that use of
language which would be a disgrace. rd -ydp Kpv<|>-i) (only here in —
N. T.) -yivtiiiEva ktI., For the things done by them (the sons of disobedi-
ence) in secret, it is disgraceful even to speak of. By to. Kpv<pri yty^p^va,
I understand the baser and more degrading vices which may be classed
under " the unfruitful works of darkness."
V. 13. Toi Si irdvTa cX£'yx°H'''"^> But all things (with direct reference
to the things just mentioned) when reproved (^ox if reproved) according ;

to the exhortation fiaWov . . . 4\eyx^Te. — vir6 tov <|>ii)t6s <J>av€povTai, are


made manifest by the light ; and thus appear as they really are. — irdv ^dp
KT^., for everything that is m.ade manifest is light; has ceased to be dark-
ness,and can have only the character belonging to the light. All this is a
motive for obeying the exhortation in verse 11. (It seems more natural
to connect U7r6 tov (I>mt6s, as above, w. (pavepovrai, rather than w. 4\syx^
fifva. )

V. 14. • 816, Wherefore, i. e. because the duty of reproving the works of


darkness is so necessary and so salutary. — X^va, so. i 6e6s, Paul's usual
way of citing a passage from the O. T. S-ydpf o KaOcvSuv (voc.) Kal —
dvdoTa {av-itTTTjfjii) ktL, Awake, thou that sh-epest, and arise from the dead,
and Christ shall shine upon thee. There is some doubt what passage of
the O. T. is here cited ; but it is usually regarded as a free expression of
the thought in Is. 60. i.

Vv. 15, 16. A resumption {aiv) of the thought in verses S-10. — BXe-
irtTC oJv KTc., Look [take heed) therefore carefully how you walk. Note the
position of ctKpi^us before irus (not after it, as in many editions), quali-
fying BAeTTCTE, not irfpnraTeir^. — |Jff| «s dcro<J>ot kt^., not as umuise, but as
wise, explains more fully -mpi-waTtiTf, in a negative and in a positive form.
Perhaps the neg. piii may have been occasioned here by the preceding
iniperat. jSAeVcTf. Cf. Winer,§ 55, i, a. Yet cf. Rom. I. 2S, rck ju); icafl^-

KovTa, note. — 4^aYopa^o|i€Voi (^^, ayopd^oa, ayopa.) rhv Kaipdv, buying up


for yourselves [buying out from the rnarket) the o/'portufiitv, the fn'orable
time. This is in close connection w. cro<pot. on ai '{jpi^ai xri., because —
the days are evil (because favorable times are rare, and the market needs
watched to secure them). The time favorable for Chris-
to be carefully
tian work is, ofcourse, implied and the example of the shrewd mer- ;

chant, who buys a rare and valuable article from the market, is suggested
and approved in the metaphor here used.
CHAPTER V. 17-21. 43

V. 17. Siel TovTO, On this account, may refer to verse 16, because the
days are evil; because " the market is flooded with trash," and you have
need to buy up for yourselves out of it the good article, the favorable time
(so the most) or it may refer to both verses 15, 16 on this account, i. c.
; ;

because you ought to walk so carefully and with such appreciation of the
favorable time (so Alf., Ell., Meyer, Braune). pif| —
&<|>poves, lecome not . . .

without mind, without intelligence (to understand the will of Christ). dXXd —
irw£cT« (aiv, "hfu) ktI. (explains the meaning of the preceding clause), but
understand what is the will of the Lord (i. e. Christ).
V. 18. Ko£ adds an important particular ; the mention of a special
instance of kt^foaivrt. — (i^ (leWo-Keo-fle otvcy (cf. Prov. 23. 31), be not
made drunk with wine. — iv 1^, in which, referring to the idea of the
whole clause, not to oKvif alone. —
oo-urCa (a priv. and ai^ui) denotes
a state in which there is no principle of safety, debauchery, dissoluteness.
Cf. iaanos, having no hope of safety. —
aXXa irXupowrfle Iv irveviMiTi, but
be filled with the Spirit. made full. I see no
Lit. (being) in the Spirit be
reason whatever for departing from the regular meaning of iv here.
Cf. 3. ig, note.

V. 19. XoXovvTcs lavTois (= i.KKi\\ois, cf. 4. 32), speaking to one another.


— i|raX)u>is ktI., in (or with) psalms (meaning perhaps more particularly
those which were similar to the ancient Hebrew psalms, and accompanied
with the harp, cf. Lex. -i/aXiL&s and -i/iWai) and hymns (particularly the
idea of praise) and spiritual songs (those which were of a more decidedly
lyrical character). The three words together would denote all the forms
of praise with the aid of music. — fllSovres Kal i|/d\XovT€s (same const, w.
\a\ovvTis, and all agreeing w. the subj. of irATjpoi/o-fle), singing and making
melody [striking the lyre). —
rg KopSCa iiiuv, in your heart, i.e. not with
any audible expression, but silently. So it is now usually understood
(Alf., Ell., Meyer, Braune, et al.) yet I am by no means sure that the
;

earlier view, with your heart, heartily, is not the correct one (so Theod.,
Eadie, Hodge, et al.). Note the omission of iv. Tisch., W-H. Harless
has argued that with viiuv the clause cannot mean with your heart, heart-
ily ; but omitting iv this rendering is certainly more correct; as the dat.
alone much oftener denotes "manner
or means" than "place." Cf.
Good. §§ 188, 190; Had.
Winer, § 31, 7, d, also 9, b, fine
606, 612;
print. The meaning then is, as I understand it, with your heart, heartily,
in distinction from a mere musical performance without devotion and
without heart. Is not this exhortation, in this view, as much needed now
as ever .' — t^ Kvp(<<>, to the Lord (to Christ). Cf. tov Kvplov, verse 17.

Vv. 20, 21. tiixapia-Towret TrdvTOTe, giving thanks, or being thankful, al-
ways ; another point exemplifying TrA7)poD(r96 iv irvfiiian. Note that this
clause alone has TiivTore. The thankful spirit may, and should be, contin-
;

44 NOTES ON EFIIESIANS.
iial. —
ii/r^p TTuvTOv (neat.), for all things. It is not easy to apply this

exhortation so as to be thankful for trials and afflictions yet many a ;

Christian has learned even this lesson at least, in the retrospect. Note ;

the emphatic repetition iroi'TOTe . . . -nivTav. — iv ov(5p.oTi (ere., in the name


ofiAc. That which the name of our Lord Jesus Christ suggests is the ele-
ment in which all this is accomplished. In any other element, or atmos-
phere, than that in which the Christian lives and moves, such thankfulness
is an impossibility. — Tii fleip ktI. (w. f:ix'>-9-)' '= rendered in several ways,
to God, cimt the Father (R. V.), to God and the Father (Alf., Ell., et al.).

May we not render the article here, as often, by an unemphatic possess,


pron. ? to our God and Father. The last word is not an unmeaning addi-
tion, and its significance should not be overlooked. inroTao-(ro(i£voi —
dXXVjXois (same const, w. ^xixo-fiatovvTis), submitting yourselves (Ell.),

being subject (Alf.), subjecting yourselves (R. V.) one to another, or to one
another. The preceding participles urge duties to God this one, a com- ;

prehensive duty to one another. — ev ^o^ia Xpio-roS (objective gen.), in


the fear of Christ, a reverential, not a slavish, fear. In this fear, due
respect will be paid to those who belong to him, to those who constitute
his body. Cf. i. 23, 4. 12, 16, 5. 23.

Vv. 22, 23. at yuvatKts toIs ISCois avSpdiriv (sc. viroTaaaiiiivoi, or 6iro-

Tcio-tretr^e), JVn'cs [being subject, or be ye subject) to your 07vn husbands.


Some editors read InroTaatsiaBwaav, thus changing the const, to the 3d
pers. Let the wives be subject etc. — is tw KvpCio, as to the Lord (i. e. to
Christ. Cf. verses 17, 19). Such subjection as this can never conflict
with any religious duty. No obedience is required which is inconsistent
with Christian character ; at the same time, where this exhortation is
understood and obeyed, what an amiable, exemplary, and dignified char-
acter do we behold. Such exhibitions of character may certainly be found
but only under the influence of Christianity. — 8ti. kte , reason for the
foregoing exhortation, because a husband is (the) head of the -vifc (or of his
wife). — lis Kal 6 Xp- ktI., as Christ also is (the) head etc. The point of
comparison here is simply the idea of headship. — airbs o-a-^o toS
o-iifiaros, he himself being (the) saviour of the bodv lor of his bodv, which
is the church. Cf. i. 23). Christ is the head of the church; while he,
and he alone (out((s), is the saviour of his bodv apparently, the state- ;

ment of an important additional particular in which the comparison docs


not hold. As saviour of the body, he stands alone (oiriis), and is beyond
all comparison.
V. 24. aXXi ois i\ iKKkt\<Tla. ktI. But (while as saviour of the body
he stands alone and no comparison cin be made, in another particular a
comparison is suitable) as the church is subiect to Christ, so etc. The force
of d\Ao seems to be best shown In- the thought expressed in the imren-
thesis. So in substance Calvin, Bengel, Meyer, Ell., Alf., Hodge, Riddle,
CHAPTER V. 25-27. 45

et al. — o^Jtws Kal . , . iv iravrC, so let the wives also [le subject] to their
husbands in everything. There can be nothing debasing, nothing except
what is dignified and noble in the subjection of the church to Christ.
While it is complete, it is also a loving, confiding, ennobling, subjection.
To this, and this only, wives are exhorted.
V. 21;. 01 dvSpss, a-yairdTC tols -yuvaiKas, Htcsbands^ love your wires.
Observe the word ayairSre, love, treat with affection (L. & Sc), implies
both the inward feeling of appreciation, esteem (Germ, Werthhalten), and
the outward manifestation. Cf. Meyer, note on Matt. 22. 39. KaSus Kal —
6 Xpuo-rbs KTe., even as Christ also loved the church and gave himself up
for it (a proof of his love). The great example, the most signal instance
of love and this is to be the example for husbands to follow in their
;

relation to their wives I

V. 26. Vva . . . a-yido-ji {a.yii.^a, fr. ayios, piire, holy; as subst. in the
plur. saints), tJiat he might sanctify it, — Ka6apCo-as (/coflap/^w) ktI., having
cleansed it (particip. denoting means). Does the aor. particip. here de-
note an act contemporaneous with that of the verb, or antecedent to it ?

So far as the use of the particip. is concerned, either is possible ;


yet the
more frequent and makes good sense
latter use (antecedent action) is far
here ; hence, So Alf Ell., Olsh., Meyer, Eadie, Hodge.
is to be preferred. .,

Cf. Had. 717, a; Good. § 204. also Note 2. Braune, however, views the
two acts here (that of the verb and that of the particip.) as contempora-
neous. —
Tw XovTpu ToB <i8aTos, by the bath of water ; "denotes the well
known bath of the water kut' ^%ox^v, which takes place through- the bap-
tism," Meyer. It is thought there is an allusion to the bride's purifica-

tion by a bath before marriage. The words may be rendered, by the laver
of water, or by the washing of water, conveying the same idea as by the
bath of water. But the apostle is careful to indicate that this outward
cleansing was not all hence, he adds in the emphatic place iv Ml^ari,
;

in the word, \. e. in the acceptance by faith of the word proclaimed in the


gospel. (Cf. ri ^%iJ.a T^s itiVtcmj, Rom. 10. 8 ^V" ^f""'. Eph. 6. 17, Heb. ;

6. S ; tia fi'ijuaTOS Xpurrov, Rom. 10. 17. Cf. alsoI Pet. I. 25.) t^ KovrpS;
dat. of means ; eV M/'oti, the sphere in which the sanctifying and the
purifying take place.

V. 27. tva (/« order that, connected w. 'iva, . ayidtrri, and also with .

the remoter thought, iavrhv napiSuKiV ktI.) (KKkr^trlav, that he mi^^ht . . .

himself [alone] present to himself, the church, glorious [in glorious beauty,
Meyer. Cf. Luke 7. 25). "Christ permits neither attendants nor para-
nyraphs to present the Bride He alone presents, He receives." EU :

p.^ 'iYj:>va-a.v Kri., not havijig spot or wrinkle or any such
thing, lit. anything

of such things, anything of the sort. erirlXov (or atriKov, L. & Sc, et al.)—
is spoken of a spot or stain on the surface, a dirty spot. — dXX' Iva -.T /ere..
46 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
but that might be holy and without blemish. i\K' introduces a clause
it

which grammatical const, adversative to the whole preceding final


is in

clause, beginning ?yo irapoo-Tijin) and ending with Tav roioirtev, but in
thought adversative to the latter part of the clause only. We might have
expected after d\A' the const. oi<ray aylav KTt , not having spot or wrinkle

. . . but being holy etc. Yet the actual const, presents the thought more
independently and emphatically.
V. 28. After presenting the striking illustration beginning itaflij koI b
Xpia-rbs, the writer returns to the thought, Oi &vSpes, ayairaTe ras yvvaiKas,
and enforces it, applying the illustration. — oCtois ktI., Thus (as just

pointed out) ought husbands to loi'e etc. Some editors read (coi 0/ &vSpei,

Thus ought husbands also etc. — Notice eavrSiv w. yvvalKos here, their own
wives. — (is TOL . . . o-<a|iaTa, as (i. e. as if, or as being) their own bodies.

German, als ihre eigenen Leiber (Luther, Meyer), not wiE ihre eigetten
Leiber. This view of oSraj ... is certainly seems preferable to that
which makes them correlative, so .as. Cf. Meyer, Braune, Ell., Eadie, . .

Hodge. —o OYOiruv . . . d-yair^. He who laves his own wife loves himself.
Explanation of the words just used, »s t4 kavrav aiifiara. Self-love (not
selfishness) is here assumed as something natural and right ; and on this
tacit assumption is founded the obligation here presented.

Vv. 29, 30. Suggested by the words just used. — oiSfls -^of irort . . .

C|iC(rT]o-€v, (And what I have just said has its foundation in fact, in the
nature of man) /u?r no one ever hated his awn Jlesh. t^v. . , adipKa, St.

rb . . . ffupLa appears to have been chosen here in anticipation of ds ffipxa


lilay, verse 31. — dWi (Note how rarely elision occurs in N. T. Greek)
cKTp^<|>Ei Kal OdXirci ovt^v, but nourishes {nourishes up from childhood.
L. & Sc.) and cherishes (fosters, \^7it.fovet, warmt cs, Meyer) it. — Ka6ibs
. . . CKKXT^o-Cav, even as Christ also the church, sc. 4KTp4(pei «al dd\Trei. Note
the repetition of the precious thought, evett as Christ also the church. Cf.
verse 25. — 8ti («Xt) . . . ai-rov, because (the reason why Christ nourishes
etc.) we are members 0/ his body.
V. 31. Nearly in the words of Gen. 2. 24, yet not introduced as a
formal citation by !i!) Xiyn (verse 14, 4. 8), or KaSlni yiypa-mu (Rom. i.

17, i. 24, and often). — avrV tovtou (in the LXX, tv^Ktv toutou), lit.prr
against, opposite to, answering to, this (statement), referring, to verse 30, we
are members of his body ; corresponding to this (are the well-known words)
a man shall leave etc. and shall cleave etc. and the tivo shall be (united)
into one flesh. As the ancient words are true and have ever been true, so
the statement, 7ue are members of his body, is also true and equally so.
Such seems to me to be the connection and meaning ; on which, however,
the most diverse opinions may be found in the commentaries.
^v- 3-' 33- Tb )i.v<rT^piov ktI., This mystery (the union in one flesh of
husband and wife) is great ; but I speak (in citing this fact) in reference
CHAPTER VI. I. A7

to Christ and the church. The mystery in the one case, as in the other,

is greatand the statement of the fact in each case is equally true.


;

b\\v Kal 4|j.6ts KTe. closes and enforces the exhortation begun in verse
32, But do ye also severally (lit. the one by one), ^Katrros d-yairdTJ — . • .

KT6. Const, changed, thus individualizing and emphasizing the exhorta-


tion. Lit. let each one thus (as Christ the church) love his own wife as [as

if, as being) himself. — T| St -yvvfi Jva ktc., and let the wife see that she fear
(or reverence) her husband. Where such love exists, there can be no
slavish fear. The const, of Iva w. the subjunc. <po$riTai, is similar to the
classic idiom oTray vv. the fut. indie. Good. § 217, Note 4; Had. 75^1 ^
Cf. Win. § 43, 5. a.

The exhortations in this chapter will bear much meditation. Where


can we find a higher and more perfect ideal of domestic relations I

Chap. VI. The duty of children (1-3) ; of fathers (4) of ser- ;

vants (5-8) ; of masters (9). The armor and warfare of the Chris-
tian (10-17) j to be accompanied with prayer for all saints and in

particular for the apostle (18-20). The sending of Tychicus (21,


22). Concluding wishes (23, 24).

V. I. kv Kvpla, in the Lord, "the sphere to which the action is to


be limited" (Ell.); a. most important limitation, connected w. the verb
u-)raKou€Te. No obedience is required which cannot be rendered ^v kvpiif,
within the sphere of Christian duty. Cf. the important verse i Cor. 7. 39,
i. c, so that no hindrance shall be placed
fiSvov iv Kvpfy, only in the Lord,
in the way and activity. (eV Kvfiif, bracketed by W-H.,
of Christian life

but strongly defended by Meyer et al., and adopted without question by


the revisers). —
toSto ydp Iotiv Kr€.,for this (such obedience) is right [is
righteous conduct).
" On the position of children in the early church, and the relation such
texts bear to infant-baptism, see Stier, Redenjes. vol. vi. p. 924 sq." Ell.
" For infant-baptism, i. e. in proof that the children of Christians were
at that time baptized, the exhortation of the apostle to children presents
nothing whatever. The children of Christians were by virtue of their
connection with Christian parents and without baptism 07101 (i Cor. 7. 14),

and were required to yield obedience to their parents ev Kvplai.'' Meyer.


" The address to children in a letter to the church presupposes that
the apostle regards them as belonging to the church, present at public
worship, UNDERSTANDING THE WORD read to and applicable to them ;

indeed they must be regarded as baptized, since verse i, in the Lord,


verse 4, in the admonition of the Lord, obliges us to do so." Braune.
The above comments may be taken for what they are worth I need ;

not add any of my own.


10
;

48 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
Vv. 2, 3. This exhortation is confirmed by the citation (nearly in
the words of the LXX) of the well-known commandment with promise.
Cf. Exod. 20. 12, Deut. 5. 16. — t£(io (note the asyndeton) t6v iroTtpa
o-ov ktI., Honor thy father and mother. — \rvi...i.v k^iafiiKla (these
words do not belong to the citation), which [the which. Ell. utpote quae, ;

Meyer for such is, Alf. C£. 3. 13, Note) is the first commandment with
;

promise ^of promise, Ell, ; lit. in a promise, the sphere in which the com-
mandment is uttered). — tva ei croi -yevriTai. Kal ^o-i] ktI. (a continuation
of the citation, containing the promise), that it may be well with thee (lit.

that it may become well to thee) and that thou m-ayest be long-lived {a long-
time), mayest live long, on tlie earth (or on the land). Note that the
remaining clause of the commandment is not here cited, xai tar) may
be understood as a direct statement not dependent on {and thou shall
Iva,

be a long time on, etc.) ; but it is equally grammatical, and seems more
natural to understand both verbs as dependent. Cf. Winer, § 41, b. p.
289; Butt. p. 234, § 139.
V. 4. Ka£ indicates that obligation belongs, not to children alone, but
equally to parents. It is expressed, first in a negative, then in a positive,
form. — Kal 01 irar^pes, And ye fathers. The address is to fathers as the
heads of families ; possibly, also, because they might be more liable than
mothers to severity, or even harshness. Such is the usual explanation
yet the question arises, may not ol iroTepes be understood here in the
sense- of parents, as in Heb. 11. 23. — ^\ irapop'yC^eTC rtc., provoke not
[incite not) yovr children to anger. Cf. Col. 3. 21, Iva. ivi\ adv/jMo-tv. —
dXXd lKTp^(f>ETC «tI., but nurture, bring up, edTicate (Ell.), nourish (cf. 5.

29), them. — iv iraiSCij. (Ko.&da. W-H.) Kal vouScirCf KvpCou, in the chas-
tening, discipline (Ell , Alf.) and admonition of the Lord.

V. 5. An exhortation of importance at that time ; leaving it to the


silent and pervasive what was wrong
spirit of Christianity to correct

in the organization of society and of government. rots Kara o-opKa —


KvpCoLs, your masters according to tJu flesh, those who have control of
your bodies, not of your consciences. — prrdL (jxi^v Kal Tpo|u>u, loithfear

and trembling, i.e. with anxious solicitude to perform in every particu-


lar your duty. —
^v airXoTqTi, , {i^wv, in singleness, frankness, sincerity,
. .

of your heart ; i.e. without any hypocrisy, false pretences, or double


dealing. —
us tu Xpwrr^, as to Christ. This forbids the conception of
anything debasing or dishonest.
Vv. 6, 7. The exhortation continued, first in a negative, then in a
positive, form. — y.^ Kar' 6<t>6aXp.a8ouXCav cis ivflpoirdpeo-Koi (SvflpMiroj,
hpiaxia), not with (according to, in the way of, after the manner of) eye-
service as men-pleasers ; i. c. not as if under the master's eye. — dXX* <&s

SoOXoi XpioTov but as bond-servants of Christ, and this implies a very


different service, with very different motives, as explained in the words

CHAPTER VI. 8-II. 49

iroioCvTts . . . Ik '^v\f\s, doing the will of God from the soul (just the
opposite of eye-service). — lier" eivoCas SovXeiJovTes kt4., with good-will
{^friendly feeling) doing service as if to the Lord and not to men.

V. 8. A motive and encouragement for thus acting. el8(5T£s (same —


const, continued) on ktc., knowing that each one, if he do anything good,
shall receive this frojn the Lord (with whom is no respect of persons).
ttre SovXos rfre IXruBepos (added to i'/caiTToj for emphasis), whether bond-
servant or freeman (all alike stand on the same footing in this regard).

Some editors read % iiv ti kte. (an unusual, but expressive, phrase), lit.

what if anything, i. c. whatsoever good, etc.

V. 9. KaX 01 Kvpioi. Cf. Ka! 01 irarepes, verse 4, note on Ka£. — rd


avrd iroietTC /ere., do [be in the habit of doijig) the same things to them^
show the same kindly by /h€t' ehvolas, verse 7.
feelings indicated dvt- —
ivTcs (av(i,1i]iii) T^v a,iniKi\v, giving up, lit. throwing np, forbearing, threat-
ening. — elScSres fin introduces the consideration which should lead to

this result. Cf. verse 8. —


KaX avruv Kal v|xuv o Kvpi.6s cotiv ev oilpovois,
both their master and yours (one and the same person, viz. the Lord Jesus
Christ) is in heaven, in a position of power and of glory, and with a char-
acter that knows no partiality. —
Kal 'n'po<ru':roXT|p.<|/(a (irpiamirov, face,
outward appearance, cf. Lat. persona, a mask, u person, and \afi0dya), fut.
Ai)iJ/0|Uai, later A^^il/o/iui), acceptance of outward appearance, respect of per-

sons. — ovK ^(TTtv Trap' avrtp, is not possible, does not exist, with him. Cf.
Gal. z. 6.

These exhortations respecting domestic life (5. 22 to 6. 9) are certainly


remarkable. Where can a more perfect ideal for all time be found .'

V. 10. ToO From henceforth. Cf. Gal. 6. 17. Meyer, Ell.,


XoiiroB,

Braune, Olsh., et To Xoiirov, finally. Braune remarks that ToD


al. read
AoHToS would be unintelligible here. But why lvSvva|iaS(r9£ [iv^vva.- .' —
fiSofiai] ktI., be strong (lit. be made powerful) in the Lord and in the

strength of his might (the sphere, and the only sphere, in which the
Christian can be made powerful). The last clause is added to dwell on
the thought and emphasize it. Nothing else compares with "the strength
of his might;" and if the Christian abides in this, is made powerful in

this, what has he to fear? What can conquer him (The three words ?

Zliva)U%, Kpdros, iVxiij are not always easily distinguished. Perhaps the
English words power, strength, might, correspond most nearly to them.
4v Tip Kpdrei rrjs Icrx""^ avTov is an exceedingly emphatic expression, in
the strength of his might, or in his mighty strength. Cf. Butt. § 132, 10,
p. 161. Cf. r. 19 )

V. II. A continuation of the thought in verse 10, indicating the means


to be used. — €v8vo"a(r0c (^j'-SiJoi, or iv-Ziivw) /ere., Put 071 [upon your-
selves) t/ie whole armor, the panoply, of God, that which comes from God.
— '

50 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
The breastplate, shield, helmet, sword are specified afterwards. irpos —
TO 8i)vo<r9ai. 4|ias OTfjvai, that ye may be able to stand (lit. towards your
being able etc.). — irpis tos |i69o8ias toO SiapiXov, against (lit. towards)
the wiles (cf. 4. 14, note) of the devil (the arch-enemy, the chief of those
enumerated in verse 12).

V. 12. The need of complete armor. — 8ti ovk Jcrrtv ijiiiv t| irdXi],

because our wrestling (our struggle, Ell.) is not etc. ; lit. because there is

not to us the wrestling ( " a hand to hand and foot to foot ' tug of war :

our life and death struggle, there being but one such." Alf.) — wpis otjia

Kal o-dpKa, against blood and flesh, i. e. against mere men, frail and perish-
able. Cf. Gal. I. 15. — dXXoL irpbs tos apx"^s, irpis mk., against tJie princi-
falities, against the authorities, against the world-rulers (koV^oj, kp<£tos)

of this darkness, against the spiritual (hosts, armies) of wickedness in the


heavenly (regions). Cf. 2. 2, where the air (toS i,4pos) is spoken of as the
region in which the ruler of evil spirits now holds some sort of sway.
Note the emphatic repetition of irpds. The powers of evil seem here to
be arranged in ranks or classes somewhat analogous to the conception of
ranks among the unfallen angels. Cf. I. 2i.

V. 13. Introduced as a conclusion from the thought in verse 12.

Bid TOVTO, On this account, for this cause, therefore (an inferential, causal,
and demonstrative clause : 8i(S = Si' 8, an inferential and relative clause,

wherefore). — dvoXoLpcTE (avaXaii^dva), take up ; the usual word for taking


up armor ; the opposite of — Iva
KaTaTien/it. SvvijfliiTe dvTKrrfjvai., that ye
may be able to stand in opposition (to all these evil forces). — hi t^ ^H.^'ptf.

Tg day of peculiar trial and temptation, when-


irovTip^, in the evil day, the
ever that might come to each individual such as does come sooner or ;

later to every one. So the expression is now usually understood. Other


interpretations, many of which are very far-fetched, need not here be
enumerated. —
Kal ftiravra . crriivai, and hewing done
. . (haxing fully
accomplished) all, to j/i7«^ (emphatic position). No wavering, no flinch-
ing, even in the fiercest conflict, is allowable. Note the calmness, the
determination, the trust, implied in aTT\vai. It is only in the divine armor
that such composure and firmness are possible, as many of us well
know.

V. 14. Further and more specific directions for the accomplishment


of this result. — oTTJTt oSv, Stand therefore (oSk is used for "confirmation,
continuation, or inference," L. & Sc. ; Sii toCto, longer and more em-
phatic, denotes the idea of cause, as well as a logical conclusion ; often
rendered for this cause: oiv is never thus rendered). — n-cpi|ci)<rd|ji6voi

(Trfpi^di/vvni) ktI , hii-'ing girded about (for yourselves) your loins in


truth (Iv is not, I think, instrumental : but denotes rather the vital ele-
ment, or the atmosphere, in which the girding of the loins is accom-
CHAPTER VI. IS-17. 51

plished). — Kal evSv(rd|JiEVoi ktI., and having put on the breast-plate of


righteousness (t^s StKaioaiviis, gen. of apposition. Winer, § 59, 8, a).
There seems to be no need o£ giving SiKaioaivri here a different shade
of meaning from that which it has regularly in the writings of Paul.

V. 15. Kal {iiroST|ird|j,€voi (!nro-S4<») Kri., and having shod your feet,
having bound (sandals') under your feet. — Girding the loins, putting on
the breast-plate and binding on the sandals were the first acts of the
soldier in getting ready for duty. —
hi cToi|uur(i;^ ktI., in a preparation, in
" a state of readiness " (Ell. ) 4v as in verse 14.
: tov euaYYeXCov may be —
viewed as object, gen., for the gospel, for preaching the gospel (so Chrys.
Erasm., Luther, and the majority of the older interpreters) ; or as gen.
of source, in a readiness of the gospel, i. e. such as comes from the gospel
(so Meyer, Alf., Ell., Braune, and most of the modern expositors). I
must confess that the older view strikes me as the more forcible. rfjs —
€ipTivT|S, gen. of characteristic, or of contents (in u. state of readiness for
preaching the gospel of peace. For this rendering of eiayyiKiov, cf. Rom.
15. 19, Note).

V. 16. ev irao-iv, In all things, in all situations, "on all occasions"


(Alf.). Many editors (Ell., Meyer, Braune, et al., Alf. doubtful) read eVl
iracriv, in addition to all, besides all, zu Allem noch hinzu ( Meyer ) . — dva\a-
pdvT«s TOV Bupebv Ttjs irioTeus (gen. of apposition. Cf. t^s Sikoi-, verse 14),
taking up the shield of faith. Svpeis, Lat. scutum, a large rectangular
shield, somewhat curved around the body. A vertical, rectangular sec-
tion of the bark of a large tree would represent the shape, (oo-iri'j, a
round by the Grecian hoplite, Lat. clipeus.)
shield, carried Iv c5, in —
which, "as protected by and under cover of which " (Ell.). Recollect
that the SvpeSs was large and curved, so as nearly to cover the body. —
8w<)<re(r6e . <rp4<roi {trfievvufii) you will be able to qttench (to extinguish)
. .
,

all the darts (all the missiles) of the evil one, those which have been set on
fire. In attacking breastworks, or other fortifications, darts with tow,
or something of the kind, attached and ignited, were often used. To
speak of extinguishing such ignited darts with the shield as an Instru-
ment is not very intelligible but under the cover of such a shield and
;

protected by it, the work of extinguishing might be safely carried on


and completed. Cf. Meyer. —
If tA, is omitted before iTevvpwfi.iva, we

may render, all the darts of the evil one after they have been set on fire.
The reading with -ri is generally preferred.

V. 17. Kal T^v ircpiKecfiaXaCav (Tept, K^ipaK-T]) tou (ro>Ti]pCov (gen. of


appos.) 8lfa(r9«, and receive (spoken of something offered) the helmet
of salvation (salvation as a helmet). Thus far, only the defensive weap-
ons of the heavy-armed soldier have been named the breast-plate, the ;

shield, the helmet. Now a single offensive weapon is mentioned. The


52 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
shield was carried on the left arm the sword would be taken
;
in the right

hand. — Kal T-f|V |idxai.pav ktI., and the sword of the (Holy) Spirit (gen.

of source ; not here of appos., which would render the next clause super-
fluous), the sword which the Holy Spirit furnishes. o (agrees, not w. —
the anteced. fidxaipav, but w. the predicate ^^/ut. Win. § 24. 3, p. 166)
OTTiv pf\iui 9«ov, which is the word (that which has been spoken) of God
(viz. the gospel. Cf. verse 15).

V. 18. 810 irdo-ns irpoo-mxTis . • • Trpo(rc«xi5|j,6Vot ink. Connect w.


o-T^re oiv verse 14. Stand therefore with . . . all (every form of) prayer
and supplication, praying in every seasott in the Spirit. W-H. and Meyer
place a comma after Se^o-Eais : Sii w. gen., the state through which, or
condition in which (cf. Rom. 2. 27, 4. 11, 14. 20), may be rendered, with :

iritrris is understood in connection with ii> travrX xaip^, every prayer suited

to the occasion or the situation Se^erews added to TrpocrewxSs for emphasis.


:

Although Trpoaevxh denotes prayer (addressed to God), Seijcrti supplication


or entreaty (addressed either to God or to man), yet it is highly improba-
ble that the writer had any such distinction in mind here iv m/eu/utri :

("certainly not the human spirit," Ell.)., in the (Holy) Spirit ; the sphere
in which. — Kal els oir!) (refers to the thought in the preceding clause)
dypwrvovvres Krk,, and thereunto (with this end in view, looking into it)

watching (being vigilant, wide awake) in all perseverance and supplication


(the latter word showing wherein the perseverance should be manifested)
for (note the use of irep£ here ^
vtrlp) all the saints : TrdoTj, like irdinjs, in

all perseverance suited to the necessity.

V. 19. KaX iirJp (cf. Trep/ above) iyjav (the addition of an emphatic par-
ticular) andfor me. — tva |ju>i Sofl^ (SfSuyiii) Xdyos (the object of the sup-
plication, suggesting also the contents), thai there may be given to me
argument, utterance (\6yos includes both ideas, Lat. ratio and oratio). — kv
dvo(|ei. ToB 0T<i|j.aT6s yov, in (or at, dat. of time) the opening of my mouth
(more naturally connected with wliat precedes). — tv irappTjcKa YV9>pC<rai
KTi., in boldness (frankness, openness, L. & Sc.) to make known the mystery
of the gospel : yvaiplaai w. \6yos SoSrj, that utterance may be given so as to
make known. Observe that -rh p.vaTi\piov does not necessarily mean some-
thing difficult to understand ; but rather, in many instances, something
that had been kept concealed, something not hitherto made known. Cf.
I. 9, note. " To make known the mystery of the gospel," i.e. to make
known the glad tidings that had not previously been proclaimed to the
world.

V. 20. irrip oB, for which (i.e. the mystery of the gospel, which he
desired to make known. So Meyer, Alf., Ell., Braune, —
et al.). irpt-
o-pcvu 4v oXvo-ei, lam an ambassador in a chain ; — an ambassador, a most
honorable character; an ambassador of Christ, of one far more exalted
;

CHAPTER VI. 21-24. S3

than any earthly sovereign in a chain as a prisoner. How striking


; I

the contrast! —
tva ktI., t/ia( in it (viz. the mystery of the gospel) / may
speak boldly ; coordinate with 'Iva. SoSp above. So Meyer, Alf., Ell.,
. . .

et al. — lbs Set (It XaXTjirai, as it is necessary that I speak, as it is my duty,

as I ought, Note the use of \a.\ia> in the N. T. Here predicated


to speak.

of the highest and most important message. The meaning, to babble,


chatter, prate, does not belong to the N. T. but chiefly to the Greek of ;

an earlier period.

V. 21. "Ivo . . . you also may know: Se denotes the


tlSTJTC. But that
transition to another topic you also, as well as the Colossians,
: koI \ijj.tis,

to whom Paul wrote by the same messenger (cf. Col. 4. 7). rd Kar" k^, —
the things relating to me, my affairs. — t£ irpdo-o-u, how I do, explanatory
of Tcb Kor' £>€. — TixiKos, Tychicus. Cf. Acts 20. 4, Col. 4. 7, 2 Tim. 4.
12, Titus 3. 12. Nothing more is known of him than we learn from these
passages. — 6 ayairnrbs d8e\<j>!)s . . . Iv KvpCu, the beloved brother andfaith-
ful servant in the Lord, or minister in the Lord (the sphere of his service)
— words of commendation, which Paul thought it proper to add, although
Tychicus was probably known to the Ephesians. Cf. Acts 20. 4.

V. 22. 8v ?ire|ii|/a whom I have sent to you : €ire^\f/a, like


irp&s ifids,
e7poi((o in epistolary style. Winer, p. 278. Whether' Tychicus went first
to Colossae and thence to Ephesus, or the reverse, is not certain. If the

letter was written at Caesarea, as Meyer and others suppose, the bearer
might very probably go by land and thus reach Colossae first. els avrb —
rovTO, for this very purpose, with this very end in view. tva yvwTC {yiyvdi- —
OKo) rd irepl i\fjm, that you may know the things concerning us (including
Paul and his companions). — koI irapaKaXt'trri Kri., and that he (Tychicus)
may comfort etc. In what way he might comfort their hearts, we are not
informed. From the worldly point of view, the situation of the apostle
would seem hopes of the future
to afford little comfort; but the glorious
might always afford unspeakable encouragement. Bear in mind the full
meaning of rapaxaXa, to exhort, cheer, encourage ; not less than, to com-
fort, console.

Vv. 23, 24. ElpT|vt] Tots d8£X<J)ots, Peace (not merely in the ordinary
worldly sense of the term, but in that far higher sense which only the
Christian knows : a parting wish, sc. ef?)) be to the brethren, viz. those to
whom the letter was read, whether at Ephesus or Laodicea. — Kal aYdirt)
p.cTd irCoTcws dirb «Te., and love [Christian love) with (not ffhv, in company
with ; but |Uetc£, in the midst of, mingled with, denoting the most intimate
union) faithfrom (coming from, the only source of true faith) God the
Father and the Lord Jesus Christ (one preposition with both genitives;
not two separate sources of faith, but one common and united source). — '

Tj x°'P''S '"«•! sc. ^ti, a second and general benediction. Grace (in the
54 NOTES ON EPHESIANS.
highest and most comprehensive sense ;
" the grace Kar' i^oxh', i- e. the
grace o£ God in Christ." Meyer)with (in the midst of) all those loving,
be

all who love, our Lord Jesus Christ. —


b> d<)>6ap(r(f, the closing and em-
phatic words o£ the epistle most naturally joined w. rS>v liymrdi/Tav, who
;

love our Lord Jesus Christ in incorruptness (R. V.), in incorruption (Ell.),
in incorruptibility (Alf.)The rendering in sincerity is weak and does not
bring out the meaning of the Greek word. It is sometimes rendered
full

in immortality, and that idea, together with the meaning in incorruption,


belongs to the word by its etymology (a priv. and ip^flpw) and its use.
Cf. Rom. 2. 7, I Cor. 15. 42, 50, 53, 54, 2 Tim. I. 10. The love of the
Christian is pure, with nothing low, nothing false in it ; and it is also
imperishable, immortal.
;

EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS.

GENERAL OUTLINE.
Saujtation (ch. 1.1,2); Expression of thanksgiving (i.3-8) ;

Prayer of the apostle for the church, with thanksgiving (i. 9-1 2) ;

The redemptive work and the glory of Christ (i. 13-23); An


expression of joy in the midst of sufferings in view of his work
as an apostle (i. 24-29); An expression of anxiety (2. 1-3) ;

Warnings against false teachers, with touching references to their


first profession of faith in Christ (2. 4-15) ; Special warnings
(2. 16-23) ; Exhortations, to seek those things which are above ;

to mortify the members which are upon the earth ; to be kind,


forbearing, loving, thankful (3. i-i 7) ; Special exhortations to
wives, husbands, children, fathers, servants, masters (3. 18 to
4. i) ; Further exhortations (4. 2-6) ; Commendations and salu-
tations (4. 7-1 7); Closing salutation with Paul's own hand (4. 18).

Chap. L verses i, 2. Cf. Eph. — Kal TinoSeos, and Timothy


i. i, 2.

not thus introduced in Eph.; may have been the amanuensis of this
epistle. — o dSeXtjxJs, the brother (in Christ). — rots (may be
. . . d-yCots
viewed as adj. or as subst.) ktI. For the two constructions, see R. V.
In Eph. 1. 1, and in the address of other epistles (Rom. 1. 7, i Cor., 2 Cor.,
Phil.), ayiois is subst. —
iv Xpurr^, closely united in sense w. TruTTois
is e\ipots, faithful brethren in Christ. — X°'P^S ^V-^v Kre. Cf. Rom. i. 7,
note.

Vv. 3. 4, Thanksgiving for the Christian character of the


to verse 9.
church in Colossae. — We (i.e. Paul and Timothy) ^j/^
'Etiyjixpi.a-Tov^iv,

thanks. —
Ti3 Bew Kal irarpl ktI. Cf. Eph. 1. 3, and 17, notes. W-H. omit

KOI, so also R. v., to God, the Father of etc. —


TravTOTe may be joined w.
eixaptarovfiev (so Meyer, Braune, et al.), or w. Trpoa-evx^l'ei'oi (Ell., Alf.,
et al.). The latter certainly seems preferable (cf. R. V.) unless, indeed, ;

its force extends over the whole clause, the two ideas, thanksgiving and
S6 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
prayer, being closely united and not separated in the apostle's mind, so
that "always " with him might be predicated of both. —irtpl vn»v, appar-

ently = imtp inuv, verse — aKoitravTis, both temporal and causal, a/ier
9.

having heard and because we have heard. — Tf|V irCoTiv . . . Iv Xp- 1»I<r-,

your faith (belief and trust) in Christ Jesus " as the sphere or substra-
tum of the irio-Tis, that in which the faith centres itself." Ell.). 8x*^'> —%
which you have. It would have been grammatical, and more usual, if the
article r^v had been repeated after hy6.TrT\v (st. *i]V exere), and this read-
ing is found in some MSS. W-H. include %v ix- in brackets. The words,
which you have, are more positive and emphatic than the article. eis —
irdvTas Tovs a^Covs, towards all the saints : lit. into. It was a love which
extended not simply towards, or up to, all the saints, but into the midst of
them.

V. 5. 810I Tf|v IXirCSo, connected most naturally with the words just
before, the love which you have for all the saints on account of the hope
etc.So Chrys., Theoph., Calvin, Meyer, Alf., Ell., et al. iKttiZa. here by
metonymy for the object of hope, that which is hoped for. Cf. Rom. 8.
24, Gal. 5. 5, notes. "The love they entertained towards the fiywi was
evoked and conditioned by no thought of any earthly return (compare
Calvin), but by their hope for their /iia-Bos in heaven." Ell.). tJiv diro- —
Kci.|jUvT)v KT6., which is laid up (lit. laid away) for you in heaven (a place

of absolute safety. Cf. Matt. 6. 20, Luke 12. 33). — <^v irpoiiKova-aTe, of

which ye heard, or have heard, before. It is not necessary to give any


more definite meaning to irpo-, it to any particular time in the
referring
past. — hi Tc3 X6y(j> Tijs oXi]8e£astoB evaYyEX(ov, in the word of the truth
of the gospel, i. c. in the word containing, embodying, the truth which
belongs to the gospel. Cf. Eph. i. 13, Gal. 2. 5, 14.

V. 6. ToO irapdvTOS els irp.ds. which has come into the midst ofyou (not
simply unto you) : wapuvai w. fls is not unfrequent in classic \\Titers. —
KaSus . . . krrlv, even as it is also in all the world. Cf. Matt. 13. 38, the
field is the world. " In all the world indicates the whole world as the

field in which the gospel is found and which it will permeate." Braune.
— Kapiro(|>opov|uvav Kal ai^av<S|t£vov (agree w. the subj. of iirrlv), bear-
ing fruit and increasing (or growing) a figure taken from a fruit-bearing
;

tree, indicating the proper effect of the gospel, and its extension. xaSibs —
Kal iv vi|i.tv, even as (it bears fruit) among you, or in you, also (as well as
in all the world). — fjs f||t^pas: anteced. in relat. clause, = uTrb rris

Tl/iepas iv
d<f>'

?i,from (or since) the day in which, from the day when. — -^Koi-
o-are. Many supply here the idea rh tvayyiKiov, you heard (if, i.e. the
gospel). So Meyer, Eadie, Riddle. Others make tJ|v x"'?"
Alf., Ell.,
KTE. the object of both verbs, yon heard and knetv the grace of God. So
De Wette, Braune, R. V. The latter seems more natural grammatically,
and the thought is equally clear. —
iv ak-i\iilii^ (emphat. position), in
;

CHAPTER I. 7-9. 57

whole preceding expression (verbs and object ace),


truth, qualifies the
and suggests a contrast with the doctrines o£ the false teachers who had
crept in among them.
Vv. 7, 8. Ka6us, even as (denoting manner, not cause, and closely con-
nected w. iv aK-jiQiia). — IpaOerc airo '£ircu|>pa (1st declens.) kte., yoii
learned from Epaphras (mentioned again in 4. 12, Philem. 23. Probably
not the same as Epaphroditus Phil. 2. 25), our beloved fellow-servant ; one
of the first, and perhaps the very first, preacher of the gospel in Colossae
He is here fully endorsed by the apostle. — os eo-riv ktI., who is faithful
for you (in your behalf) as a minister of Christ ; a further commendation.
W-H. prefer inrep Tiixav. So R. V. on our behalf. (Stixovos, rendered min-
ister, servant, deacon.) — 6 Kal
who also (an additional state-
STjXcGo-as TJp.iv,

ment concerning Epaphras) made known, made plain, to us. Tf|v — . . .

a^ainp' Iv irvevnari (closely connected in sense : the omission of r^y after


a.yi.'^W' is in keeping with N. Test, usage. Cf. Winer, § 20, 2), your love in
the Spirit, i. e. in the Holy Spirit, as the vital atmosphere in which their
love existed. It seems irrelevant
whether their love to Paul
to inquire
(so Chrys. et a!.), or their love to one another (so De Wette, Olsh., et
al.), or their love to Epaphras (so Meyer), is here meant. As the clause
stands without particular qualification, it naturally includes all these, —
Christian love, brotherly love, in the Spirit.
V. 9. Aid TovTO, On this account, viz. all that is said from verse 4
particularly their faith and love. — Kal '^pcis, we Timothy and
also, i. e.

I on our part. — {|Kovo-o|i€v, we heard (it, i.e. the account of your faith
and love). oi — Eph. i. 16, note; also verse 3.
irauoiieDa. Cf. irpoo-eu- —
vopcvoi, praying, the generic word; alrovjiEvoi, asking, begging, spoken
of any earnest request to any person. The two together intensify the
thought —
tva aKr\faSlr\Ti )ct4., the object and the substance of the
prayer, that ye may be filled, made full, etc — Tf|v eiriYVwo-iv, ace. of re-

mote object w. the pass, voice, St. gen., see L. & Sc. r\rip6a. iirlyvacris

is often rendered fiill knmoledge ; but a fuU knowledge of God's will


is not possible for the finite mind ; hence, perhaps we may render it,
a definite, or positive, knowledge; in distinction from a vague, doubting,
hesitating, knowledge. — Iv irdcrti <ro<f>(f ktI. Connect closely in thought
w. the verb. Lit. in order that (being) in all spiritual wisdom and under-
standing ye may be made full as regards the definite knowledge of his (God's)
will. no necessity for regarding ev here as instrumental but rather
I see ;

as denoting the sphere in which the action of the verb takes place. Cf.
Eph. I. 8 ; also notes on Eph. 3. 19, and 5. 18. Connect irvevfiaTucp w.
both nouns, in all wisdom and understanding imparted by the Spirit, \. e.
the Holy Spirit, (ao^ta is the generic word trvveiris,
fr. <nvi-niu, the act:

of putting together and comparing, intelligence: cf. <pp6yTi(rts, Eph. i. 8.)


"The opposite of irvEu/iariKiis is a-apKixis, 2 Cor. I. 12.

58 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
V. lo. ircpfrrttTtia-ai xri. (infin. denoting purpose, epexegetical of 'ya
irAjjpMSiJTe xri.), to walk etc., ut amtuletis (Vulg.), that ye walk, etc.
a^Us ToB KupCou, worthily of the Lord, i. e. of Christ. So (tiipioj is usually,

perh. always, to be understood in Paul's epistles. " In the gospels, 2 Pet.,


and James, it commonly refers to God, but in i Pet. 2. 13, to Christ." Ell.
— els irao-av apeo-K^av (apeo-ueioi', Meyer, Winer, § 6, i, g. i-piamiav, Alf ., ;

Ell., Lachm.), unto all pleasing, directing attention and effort into, enter-
ing into, every form of pleasing, every action that is pleasing. Meyer calls —
attention to the three clauses describing more particularly irfpHrar^o-ai
cifiaij Kjk., viz. (I) iv iravrX tpy<f ayaBif Kri., (2) tV -naart Svvi)iei ktc.,

(3) iKTo. xapSj ktI. — Iv iravrl Sp-yo) 07., in every good work ; "sphere in

which the /topiro^opia is manifested." Ell. — av^avcSufVoi T'g liri.-yvioo-ei

KTc., increasing in the [definite) knowledge of God. Many regard the dat.
here as instrumental, by the knowledge etc. So Alf., Ell., Riddle, et al.

I prefer the rendering in, or in respect to, dat. of reference : " the
much
dat. denoting that with respect to which a statement is made." Good.
§ 184. 4. In every good work, not in a life of indolence, bearing fruit and
growing in respect to a clear and definite knowledge of God. Note that
Paul does not undervalue, any more than James, every good work.
Vv. II, 12. iv iraoTi 8vvdp.Ei ktI. (the second clause describing ircpi-

TTttT^trai h.ijLfjo% Krk.), in all power, or in every [form of) power, made power-
ful according to the might of his glory. Kara Kre. denotes the pattern, or
the kind, according to which the Christian is made powerful, rris SiJJtjs,
possessive gen. Cf. Eph. i. 6. For the three words, Sivafiis, Kpdros, lirxis,
cf. Eph. 6. 10, note. — els irao-av viiro|ioW|v Kal |iiaKpo6up.Cav, with a view
to, or entering into, all patience and longsuffering : "to lead you into every
form of patience and longsuffering.'" Ell. {nrofjioirfi, a remaining under,
endurance, stedfastness, fortitude ; fia.Kpoevii.la, a mind, courage, to bear long.
Cf Rom.
,
A. 4, note. — nerd x<H>as may be joined with what precedes. So
R. v., Alf., De Wette, Braune, W.-H., and many others. Or it may be
connected w. euxap'TToBi/Tts ktI. So Ell., Meyer, Huther, Ewald,
Lachm., and many others. The ancient scholars and versions seem
about equally divided. Viewing the structure of the entire sentence,
the latter seems to me more natural ; with joy giving thanks etc. (the
third clause describing •tr^pnrarrT^rra.i Krk.). — t« irarpl tw iKavwo-avri ktI.,
to the Father who made you able, ivho qualified you, (to enter) into the part
(or the portion) of the allotment (or the inheritance)
of the saints in light.
Meyer et al. read T\ixas, st. ujuSs, made us able, or meet, iv rtp ipari is best
viewed, I think, as qualifying the words rou K\-l]pov tS>v aylmy,
of the in-
heritance of the saints (which is) in light [t^ viewed as generic article). It
may suggest the thought that there is another inheritance which is not in
light, but in outer darkness.
V. 13. 8s ^pvTaro [IppvaaTo, Alt., Ell., et al., Lex. ^uo^uoi) *|nas, w/w
.

CHAPTER I. 14-17. 59

drew us, rescued us. Note the transition at tliis point, £rom the duty
and privileges o£ the Christian, to the work and character of Christ in
vv. 14 ff. — at KtL,from, out of, the power, the authority, of
Ttjs IJ""""'**

darkness, i^ovaia, as distinguished from Suca^is, Kpiros, la-x^s, may often


be rendered authority. See L. & Sc. " darkness" i. c. the powers which
have their abode in darkness. — Kal lirrcoT-qcrev (/i€to, Lat. trans, 'l<rTj)iii,

to put, to place) «ls T'flv KTt., and translated, transported, us into


placed (lit.

us over into) the kingdom oj the son of his love (descriptive gen., " the sun
upon whom his love rests." Alf.). This is presented as a historic fact,
which took place at our conversion. Note the two points the rescue, :

and the placing over into the kingdom of his son. Can any human
power, or any power of darkness, reverse what God has done ? ^ fiaai-
Aem Tov vlou, t] ^aatheia rwv oiipavuv, 7] ^aaiAeia rov 0€ov, all denote one
and the same kingdom.
Vv. 14, 15. kv <S, in whom (not by etc.). —
'if^\/xv, not fut., not past,

but pres., we have, are having. —


tJiv diroXiiTpu<ri.v. The article may be
viewed as denoting that which is well known, or as an unemphatic possess.
pron., or as the generic article ; the (well known) redemption (Ell., B. U.),
or our redemption (Alf., R. V.), or simply redemption. — rfiv dcjiecriv twv
o|i-, explanatory appos. w. tt/i/ airoKliT-, the forgiveness, or the remission, of
sins, or of our sins. Cf. Eph. 1. 7, notes. — After telling what we have in
Christ, the apostle proceeds to speak of the exaltation of Christ, to tell

•what Christ is: os «mv ciKttiv toO Beou toO dopdrov, who is the image, the
of the invisible God: Bild Gottes des unsichtbaren (Meyer) tixiiv,
likeness, :

predicate ; hence without the article in Greek. With the expression


here, cf. 2 Cor. 4. 4,Heb. — For the further use of
i. 3. Rom. ^Xxiv, cf. 1

23, 8. 29. — For the three most important passages the epistles of Paul in
which speak of the person and exaltation of Christ, compare with this
Eph. 1. 20-23, Phil. 2. 6-11. "Christian antiquity has ever regarded the
expression image of God as denoting the eternal Son's perfect equality
'
'

with the Father in respect of his substance, nature, and eternity.'' Ell. —
TpuTiSTOKos niurrp KT(<reus, the first-born, or first-begotten, before every crea-
ture, or before all creation, i. e. begotten and born before any created thing

came into existence. After describing the relation of Christ to God, the
Creator, the apostle here states his relation to that which is created. For
the gram, const, cf. Jno. I. 15. irp3n6s iiov, first in relation to me, i.e.
BEFORE me. irdffris Kriffeas is not gen. of the whole w. irpMrdroKos, but gen.
of comparison. So Ell., Meyer,Cf. Winer, § 35, 4, Note. Thus
et al.

we may, I think, correctly render, born before every created thing (just as we
must render KfSnis /Jiou, before me) " vor jedem Geschopf geboren."
;

Meyer. For this meaning of Kria-is, cf. Rom. 1. 25, 8. 39, Heb. 4. 13.
Vv 16, 17 These two verses distinctly and emphatically confirm the
rendering of irpotrdTOKOs iriitnis ffricreas — fin . tA irdvra, because in
. .

II
6o NOTES ON COLOSSI AN S.
him (as the sphere, " the creative centre of all things, the causal element
of their existence." Ell.) all things were created, i. e. in him all things
which were created had their origin, came into existence : hence, he could
not himself be included among the things created, not even though the
first them in the order of creation. Note the frequent use of tA, w.
of
iro^/Ta in N. T. all tilings, distinctly and definitely, not in general and

vaguely. Cf. Win. § i8, 8. The following clauses describe with great
emphasis the meaning of ri TtivTo, in respect to locality, and in respect
to character. — etrt 6pdvoi el're egovo-Cai, descriptive of the to
. . .
itpari.
and the ra drfparo, whether thrones or dominions or principalities {gov-
ernments) or powers [authorities. Cf. verse 13, note). — to iravra . . .

^KTioTai. A solemn and emphatic repetition c«f the thought : all things
have been created through him and for (or unto) him: ^kt/o-9j), aor., were
created: ixTiarat, pf., have been created (up to the present time) eij ou- :

•t6v,for, or unto, him, the purpose, the end in view. Cf. Rom. 11. 36,
Sti i^ ouToO Kol Si ' ouTou Kal eis airrhv Tti iraxTa. See note in loco. Not
by any means a contradiction of the statement here in Col. ; but showing
the intimate relationship of the Father and Son. See also Heb. i. 2 ; and
Jno. I. 3, x»pls OUTOU iyiviTa ovZ\ %v % yi'yovfv. — Kal avrds, and he (em-
phat.), he the Creator in contrast with the things created, the tA triina of
verse i5 (ouriis in the nom. is never the simple unemphatic "he." Meyer.
Yet in the N. T.
sometimes seems less emphatic than in classic Greek).
it

— irpb irdvTuv, before (in the sense of time) all things: the thought in irpw-
t6tokos, verse 1 5, repeated, the pre-existence of Christ. — rd iravro . . .

<n?v^(rn]Kev (pf. in form, pres. in meaning), all things in him consist, stand
together: out of him, they would fall to pieces, be dissolved.

V. Second point presenting the exaltation of Christ. After speak-


18.

ing of him as TrpwT6roKos irdffrjs uriaeas, he now tells what he is to the


church, as nparrSTOKOs ix vexpSiv. — Kal auros £<mv . . . lKKXT|arCas, and he
(emphat. as in head (emphat.) of the body (his body. Ell.),
verse 17) is the
the church. By this figure, the vital union of Christ and the church is
vividly presented. —
os 4<rTiv dpx^ (pred., hence without the article), who
is the beginning. The relat. ii may be translated, as often, by a conj. and
pers. pron. ; and he is etc., or seeing he is (Ell.) : dpx^> Ihe beginning. The
words following explain in what sense this is used. — irpwrdroKos 4k rmv
v^Kpuv, first-born from the midst of the dead. The word irpojTi^Toicos is per-
haps here suggested by the expression above in verse 15. His resurrec-
tionand union with the spiritual body is spoken of as a birth. Others
had been translated, or had been raised to the natural body to die again.
He alone was irpaiTdTOKOs ix t&v vfKpav. Cf. Acts 26. 23, I Cor. 15. 22, 23,
Rev. I. 5. — tvo 7^vi]Tai . . . irpojTevcuv, in order that in all things (or
among all) he might become /preeminent : lit. that he might become in ail things
himself (alone) being first. Note the repetition of the stem syllable irpoiT-.
CHAPTER I. 19, 20. 61

Note also Iva w. the subjunc, st. fra w. the optat., regularly in N. Test.
Greek and also in the later Greek generally.

Vv. ig, 20. oTi, because, confirmation of the thought just expressed,
that he himself should become first in all things {or among all). — ev
txvTia,in him,\.&.m Christ; placed first for emphasis. — ev8oici)o-ev ktI.
Three constructions are possible, (i), i\i%6K'i\aiv as impers., it was
fleasing (to the Father), or it was the good pleasure (of the Father),

(R. v.); (2), he (the Father) was pleased (so AH., Meyer, Braune, et
^') ; (3)> '^ whole fulness (of the God-head) was pleased to dwell (Ell.).
The second const, seems to me preferable; ist, because tiZoKilv (a later
Greek word; classic ioKiiv) is usually personal; not impers. as in the
first const above (cf. i Cor. i. 21, Gal. i. 15); 2d, because eipiivoTroi.it-

oas, verse 20, is thus made regularly to agree with the implied subj. of
euSrfiCT/trey, sc. flerfs. The const. Xpi<rT6s as subj. of €vS6K7](rej/ (Hofm.,
Conyb., et cannot adopt. I would therefore render, because he
al.), I

(God was pleased that in him ( Christ) all the fulness (or all his
the Father)
fulness) should dwell. Whichever of the three constructions is adopted, the
thought —
a most striking and important one remains the same. Kal — —
Sl' avTov diroKaraXXd^at (airo, koto, oAAoffffw), sc. evS6K7}(Tei', and through
him (he was pleased) to reconcile all things unto himself (lit. into himself.
as the end the one being into whose character and claims attention was
;

directed. The reconciliation was to be no surface work, like the reconcili-


ation among hostile nations but intimate, internal, pervading). It seems
;

to me more natural to refer mniv to the Father than to the Son, although
not reflexive in form (which is rare in N. T. Greek. Cf. Eph. 1. 5, €«
ouTiJi', note). —
€lpT]voiroi^<ras airov, having made peace through the
. . .

Hood of his cross (i. e. through the blood shed upon his cross) particip. ;

denoting manner or means. It seems unnecessary to inquire, as some


have done, whether the particip. here denotes an act antecedent to that of
the verb, or synchronous with it. It is sufficient to say that both denote
accomplished facts; one fact, v/hether antecedent or synchronous, being
the means for the accomplishment of the other fact. — 8i' airrov, through
him, an emphatic repetition. — etre to eirl Tijs "yns ktI., also an emphatic
repetition : appos. w. to irAirra ; lohether the things upon the earth or the
things in the heavens. What, then, does this emphatic declaration of
reconciliation signify? The best, and in fact the only safe answer, is
found in the exact signification of the word o7roKOTO\A({{ai, from oAAoo-trai,
to effect a change, Kard, intens., and airi denoting departure from something.

Without Christ, there was no access to God for the sinner, even if he
had desired it. Christ effected a change (aWi^ai) ; he effected it com-
pletely ((coTcC) ; a change from a former state, or relation, to a new one (otto).

By this change, a way God, a righteous God, was opened up


of access to
to the sinner. God could now be himself righteous, and account as right-

62 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
eous him who is of faith in Jesus (Rom. 3. 26). This is what the verse
before us asserts in its relation to ourselves. But it may be said, we know
that a large part of the world around us, and we are also assured that the
powers of darkness, are not actually reconciled to God. How, then, are
we to understand the entire statement ? Simply as proleptic. Cf. Eph. 2.
6, Rom. 8. 30. Winer, § 40, 5, ^, p. 278. Also the prophetic use of the
preterite in Hebrew. Green's Gram. § 262, 4. That which is here spoken
of as an accomplished fact has only begun to be realized, is already fully
assured, and will be seen in its entire fulfilment when the new heavens
and the new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness, shall appear (2 Pet. 3.
1;, Rev. 21. i) ;when the unbelieving and abominable shall have been cast
out from the new heavens and the new earth and shall have their part in
the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone (Rev. 21.8); when the devil
that deceived the nations, together with the beast and the false prophet,
shall and brimstone (Rev. 19. 20, 20. 10). Cf.
be cast into the lake of fire

the interpretations of Meyer and of Braune in loco. For a similar train


of argument, a similar prolepsis, see Heb. 2. 8, 9, ff. With the doctrinal
statement of Paul in this passage, cf. Eph. i. lo, note; also i Cor 15.
24-28.

V. 21. Application to the readers of the epistle. — Kal ifias (obj. of


ixoftaT^AAalcy) irori jvras diniWoTpiwiJi^vous (dir-oAXorpiiJoi, iiW6rrptas, of
or belonging to, another). And yoii, when once, or though once, alienated,
descriptive of their condition as Gentiles. Cf. Eph. 2. 12, note ; also Eph.
4. 18. — Kal Ix^povs TJ 8tovo£(j, and enemies (to God) in respect to your
mind (dat. of reference), or in your mind. So ix^po^^ 'S usually, and I
think correctly, understood.Meyer, however, regards it as pass., hated (of
God), and tj Siaroicf, means w. both words, iy reason
as dat. of cause or
of your mind alienated and hated (of God). For this use of ex^P°''^< ^^
refers to Rom. 5. 10, 11. 28. — ^ rots IpYOis Tots irovi)pi>ts (emphat. position),
in the works which are evil, the sphere or circle in which they moved.
VDvl 8i (as though an independent sentence had preceded) diroKOTiiXXa-
£«v, yet ncmt (in contrast w. tote id/ras) hath he reconciled. Is the subj. of
the verb God the Father? (so Alf., Ell., Riddle, et al.) or is it the Son?
(so Chrys., Theod., Beza, Calvin, De Wette, Ewald, et al.). Meyer,
Braune, et al. read a.iroK<KryiK\i,Yrrti, ye were reconciled, and understand it
as accomplished by the Father, but through the Son. With the reading
aToKaT^AXalfv, it is perhaps more natural to understand the same subj.
as for fuS6HTi(Tfv, i. c. God the Father, yet I do not by any means feel
certain of this.

V. 22. kv Tip (rii|xaTt Tfis irapK^s which the recon-


avrow (the sphere in
ciliation was accomplished), This expression
in the body of his flesh.
becomes intelligible when it is recollected that Christ was now existing
in the aHjia. TtvevnanK6v. —
8id toO Savdrou, through, by means of, his death.
CHAPTER I. 23, 24. 63

— TrttpairTi]crai {vafhla-rrjfu) vjias Krk., to present you, to cause you to stand


(infin. of purpose-w. airoKar^Walfi'). — aylovs Kal d)i.u|iovs Kal dv€YK\^i-
Tous (a priv., v euphonic, iyKoXiai), holy and without blemish (R. V.),
without blame (L. & Sc, Al£., Ell. ; untadelig, unblamable, Meyer, Braune)
and unreprovable, i.e. not liable to any accusation. The translation of
S/itti/ios a brand) in the R. V. [without blemish) certainly
(a priv. ; fiufios,

appears preferable in this and other passages. Cf. Eph. i. 4. Karevw- —


TTiov ovToB, before him, in his presence. Does ahrov here refer to Christ
(so Meyer, Braune) or to the Father (so, Alf., Ell., et al.) Cf. Eph. i. 4, .'

note. Taking the entire sentence, I am decidedly inclined to the opinion


of Chrys. and the older expositors generally, to understand Xpicrror as
the subj. of i.i!OKQ.TT\KKa\'cv, and aitov as referring to the Father. Christ
has now effected a reconciliation in through to present you
, . . before . . . . . .

the Father.
V. 23. The condition of being thus presented. — cSI-ye eTrifieverc i-g
7ri0T€i, if at least you continue in the faith, or abide upon [iiti-, resting ztpon)
the faith. The manner of abiding is indicated in what follows ; first, in
the positive, then in the negative, form. — Te8e|i€Xu)i>(Uvoi {BijiiKdm, Se/ji-
\ios, u. foundation-stone) Kal cSpaioi (fr. cSpa, a seat, a base), grounded
(placed on a foundation-stone) and stedfast {sitting firmly, fixed, settled).
The metaphor is that of a firm foundationand a fixed position on it.
Cf. Eph. 3. 18, for a metaphor somewhat different. Kttl
^^ (leTaKivoijie- —
VOL (pres. pass. fr. nero, denoting change and Kwia, to move), and not
;

being moved, not constantly changing, or habitually shifting. See Lex. —


dirb TTjs IXirJSos KTi., away from the hope of the gospel (the hope belonging
to, and arising from, the gospel) which (gospel)_)'« heard {aKoia> may take
either the ace. or gen. so that o5 need not be regarded as an instance
of attraction). —
tov KHpvx9«'vTos {Kripia-aa) ktI., which was preached,
heralded, in all creation under hecwen (R. V.), or in the presence of in the
hearing of, every creature (Ell., Meyer) ; a popular form of expression
which no reader of the epistle would misunderstand. Cf. Matt. 13. 38,
The field is the world. The proclamation had already been made freely,
to every human being alike, without any limits of race or government or
condition in life. Cf. verse 6, note: also irtJcn/s Krlareus, verse 15, where
also the article is omitted. 06 —
SicIkovos, of which (gospel) I became a
. . .

minister, a servant (cf. verse 7, note. Eph. 3. 7, note).


Vv. 24-29. Paul here dwells on the thought ov . . . SidKovos in verse 23.

V. In this verse, Paul speaks particularly of his sufferings ; in the


24.
following, of his important calling. —
Nvv x^'p™, No'w (understood here
as temporal " now, with the chain round my wrist." Eadie contrasted
; :

with the past time, oS fy^vl)\i.t\v kt4.) I rejoice, am rejoicing. — «v rots

irafl^(ia<riv, in (i. e. in the midst of; not, on account of) my (article for

the unemphat. possess, pron.) sufferings. For a similar thought, cf.


64 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
Piiil. I, l8, 2. 17, Rom. 5. 3, 2 Cor. 7. 4. 4ir^ ijiav, >r, /« behalf of, —
you. The same words would be applicable addressed to other churches.
— Kal oi,VTOvttir\i]pu, and am filling up in turn (ayri), or on my part.

ro. v(rrep'f)|iaTa K-ri. I cannot adopt the ordinary rendering of these
words, that which lacking, the deficiencies, of the afilictions of Christ.
is I

do not terms [that which is lacking, the deficiencies) as thus


like these
applied. I would rather understand iiffTe/rlifiaTa in the earlier classic
sense, that of time rather than of quantity (cf. Lex. So-rtpoj, Varepov, vme-
pia), and render the sentence, I am filling up in turn those of the afflictions

of Christ (belonging to Christ, such as Christ suffered) which are left behind,
which come afterwards. There was no deficiency in aiflictions or anything
else belonging to Christ but afflictions such as he suffered come after-
;

wards as the lot of all who follow in his steps. Paul experienced them
in large measure, and every truly Christian man experiences them now.
Cf. Rom. 8. 17, 2 Cor. 1. 5, Phil. 3. 10. — Iv t5 o-opKC |»o\i, connect closely

in thought with the verb, / cot filling up an my part in my flesh [in my


frail, mortal body) etc. — trirlp ... 8 Jo-riv t| iKii^r[a-Ca,,for the sake of his
body, which is the church, Cf. verse 18.

V. 25. ^s . . . SidKovos. Cf. verse 23. There spoken of as a minister


(or servant) of the gospel ; here, as a minister of the church, the body of
Christ: "qui evangelio servit, idem ecclesiae servit." Grotins. — kut^
T^|v oIkovo(iCov toB Bmv, according to the stewardship of God (gen. of
source). The office of steward {oiKovifios or olKoSeinT6rris) was well
known at that time ; and Paul in using this metaphor compares his own
position, as SiiKovos of the church, to that of a steward. — t^v SoBeio-dv
|M>i els ilios, which was given to me for you : ds indicates the direction
of thoughts and efforts into the midst of. The statement by no means
implies that Paul's stewardship related to the Colossians alone and would
not be so understood. They were an integral part of the household in which
he was appointed as a steward. —
irXripcio-ai (infin. denoting purpose w.

ta^iXam) Tiiv Xd'yov toB 6cov, to fulfil {make full) the word of God (not
alone in respect to its contents, but also in respect to its destiny, its
spread thoughout the Gentile world). Cf. Rom. 15. 19, note.

V. 26. K-ri., explanatory appos. w. rbv \lryav toS 6eo5,


rb iiuo-T^piov
the mystery which has been hidden for ages and generations (an emphatic
and solemn form of expression, only here in N. T. ajrd here in the sense ) :

of time, since (or beginning from) the ages and since the generations: von
den Zeitaltern her und von den Generaiioncn her. Meyer. Not synonymous
w. irpi tS>v aliivwy. The counsel was formed Tph • cu-, but hidden 4irb ,

T. at-. Cf. Eph. 3. 5, 9; also 1. 9. By the mystery here spoken of, the
apostle seems to mean the same as in Eph. 1. g, ff. and 3. 2, ff. vSv 8i —
(cf. vvy\ S4, verse ;i, note) i4>avcp<&9i} kt^., but now has been manifested,

made plain, to his saints. (The idea is not to be limited, .is it has been
:

CHAPTER I. 27, 28. 65

by some, to the apostles and prophets of the N. Test. ; but the word is to
be taken in its usual and fullest sense.)

V. 27. ols f|64X.r]ir£v •YVupCcrai, to whom God willed (so Alf ., Ell., Meyer,
Braune, B. U.) to make known ; God was pleased (R. V.) to make known.
The first rendering of T\Bf}\-r\aiv seems more exact. t£ rb irXoSros Trjs —
86|i]s KT^.fWhat is the wealth of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles,
i. c. what is the wealth (or the riches) of the glory belonging to this mystery,
a wealth of glory among the Gentiles. — 8s agrees with the predicate Xpurros.
Winer, § 24, 3. p. 166. It is not quite certain to what it refers, whether
to the idea of the entire preceding clause (De Wette, Eadie), or to to
Tt\ovTos (Meyer et al.), or to nvffrriplov (Chrys., Alf., Ell., et al.). Either
is intelligible and makes good sense. The last is generally preferred. —
6s eoTiv Xp- €v iifiiv, "^ IXirls kt4., which (mystery, or which wealth) is
Christ in you, the hope ofglory. *'
Christus in gentibus, summum illis tem-
poribus paradoxon." you (R. V.), among you (Ell.,
Bengel : iv vfuv, in
Alf., Riddle; "unter euch," Meyer). Both renderings are correct gram-
matically and in thought; "not to be confined to the rendering in you
individually, though this is the way in which Christ is among you." Alf.
among you corresponds to the rendering in R. V. of Iv toTs eBveaiv, among
the Gentiles. The Greek h includes both ideas, in and among. Note the
striking expression Xpio-roj iv biitv. Paul does not say, the knowledge of
Christ, or the love of Christ, but simply and emphatically, Christ in and
among you i\ ^Xirlj t^s 5o'|7)s, apposit. w. Xpurrds iv v/Hv. Christ among
I

you, this is the mystery now made plain : the hope of glory, this is wealth,
true riches I Cf. the expression in Rom. 8. 24. T5 -yhp i\TriSi iadiBiiixsv,
and the contrast eXmSo ij.^ ex"'"'"es, Eph. 2. 12.

V. 28. 8v refers to Xpia-rSs as described in verse 27, the wealth of the


glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; not the Christ after the Jewish
conception and expectation. —
iqucis (emphat.), we, i. e. Paul and Timothy

and other preachers among the Gentiles of the same views, in distinction
from the Judaizing teachers. —
KaTayy«\Xoji£v,/re3ir^, announce, proclaim ;
pres. tense, denoting what is habitual. vodOctoOvtcs —
SiSoo-Kovres kte., . . .

participles denoting the character of the proclamation navTa ivepunrov :

. wavTa ivdpiinrov, emphat. repetition, every man. Gentile as well as Jew


. . :

iv iFaffri a'o<pl(^, the sphere in which the vov6stovvt€s and SiSdcrKOVTes are
accomplished admonishing, warning (points to the lifTavofTre of the
:

gospel message. Meyer, Ell.) every man and teaching (lays the foundation
for the TTKTTeiJeTe. Meyer, Ell.) every man in all wisdom. Cf. Eph. 1. 8,
note. —
tvo ircipaoTyi<ro)|i6v irdvTo ftvAponrov (repeated again with em-
phasis) T^€iov €V Xp-, in order that we Tnay present (cf. TrapaffTiJo-ai, verse
22) every man perfect in Christ: iv XpKrr^ defines the character of the
TfXeii<Ti)j, and the sphere, the only sphere, in which it becomes possible,

and is actually realized.


^^ NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
V. 29. ets 8 (relates to the entire thought in the preceding clause), /o^
which end : cij denotes that into which the attention and the energies are
directed, end in view, purpose. —
KaV kottim (KOTni,u>), I toil also (as well
as preach). Note the change to the sing., thus individualizing the apos-
tle himself. — olyuvi^o^cvos, striving, intensifies the idea of KoinSt. It seems
irrelevant to inquire, as many have done, whether this refers to outward,
or to inward, striving. Why ? The one does not often take
not both
place without the other. In a limiting clause is added: but in
4. 12,
I Tim. 4. 10, it stands as here without a defining clause. KaroL t^v —
£vcp7»av airoO (naturally refers here to Xpurr^), according working to his
(his energy) that works in me in power (emphat.) not in proportion to ;

his own unaided strength, but according to the working of Christ that
works powerfully in him. This inward working, however, would natu-
rally lead, and did actually lead, to outward manifestations of the most
marked character.

Chap. II. (See General Outline.)


V. 1. 0e\<i> -ydp (epexegetic, explanatory of i. 29) ipjids el8«vai, For I
wish you to know, I would have you knom (13. U., R. V.) ; a more accurate
rendering than, / would that ye knew (O. V.). — ijXfKOv a,'^mla, \%ii>, how
great a striving (cf. ii,ywvi^oiievos, 1. 2g) I have, how greatly I strive. (This
seems to refer chiefly, if not entirely, to an internal striving.) virjp 4|ji«v —
KaV Twv Iv AaoSiK^^ (AaoSiKE^a, Alf., Ell., Tit^.),for you (Colossians) and
those in Laodicea (a neighboring city, exposed to like dangers from teach-
ers of false doctrines). — Kal (sc. TrivTiev) 6'croio4x tiipaKov (kiipaKav, Lach.,
Tisch. 7th edit., Alexandrian for Att. ecopaKoo-i) ktI., and (in
Treg., et al.,

fact) for as many as (for all who) have not seen my face in the flesh. This
evidently implies that the Colossians and Laodiceans had not seen Paul j

and there is no statement elsewhere contradicting this view. Though


they must have known the character and doctrines of Paul very well, they
had not known him, as we S3.y, personally ; and this is what iv aapxt
naturally means.

Vv. 2, 3. tva irapaKXT|6u(riv (iropaicaAea)) ktI., in order that their hearts


may be Xva, w. aySiva tx'A'
comforted (connect Always bear in mind the
full meaning of irafaKoKim, which no one English word expresses espe- ;

cially the meaning, to exhort, to encourage. The Christians in Colossae


and Laodicea would need exhortation and encouragement, in thei; pres-
ent exposure to the influences of heretical teachers, not less than conso-
lation. — irvp,pipa(r6^VTEs (fr. (rvfi$i$<i(a> ; the particip. agrees w. the logical
subj. of the verb, the persons referred to. Cf. Eph. 4. 2) : iv ttY<iir|i, ieitig
brought together, united, in love ; particip. denoting manner or means.
The metaphor, knit together, is not in the original. — Kal eI$ ttov irXoOros

CHAPTER 11. 4-7. 67

ktL, a change of const, from the element in which to the state into which ;
being united in love and
(entering) into all (the) wealth, all riches, of the
full asswrance of understandittg : " um durch jene Vereinigung in den
Besitz dieses ganzen Reichthums zu gelangen," (in order to come into the
possession of this entire wealth through that union). " Koi connects the eV-
relation of avfiPiPair- with the eij- relation." Meyer. els eirC-yvuo-iv /ere., —
parallel const, w. els irav ttKovtos, knowledge of the mystery
ifzto a (definite)

of God, [even) Christ {Xpiarov appos. w. rov fivaTT)piov). This clause


presents the one grand object for the exercise of the human understand-
ing. Cf. I. 26 ff. — iv iS (refers most naturally to Xpiffrov) ktc., in whom
are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge hidden away. He who has
come into a definite, distinct, knowledge of Christ is ushered into the
midst of all these treasures. On the words aotpias and yvt^ffeus, cf.
Rom. II. 33, note.

V. 4. Toiro Xeyu, This (verses 1-3) I say. Bear in mind the situation
of these churches, with tendencies to ascetic and theosophic ideas, and to
that incipient Gnosticism which afterwards became more fully developed
into dangerous and strange forms of heresy. See Alford's Introduction
to this Epistle. — tva . . . irapoXo'yCJeTai (irapd, aside ; Xoyi^ojxai w. ace,
to lead by reasoning) Iv TnOavoXo'yCa, that no o-ne, in using persuasive, plaitsi-
ble reasoning, may lead you aside, astray, by reasoning ; a plain reference
to the heretical teachers, who sought by plausible speech to undermine
the teachings and the influence of Paul. iiidaxoXoyia only here in N. T.-;
only once besides, in Jas.
jropoAffy/^ojuoi i. 22. Both occur in classic
Greek, yet very rarely.
v. 5. el Yop . . . &irei|Xi, For if I am absent, or though T am absent as it

regards the flesh, i. e. though I am absent in body : Kal emphasizes tt) {rapKt

(L. & Sc. Kal, B. 2), not easily rendered: tj aapRl, dat. of reference.
dXXa ri irvEil|Ui,Tt aim i|iiv eljiC, yet as it regards the spirit, in spirit, T am
with you (in company with you). —
x<^'p''<' ^al |3\«r(i>v, refoicing and seeing.

The first particip. denotes simply the relation of time ; the second, the
causal, as well as temporal, relation. — {ijiuv (emphat. posit., suggesting
a contrast vrith other churches) rt|v rdjiv, your order. Though the Co-
lossians were assailed by heretical teachers, yet it appears that their order,
their discipline, merited this commendation. — Kal to trrepeufjia fa later

Greek word; often in the LXX : only here in N. T. : fr. ar^piis, firm,
hard, solid ; tTTepeooj, to make firm, or solid; (STip^uifLa, that 'which has been
made firm, or solid ) 1-1)5 els Xp- irioTeois {i|u>v, the fcut that your faith in

Christ has been made firm, approaches very near the idea
solid : crrepfa/ia

of the abstract ffTepeSrijs, and may be rendered the frmness, stedfastness


(cf. the rendering of vttohovIi in the R. V.) etc. eis Xp-, the person into ;

whom attention is directed, into whom our faith enters.

Vv. 6, 7. From the warning and commendation above, the exhortation


68 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
here given. — 'lis (denoting manner) oJv . . . irepiiraTetTe, As therefore ye
received (an accomplished fact) Christ Jesus the Lord (a solemn and em-
phatic expression; not elsewhere in N. T.),walk (pres. tense; continued,
habitual, action) in him (" as the sphere and element of your Christian
course." Ell.). — 4ppi^a)|ji^voi. (^i^oa) Kal ^oiKoSa|ju>i))i€voi (^t-oj/co5o;i€u)
Iv avTu Kal PcPaiov)i.Evoi [Pe0ai6a) t^ Trlcrra, having been rooted and being
(continually) built up in him, and being (continually) made firm in respect
to the faith, or in your faith. Note that ippiCf/iffot is perf., implying an
action finished : the other two participles are pres., implying an action
continued. The being
built up and made firm are a progressive work.
The composition suggests the idea of the foundation.
iTT- in KaSiliS eSi- —
8dxflTiT« (5i5oo-kib) even as, fust as, ye were taught, when you first received
the gospel. Their progress was to consist in being built up in Christ and
made firm in the faith; not in modifications of their earliest teachings.—
•n-€picr<r€ioVTes ev and above), abounding
tixapwrrtq. (being vepuraos, over
in thanksgiving. can see no reason whatever for making this clause
I
subordinate to ^cPatoi/ifvoi, as some understand it. The const, and thought
are coordinate with the preceding participles. All are alike and equally
important.

V. 8. A more specific exhortation in view of the dangers surrounding


the Colossians. — p\iiren (i.^ tis kt4.. Beware lest there shall be some one
carrying you off" as plunder, as spoil, or as booty (Lex. (ruAo-ywyeo?). The
fut. subjunc, presents the danger more vividly, expresses
iaTai, St. the
more distinctly a solicitude lest such cases may actually occur and the :

article b before av\a-ftirfSiv presents the dangerous person as definite.


Winer, § i8, 3, fine print. — Sio, Tfjs (|>iXo(ro()>{as Kal Kevfjs diroTns, through
philosophy, or through his philosophy and vain
means by which deceit : the
they were in danger of being carried off as spoil. Note one prep, and
article w. both nouns, thus uniting the two more closely, the latter noun
serving to define the former. The reference can hardly be to the Grecian
philosophy in its best forms, but to the mingled Judaistic speculation and
Gnostic theosophy which prevailed especially among the Phrygians in
the first century. Cf. Eph. 5. 6. —
Kard ri[v TrapdSoo-iv r&v dvB-, according
to the tradition of men. Does
this describe more fully the clause imme-
diately preceding, or does go with the verb ? The former is the com-
it

mon view the latter is the view of Alf., Ell., Meyer carrying you off as
; :

spoil by means of. according to etc. Either const, is grammatical and log-
. .

ical : the former view is, I think, likely to prevail still (cf. Braune). Kard —
rd (TTOixeta tou Kdo-fiou Kri., according to the rudiments, the elementary
principles, of the world and not according to Christ. This clause further
explains the one preceding it. Cf. Gal. 4. 3, note : not according to Christ.

"Christ himself, the personal Christ, was the substance, end, and norma
of all evangelical teaching." Ell.
CHAPTER II. 9-12. 69

Vv. 9, 10. Reason for the foregoing warning, ending with the words,
and not according to Christ. — on ev airco KaroiKEt, because in him (i.e.

in Christ) dwells. Note the force of the pres. tense, dwells, "now and
evermore." Ell. —
irav to irXrjpcuijLa ttjs 9e4TT]TOS, all the fulness of the
Godhead, all the fulness of the divine nature. C£. I. 19. The distinction
of Alf., Ell., Meyer, Braune, et al. between 6e6Tris and 6ei6TTis (the former
from Be6s, denoting the actual essentia of the divine nature ; the latter
from flcios (adj.), denoting the qtialitas of the divine character, the divine
attributes ; the former, deltas ; the latter, divinitas) may, or may not, have
been in the inind of the writer. It is not observed, as Ell. states, in the
Coptic, Syriac, Aethiopic versions, nor in the Vulgate nor is it made ;

in L. & Sc. (7th edit.) ; N. T. eeioTTjs only


OeSruis occurs only here in the ;

in Rom. i. 20 rh diiov in Acts 17. 29 (translated the Godhead, R. V.).


;

o-ca|iaTiKus, bodily, in bodily form, i. e. in the now glorified body of Christ.
Cf. Phil. 3. 21. —
Kal im\ kv ovtu ircirXi]p(D)u'voi, and (because) ye are in
him made full. Cf Eph. . note Col. i. 9, note,
3. 19, os etrriv ^ K«())aX'f|
; —
head of every sovereignty and authority, suggests
KT6., Tvho (or since he) is the

a very important reason for seeking their fulness from this source, and
the folly of seeking it anywhere else.

Vv. II, 12. Their complete consecration to Christ and to him alone
presented figuratively by a reference to the initiatory ordinance of the
Jewish church and then by a reference to the actual fact, without any
;

figure, of their baptism by which they were buried with Christ and
;

raised with him. —


4v ci Kal -rifMry.i^^t {irepi-Teuva) kt4., in whom ye
were also circumcised with a circumcision made without hand (i.e. a spirit-
ual circumcision, in contrast with that of the flesh). Note the aor. tense,
an accomplished fact hence, the absurdity of the demand by the Juda-
:

izing teachers, that they should be circumcised. Iv t^ dir£K8ila-ei — ; . .

Iv T^ irepiTojifj K-ri. (two additional clauses, describing the nature of


the circumcision which they had received), in the futtiizg off of the body
of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; "the body of the flesh" (as
the seat of sinful passions). Cf. Rom. 6. 6. nrh a5iii.a ttjs afiaprlas :
" the

circumcision of Christ," i. e. such as he requires, such as belongs to


Christianity. How strikingly is all this in contrast with the mere physi-
cal circumcision, the Jewish conception. Cf. Rom. 2. 28, 29. — otivto-
<J)^VTes {<TvyBiirT<i)) ktI., having been buried with (him) in baptism, or in
your baptism- — «v S KaV OT)VTi\4p9T)Te, in which ye were raised also (i. e.
raised as well as buried) with (him). The reference of ^ to fiaTTTla-fiaTt
seems to me more natural both grammatically and logically. So O. V.,
B. U., R, v., Alf., Ell., Beza, De Wette, Hofm., et al. The reference of
$ to XpttTTov is preferred by Meyer, Braune, Eadie, et al., in whom ye
were also raised together etc. "There seems no reason to doubt (with
Eadie) that both here and in Rom. 6. 4 there is an allusion to the Kara-
70 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.

Svffis and andSva-ts in Baptism." Ell. " Das Untergetauclitwerden in der


Taufe, nach seiner Aenlichkeit mit dem Begrabenwerden, ist, da die Taufe
in die Gemeinschaft des Todes Christi versetzt (Rom. 6. 3), ein Mitbe-
grabenwerden mit Christo." (The becoming immersed in baptism, by
its resemblance to becoming buried, is, since baptism places (one) in

participation with the death of Christ, a being buried with Christ.)


Meyer. — 8id rijs -irCoTtws, through faith^ or throtigh your faith (Alf. ).
The mere outward ceremony of baptism, without faith on the part of the
recipient, is nowhere spoken N. Ti as signifying or availing
of in the
anything. — working of God who
rfjs Ivep^ttas (object, gen.) kt^., in the

raised him from the dead. The mighty power of God was signally ex-
hibited in raising Christ from the dead (cf. Eph. i. 19, 20). Our faith
in this power is requisite to make the outward act of baptism of any
spiritual significance. The words, who raised him from the dead, are
added "to give a sure and certain pledge of the almighty tvipyna. of
God, both in the present vivification to new life and the future vivifi-
cation to glory." Ell.

V. 13. After stating the fact in verse \2,ye were raised with (him), the
writer here dwells on this astonishing fact in its attendant circumstances
and with a more direct application. — Kal v|ias vsKpois irro.%. And you,
being dead (when you were dead). — rots irapanTciiiairiv kte. (note the
omission of iv), through, by reason of, your trespasses and the uncircum-
cision of your flesh ; a reference to their very degraded condition before
conversion. — onJv€^o>oiroCT]o-ev [av^taoTFoUa) v|ias ^v avru, you (I say)
he quickened, made alive (spiritually), together with him ; the prep. <rvii in
compos, w. the verb and also before the case governed, a frequent idiom.
Win. § 52, 2, a i/ias expressed twice with emphasis. The very impor-
:

tant question arises here, what is the subj. of <rvve(aoTolri<rev} Is it

Xpurros, or 0tis ? The latterseems to me the correct view. So Alf.,

Meyer, Braune, Riddle, et al. Thus the following participles, x"?'"'"-


fjLepos, ^|aAe(^as, irpotnjAcitroy, ctTreKSva-d^svos, all refer naturally to the
same {6e6s). — x<^P''<'^K'^°^ (X'^p'fo/'"". X^P") ^^'^ irdvra kt4., having
freely forgiven (as an act of x^P^A "^ i^tl <""" trespasses. On the deriva-
tion and exact meaning of vapiirTai/ia and irapaffatrts, see Rom. 5. 15,
note. The aor. both in the indie, and in the particip. denotes an accom-
plished fact. Whether the one preceded the other, or whether the two
were synchronous, is not determined grammatically. The action of the
particip. is here usuallyviewed as antecedent to that of the verb. So
Ell., Meyer, et al. Note here ri/uv, st. ifiTi', the writer thus including
himself and all believers. Note also that the word, all (itcu'to), goes
with trespasses. For the same statement oi free forgriiness, cf. Eph. 4. 32,
where iv Xpio-r^ is added. In Col. 3. 13, free forgiveness is predicated of
Christ.

CHAPTER II. 14. 71

V. 14. wiped out, effaced ("as a boy iiiipes


c^oXctil'as {((aXelipa) /laving
out a sum he has done wrong." &
Sc). I do not like the meta-
L.
phor having blotted out. No blot, no trace, remains visible when G^d
has wiped out all that was written against us. Cf. Acts 3. 19, Rev. 3. 5.
The act here described is regarded as synchronous w. that of x<'P""'-
fievos (A]£., Ell., Braune) as antecedent to it (Me)'er, Riddle).
: The
aor. particip. may be viewed either way (cf. note on x«P'fl'ttMcoJ) verse
13). It denotes in itself simply an accomplished fact, and that is enough
for us to know That is all probably which the writer had in mind.
!

TO Ka9* T||xuv X€ipd'Ypa4J>ov, t/ie note of hand, the bond, {standing) against
us. —TOls SdYiiao-iv may be viewed in different ways (a) as " that in ;

which the t6 Kad' rjiiSiv (the hostile aspect or direction) of the bond
was specially evinced" (Ell.), by its ordinances, by the points which liad
been determined. These points had been previously determined, put
in writing, and were still valid against us. The figure seems thus to
be borrowed from ordinary business transactions, (b) The dat. may be
viewed as denoting the contents of the Iiandwriting, the handwriting in
decrees (Alf.); the handwriting of ordinances (Braune). (c) Instrumental

dat., denoting also the contents of that which was written and the out-
ward form (Meyer). Either one of these constructions is certainly pos-
sible grammatically and the leading thought is substantially the same.
;

The ri x^'P^yp'^'l""' represents the law


. . . as a whole, written on tables
of stone with the finger of God. The tois Soyimaiv the points which
were settled, determined, in the law of which the law consisted. I :

think the two ideas of (a) and (b), repeated substantially in (c), are both
contained in the condensed original expression thus, the bond consist- ;

ing offoints that were settled; and standing against us in these points, in
respect to these points, or by these poi7its. —S ^v uirevavrCov T||itv, which
was contrary to us, hostile to us (spoken of enemies in battle drawn up
in opposite ranks. Thucyd., Xen.) ; repeats more definitely the idea in

which means against us legally ; but xm^vavTiov iiiitv, opposed to


KoS' TiiiHv,
us as an enemy in battle : 8 relates to the combined idea of the preceding
clause. —
Kal airb (referring to the same as 8) ^pKev (atpa) Ik toij (leo-ov,
and has takett it from the midst, out of the way. — irpoo-riXM<ras {irpoar-T^^iui)

avrb T(3 o-ravpio, nailing it to the cross. God took the Mosaic law out of
the way and nailed it to the cross : a most startling statement, especially
to the Jewish mind. What does it mean ? To confine the idea to the
"ceremonial law " (Ritualgesetz), or to the "moral law" (Sittengesetz), is

opposed to the connection and not Pauline (unpaulinisch). We are to


understand the law as an integral whole (Meyer). What then are we
to conclude from the entire statement? Simply this, I think, that "the
law," viewed as a system, the entire Mosaic system, was now done away,
and supplanted by another system, that of the gospel so that we are ;

12
72 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
"not under law, but under grace." Rom. 6. 14. This, however, by no
means implies that we are released from moral obligations, or that the
requirements of the gospel are less distinct, or less stringent, than those
of the law. Cf. the entire argument of Paul in Rom. 6. i ff. Ellicott's

statement of the meaning of the passage before us is this: "That in


Christ's crucifixion the curse of the law was borne, and its obligatory
and condemnatory power, its power as a x^^phP'^'P'"' '"'^' W"". was for-
ever extinguished and abrogated." Cf. Kom. 7. 6, 10. 4, 2 Cor. 3. 6 ff.,
Gal. 3. 13. The participles i(,a\ei^as and irpoaTjAiiffas may be viewed as
denoting the mea>is in connection w. ^pxev. Whether the action which
they denote was synchronous with that of the verb, or antecedent to it,

is really a question of secondary importance.

V. d7rcKSvo-d|j[«vos (dir-f/t-Suo/iai, to strip off from one's self, ox for


15.

one's self)ras oipxds Kol rds e|ouir£ttS, having despoiled the primipalities
and the powers (or the sovereignties and the authorities, cf. verse 10). See
note on the subj. of avvf^uioTroif\afv, verse 13. I understand, by the princi-
and the paiaers, those of evil, of darkness all that has opposed the
palities :

kingdom of God. At the moment when they supposed they had triumphed
in the death of Christ on the cross, they were effectually despoiled, stripped
of their regalia. — eSci'Y)i.dTi.cr£v (Zfiyy.arifys) hi irapptiirC^i, he (fleffs) made
a show of [them], exhibited (them), openly, with boldness (Ell. Cf. Eph. 6.
19). —6pia)i.pev(ras (8pia/i$eia), Sptafiffos, akin to Lat. iriumphus) av-
Tovs (masc, referring to the persons implied in -riis ipx^^ ktI.) Iv avru,

having triumphed, or triumphing, over them in it (i. e. in the cross, as


the sphere of triumph). The action of the particip. here certainly seems
contemporaneous with that of the verb avTois, direct obj. of dpia/ifi-.
:

This entire passage is one of unusual difiSculty, and of course a great


variety of opinions may be found in the commentaries. I have not aimed
to present them all, but only such as seemed to me to give the true con-
struction and meaning.

V. 16. oiv, Therefore; since you stand on far higher ground than that
of the law. — Vi\ oSv tis i|ids KpivCTU, Let no one therefore judge you ; the
introduction of a topic of great practical importance at that time. Let
no one decide for you, or sit in judgment on you. —
hi (the particular in
which judgment might be passed) Ppuo-ei i^ hi irdcrei, in eating or in
drinking, i. c. in respect to that which you may, or may not, eat or drink.
A distinction between the endings -o-is (the act) and -fna (the thing done),
ill 0pai<Tis, $pa>fia, and Troffit, ir6/ia or iriifia, seems not to have been very

rigidly observed so that we may render here, in meat or in drink (R. V),
;

in food or in drink (B. U.). As the Mosaic law forbade certain kinds of
food (Lev. 7. 10 ff.), but not of drinks, except in special cases to Naza-
rites and Priests (Num. 6. 3, Lev. 10. 9), it would appear that the false

teachers, in their asceticism, went beyond the requirements of the law. —


;

CHAPTER II. 17, 18. 73

Iv (le'pti lopTtis ktI., in respect (cf. Cor. 3, 10, 9. 3) of a feast, or a new


i.

moon, or a sabbath day. Note that ai,^^a.-rov and ad^^ara, sing, and
plur., are both rendered in the N. T. by the word sabbath, and the word
week; iv lifpet, in the matter (Ell.), in the category (Meyer). The exhorta-
tion does not imply a discontinuance o£ a proper sabbath observance any
more than the discontinuance o£ food and drink. All are in the same
const, iv w. the dat. Let no oiu judge you in food, or in drink, or in respect

of a feast day or a new moon or a sabbath day. It appears that the Judaiz-
ing teachers, in their ascetic tendencies, were jjrescribing rules on all
these points, which the apostle did not approve of. The expression of
this disapproval is all that the verse means. It is one of the first clear
notes sounding forth in the world " liberty of conscience.'' In respect to
the perpetuity and proper observance of the sabbath, the words of our
Lord should never be forgotten. Mark 2. 27. The sabbath was made for
man (St^ rbi/ &v6puTrov, on account of the iium-an being) and not man (6 av-

Bpamos, the human being) for the sabbath [on accoU7tt of the sabbath). One
day of rest in seven, whether we call it first or seventh, is needful to man
from his very constitution. This is implied in the words of our Lord.
This is what they really signify. It should also be added that this one
day of rest in seven is not a Jewish or Mosaic institution but dates back ;

to the creation. It belongs to the entire race of mankind. Cf. Gen.


2. 1-3. In the long run, this sabbath rest, of one day in seven, seems
not less important to the preservation of health than proper food and
drink. In what way the hours of this day may be spent most profitably,
with the greatest benefit to one's own spiritual life, and with the highest
honor to our Lord, the truly Christian man will usually have little
doubt.

V. 17. & lo-Tiv o-Kud KTe., which things, referring to all the particulars
just named ; but more especially perhaps to the religious observances, —
an annual feast (lopr^), a monthly festival (j'ou/iei'iet), a weekly sabbath
rest {trajS^ara), are a shadow of the things to come, of the things about
to be, — rb 8^ <r(op,a toO XpwTTOi), sc. ia-riv, but the body, the substantial
reality (the actual food and drink, the realization of the festivals, the soul
rest of the sabbath day) is Christ's, beiongs to Christ, to Christianity.
Cf. Jno. 4. 13, 14, Heb. 4. 9. In him all the types and shadows had
their fulfilment. Heb. 8. 5, 10. i. If, st. a iariv, we read 3 iariv, a
less probable reading, 8 might refer to aa^^irav, which, though plur. in
form, is sing, in idea ; or, as Meyer thinks, to all the things mentioned in
verse 16, viewed as one whole.

v. 18. Warning against a further danger. — |jit]SeIs (the usual Attic


ViJord, not essentially different from /ij> . . . tij, verse 16) in&s Kara-
P,:)a|3€iiETii> (only here in N. T., and once in classic Greek, in Dem.
from KBTti, against, and ppafiivw, to act as a ;8po/3eus, an mnfire, arbi-
74 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS
trator, a judge who assigned the prizes at the games), let no one, assum-
ing the office of $pa$cvs, decide against yoit^ and thus deprive yon of your
prize, let no man beguile you of your reward (Ell.), defraud you of your
prize (Al£., B. U.)i rob you of your prise (R. V.). The 0pa0e7ov in
question was salvation through Christ, or carrying out the figure in
j8pa/3eus, the crown of life (Jas. i. 12), theamaranthine crown of glory
(I Pet. 5. 4). — BtXuv agrees \v. ^uijSeis, and may be connected closely
ill thought w. KaTa/3pci/3EU€Ta), Let no one of purpose defraitd you etc.
(Alf.) ; or it may go with what follows, desiring {to do it) in humility
(element in which, means by which, Meyer) ; or, still connecting
Ell., or

it with what follows, may, by a Hebraism, be rendered (c£. ^Bih-rsmv,


it

was pleased, i. 27), having pleasure in humility etc. Hence we derive


the rendering, by a voluntary humility etc. So Braune et al. All of these
constructions are of course possible. That of Meyer and Ell. seems
most in accordance with Greek usage, and suits the Connection. It is the
view of Theod., Theoph., Calvin, Huther, Butt. (N. Test. Gram.), et al.
Thus, Let no man defraud you of your prize, desiring (to do it) in lowliness
etc. — €V Ttt'ir€LVo4>poo'tiv'n Kal OpTjtTKCt^ {OpTja-Keicf, Meyer et al.) twv dyye-
X(ijv (both datives under the regimen of one prep., thus uniting them
closely together in thought) in lowliness of mind and worshipping of the
angels ; tendencies which prevailed, especially among' the Gnostic sects, in
those portions of Asia Minor ;
perhaps not yet extinct. Cf. Conybeare
in loco. — S. i<ipaK€v f(i.|3aTeii<Dv (agrees w. fxifish), particip. denoting man-
ner or means w. BtKmv, by entering upon, or as we say, dwelling upon (and
recounting) the things which he has seen, the visions which he has had, de-
scriptive of a fanatical dreamer. The reading & ^u); i6fa,Ktv (or kdifoxai),
w. the neg., is not generally adopted, and does not suit the connection so
well. — cIkt) i|>v(ri.oiJ|jLcvos (ipvai6o)jiai.) ktc., same const, w. the preceding
clause, and more fully defining it, being 7'ainly pttffed up by the mind of his
flesh, by his fleshly mind (R. V.), the higher intellectual nature in the pos-
session of, and controlled by, the lower physical nature.

V. 19. Kal o4 Kparmv t^v K£<|)aXifiv, states further in a negative form


the thought in ft . . . ifi^aTiimv, entering upon the visions which he has had
. . . and not (note the neg. ou, a positive denial) holding with a firm grasp
{KpaTar, fr. KpdTos) the head (i. e. Christ, the source and only source of
hope and salvation). — i^ o5 (referring to the idea in riiv Kf(pa\Tiii, i.e. Tbi»

Xpi(rr6v),from, out from, whom. Meyer views o5 as neut., referring to the


idea implied in the preceding clause, and renders ^| oS woraus, whence,
i. e. by holding firmly to the head. It is rather a grammatical than a logi-
cal question, since the thought remains substantially the same. — irdv rh
(rd>|ia, all the body, the church as a whole, carrying out the metaphor in
T^i* Kfij>a\-ljir. No member of the body is excepted, or can expect its sup-
ply from any other source. — Sid. twv a<j>uv . rvvpi^ald^uvov, being
. .

CHAPTER II. 20-22. 75

supplied and compacted, knit tb^ether (ef. note Eph. 4. 16) throuok the
nerves (or joints, cf. note on acp^, Eph. 4. 16) and bands. — aS^ei t^v ai!-

{•qo-iv grows with the growth (lit., as cognate ace, grows the
ToS 6cov,
growth] of God, i.e. which God supplies (gen. of source; Braune, El).,
Meyer, et al. not, however, to the exclusion of the idea, which God
;

requires and approves; quod Deus probat, Calvin Kori B^iv, Chrys.). ;

Vv. 20, 21. Ei dire6dv€T€ xre , Ifye died (aor., an actual accomplished
fact) with Christ. Cf. verse 12. After the warnings in verses 16-19, the
apostle returns, enforcing these warnings, to the thought that the believer
died with Christ (verse 20) and with him rose from the dead to a new life,
(cf. 3. 1-4). — dirb T(5v OTOi\€Ca»v toO k.6u^v, froifi {o.tt6, away from ;
not the same idea w. ix or ^{, otit/rom, source, origin, cf. e| o5, sup.) the
rudiments, or elements (cf. verse 8, note), of the world: "from ritualistic
observances and all non-Christian rudiments which in any way resembled
them" (Ell.). Cf. the declaration in verse 14. tC los S<ivT6s ev K6o-|ia>

8o-Y|iaT£^€(r6€, "why, as if living in the world (in its sphere of thought and
principles), as were not a fact that ye died with Christ and were re-
if it

moved from why are ye subjected, or why do ye


the elements of the world,
subject yourselves, to ordinances, to dogmas (such as the following) Soyiwri- :

(ecsBi may be viewed as mid. (so Ell., Braune, and the most), or as pass,

(so Alf., Meyer, et al.) the difference is not important.


: y.i\ &i|/t] ^rfii —
•yeucTT] (1T|8^ OCyrjs, do not Jmndle, nor taste, nor toitch : ai/rt fr. airru, and

yevari fr. yevu, are aor. mid. subjunc. 2 pers. sing. ; Biyris fr. Biyyava, is

aor. act. subjunc. 2 pers. sing. Note the force of yti^ w. the aor. subjunc,
do not (in a single instance) handle, nor etc. Observe that this is given as
a specimen of the dogmas which the false teachers endeavored to force
on the Colbssian church. What the particular application of these prohi-
bitions was, we are not informed ; very probably to articles of food and
drink and the ceremonial observances connected with them (cf. verse 16).
It seems unfortunate that these words have in our day been taken so com-
pletely out of their original connection, and used for a purpose so totally
different from that which the apostle had in mind. The precepts of an-
cient false teachers are not needed in any way in carrying on one of the
most important moral reforms of our time.
V. 22. & lo-riv irdvTtt . . . d7ro\p^(reL, which things are all to perish
{lit. for destruction) with the using ; —a parenthetical and explanatory re-
mark of the apostle respecting the objects referred to in the precept just
cited ; indicating that these objects deserve no such prominence in reli-
gious instructions as the false teachers gave them. — Kara rd lvTd\(iaTa
. . . ttv9pc6w<i>v ; according to the precepts [injunctions, commandments] and
doctrines of men ? (Note the interrogation point at the end of this clause,
which is to be connected closely in thought with ti . . . Soy/ioTifeirSe.
Thus the question begun with t/ ends with avBpiirav. Other construe-
"]& NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
been advocated but the one indicated is now
tions o£ the sentence have ;

They had died and been buried with Christ, with


generally preferred.)
him had risen to a new life quite removed from the rudiments of the
world and yet were now tempted and inclined to return to these rudi-
;

ments, — the precepts and doctrines of men. How plainly all this would
show them their imminent danger I

V. 23. Descriptive of the rh ^ctcIa/xoto ktI. just mentioned. — drivi


(So-Tij) eoTiv Xd-yov Which things (all which things. Ell.)
. . . cro<t>Cas,

have [are having) a show, an appearance, of wisdom (the repute of 7visdom,


Ell., a reputation indeed of wisdom, Alf.). Note that (i.iv here stands
without a following 8e. — 4v IfleXoBpTiCKl^ (ox -Kilo), in self-imposed wor-
ship (Ell, ^r3.\me), in a worship pleasijig to one's self (ci. ihe loice of ^9e'-

\7](r(V in I. 27, and of Si\ciiv in 2. 18), or chosen by one's self, self-chosen

(B. U.) ; not appointed of God, or pleasing to Him. The word occurs
only here in N. T. I question whether the word, will^worship, conveys
any very definite or correct idea to most persons. —
Kal Ta'irei.vo(f>po<nJvT|
Kal di)>ciS(f o-(a|xaTos (both datives in the same const, w. iSeKodprtaKia,
governed by one prep. hence, all : belong to the same category all are ;

descriptive of an ascetic life), and lowliness of 7nind, and unsparing treat


tnent of the body ; humiliation, and neglecting of the body (B. U.) ; humil-
ity, and severity to the body (R. V.). — ovk bi ti.(i.^ rivl (accented by Tisch.,
W-H.; not by Meyer, Ell., Alf., Braune) irpbs irXTio-iiov^v Tfjs o-opKiSs.

Of the many renderings, that of the R. V. seems to me decidedly preferable.


It does no violence to the meaning of any word, and suits the connec-
tion (but are) not of any value (or honor ; lit. in any, with an emphasis on
:

any) against the indulgence of the flesh. The punctuation of Tisch. and
W-H. agrees with this rendering : Trpo'j, in relation to, in regard to, against,
a frequent meaning: vXtia-fxovfjy, a Jilling up, a satisfying, an indulgence,
made definite by the limiting gen., the indulgence : t^s aapKis, more ex-
pressive here than -rov a-iS/iaTos, as denoting the lower propensities : ti//^,
in the sense, price, worth, value, is not unusual. Cf. L. & Sc.

Chap. III. (See General Outline.)


V. I. El oBv <n)vi]7ip9i]T6 ra XpioTco. /f (it is a fact) therefore (olv
with reference to the fact stated in 2. I2 ; and again implied in 2. 20) (thai)
ye were raised together with Christ (i. e. in baptism, 2. 12). Do we reflect
enough on the truth and deep significance of such expressions as this? —
rd dvci) ^T)T£iTt, seek('ptiti. imperat.),fe i« the habit of seeking,tli{ things that
are above ; contrasted in verse 2 w. ri ^irl t^j 7^1, — oJ 6 Xpio-rds hmv . . .

Kaeifj|icvos, where Christ is, sitting at, or seated £»/ ( R. V. ) the right
, hand of
God : presents the exaltation of the risen Redeemer, and a motive to seek
those things which are above, in order to be with him.
;

CHAPTER III. 2-s. "JJ

V. 2 Emphatic repetition and expansion of the preceding. — rd 4vci>

<^pov£iTE, Have in mind, oi* keep in mind {habitually)^ the things that are
atffve. " Set
your mind on" (R. V.) would rather be expressed by the
aor. imperat., I think, than by the pres. |j.^ to lirl Tijs yf\s, not the —
things that are upon the earth ; the contrast expressed with empliasis the :

things that are upon the earth, i. e. worldly possessions and pursuits. These
are not to fill the mind. The true Christian knows how to attend to all
worldly duties, while he keeps in mind the things that are above. What an
infallible test have we here of Christian character I

V. 3. aireBdvert (no longer in a conditional form, but the statement of


an actual fact) ^dp (presents the reason for the foregoing exhortation),
For ye died. Cf. 2. 12, 20. — koI i\ Jiirf| " in the
6|iuv, a7id your life: " life
highest sense, that which is beyond the reach of death; "your real
life

and true life Note how often the word fm^ occurs in the N. T.
" (Ell.).

especially, in the writings of John, and of Paul also, what a new mean- ;

ing the word acquires. The idea is not to be limited, as some have done,
to the "resurrection life," that life on which we shall enter at the resur-
rection. The word here, as often elsewhere, means the new, spiritual life,
that we now as believers in Christ actually possess. — KeKpuirroi (Kp^TTTto)
... Iv Tip Bern, has been (and is) hidden with Christ in God ; " hidden,"
"its glory and highest characteristics are concealed from view" (Ell.);
"with Christ," the apostle could not conceive of li/e, in this highest
sense, apart from Christ " in God " (the sphere in which), certainly,
;

then, this " life " is safe, far beyond the reach of all enemies. What
could be a higher motive for keeping in mind the things which are
above ?
V. 4. 8tov . . . <|>avep(i>6j, i\ t,<i>f[ ifiuv, When Christ, your life, shall be
manifested (hi -w aor. subjunc, often
. = Lat. fut. perf.. Win. § 42, 3, b, shall
have been made plain, as an accomplished fact). The difference of read-
ing bet. vjlSiv and t]ix.S>ii is not important. Christ is here spoken of as
being the actual life of the believer ; in verse 3, that life is spoken of as
hidden with him in God. The two expressions mutually explain each
other. He is very naturally spoken of as our life, apart from whom we
have no life in this highest sense of the term. tots koI vftets, then you —
also (as well as Christ). Both subjects emphatic. — triv aiTu <|>avcpu6^-
o-€(r9€ €V 80^, with him. shall be manifested (shall be made plain) in glory.
Cf. 1 Jno. 3. 2, Rom. 8. 17. Of the glory of that manifestation, we can
now have no adequate conception. Cf. i Cor. 2. 9, what eye hath not seen
etc.; also Ps. 17. 15, I shall be satisfied ^ic.
V. 5. NeKpdo-aTe (imperat. aor., to denote an accomplished fact) oh)
(a conclusion fr. vv. 3, 4), Make dead, put to death, therefore. The word
" mortify " has now come to be used often in a sense so different that it is

no longer a good rendering of vfKp6a. — to. (i«Xi] to. tirl ttjs yfls, your

78 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
vtembcrs which are upon the earth. Certainly not to be understood in a
physical, but in a spiritual, sense (cf 2. ii). The same thought is con-
tained in I Cor. 9. 27, / keep my body under etc. Cf. also Rom. 7. 27,
I behold another law in my members etc.; also Rom. 8. 13, Gal. 5. 17, 24.
All these passages when compared enable us to understand the evident
meaning of the apostle here. That he has not in mind the life of the
ascetic, and does not approve of it, may be seen clearly enough in chap. 2.

23, and from the tenor of the whole epistle. —


to. 4wl Tfjs YHS, those [which

are) zipon the earth. The meaning of this clause is made plain by the same
expression used above, verse 2, and by the antithetical expression to, Sva.
It defines here ri /»f\7j. Paul elsewhere exhorts that the ri jiiXri be used
as instruments of righteousness (Rom. 6. 13) thus showing that the mem- ;

bers themselves per se are not to become yexpi, but only in their evil ten-
dencies, only as it respects their misuse. iropviCov kt4. These aces, —
still further define t4 ii4\ti, so as to make the meaning of the apostle un-

mistakable. They are usually viewed as in grammatical apposition.


Meyer suggests that Paul might have used his explanatory words Ac-yw St,
and /say, /mean; but omits them to make his sentence more compact
and striking. The first four words, proceeding from the specific to the
more general, describe the unchaste and voluptuous life of the heathen
world, fornication, uncleanness (cf. Rom. i. 24, Gal. 5. 19, 2 Cor. 12. 21.
Eph. 4. 19, 5. -t,), passion (Meyer cites here Plat. Protag. p. 352, A. tyt-

Taa-8at unb t^s TiSovrjs, Rom. j . 26, I Thess. 4. 5), ez'il desire (more general
than irdBos. Cf. Matt. 5. 28, iiriBviifiaai, to lust after ; in Rom. 7. 7, 13. 9,

rendered ccmeting, to covet), atui cwetousness (a having, or claiming, a larger


share; a grasping selfishness). Note w. this last word the article and the
conj. Kal, introducing an additional and distinct category ; and the (noto-
rious) cavetousness, avarice (//absucht, Meyer), grasping selfishness. Cf.
Eph. 4. 19, note. — ijris lo-rlv ttScoXoXoTpeCa, the which is, since it is, quippe
quae est (Meyer), idolatry, an idolatrous regard for riches, making property
one's idol, the god that one worships. Meyer speaks of covetousness, or
Can it anywhere be more marked
avarice, as especially a heathen trait.
and idolatrous than among the Jews of the present day, and in nominal
Christian nations? Is not the exhortation, vsKpiaaTc, put it to death, as
needful now as ever ?

Vv. 6, 7. & (refers to the


8i' sins just specified; not to )xf\ri (Bahr);
since not the members, but the sins, call forth God's anger) Epxerai i\

op-y^ ToB BtoB (note the omission here of M robs vlobs riis aireiBelas),

on account of which things the wrath of God [the anger of God, cf. Eph.
2. 3, 5. 6, notes) is coming; pres. indie, denoting the certainty of its ap-

proach. The inquiry, whether the writer means in.this life, or in the life
to come, is irrelevant. "Why should we limit the thought to either alone ?

'i'he fact, and that alone, is asserted. — iv ots KoV 4(j,eis mk., in which ye
CHAPTER III. 8-IO. 79

also (as well as the rest of the Gentiles) once walked (aor.)- The refer-

ence of ofr, omitting e'lrl rohs vlovs Kri., must be the same as that of a to
the sins just named. — 8t€ 4JfjT€ ktI., when ye were living (imperf.) in

these things (" the sphere of your existence and activities." Ell.) Trepiira-

TeTv, and fTji', w. iv, regularly denote participation in.

V. 8. vvv\ SI dirdBeo-Be {airo-T(e-niii) KaV ii(icts to, iravTO, But now


(emphat., in contrast with the former time) do ye also (as others who have
been converted from heathenism) /lut away (aor., put away at once as an
accomplished fact) all these things (referring to the same as iv Toirois, iv
oh. Si o) note itoi'to w. the article, making it definite and emphatic the
' ; ;

whole, all without exception: and to those grosser sins, chiefly of the
TO /i€\i), the apostle now adds, in the same grammatical const., others
of a different, but not less dangerous, character. — opyfiv 6v\i,hv KaKuiv
pXa<r4>T|)i.Cav ktc., anger, wrath (cf. verse 6, note ; also Eph. 4. 31, note),

malice (?), (or badness of heart (EH.), wickedness, baseness^), railing (or e^il
affirmation, defamation, slander), shameful speaking (or foul language) out
of your mouth : ix tov arSii- ufiay is logically connected w. the two substs.

preceding. Note that 0\a(Tctniiita means evil speaking in general, and is

not limited as in Eng. to the idea of blasphemy.


Vv. 9, 10. (i^ \|rcijSe(r66 els dX\T|Xovs, lie not (pres. imperat., do not
continue the habit of lying, formed in heathenism) to one another {els, di-

recting the thoughts and attention into the midst of etc.). — dirEKStio-djievoi

{an-fK-Siofiai) Tov iroXQiiv SvSpuirov, having taken off, or since you hajie
taken off (da ihr ausgezogen Jiabet, Meyer) the old man (a striking metaphor,
denoting their former condition, their former envelopment. Cf. Eph. 4.
22). — <riv Tttis irpo^KTiv ovtov, together with his doings, his practices. Cf.
the difference bet. iroia and Ttpaaaas, Rom. I. 32, 7. 15, notes. — Kal IvSv-
<rdfi€Voi (e»^5i5o^ai. Cf. a7r-e/c-5uo^ai) tov veov, sc. AvBpwjrov, and having put
on the new (man). — tov dvaKaivoiinevov (note the force of the pres. par-
ticip.), Tvho is being made Kcuf6s, new in kind, completely ne7o; who is being
renewed. — els eirt'yvwo'tv, unto, {entering) into, definite knowledge. What

' The two nouns and ffoinjpta, with the adjectives koxk and n-onjpo?, are not
Kaxi'o
easily distinguished and kokv; (opposed to avaflos, kaQ\6<;, Ka\6i) seem to be more
: icoxta
comprehensive than irovjjpia and iroiojpd? (opposed to xf"!'^'^^^, see L. & Sc) Kaxia. is :

usu. rendered in the N. T. (R. V.) malice ; in Rom. i. zg, Tnalicicmsness ; in Jas. i. 21,
and in i Pet. 2. \f>, 'wickedness, or malice; in Acts S. 22 wickedness ; in Matt. 6. 34, ,

ez'd. The word nudice, as it is now usually understood, in the sense, spite, is, I think,
too limited in its meaning. The word ivickedness, or baseness (L. & Sc. badness'^, seems
to me to represent more nearly the meaning of KtucCa: woiojpo? (more frequent in N. T.
than in classic Greek) is oftener rendered, evil; also, wicked. Bad: novripCa is usually
rendered wickedness ; in Acts 3. 26, iniquities. If both nouns, kokLo. and Tonjpi'o, are
used together for emphasizing the general thought, as in Rom. t. 29, 1 Cor. 5. 8, we may
perhaps render jeaxia (as the more general word), wickedness, and iroinjpla, vUlany, or
knavery (L. Sc). &
— ?

So NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
particular knowledge is here referred to cannot be doubtful (toO fleoS ual
Tav 6elav,T\ieo^h., of God and divine things). Kar' EiKova ktI. ("there —
can scarcely be a doubt that this clause is to be connected w. avaxtuvoiiie-
vov." Ell. it is to be taken w. €is iiriyvaxnv.
; Meyer. Why not with
both ? The renovation and the definite knowledge are both alike, and
equally, after the same likeness), according to the image, the likeness, of him
who created him (the new man). With this expression, cf. Eph. 2. lo, 3. 9,
4. 24.

V. II. oiroD, where, i.e. in the renewed state just described. — ovk
?vi, there is not, cannot be. Cf Gal.
. 3. 28, note.
— "EXXiiv Kal 'lovSatos,
Greek and Jew (a common classification in the N. T. of nations. Cf. Rom.
I. 16, note). No national distinction is possible. — irepiTon'f| Kal dxpo-
PvtrrCa, circumcision and tmcircumcisien ; no distinction on ritual or theo-
cratic grounds is possible. — pdpPopos, 2Kifli]S (the rudest of nations
then known) ; no distinction, no exclusion, on the score of civiliza-
tion. — 80BX0S, eXtiSepos, iond-sen'ant, freeman ; no social distinction.
dXXd TrdvTO . . . Xpitrros (emphatic posit.), hnt CHRIST is all and in all:
navTo. includes withemphasis the conception of persons. Cf. i Cor. 15.
28. Meyer refers to examples of the same idiom in classic writers. For
a similar and equally emphatic statement, see Gal. 3. 28 ; ending with the
words. For ye are all one (^i, one person) in Christ fcsus.
V. 12. 'Ev8i(ro<r9« (eV-Suo^uoi) oSv, Put on (aor. imperat., let it be an
accomplished fact) therefore (in view of the fact that you have put on the
new man, verse 10). —
ws ekXcktoI toO 0€ov, as God's elect, as chosen ones of

God (Ell.). —
fi-yioi Kttl fi'Yainiij.^voi. These words may be viewed as sub-
stantives in the vocative ; or as adjectives w. iKKtHrol ; (v-'ho are) holy
and beloved. The latter const, is usually preferred. The entire clause
beginning w. on suggests a powerful motive for putting on the Christian
graces next enumerated. —
oTrXd-yxva (neut. plur., the inward parts, the
viscera, as the seat of the affections, like our heart) olKripjiov (gen. of
quality), a heart of compassion (obj. of ivSiaaaBt). For the distinction
bet. %\€as and oiKTip/iSs, see Rom. 12. i, note. XPT"'<''"F'''> kindness, —
" benevolence and sweetness of disposition as shown in intercourse with

one another " (Ell.). For the use of xP'!'''t<Jt7)5, cf. Gal. 5. 22, Eph. 2. 7,
Rom. 2. 4, 3. 13, II. 32. —
TaircLvo^ipocriivTiv {Ta-n^iv6i, lorv, humble; <pp,

the initial consonants of (fip^r, mind; and the subst. ending a-ivri, ex-
pressing quality), lazoliness of tnind, humility (R. V.). irpaiJTrjTa — {Tpa.o%,

or irpoi/s, mild, gentle), gentleness, meekness. p.aKpo8v|i{av (/loKpiis, — 8un(is),

longstiffering, patientiam ( Vulg.). But what is the propriety of the exhorta-


tion, put on (as a garment) qualities of character which belong to the inner
man? Is not the apostle making use of a mixed, or improper, metaphor
Not at all. These qualities, belonging to and pervading the inner m.in,
are at the same time to become apparent, not hidden, secret, kept to one's
CHAPTER III. 13-IS. 81

self, if that were possible, but enveloping, as well as pervading, the entire
man; as conspicuous as the outer garment which one wears. This
seems to be the thought, the exhortation, of tire apostle. Is it not
important?
V. 13. (this clause and the following denote the
dysx'^ii""'"' a.^T|\(i)v
manner which the preceding exhortation is to be obeyed) forbearing
in :

one another^ beariiig up in relation to, being patient with, one another. Cf.
Eph. 4. 2. —
\aifi.'l,iyx\)a\. iavrovs, forgiving (as an act of X"P'*> showing

favor to) each other. Cf. Eph. 4. 32. Idv tis —


no|J.(|>'fiv (cf. iie^(tionai),
. . .

lit. if any one against any one have a cause of c<implaint, ground of blame

(Ell.). —
KaSibs Kal 6 XpioT^s . . Kal v|i»s, even as Christ forgave
.

(graciously, freely forgave )_)/«<, so do ye also. Cf. Eph. 4. 32, Koflii ko! 4
fleis iv Xp- ixaplo-aro i/jiiv, even as God in Christ etc. Cf. also ch. ;:. 13.

A comparison of these three passages shows most strikingly the unity in


action of the Father and the Son.

V. 14. Iirl irdnv Si toiItois, and ffver (Alf., Ell., B. U., Lange), above
(R. v.), all these (it is better, I think, to omit here the word things. So
B. U.). — Tf|v d'yolirnv, sc. ivHaaa6e, [put on) love; may perhaps be ren-
dered Christian love. Cf. ch. 1. verses 4, 8, Eph. 4. z. — 8 (note the neut.
St. TJ, or 5Jtis. Cf. ej ov, ::. 19), which act, viz. the putting on, over all the
graces above mentioned, Christian love. — iriiv8€<r(ios ttjs T€X€i<STr)Tos,

the bond (or the band, that which binds together) of perfectness (usually
viewed as gen. object.). The entire figure, beginning with cVSuo-aaSe,
verse 12, is consistent and forcible thus, put on the various graces men-
:

tioned then, over them, as a band holding them together and in their
;

place, put on Christian love, which is indispensable to perfectness.

V. 15. KaV ij Eip^ivT] ToO Xp- PpaPeiiei-(i>, And let the peace of Christ
(such as he imparts. Eph. 2. 14, Rom. 5. i) rule, arbitrate,
Cf. Jno. 14. 27,
be a ^pa0eiis. —
ev rais KapSlais {i|iwv, in your hearts. Outward relations
in this world may be far from peaceful ,but within, the true Christian ;


may have perfect peace. eis ^v Kal IkXtjOi^tc (/caXew), into which [peace),
into the possession of which, ye ivere also called. — ev evl (r(&p.ttTt, in one

body, i.e. so as to abide in one body. Cf. Eph. 2. 16, Rom. 12. 5, i Cor.
10. 17. — Kol iVfftj^\jiTTo\.-^lwrit, and [xai introduces an additional thought
of importance) become (indicating the duty of a constant growth) than/e-
fitl. The reference to the jjeace which Christ imparts, and to the divine
calling, naturally suggests this thought, which is especially frequent in
the writings of Paul. The word euxopiiTTia occurs 12 times in the epistles
of Paul ; only 3 times in the rest of the N. Test. He uses euxapio-reoi 25
times, the other N. T. writers but 15 times, eixaptaros occurs only here
in the N. T. The meaning amabilis, friendly, amiable, though occurring
in classic authors, is entirely foreign to the N. T. usage of the cognate
words ^vxcLpLffTia. and evxapta-Teo}.

52 NOTES ON COLOSSIAXS.
V. i6. The general exhortations, beginning with verse 12, are con»
eluded verses i6 and 17, with a reference to our only abiding safety
in

and guide; and to the manner of life which it enjoins. 6 Xayas tou —
Xpio-Tov, the word of Christ, " the word spoken and proclaimed by him -'
(Ell.). Cf. I Thess. 1. 8, 4. 15. — hoiKiiTu iv v\).iv irXovcrCus, kt it dwell
(pres. imperat., continue to dwell, dwell habitually) in you richly: irXovalus
has the emphat. posit, and is an expressive word. In whatever other
respects they might suffer from poverty, in the word of Christ they might
be rich ; and the same is always true. Whether iv v/uv means among you
(Luther, De Wette), or in your hearts, in animis vestris (Theod., Beza,
Olsh., Ell., et al ), or in you as a church (Alf., Meyer, et al.), seems to me
an unprofitable and irrelevant question. It may be viewed without doubt
in either of these three ways. Does it not then properly and forcibly
mean all three at once, — among you in all the relations of life, among
you your organization as a church, and within you, in your hearts and
in

minds.' That this is not pressing the meaning too far is evident from
the fact that all these various views have been taken by eminent schol-
ars. — £v irdo^g oro(|>C<;^, in all wisdom, that wisdom which belongs specially
to the Christian which the humblest Christian
life and experience, in

may often teach the profoundest philosopher. This clause seems more
naturally connected with the following, than with the preceding, words.
Cf. I. 28. — StSao-Kovres Kal vod0€tovvt€s ka.vTov% tecuhing ajid admonish-
ing (cf. I. 28, note) each other (cf. verse 13, iaurots, also Eph. 4. 32). Note
the anacoluthon in the const, of the participles, to give the thought which
they express greater prominence. Winer, § 63, 2, a. Cf. Eph. 3. 18, note.
— \|/aX|tOLS fi|J.vois uSais irveuiittTiKots, with psalms, hymns, spiritual songs
(cf. Eph. 5 19, note). It is not quite certain whether it is preferable to
connect these words logically with the preceding or the following. The
opinions of scholars seem to be about equally divided. Tisch. places a
comma both before and after the clause so also the B. U. version. The;

clause seems thus to have a more independent position in the sentence,


and its logical force may extend equally to what precedes and to what
follows. The punctuation of W-H. is as follows Let the word of Christ :

dwell in you richly in all wisdom ; teaching and admonishing each other
with psalms, hymns, spiritual songs in grace, singing in your hearts to God.
— iv T^ XOix-Ti-, Tisch., Meyer, Ell., Alf., Braune, Riddle, R. V., B. U.,
et al. connect this with what follows ; in grace, " refers to divine grace,
the element to which the singing was to be circumscribed" (Riddle).
aSovres kv rats KapSCais vr|iMV t<3 6ec5, singing in your hearts to God.

Whether this clause denotes an audible, or an inaudible, singing, is not


quite certain. Alf., Meyer, Riddle, et al. understand it to mean "in the
silence of the heart." Whether audible or inaudible, it denotes the sphere
in which the singing, the praise, should exist, and the person to whom it

CHAPTER III. 17-21. 83

should be directed. We are certainly not to understand the expression


simply of public worship. Few verses are more doubtful than this in
respect to grammatical details ;
yet the general thought, whatever we
may prefer as to grammatical arrangement, is clear and most important.
V. 17. Kol irav 8 Ti dv iroi4]T{ iv \6y<f i^ ev 'ipy<f (a most emphatic
expression), and everything whatsoever ye may do (pres. subjunc, may be
doing, or may at any time do) in word or in deed. irdvra (sc. iroieirt, —
pres. imperat., suggested by jroi^re) iv 6v6|UiTi Kvp^ov 'lT|(rov, (do) all
things in the name of the Lord Jesus; " in that holy and spiritual element
which name betokens." Ell., Meyer " in the life-sphere dearest to us,
his :

out of which we never go, the element which we cannot lack." Braane.
Cf. Eph. 5. 20, note. —
eixopwrroCvTes KTk., giving thanks to God the Father
through him. Cf. Rom. 1. 8, 7. 25. The Kal at the beginning of this verse
connects it with b \i-yos ivowflTa ktI., verse 16, Let the word of Christ
. . .

dwell in you richly, teaching etc. singing etc. and eiierything whatsoever
. . .

ye do etc. Cf note on xai in verse 1 5.


.

Vv. 18-4. I. Special precepts for the various members of the house-
hold. Cf Eph. 5. 22-6. 9.

Vv. 18, 19. At Y«vatK€s, 01 dvSpcs, voc. — {i-iroTdiro'eo-Oc (pres. imperat.,


continued, habitual, action), be in objection. — <os avfjKev (h.vA\Ku), imperf.,
aswas fitting, as became your duty, i. e. when you entered upon a Christian
life and hence, is still your duty. The imperf. expresses here something
;

commenced in past time, but not completed (Win. § 40, 3, c) ; and hence
may be translated by the pres. as is fitting. Iv KvpCo), in the Lord, is ; —
joined directly with avjiKev, but belongs equally with the whole injunction
6iroTi(r<T€arBe Kre., as I think. On this point I am compelled to differ very
decidedly with Meyer, Ell., Alf., Braune, who limit the force of ^c Kvpiif to

ivTJKei'. I certainly think it belongs to the whole injunction. So Chrys.,


Theoph., Estius, Rosenmiiller, Hofm., and many others. It seems to me
a necessary qualification, either expressed or understood, of viroTdffaeaBe.
Cf. notes on Eph. 5. 22, 24. — oYttiraTe . . . |i^ iriKpaCveo-Be (note the force
of the pres.), love, appreciate, cherish a Christian love towards (cf. Eph.
5. 25 ff ) . . . & not embittered, do not foster bitter feelings.
Vv. 20, 21. 4iroK0iieT€ toi irdvra, obey your parents in all things.
. . .

Should a converted child, who is forbidden by ungodly parents to be


baptized and join a Christian church, obey? Evidently not. I thijik,
therefore, that this injunction, like the one in verse 18, is qualified by ir
Kvp'uf at the end. touto y^ . . . iv Kvpl<f,far this (obedience to parents
in all things) is well-pleasing in the Lord (the sphere in which everything
should be done, and beyond which nothing is binding on the conscience).
— 01 irttT^pes. Cf. Eph. 6. 4, note. Yet the question occurs whether this
word may not in both these passages be used as in Heb. 11. 23, i.e. as a
13
84 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
synonym with ol yovels, parents. — ji'fi epeStJere, do not excite to anger, do
not irritate. — Hva ^\ cLBvjxuo-iv, that they may not be without heart (a priv.
and 8viJ,6s, courage), discouraged, disheartened. aBv/j.4a> occurs only here in
the N. T., but often in classic writers and in the LXX.

V. 22. Here again the exhortation to obedience in all things is quali-

fied and guarded by the concluding words of the sentence, cf>opov|i€voi


rbv Kvpiov, fearing the Lord. This does not admit of any debasing obe-
dience, or of any yielding to sinful requirements. ^\ iv o(j>6aX)u>Sov- —
X^aLS KTe., not in eye-service (plur. in acts of eye-service) as men-pleasers. —
iv ttir\^TT)Ti KopSCas, in singleness (frankness, freedom from duplicity) of
heart.

Vv. 23, 24. 8 «av (Att. &y) ao\,T\ri, whatsoever ye do (pres. subjunc.
whatsoever ye may be doing at any time) j a comprehensive exhortation
added to the preceding. — ck "Jroxiis «p-ya5e<r9«, work from the soul, from
the heart. — us tm KvpCui mk., as if to (ox for, dat. of interest) the Lord,
and not to (or for) men. This, like iv Kvplif and tpo^oifievoi rhy icipior
above, forbids the idea of doing anything dishonorable or sinful. clSores —
(oiSa), knowing ; particip. w. causal force, because ye know. — on . . . diro-

X-jj|ii)/€(r6e (Attic, airoX-ii^effBe, fr. ^iro-\a^^6.vw) Kre., that ye shall receive

from the Lord the full recompense in turn (avr-) of the inheritance (gen. of
apposition), namely, the inheritance (and that certainly will be a full recom-
pense). Recollect the force of lm6 in compos, w. StSa/ii (see Lex.). I

question whether the ordinary distinction between irapo w. gen., communi-


cationfrom, and aTri, simply departure from, can be strictly applied in
N. T. Greek. —
tu KvpCu Xpicrru SovXcverc. Serve the Lord Christ ; a
solemn exhortation, standing without connective (asyndeton), and hence
the more impressive.
V. 25. 6 YcLp dSiKuv. For (enforcing the last exhortation) he who does
wrong. Does this refer particularly to the servant, or to the master, or
does it apply here equally as a general proposition to both It has been .'

understood in these three different ways. Alf., Ell., Meyer, et al., under-
stand it as applied here to the master, and hence as an encouragement to
the servant. Many others (Chrys., Theoph., Bengel, Braune, et al.)

understand it as specially applied here to the servant, a solemn warning


t(5 be faithful and tcr do nothing inconsistent with Christian serv'ice. The
latter view certainly seems natural and forcible. —
Kap.iei:Tai (fut. fr. KOfd^a)

8 fl8£KT)o-ev, shall receive again (R. V.), shall recei-oe back (Ell.), will re-
ceive (B. U.), for the wrong that he hath done (R. V.), that which he did
wrongfully ( B. U.). —
KaX ovK 8oTiv irpo(ro>iroX'H(j.ij/fa, atid there is not, does
not exist, cannot exist, respect of persons, partiality, Partheilichkeit (Meyer).
No preference will be shown for the master over the slave at the final
day of retribution. Cf. Eph. 6. 8, 9, note, Gal. 2, 6.
— —

CHAPTER IV. 1-4. 85

Ch. iv. verse i. This seems properly to belong in the same paragraph
with ch. iii. verses 18-25. rh SiKaiov . . . irapi^io-Bi, render (on your
fart) to your servants (bond-servants) that which and eqical (as re-
is just
quired by the new Christian law of love, under which you now live i. e. ;

justice and equality so far as relates to all Such Christian privileges).


seems to be the exact meaning of tjji/ laiTirra., a meaning to which Meyer
and Braune adhere. Cf. 2 Cor. 8. 13. In this sense often in classic writers.
See Lex. For the thought, cf. Philem. 16. Many, however, understand
the word here in a sense closely akin to that of rb Sifcaiov and would
render the two justice and equity (E\\.),/airness (Alt), impartial treatment
(Erasm. et al.). It is better always to adhere to the exact and ordinary
meaning of a word, when that meaning suits the connection ; and certainly
that meaning seems pertinent and forcible here. clSores, causal. Cf. —
3. 24. — Kal 4|Mis, ye also, Thus both
as well as your bond-servants.
master and bond-servant are placed on an equality before the Master in
heaven. For the thought, cf Eph. 6. 9. .

Chap. IV. Vv. 2-6. Exhortations to perseverance in prayer


and to exemplary conduct towards those who are not Christians.
Vv. 7-9. A word of commendation respecting Tychicus and Ones-
imus. —
Vv. 10-17. Salutations. V. 18. A special salutation —
and request in the handwriting of Paul.

V. 2. Tfi irpoo-cuxg irpoo-KopTepetTe, Continue stedfastly (R. V.), Per-


severe (B. U.) in prayer. — YPIYopovvres «v avr-g, watching, being vigilant
(in opposition to the idea of drowsiness. See Lex. yprjyopia, eydpa)
therein. — hi ti\apurT(a, in thanksgiving, the elefnent, or spiritual atmos-
phere, in which the Christian moves. Cf. 3. 15, note. Prayer, perse-
verance, vigilance, thanksgiving, — how much of Christian duty and life

is summed up in these words !

Vv. 3, 4. irpoo-euj^diMvoi . . ^[J.Sv, praying at


. the same time for us also
(as well as for yourselves and others) T)ji.iov, ; i. c. Paul and Timothy.
See ch. I, verse i. — tva . . . dvo£|T| (avoiyvvfu and avolya) . . . rov Xdyov
(objective gen.), that God may open to us a door for the word, i. e. a full and
free opportunity to preach the word. What was meant by " the word,"
they would have no doubt. Cf. i. 5, 25, 3. 16. — XoXijo-ai. (infin. of pur-

pose) t!> |ji.uoT^)pi.ov Tov XptOToB, Speak the mystery of Christ, i.e. the
to

divine mystery which is summed up in him. Cf. Eph. 3. 4, note. Col. i.


26, 2. 2,Eph. 1. 9, Rom. 16. 25. 81.' 8 Kal SiScftat —
CSiai), for which, o?i

cucount of which (3 may refer to fivirr^fipiov, or to the idea of the whole


clause, the preaching the mystery of Christ) lam also in bonds, have also
(in addition to all other sufferings) been bound. Meyer thinks of him
as being in Caesarea at this writing; Alf., Ell., and the most think he

86 NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
was in Rome. — tvo (connect this with the leading thought of the pre-
ceding verse, praying God may open to us a door for the word, to
. . , that
speak etc.) (|>av€p(&<ru avr6, that I viay make it (the mystery of Christ)
plain, manifest. —
i>% Sti )w XoXfjtrat, as it is necessary that I speak, as I

ought to speak. With verses 3, 4, cf. Eph. 6. 19, 20. The two passages,
the one before us and that in Eph., so similar in language and written in
circumstances so similar, have usually, from the time of Chrys. to the
present day, been interpreted alike yet the recent expositors (Meyer, :

Braune, Alf., Ell.) understand them differently. The expression in Eph.


is explained asit has ordinarily been understood as I ought to speak, i. e. ;

to speak (while in prison) with boldness, holding back nothing of the


truth. The expression before us, following the clause, tliat God may open
to us a door for the word, thought to signify a necessity (Je7) that he
is

should be released from prison so as to resume his full and accustomed


activity as an apostle. (Das Predigen im Gefangnisse wax es nicht was
Paulus meinte. the preaching in prison was not what Paul meant. Meyer.)
It remains to be seen whether this view of the meaning will prevail over
the older interpretation.

Vv. 5,6. 'Ev fFa(|>f(^ ircpiiraTctrc. Walk in wisdom, — the sphere or


element in which they were to act. On the meaning of ao^iif, cf. Eph.
I. 8, note. — irpbs tovs i!|<«, to, toward, in your relations to, those who are
wiiAout, i. e. those who are without the fold of Christ. Cf. 1 Cor. 5.

13, I Thess. 4. 12. — T^v Kaipbv i|aYopa^<S)i.evoi. Cf. Eph. 5. 16, note.
—o XiYOS, sc. iaru, imperat. ; suggested by the preceding imperat. —
Iv Y&pm, in grace, i. c. gracious, kind, winning. Cf. Luke 4. 22. Note
this use of x^P" '" ^^^ earlier and classic sense. — {Uari (SXas) JjpT»nivos
{kpriw), seasoned,made savory, with salt, a metaphor borrowed from
the culinary art. The word salt often denotes wisdom, good sense. Cf.
Mark 9. 50, Luke 14. 34; also Latin, sales. As dishes for food are
seasoned with salt, so let your speech (particularly to those who are
without) be made pleasing, persuasive, and united with wisdom.
denoting purpose or consequence, to know, so as to
flS^vai (otia), infin.
know, ye may know.
so that —
irfis Set i)ia$ (subj. of oxo/cpiVeirfloi, pres.

infin. expressing something habitual), h(nB it is necessary that you reply,

how you ought to reply etc.


Vv. 7-9. The sending of Tychicus with Onesimus. Td kot' ifi (cf. —
Eph. 6. 21) irivra (added here to intensify the expression) : lit. the things
relating to me all, i. e. all my affairs, everything relating tatne. Tvx""S- —
Cf. Eph. 6. 21, note. —&ScX<^&s SiAkovos . <riv8ouXos: various rela-
. . . . .

tions which Tychicus sustained to Paul brother . . servant or helper : . . . .

fellow hond-senmnt. — hi Kvp(<(> belongs with all the three nouns. The
English word minister is now generally understood in a sense so different
from SiaKoyos that it is hardly a correct rendering. Compare with this
CHAPTER IV. 10-12. 87

Eph. 6. 21, where <rii>5ou\os is omitted. — «ls airh tovto, wM a mew to

t/iisvery thing, for ihLs very purpose, e^^XaAnedhylvayvSiTe . . . irapa.Ka\4a-ri,

that you may know . . . that he may comfort. — to irtpl TJ^iuv, the things
concerning us, substantially the same thought as tA kot' iji.L C£. Eph. 6.

22. — o-viv 'Ovi]<r£(i.<i), connect w. Onesimus, the servant (or as we


eire/iipa.

render 5oBA.os in classic Greek, the slave) of Philemon, is mentioned only


here and in the Ep. to Philemon. —
6s Icmv IJ ii(ic5v, who is of you, i.e.
who belongs to your city. The letter to Philemon is supposed to have
been conveyed at the same time with the letters to the Ephesians and
Colossians. Philemon is supposed to have been a Colossian, or at least
to have resided there when Paul's letter was sent to him. Yvupiovtriv —
(fut. of yvwpl^w], they will make known. to. ^Se, w. iravra, all things — . . .

the things here. It seems to me far more probable that this epistle and
the others sent with it were written in Rome, rather than in Caesarea,
as Meyer argues.

Vv. 10, II. 'ApC(rTapx.os. A Thessalonian was with Paul in Caesa- ;

rea, and made the journey with him to Rome. Cf. Acts 19. 29, 20. 4,
27. 2, Philemon 24. —
4 iruvoixp.aXMTds |iod, my fello^v-prisoner. In Phi-
lemon he is mentioned, with several others, as a fellow-worker {a-vpepyoi
/iiov) ; while Epaphras is there spoken of as (rvvaixji.iKa>TO!. It is surely
quite credible that both may have been fellow-prisoners, and at the same
time fellow-workers so that either designation would be suitable.
;

MdpKos. Thought to be the same as John Mark (Acts 12. 12 and 25)1
and author of the gospel of Mark. —
6 avc<|/ios Bapvdpa (gen. first de-
clens.) the cousin of Barnabas (R. V., B. U., Ell., Alf.). This relationship
seems to be mentioned in commendation. oS refers to MipKos. evTo- — —
\ds. What these commandments were and when received is not known,
and it seems useless to conjecture. They were probably of a commend-
atory character. —
Kal 'Ir](ro{is 'IoCo-tos, and Jesus (Greek form of the
. . .

word Joshua), who is called Justus (his Roman name) sc. tiinafcTai, ;

'Salutes you. He is not mentioned elsewhere in the N. T. 01 Svres (re- —


ferring to the three just mentioned) ktI., who are of the circumcision, these
only (of the circumcision) {are) fellow-workers (with me). — ds rf|v pao-i-
X.e£avTOv 6eoB, towards the kingdom of God (Ell., Alf.) fiir das Messias- ;

reich (Meyer) strictly means (directing their energies and thoughts) into
;

the kingdom of God. o\JTtv€S— irapii^opCa, who became to ine a comfort,


. . .

Paul mentions these three Jewish brethren as having alone worked with
him, and as having been a comfort to him implying that the other Jew- ;

ish Christians in Rome (or in Caesarea, as Meyer supposes) were anti-


Pauline. (Note how often olnva, quippe qui, since they, such as, occurs
in N. T. Greek : iytvi\Si\iTav , a later foirm for iyivovro : iraprjyopta, only
here in N. T.).
V. 12. 'Eira^pds. Cf. I. 7. — ej i|iwv (cf. verse 9), who is of you.
88 -
NOTES ON COLOSSIANS.
i.e. ofyour city. This and the following clauses would have a tendency
to win the confidence and affection of the Colossians. iravrore aYwi- —
Soiuvos KT€., always striving earnestly agonizing, for you in his prayers ;
^ —
a strong expression. C£. ayava inrep vfiaf, 2. 1, also I. 29, and Rom.
. .

15. 30, note. —


£va with its usual force, in order that, to the end that. —
oTaBiJTS (i aor. pass, subjunc. fr. la-Tniit), that ye may be made to stand.
Alf., Ell., Meyer, et al. read here itt^tc (2 aor. act. subjunc), that ye m^iy
stand. -^Tikiiof. Kal ireirXTjpocjropTiiiCvot {vXjjpoipopea), complete, entire, per-
fect, and fully assured. — tv iravrl 6EA^fjiaTL tou Ocov, in all the will (in
everything that has been willed) of God. Meyer, Alf., et al. connect
this closely with o-raflVe ((rr^Tf) ; Ell., Braune, et al., with the words
directly preceding. Why not with both, — the entire clause after Xva ?

V; 13. Confirmation (yip] of the preceding. — (uxpnipu -yap a^m (dat.


of interest. Win. §31,4, b.), For I bear him witness, I testify for him, or
in respect to him. — iroXvv irovov (rare in N. T., cf. itivoiuii, to toil ; nearly
the same in meaning with the more frequent N. T. word K&itos), much
hard work, toil, labor. Cf. iiKiKov dyava inrtp ifiav, a. 1. It denotes the
inward struggle in their behalf. —
The three cities, Colossae, Laodicea,
and Hierapolis, were near together (eastward from Ephesus and S. E. ;

from Philadelphia and Sardis. See map), and in all three of ihem Epa-
phras had probably labored in the gospel.
Vv. 14, 15. AoDKOLS . . . d-yamiTos, Luke, the physician, the beloved.
The seem to be added, not to distinguish him from any other
epithets
person of the same name, but as above w. 7, 9, 10, 11, 12. There seems
to be no good reason for doubting that this is the same as the author of
the gospel which bears his name and of the A cts. Note that no com-
mendatory word follows the name Demas. In Philemon, verse 24, he is
mentioned among the avvepyoi of the Apostle ; but in .c Tim. 4. 10, as
having loved the present world and forsaken the Apostle. dcnrdo-oirflt —
{dtnrd^ofiai) kt€., Do ye (Colossians) salute etc. From vv. 10-14, the salu-
tations of others are given here the Apostle addresses them directly.
;

Kal Nv|ut>dv, and (in particular) Nymphas or Nympha (the Greek word
may be either masc. or fern.). This person, whether brother or sister,
was no doubt prominent in the church at Laodicea. Kal Tf|v kut' oIkov —
auTwv ^KKXrictav, and the church in their house. With this reading, outwi'
would refer to t!vfi<pay and rois aScXi^ous. The reading of W-H.,
. . .

avTTJs St. aitrup, seems quite probable and the church in her house ; aur^s
;

referring to Nv/icfiav (or tli/xipay, W-H.). Note the use here of (carii w.
oIkov, indicating extension through ; the church occupying her house. Cf.
Winer, p. 400, § 49.
V. 16. Kal 8tov dvo-yvcii(r6^ {dvaytyr^trKa) irap' 4(itv <) feriOT^X^i, And
when the letter has been read (shall have been read) with you ; Tap ipiu', not
by you, not exactly among you (iv iiitv) ; but properly, near, at the side of,

CHAPTER IV. 17, 18. Sg

•with you. Winer, § 48, p. 394. — iroi^o-aTt I'va . , . dvo-YVoxrflij, caiise that
it be read in the church of the Laodiceans also. Note the const. iroi^o-oTe
Iva.. Winer, § 44, p. 337. —
koI tJ|v i*. AaoSixtas, placed before %va for
emphasis. Winer, § 61, p. 550. /4«(/ (cause) that ye also read the (letter)

from Laodicea, i. e. the letter written to Laodicea and sent from thence to
Colossae. Winer, § Whether the epistle here referred to
66, p. 629.
has been same as the epistle to the Ephesians, will per-
lost, or is the
haps never be determined beyond controversy. Cf. note on iv "Eipea-iii,
Eph. I. 1.

V. 17. Kal c1!iraTe (impv. ; in the indie. tTira, or el-irov; cf. </>r)/i() 'Ap-
xCiririji, And say to Archippus ; mentioned also in Philem. verse 2; but
what his position or particular service in the church was, we have no
reliable information. — |3\^e t^v SiaKovCav Krh., look to, give heed to, the

service which thou didst receive in the Lord: 4v Kvptif emphasizes the idea
that itwas a religious service of some kind. Vva ir\T]pais (pres. — . . .

subj. act.), that thou mayest make it full, fulfil it; that there may be no

deficiency in it.

V. 18. 'O d(rira<r|j.bs t^ ^jatJ X*'P^ IlavXoD, The salutation of me Paul


with my own hand ; or more literally, the salutation by the hand of me
Paul. XlaiiXov is in appos. w. the gen. i\i,ov implied in the possess, pron.
ijir). Good. § 137, Note I Had. 675, b. It appears that this epistle, as
;

some other epistles of Paul, was written by an amanuensis; and Paul


adds with his own hand this verse to attest the genuineness of the epistle.
— )i.vr))i.avci€T^ |iov tuv 8eo-|xuv, Remember my bonds ! —a simple, brief,

and touching reminder of his situation, as he wrote these last words.

Tj yjufvi (i«9' ^('"V (sc. cif?)), Grace (be) with you. The readers would have
no doubt as to what was meant by ^ X"^?'*) ^^ grace of God in Christ.

Cf. notes on Eph. 6. 23, 24.


— —

THE EPISTLE TO PHILEMON.

" A masterpiece of persuasive tact and delicacy, and an enduring model of truest

Christian courtesy." Ell.

For the literature relating to this epistle, see Bible Dictionaries, and especially

Hackett's introduction in Lange's Commentary. Time and place of composition,


same as of Ephesians and Colossians.

OUTLINE.
Verses 1-3. Address and salutation. — ^Verses 4-7. A strong
expression of Christian fellowship. —Verses 8-21. The main topic
of the epistle, — a plea for Onesimus. —Verses 23-25. Request
for a lodging, greetings, and closing wish.

Vv. 1,2,3. S4(r|j.ios Xp- 'Ii]<r-, a prisoner of Christ Jesiis, i. e. on acconnt


of, because i^/" etc. ;
gen. of source or cause. Cf. Eph. 3. 1. The ex-
pression was calculated to e-xcite the sympathy of Philemon. It was
quite unnecessary for Paul here to refer to his apostolic authority.
Kal Ti(Jii59eos o d8-, and Timothy the brother, probably acquainted with
Philemon personally. Cf. Col. i. 1, Phil. 1. 1. ^k\^|iovi t|(iuv, to — . . .

Philemon, our beloved and fellow-worker {tj^iui^ w. ry ay- and avy^py^.


So Meyer et al.), or the belm/ed and our fellow-laborer (rnnSiv w. axiv^^m
only. So Hackett et al.). —
Kal 'A'ir<|>£ij nj dSEX<|>fj Krk., and to Apphia
our sister, or the sister (in Christ), and to Archippis our fello-w-soldier.
Apphia was probably the wife of Philemon Archippus, probably pastor ;

of the church in Colossae. Cf. Col. 4. 17. Kal ttq —


iKKXi]orl^ nnrf . . .

to the church in thy house, i.e. the house of Philemon, the person first

and principally addressed kktcS, w. the ace, extension through. Cf Rom.


; .

16. 5, Col. 4. 15, notes. y^^% ^V'" ktI., sc. e??), Grace be to you and peace
etc., — Paul's ordinary form of salutation. In closing an epistle, we usually
find fieTct w. the gen., St. dat., with you, in the midst of you, or ^oith your
spirit, instead oi to you.
VERSES 4-7- 91

Vv. 4, 5. (vxapur™ «t4., cf. Phil. 1. 3, note. The same word is still

in common use in modern Greek. ^irdvroTe should not, I think, be sepa-


rated by a comma, either from what goes before or from what follows. —
{jiveCav irov iroioiiiuvos is usually rendered, making mention of thee ; but

with other words than rendered remembrance. Cf.


voiovinai, layelav is

Phil. I. 3, I Thess. 3. 6, 2 Tim.


do not think the expression im-
1. 3. I
plies either here or elsewhere any actual mention of a name, or even any
form of words, in the prayers of the apostle. A lit. rendering would be,
making to myself (mid.) a remembrance of thee. This is all which the
words imply, —
a simple calling to mind. iitl w. gen., often of time, —
see Lex. — dKovuvhearing of etc. (particip. denoting cause),
ktI., — the
reason for the thanksgiving. —
<rov Tf|V 6i-ydin]v, thy Christian love. Cf.
Col. 3. 14. — KoV T#|V irCoTiv <iv 'iy^vi irpbs ... els K-ri., and the faith
•which thou hast toward the Lord fesus and toward all the saints : irp6s

denotes simply direction towards ; cis, entering into. In his daily walk,
Philemon mingled with the saints, entered into the midst of them, ex-
hibiting both his own Christian faith and imparting greater strength to
their faith. I cannot by any means adopt the const, called chiasm, or chi-
asmus (see Winer, § 50. 2), by which (rov t^v ayA.irTiv is connected only w.
els irivTas tovs ayiovs, and r^v iriffriv only w. vphs rhv Ktlptov 'Itjct-. The
remark Meyer, that Paul was fond of a change of prepositions, is
of
undoubtedly true ; but this does not obliterate the distinction between
them, though there may be no emphasis on the distinction. Cf. Rom.
3. 30, Gal. ;!. 16, note on ix and Sid.

V. 6. fSirws ktI., connect w. iirl rav irpoirfvxay fiou, prayers, that etc. —
^ KoivwvCa . . . ^evTp-at, that the communication, or fellowship, of thy faith
may became effectual : 4j Koivtavia, the sharing, the fellowship, the communi-
cation, A life of faith in any church, or any community, has the effect
to impart the same faith to others to strengthen their faith. Thus, ;

whether we render the expression, the communication of thy faith, or the


fellowship of thy faith, the idea is plain and rests on a truth which we
all recognize: ivepyiis, active, working, effective, — kv eirvpi&w, ktI. (the
sphere in which his faith was to be effective), in a definite knowledge of
everything good which among you (or which is in us, Tjf^iv], in a recog-
is

nition of everything good. Those who are without a Christian faith fail in
such recognition, and make sad mistakes often taking evil for good and ;

good for evil. —


Xpurrdv, the end in \ie^,for Christ ; for his honor,
els

for the advancement of his kingdom. Connect this last clause, which has
the emphatic position, with the entire final sentence, ottws ktc.

V. 7. x^P*" 7°P '"^' ^"^ ^ ^'^ much joy (when I heard of thy love
and faith) yip refers naturally to the entire preceding sentence,
: the —
thanksgiving and prayer (verse 4), the reason for it (verse 5), and* the sub-
ject of the prayer (verse 6). — Kal irapdKXi]o-i,v eirl kte., and comfort, or
:

92 NOTES ON PHILEMON.
encouragement (both ideas belong to the word) in thy Ime : lit. upon etc.

as a foundation for the comfort and encouragement. — Brt ktI., because

(introducing a fuller explanation of ^?rl rp h.-^i,Trf aov) the hearts of the


saints have been refreslied through thee, brother : ri, awAdyxva, as distin-
guished from Kapiia, denotes more prominently the idea o£ affections (cf.
Phil. I. 8, note) : avaireiravTat {aifa-iravw) have taken restf and thus have
been refreshed. Note the form aSe\0e', St. Att. ttSeA^e.

Vv. 8, 9. Introducing the main object of the epistle. — A16 (= Si' 8),

On account of which, wherefore^ {hecntxse I have had so much joy and


encouragement in thy love). iroXX:f|v —
. Bj^wv (concessive) ktI., though
. .

I have, or might have, much boldness, mtich frankness, in Christ (the sphere
and the only sphere in which he would have this boldness) to enjoin on
thee (with apostolic authority) that which is befitting (rb i,vr[Kov, fr. ay-iiKa,
cf. Eph. 5. 4, Col. 3. 18). —
Bid T-fiv a.y6,in\v kt€., (yet) on account of our
Christian love. I understand this of the love which each had for the other
Tifv, an unemphatic possessive pronoun. — )j.dXXov iropaKoXu, / rather
(rather than command) beseech (thee), exhort [thee]. Cf. TrafiK\r\aiv, verse 7.

I prefer here the punctuation of W-H., placing a comma after -KapaKaKa,


and at the end of the verse a comma and dash. — TOi.oi>T09 fiv kte., being

such (a person, such as I actually am, and presenting myself) as Paul


an elder, and now a prisoner also of Christ Jestis. The whole address is
adapted to excite sympathy, affection, confidence toioCtos ... us, are not :

to be understood as correlative (st. ir, ofoj or fi% would be the word for
that idea) but, as I have indicated above, independent clauses. I cannot
;

a(^opt the word ambassador as a rendering of npfu^inris in this sentence.

Vv. 10, It, 12. irapaKoXM <r£ (a resumption of TrapaicaAw above) Trepl
K-rk., I beseech thee for my child, my own child (Ell., Alf., Meyer), whom
I begat in my bonds, Onesimus. The name o£
clauses introductory to the
the unfaithful, runaway servant, and the reservation of the name to the
end of the verse, are worthy of note. —
t!)v itot^ <roi ftxPloTov, wvl 8^

KT6., the one once unprofitable to thee, but now both to thee and to me profit-

able, whom I have sent back to thee (epistolary use of oveire/ii^o). — ovrov
(emphat. Note the omission of o-ii Be . . irpoaXa^ov). Cf. Lex. intensive

use of aliTis. —
toBt' 4'otiv to I(J.4 o-irXd-yxva, that is, my 07an heart. —
It would be difficult to conceive of language more expressive. The pic-
ture of Onesimus, presenting the letter, and standing by as Philemon
read it, might task the powers of the best artist. It would be most inter-
esting to know the circumstances in which Onesimus was first brought
in contact with Paul, and led to embrace the gospel.

Vv. 13, 14. 8v J-yA (emphat.) i,3ovXdnT)V . . . Kar^eiv, whom I was


ri'ishing ipaat tense with reference to the time when the letter would be
read. Cf. dj/e'ire/iifo, verse li), to retain with myself. I think this is stated
VERSES 15-20. 93

as a simple fact ; not as the apodosis of a conditional sentence. — Iva


4irjp o-oO [loi SiaKOViQ kt6., in order that for thee, in thy behalf, he might
serve me in the bonds of the gospel, i. e. while I am in the bonds of the gos-
pel (gen. of cause. Cf. Setr/xios Xp- 'lijo--, verse i). — x"P^s ^^ Tfis o-f)s

7vu|i,i]s, but without i%'.(emphat.) judgment, thy decision: yviit.i), same


root as yiyvdiaKw, in which lies the idea of decision as well as knowledge.
— ovS^v f|6A'i](rtt (aor., expressing an accomplished fact) iroifjo-ai, I -was
unwilling to do anything, Ipurposed not to do anything (cf. L. & Sc. iSeXu)).
— Ivo jj.^ . . . '^, in order that thy goodness (the goodness which thou art
wont to exhibit) might not be (in this instance), as it were, lit. as if, by
constraint ; Jmt voluntary {according to something voluntary). This render-
ing of ri ayaih (rov (neut. adj. w. the article as an abstract noun)
seems to me nearest the exact sense of the word ; and also to suit the
connection.

Vv. 15, 16. "Toxo ^dp ktI., For perhaps (introduces Paul's reason for
deciding not to retain him) on this cucount (pointing to what follows) he
was separated {from thee] for a season, that thou mightest have him in full
forever [hirixo^i WT-exw. Cf. Phil. 4. 18, note: aXijiviov, adj. w. ahrlv.
This new relationship in Christ was one that would not end with death,
but was to last forever in the world to come). ovk ?ti us 8o€Xov ktI., —
710 longer as a bond-sewaiit, but beyond a bond-servant, a brother beloved,

especially to me {iji-ai, <ml, dat. of reference w. the combined idea dSeX<jihy

dyairrirSy), but much more to, thee, both in the flesh and in the Lord, i. e. both
in worldly and in spiritual relations. We have in verse 16 a conception
which was new in the world ; one of the characteristic features of Chris-
tianity. And what changes it has wrought already in the condition of
human society On this subject, see Cesta Christi, by C. L. Brace.
I

Vv. 17, 18. el . . . ?x^''S Kotvmvov (ei w. indie, pres., the supposition of
an actual fact), irpoo-XaPov (Trpoa-\a.jx^a,va) airbv ws kfA. If therefore (a
conclusion from what goes before, introducing the main object of the
epistle indicated in verse 12) thou hast me [as] u partner, take him to
thyself (raid., voice), receive him, as (you would receive) me. The render-
ing of €1 a very rare meaning of ix<» (only, I
€xsis, if thou countest, is
think, in Matt. 14. 5, and Mark 11. 32, in N. T.), and is quite unnecessary
here (wenn du mich zum Genossen hast. Meyer). A 84 ti ijSCKiio-e'v o-e —
. . . IXXo-ya (pres. imperat. fr. iWoyda, a rare word^ 4\\oy4a), And if in
anything he did thee an injustice, or is in debt (to thee), proceed to charge this
to me. Certainly a very reasonable business proposition, preparing the
way for the suggestion Iva /i^ \4yia ktI.

Vv. ig, 20. e-yio IlttvXos . . . diroTCtrw (aTro-rlvm) , I Paul have written
with my own hanlt, I (emphat.) will pay in full : — an additional and
solemn assurance of what he had just said. Whether Paul wrote the
;

94 NOTES ON PHILEMON.
entire letter with his own hand, or from this point only, is not stated,
a/ror/j/w, to pay in full. Cf. o7re;^pj, verse 15, aTroSiSoijut, often. — hta. jif|

X6\m <roi ktI. (c£. Lat. ne dicam ; a form of expression by which a writer
suggests, what he seems not to assert ;usually rendered by the Infin. in
Knglish), not to say to thee that thou owest to me men thyself besides (irpoir-).

German idiom, um Philemon would have no


dir nicht zu sagen (Meyer).
difficulty in understanding this suggestion and would feel the force of it.
Through the preaching of Paul he had received treasures infinitely supe-
rior to all his former possessions. —
vaC (a word frequent in modern
Greek), d,Sc\<f>{, ir^it <rou dvaC|jiT)V (optat. without i.v, expressing a wish
fr. oWvri/ii) Iv ioip(<j>, Yea, brother, may I {fi\a^\aX.) receive profit, ox joy,
from thee in the Lord. I can see no reason for rendering the optat. here
by the English imperat. The primary meaning of oviin])u (found only here
in N. T.) \% to profit, benefit, aid (which seems suitable here) Nutzen haben ;

(Meyer); and from this the secondary meaning ^o ^T-a^i^, </if/«f/«/. Cf. Lat.
juvo. That the word ava.iii.r\v was suggested and chosen from its radical
connection with 'OKi^cri/ioi has occurred to many. Note again iv Kvpia —
(emphat. posit.), the sphere in which all was to take place. dvdirawrov —
[wu (aor. imperat. fr. dvairaiu) ktI., cause my heart to rest (let it be a
finished act), refresh my heart (by a kind reception of Onesimus) in Christ
(as a Christian act, from Christian motives; same general sense as iv
Kvpl(f). —
ri cnrXd^vo. Note the repetition of this word (verses 7, 12,
20) in this letter of the heart. Cf. note, verse 7, on the meaning of the
word.
This epistle has often been compared with a letter of the younger
Pliny (Epist. IX. 21), written on a similar occasion and for a similar
purpose ; but it would be simply impossible for Pliny, with only a knowl-
edge of Grecian and Roman philosophy, to write anything like the above
sentences of Paul. are the expressions only of one who has a
They
knowledge and who has been taught by the Holy Spirit.
of Christianity
The delicacy and the depth of feeling, the refinement and the pathos,
have never been surpassed in human composition.
Vv. 21, 22. nciroiOois Tg iiiraKo^ <rov, Ilaziing confidence in [trusting
to) thine obedience ; not so much obedience to Paul in his apostolic au-
thority, as obedience to the principles of Christianity. — clSt^s (oTSo) 81
. . . iroi^o-cis, kncmiing (feeling assured, cf. Phil. i. 25, note on oT5a) that
thou wilt do even beyond what I say. The rendering, that thou wilt also do,
suggests the order ko! iroiiio-tij. The force of Koi belongs to the word or
clause immediately following it. Paul's confidence and assurance in this
case were founded on the conviction that Philemon was truly a Chris-
tian and this, in all times, is the best, in fact almost the only, sure
;

ground of confidence. Let us be thankful that we have such a ground


of confidence in one another. djia 8i —
^cvCav, And at the same time
. . .
VERSES 23-25. 95

(at the same time with the kind reception of the returning servant) make
ready also for me a lodging, or, in the fuller sense of the word, entertain-
ment, a hospitable reception (L. & Sc.). This no doubt would be an addi-
tional, though indirect, motive for the kind reception of Onesimus. —
iXirC^u ydp oTi (note this const, of iKiri^m, St. the usual Att. const, w. the
infin.) ktc., For I hope that through your prayers (referring to the persons

mentioned in verses i and 2) / shall be granted (as an act of grace, of


divine favor both to them and to himself) to you. It is not certain whether
this letter was written at Caesarea, as Meyer argues, or at Rome, as is

generally thought ; nor do we know the grounds on which Paul rested the
hope here expressed. For a similar expression, cf. Phil. i. 25, 2. 24. The
epistle to the Philippians is generally supposed to have been written a
year or two later. The apostle may have planned to pass through Ma-
cedonia on his way to Colossae and other cities in Asia Minor. Whether
these hopes and plans were realized by a temporary release from prison
is not certain. Even the Apostle Paul may have been disappointed in
his worldly plans and hopes only to make the heavenly realizations more
glorious.

Vv. 23, 24.Epaphras, my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jestts, Mark, Aris-


tarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow-workers, salute you. Mark, probably
John Mark and the writer of the second gospel. Cf. Acts 12. 25, 13. 13,
Col. 4. 10, 12, and 14, where also Aristarchus, Epaphras, Luke, and Demas
are mentioned, —
Epaphras and Luke with special commendation Aris- ;

tarchus, as the fellow-prisoner of Paul. Concerning Demas, cf. 2 Tim.


4. 10.

V. 25. Cf. Phil. 4. 23, note.

For many most interesting and important suggestions, both ethical and
doctrinal, on this epistle, see Lange, particularly the additions by Dr.
Hackett.

14
EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS.

The most touching and affectionate of all Paul's epistles to the churches, " No
other is so completely a letter of the heart" (Meyer),

GENERAL OUTLINE,
Salutation (ch. i, w. i, 2). Thanks to God, expression of
confidence in regard to them, affectionate longing, prayer for

them (ch. i, w. 3-11). The present situation of the apostle,


and his state of mind (ch, i, w. 12-26). Exhortation to walk
worthily of the gospel, and not to be intimidated by those who
are opposed to it (ch, i, w. 27-30). Exhortation to Christian
unity, to humility and self-denial, taking Christ for an example,
and to a godly life (ch, 2, w, 1-18), The apostle hopes to send
Timothy to them soon ; also to come himself; but in the mean-
while he sends Epaphroditus with his commendation (ch, 2,
vv. 19-30). Warnings against Judaizing teachers, with a refer-
ence to his own career and aims ; an exhortation to follow his
example (ch. 3, w. 1-21), Further exhortations, commenda-
tions, and salutations with a benediction (ch, 4).

Chap. I. — Vv, i, 2. Ti)i66eos. Timothy was personally known to the


Philippians, having visited them twice ; once in company with Paul (Acts
16. 10, S.), and once alone (Acts 19. 22), He is mentioned in a similar
manner Cor. i. i, Col. i. i, and in i and 2 Thess. I. I, He may have
in 2
acted as amanuensis, yet this is not implied in the language here used,—
SoiiXoi., bond-servants. Cf. Rom. i. i, note. Observe that Paul here omits
his official designation, i.it6(rTo\os. He omits it also in I and 2 Thess. and
in Philem. Perhaps the omission indicates greater familiarity. rots —

CHAPTER I. 2,-1- 97

odo-iv Iv 4>iXtinrois (cf. the similar expression in Eph. i. i), to those who
are in Philippi. This city was distinguished as being the first in Europe
in which the gospel was preached. Acts i6. 9 ff. — avv eirvo-Koirois Kal
SiaK<ivois, together with overseers and servants or helpers (H.). All the
members of the church were addressed, but these are mentioned in par-
ticular. The words bishops and deacons convey at present an idea which
I think would not originally be associated with the Greek. With ^iriVfco-
iroi cf. and rpeapiTepoi, Eph. 4. II, and Acts 20. 17 and 28;
TOip-ivts the —
three words apparently applied to the same class of persons. Cf Meyer. .

}^dpis vjiiv KTe. Rom. I.
Cf. 7.

Vv. 3, 4. Ev\apurT« t« Bcm jiov, / thank my God etc. This or the


kindred thought tlKoyn-rhs & 8e6s was usual in the beginning of Paul's
epistles. Cf. Rom. i. 9, i Cor. 1. 4, 2 Cor. i. 3 etc. The only and sad
exception found in the ep. to the Galatians.
is eirl irdwrg T'j |iveu} v|u5v, —
upon all my remembrance of you, i. e. my remembrance in its complete-
ness and entire contents upon n'ery remembrance would be expressed
:

without the article (iroo-ij liv^ia) : cm w. the dat. indicates the ground on
which the thanksgiving rests : ji-vii^, remembrance ; so rendered usually,
but w. Toielcrfloj rendered mention (Rom. I. 9, Eph. i. 16, etc.). iravroTe —
. . . iroiov|i€vos, a participial clause in close logical connection with what
precedes; always in every supplication of mi7te for you all with joy mak-
ing the supplication.
Vv. 5, 6. eirl KT6., the ground, or cause, of eixapt<rrii ; for your fellow-
ship in ftrtherance of the gospel ; a fellowship entering into the work of
preaching the gospel. dirb Tfjs — . . .^(Mpos.yViWj the first day, the day
of their conversion to Christianity ; most naturally connected w. kolvoi-
via. — avrb tovto, trusting in respect
ireiroiSus (ireffla) to this very thing,
confident of this very thing; points to what follows. Win. § 23. 5.

6 €vap|a|uvos (ev-dpxoiicu). He who began, i.e. God. Cf. 2. 13. — ev 6(».iv,

in you, i.e. in your hearts and minds, in vestris animis ; not among you. —
iTrtreXEcrei &XP^ -^jUpas ktI., up
day of Christ Jesus will bring it to
to the

perfection, i. e. the good work will be carried on until the day of Christ
Jesus, when it will be made complete. This day to each individual Chris-
tian is the day when the master comes and calls him. I do not and cannot
by this and similar expressions so frequent in Paul's epistles understand
that he expected the final coming of Christ and the end of the world in
his own lifetime, or the lifetime of those to whom he wrote. I cannot
think that a strict interpretation of the words compels us to suppose that
Paul the apostle was so greatly mistaken. " The day of Christ, whether
far off or near, is the decisive day to each individual it is practically coin- ;

cident with the day of his death." Ell.

V. 7. TOVTO (|>povctv, to think this, all that is expressed in verse 6.

virep irdvTwv i|M5v, concerning you nil, or perh. more strictly, in behalf of
98 NOTES ON PHILIPPIANS.
etc. ;
yet observe and vepl w. the gen. often approach each
how nearly 6it4p
other in meaning. — Sid
(»«••• ifMS, on account of the fact that
t6 ^X'^''
I have you in my hearty ox because I have etc. It certainly seems more
natural both grammatically and logically to take y.i as the subj. of t-)(iiv
rather than u^as. —
tv t€ tois 8€ir|wis (iou toii cvayYcXCov, both . . .

in my and in
bonds the defence and confirmation of the gospel. Is this to
be connected more closely with what precedes (so Chrys., Theoph., Alf.,
Meyer, et al.), or with what follows (Ell., Tisch., W-H., R. V., et al.) 1

Terhaps the latter is now generally preferred. o-vvKoivuvoiis |«») — . .

iivTos (particip. causal), since you are all partakers with me of grace.
Note the two genitives fi.ov and t^j x'^f<-'">^ (subjective and objective) with
one subst. There seems to be no reason for limiting the meaning of t^j
X^ptTost g^ace, the divine favor and aid (so apparent, and so needful to
the apostle in his present trying situation).
V. 8. A solemn assurance of what he has just said, that he has them
in his heart. —
|xdf>Tvs ^dp jjmiv 6 6eis. Cf. Rom. i. 9, where iarlv is
expressed. — cos e-iriiroOw kt4., how I long for, how I earnestly desire etc.
(^iri- is to be viewed a§ denoting the direction of the longing, rather than
as intensive). Cf. ch. 2. 26, Rom. i. n. — iv oTrXdyxvois Xpio-rov 'Ii)-

oroi), tfi the tender affections^ in the heart, of Christ Jesus : im Herzen Jesu
Christi (Meyer) : 0TrAi£7x'''»> '"''^i *^^ bowels, the heart, as the seat of the
affections : denoting the sphere in which he lived, and longed
iv, local,

for them : not in his own heart, but in the heart of Christ Jesus, Paulus
tion in Pauli, sed in Jesu Christi movetur visceribus (Bengel).

V. 9. Kal toBto (points here to what follows) irpo(revxo)iai. And this I


pray for. — Vva introduces the explanation of touto, and denotes not so
much the purpose as the contents of the prayer. " There are numerous
passages in which the full telic force (in order that) cannot be sustained in
translation without artifice or circumlocution" (Ell.). In this opinion, I
fully concur. — if| d^dirri v^iav,your (Christian) Im'c, in the fullest, widest,
most unrestricted, sense. This Christian love was already conspicuous
among the Philippians, but note the prayer of the apostle. — tri . . . ire-

pio-o-ci't) (fr. iripnTtrSs, over and above, and that fr. irtp/, round about), may
abound yet more and more. —
4v (the sphere in which this Christian love
was to be manifest) ^Trfyvdo-ei Kal irdo-r) al(r6V|(rEi, in definite knowledge
and all discernment. Cf. note on iitiyviiau, Eph. I. 17. The two datives
are used here to intensify the idea.

Vv. 10, II. tls Tb SoKip.d|civ {i|xds Td Sio^povra, jo that, or to the


end that, ye may approz'c the things that are excellent. The rendering, so
that ye may prove the things that differ, seems to me less natural and forci-
ble. It is not generally preferred, and does not express more exactly the

well-established meaning of the words. Cf. Rom. 2. 18, note. Jva fJTt —
€l/\iKpiv«vs ("Its primary sense is plain . . . but there is no certainty about
CHAPTER I. 12-14. 99

the origin of the first part, ci\i-. L. & Sc), that yemay be pure, sincere. —
dirpocTKoiroi (a priv., irprfi and Kdirrw, to strike), may mean either, not striking
against (something), not stumbling (so Beza, Calvin, De Wette, Wiesinger,
Ell., Alf., et al.), or not striking against (some person), void of offence
(Chrys., Meyer, R. V., et al.). May not the word comprehend at once
both ideas, not striking against anything so as to stumble, and not strikittg
against -Kny person so as to occasion offence.' els Tjji^pav Xp-, (looking —
forward) into the day of Christ, in dietn (Vulg.) ; not synonymous w. &xpi.
ri/itpas, verse 6. Cf. note on verse 6. —
ireir\T]piii|ji^voi {ir\np6a>) Kapirbv

(ace. of remote obj. w. the pass, voice, st. gen. Cf. Col. i. 9) ktc.,
being filled with the fruit of righteousness which (fruit) is throtigh Jesus
Christ. — els 86|av . . . Geov, with a view to, or, entering into, the glory and
praise of God.

Vv. 12-26. The apostle proceeds to a fuller account of his own situ-
ation ;
— his feelings and hopes.
Vv. 12, 13. FiVMO-Keiv . . . povXo(iOi, .^wn' I wish you to knoiv. — to.
Kar" e[i,e' (cf. Eph. 6. 21, Col. 4. 7), subj. of i\-i]\\iBiv {(pxafnai) : lit. the
things relating to me have rather come into a furtherance of the gospel. It
would naturally be thought by many that the imprisonment of the ajaostle
would be a serious hindrance to the progress of the gospel; but on the
contrary this very event had tended rather to aid in its progress. This
would be a most cheering assurance to the Philippians who were so far
away, and might at this time be filled with anxiety. Mo-re yeveVBai, — . . .

so that my bonds became manifest in Christ. The position of iv XpiiTT^


connects it w. ipavfpois, manifest in Christ, i. c. manifest in the service of
Christ, as occasioned by serving him. — «v SXai tiI irpaiTcopCu, in the
whole prcetorium, in the whole prstorian camp : i. c.the camp of the impe-
rial body-guard. So the expression is now generally understood. Kal —
Tots Xoiirois iroo-vv may grammatically be governed by eV, expressed in
the preceding clause and continued in force in this clause, or it may limit
(j>avepovs (among all the rest, besides the pr^torian camp, or to all the rest).
The latter const, is usually preferred. The expression indicates a general
acquaintance with the facts in the case of Paul beyond the limits of the
camp.
V. 14. Same const, as verse 13, sc. ficTTe. — Kal toiis irXeCovas tSv
aSeX<(>uv, and (so number, the most, of the brethren.
that) the greater ev —
KDpCM may be joined w. ASfA^wy (so Luther, De Wette, Ewald, Alf., R. V.,
et al.), brethren in the Lord i or w. imroMras (so Meyer, Braune, Hack-
ett, EU., B. U., et al.), in the Lord trusting to tny bonds, im Herrn vertrau-

end meinen Banden (Meyer), having in the Lord confidence in my bonds


(Ell.), made confident in the Lord by my bonds (B. U., Braune). The
sight of Paul's bonds was a proof of his faith, and thus increased their
own faith. — irepiiro-OTcpus (adv. comparative degree) w ToKjmv, dtpoffas
— — ;

lOO NOTES ON PHILIPPIANS.


\v.\a\eiy, are more abundantly bold to speak the word of God fearlessly.
Questions would very likely be put to the Christians respecting the pris-
oner Paul, who he was
? why he was in bonds ? etc. and thus the way ;

would be opened, answering these questions, to speak more fully and


in
fearlessly the word of God " are more abundantly bold, sc. than when I
:

was not in bonds " (Ell.).

Vv. 15, 16, 17. TivJs yjtv Kti., Some indeed {the Judaizing teachers)
even of envy and strife. tlv^s 8^ Kal — . . . KT]pvcr<rovo-iv, and soTne also of
[on account of] goodwill preach Christ. " Envy and strife," i. e. with refer-
ence to Paul and his preaching ; so also, " goodwill " towards Paul. —
ol \i^v ... 01 8c, some . . . others ; corresponding to riyes fi\v . . . rives 5e,
in verse 15, but with the order inverted. Some (do it) of love, others . . .

proclaim Christ offaction. I prefer this mode of viewing the construction


yet it is grammatical to render thus, those who are of lave . . those who are .

of faction. —
{l86Tes (o7Sa) 8ti . . Kei|iai (often nearly synonymous w. .

Te'eciyaoi), knowing (because they know) thatI am set etc. ovx o-yvms —
(w. KaTa77e'\\ou(Ti;'), not sincerely, not with pire and holy motives. old|u- —
voi KT6., thinking (or because they think) to raise up affliction (or that they
may raise up etc.) to my bonds (dat. incomm.).

V. 18. t£ 7<lp; irXfiv OTi KT^. For what (is it) ? For what (does it
amount to) ? but that in every way . . . Christ is proclaimed. The punc-
tuation of Meyer, who places the interrogation-point after icaTayyeXAeTai,
seems to me preferable, as making the thought clearer. — tire irpoi^do-a

ttre aXi)6e(i;^, whether in pretence or in truth; a reference to the two


kinds of preachers, verses 15-17. —
Kal ^v tovtiji (neut.) X'^'P"' "'"^ '"
this (fact, the fact that Christ is proclaimed) I rejoice. aXXa Kal X'M''^' —
<ro|xai, (not this alone is true, that / no^v rejoice, x'^ft pres.), but J
shall also ( in the future) rejoice, shall continue to rejoice : iwd, yea (R. V.),
cf. 2. 17, note.

V. 19. ot8a 'Ydp kt4. For I know etc., confirmation of the preceding
statement and the reason for it. toBtcJ |i.oi . . . €ls o-wnjpCov, this (the

fact that Christ is preached. Cf. iv toutw, verse 18) will turn out to me
(leading) into salvation, 3. means of salvation. fU awrripiav has been vari-

ously understood, of his deliverance from prison, of the preservation of


his life, of victory over his enemies, and in other ways ; but it does not
seem necessary to limit the meaning, or to take the word in any other
than the ordinary New Test, sense, that of his own highest welfare.
8td Tf|s ktI. (the means by which such a result will be reached), through
your supplication and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ. This supply
may be viewed as the result in part of their supplication. The gen. to5
wtvikwTOi may here (as in so many other instances) be viewed as objec-
tive or as subjective the supply, i. e. the imparting of the Spirit, or the
j

supply which conies from the Spirit, which the Spirit imparts, such as
CHAPTER I. 20-25. lOl

courage, peace of mind, hope, etc. The former would lead to the same
results as the latter; i.e. the possession of the Spirit of Christ would
bring courage, peace, hope, etc. Note here the expression, the Spirit of
Jesus Cliiist. CL Gal. 4. 6, note ; also Rom. 8. 9, 2 Cor. 3. 17.

V. 20. KOTcl . . . IXirCSa |jiod (to be closely connected in thought with


Toxni (Uoi . . . CIS (Tarriptav), according to etc. aTroKcipaSo/cfav. Cf. Rom.
8. 19, note. — 8ti may be viewed
as causal, or as declarative introducing
the object of the eager expectation and hope ;' that in nothing I shall be
ashamed. The latter seems preferable. — dXX' ... ev Tip o-iinarC itov,
tut (that) in all boldness, as always, now also, Christ shall be magnified in
my body; "my body shall be as it were the theatre on which Christ's
glory shall be displayed" An Sid Juiis Kti., whether through
(Ell.)

life(through the preservation of the body alive), or through death (the


death of the body, given up to martyrdom).

Vv. 21, 22. 'Enol (emphat. posit.) -ydp tJ> Jtjv XpioTos. For (con-
firmation of the preceding rire . . . rfre . . .)to me to live (to continue
in this life) is Christ. The one word Christ sums up to me all there is
in this life. In Him and for Him I live. KaV to diroeaveiv Ke'pSos, and —
to die is gain; explained more fully in verse 23. el %\ th J-fjv «v <rapKt, —
KT^., Btit if to continue to live in the flesh, [if) this (is) to me fruit of work
(i. e. the condition under which my work shall bear fruit), " if this is to
me (the medium of) fruit from my labor" (Ell.). — koI (introduces the
apodosis ) t£ aip^(rop.ai «Te., then what I shall choose I know not. This
const, of the sentence is usually preferred. (So Chrys., Theod., Erasm.,
Luther, Calvin, De Wette, Meyer, Braune, Alf., Ell., et al.) Meyer ren-
ders yywpl^at, I do not make known, I give no decision (ich gebe nirht ktnid,
erkldre mich dariiber nicht), the usual meaning of the word in the N. T.
Vv. 23, 24. OT)vlx°H'''''' • • • ^"''> ^"^ ^ ""' '" "^ strait (lit. am held
together) by the two (verse 21): ^h, strictly oiit of, or out from, points to
the sources from which the omvoxM comes. — Tf|V eiriSujiCav Sx""; having
the strong desire, the longing, the yearning. — els (expressing the end in
view) Ti dvaXvo-ai, to loose from the moorings, to weigh anchor, or to break
up (my tent) ; hence, to depart. — Kal <riv Xpurr^ elvai, and to be (pres.

intin. denoting continuance) with Christ. — iroXXu ^dp (jidXXov Kpeio-o-ov


(note the two comparatives, strengthened by iroKKif), for it (i. e. to break
up my tent here and departing be with Christ) is very far better. t!) 8^ —
eTTitieveiv rfj crapKC (h Tp aapKi, Alf., Ell., Meyer, Braune, et al.), yet to
remain still (if-) in the flesh. —
dva7Kai6T€pav Si' {i|j.as, (is) more necessary
on your account ; more necessary than the di'a\i'a'ai kt^.
V. 25. Kal toCto ireiroiBus otSa, 8ti kt^. The punctuation of Tisch.
(with a comma after o(Sa) indicates a preference for the const., and this
trusting I know, with confldcnce I know, that etc. So Theoph., Erasm.,
102 NOTES ON PHILIPPIANS.
Luther {in guter Zuversicht weiss kh), Bengel [confisus nmii), Vulg. (el hoc
De Saci (j'ai une certaine confiance), Martin (je sais cela
confidens scio),
comme tout assure), et al. But W-H. omit the comma, thus indicating
a preference for the const., and being confident in respect to this, I knew
that I shall remain etc. The first const, makes toCto the obj. of oTSa,
pointing to what follows. The second const, makes toDto refer to verse

24, and depend on Treiroiflmj. This is preferred by the majority of recent


scholars (De Wette, Meyer, Wiesinger, Braune, Alf., Ell., R. V., et al ).
— otSo, I know, i.e. "it is my present feeling and conviction. Cf. Acts
20. 25." (Ell.). — 8ti |ieVM KaX irapa|i.€vu KTf., that I shall remain (i.e.

and shall remain with you all. The second clause adds
iiTi/xevSi T?) <rapKl)

emphasis to the first and is more definite. tls Tf|v ktI. (the end in —
SKfi), for your advancement and joy of faith, ox in the faith : t^s m'o-Teaj
is usually in thought connected w. both aces. (Alt, Ell., Braune, Meyer);
and may be viewed as gen. of source (resulting from, proceeding from,
the faith), or as gen. of possession (belonging to the faith). Note the
emphatic buSiv.

V. 26. In the last verse, ih tV ktc. denotes the end in view, that
into which attention is directed ; in this verse, Iva. expresses the purpose,
or the motive. The two are closely allied. — tva to Kav\T])j.a vp^v fcre.,

that your glorying (occasion, or ground, ofglorying, viateries gloriandi) may


abound in Christ jfesus (the sphere in which the occasion of glorying is
found, in which it exists) in me (the person commissioned by Christ)
through viy coming to you again, or viy presence with you again. Note the
two words KavxTjiTis, the act of glorying ; KaixVf^^, Ihe ground, or occasion,
of glorying.
v. 27. A special request. MiSvov . . . iroXiTevecrflc, Only (this is the
only request that I now make, the only point that I now urge on your
attention) live as free citizens worthily of the gospel of Christ. tva . — . .

aKovo) /CT6., in order that, whether having come and seen you, or being
absent (from you), I may hear of etc. — 8ti leri. (explanatory of t4 irfpl

iliSiv, the things concerning you), the fact that ye stand, are standing: irHiKa,
a later form, = etrTTjKa. — tv evl ?rv€v|iaTL, in one spirit. The question
whether Holy Spirit, or the human spirit, seems to me
this refers to the
irrelevant. May it not here, and in many other passages, include both
ideas, i. e. the human spirit as pervaded by, and influenced by, the Holy
Spirit.' — |ti.^ >|n)\Ti mivaSXovvTES kte. (describes their occui)ation while
standing in one spirit), with one soul striving together for the faith etc.
Note the emphatic repetition ivi, fii^, truy- (which I understand to mean
here, together, unitedly). "Striving" is scarcely so strong a word as
49\oui'T6s, fr. 2i,B\ov, or aOKos, a contest for a prize, or in -lOar : TJ) irioTci,
dat. comm., _/or the faith, not, I think, governed by <n>v-: the faith of the
gospel, i. e. the faith which belongs to the gospel as an essential element.
— .
:

CHAPTER I. 28-30; II. I, 2. 103

V. 2S. A further description of their moral attitude while standing in


one spirit. — Kal (if| Trrvp6f,ivoi, kts., and not frightened (irripo/iai, often
spoken of horses that shy or start, see L. & Sc.) in anything by those who
have set themselves in opposition. — iJTis (agrees w. the pred. %v^^i\is) ktc.,
which fact (the fact that you are not terrified) is to them an indication
(a pointing to) destruction (i.e. their own destruction, perdition, ruin. Cf.
the verb airiKKviki.). — {>)i.<av (Ell. reads vy.tv, to you) %\ <rci)TT|pCos, but an in-

dication of your salvation. — Kal to€to (cf. the familiar classic Kal raOra,
and that too) dirb 6eoO, and that from God (indicating a complete and
powerful deliverance, nothing merely human).
Vv. 29, 30. Bti, because, introduces the reason why they should live
in a manner worthy of the gospel, not terrified by the adversaries.
iiJLiv lxap^o-97] [xapl^o^i), to you was graciously given. — rb -Ciir^p Xptcrrou
(subj. of 4xc^pi<J'ST})t lit. the for Christ, not only the placing faith in him,
Imt also the suffering for him. — 8x.ovTes (nom., st. dat. agreeing w. vfuv, in
the same const, w. irrvpSfJiepot, agreeing w. the subj. of ToXiTeiiciree,
which
should be kept in mind through the entire sentence), having (both tem-
poral and causal), while you have and since you have. olov etScre kt^., —
(the same conflict) such as ye saw in me (when I was with you in Philippi,
see Acts 16. 16 fF. the same in its general character, i. e. the conflict for
;

Christ, verse 29). — Kal vilv dKotJert kv kyjol, and now hear [to be) in me
(hear by report of others, and also in this epistle ; in which the Apostle
is, as it were, speaking to them). By this reference to himself, the Apostle

encourages them to bear stedfastly whatever personal conflicts and trials


they might be called to meet.

Chap. II. (See General Outline.)


Vv. 1, 2. Note the four suppositions of actual facts, et tis el! . . . ti . . .

elf Tij . . . eIT Tis. Note also the succession of words in the emphatic place,
^v Xpio-T<J . . . d^dinis . . . irveviiaTos . . 'T-nKkffyo. Kal olKTip|uiC, in
Christ (the objective principle of Christian life) . . . love (subjective) . .

the Spirit (objective) . . . tender mercies and compassions (subjective).


oiv unites more closely with what precedes the thought in this important
series of conditions and the exhortation following them. Bear in mind —
the full meaning of 'iraptiK\Tjfrts, exhortation and consolation (see Lex.)
Trapo/iiiflioi' See Lex.). We may render'
(conveys nearly the same ideas.
the sentence. any exhortation in Christ, if any com-
If there is, therefore,
fort (or consolation) in Christian love (i. c. derived from such love), if any
fellowship (any participation) of the Spirit, if any tender affections and
compassions : on airK&yx'"^t cf. I. 8, note: St. t!j, Braune, Ell., Meyer, et
al., read tivL If t\s is retained, the words following are viewed as col-
lective, and thus as one conception. — irXripMO-aTe (lou K-ri., fulfil ye, make
full etc. : aor. imperat., expressing a single completed actioti. — Vva seems
—" .

T04 NOTES ON PHILIPPIANS.


here to unite with the ordinary idea o£ purpose an explanation of rljv
X<^piv " blends the subject of the entreaty with the purpose of making
it" (Ell.). — tva, , . that ye may think, keep in mind, the
. i)>povf|Tc ktI.,

same thing, having the same being together inlove,keeping in mind soul, the
one thing ; — an emphatic repetition of the same general thought " Paul
cannot separate himself from the thought of which his heart is so full

(Meyer). It is scarcely necessary to distinguish bet. ri oiiTii and ri iv.


Perhaps the latter is more pointed.
Vv. 3, 4. It is a simpler const, to supply (ppoyoByrcs w. /miScV (so Alf.,
Braune, EU., Meyer, Winer), having in mind nothing, entertaining no
thought, after the manner of faction, nor in the spirit of vainglory. Many,
however, supply here iroiavvrts, doing nothing etc. Note always the
distinction bet. ipiBila, self-seeking, faction, and if is, strife. — rig raireivo-
<)>po<r>iv'g cause or manner), in lowliness of m^ind, in humility (cf.
(dat. of
Col. 2. 18, 23, 3. 12). —
'^^ovfJiEvoi. agrees w. the subj. of (pporriTf, 2d

pers. ; hence iavrav, as often in N. T., must be 2d pers. (cf. verse 12).
Note also the peculiar use in N. T. of the reciprocal pron. a\kii\uy.
We may render here, each of you thinking others superior to yourselves. —
p.f) TOi . . . OTKOTTOvvTcs, oXXoL KT€., not looking each ofyou to your own things,
but each to the things of others also. The xal, also, implies that every
man should have a proper regard, but not an exclusive or pre-eminent
regard, for his own things. He should love his neighbor as himself, no
more, no less.

Vv. 5, 6. TovTo <|)pov€tT« (pres. imperat., denoting something habitual)


hi ijiiv KTc., Have this mind in you which (was) also in Christ Jesus. The
preceding exhortation is thus enforced by the example of Jesus. — 8s . .

inrdpxciiv, who, existing in the form of God ; i.e. before his incarnation (cf.

Jno. I. i). The expression iv inopipfi Ocov is best explained in Heb. i. 3.

aTraiyafffia ttjs SS^tjs Kalx^poKT^p ttjs v-Troardffeus airrov. ovK apira^p^v —


•f[Yf\a-a.ro rh etvat Xa-a Ocu, did not consider the fact of his being on an

equality with Cod a usurpation, a robbery, a matter of robbery (nicht als ein
Rauben betrachtete er das gottgleiche Sein. Meyer). This is the proper
meaning of apTrayn6ii, and seems to me decidedly to be preferred here.
So L- & Sc Sophocles, B. U., Vulg. (rapinam), Luther (hielt er es nicht
,

fiir einem Raub), Martin and De Saci (une usurpation), De Wette (rapi-

endi actus). Many, however, understand it in the sense, "a thing to be


seized on, or to grasp at" (Ell.), "a matter for grasping" (Alf.), "a
thing to be grasped" (R. V.). So also others. The clause rb cfyoi icre.

is the direct obj . of Tiytiffaro : iaa is adv. w. ftvm.


Vv dXXd
7, 8. iKhma-iv, but (though he was thus exalted) he
. . .

emptied himself, made himself empty (of all this power and glory).
|j.op<j>f|V \ap<&v (particip. denoting manner or means), having taken (or
. . .

by taking) a bond-servant's form. — h) 6|ioiu|j,aTi ktI., lit. having become in


:

CHAPTER II.9-11. 105

a likeness of men, i. having taken a form similar to men, or a condition


e.

of similarity to men. would place a comma or a colon after •Y^viji.ivoi,


I
and connect this participial clause w. what precedes. So W-H. at al. —
Kal (Tx^jiOTi eipeSels (eip/o-Koi) (is SvSpwiros (I would connect this particip.
clause with what follows) ktI., and having been found in fashion, figure,
appearance, Lat. habitus, as a man, he humbled himself (made himself
ToTTcii'ifs, lowly). The three words, fiopipTi, i/ioia/io, and (rx^M"> ^^^ "°'
easily distinguished sharply form, shape, Lat. forma : d/iolai^a,
: /ioptpri,

that which is made similar, u resemblance, may denote either that which
is outward or that which is inward ffxni'-''; that which is held, figure,
:

appearance, referring particularly to that which is outward. With these


may be associated fiK&v, rendered, image ; better I think rendered, like-
ness. — having become (in becoming, particip. de-
Ycvofievos iir/JKOos ktI.,
noting manner or means) obedient even to death, yea, death on a cross, death
by crucifixion: Se introduces here an emphatic clause and may be rendered
yea, or yes.
Though there are some differences of opinion respecting the exact
meaning of apiray/iii/, and the grammatical construction of this remarka-
ble sentence, yet the general connection of the thought is clear. Christ,
existing (before his incarnation) in the form of God, thought the being
on an equality with God not an act of usurpation yet (though he was ;

thus exalted) he emptied himself (of this power and glory and happiness)
by taking a bond-servant's form, after he had come into a condition of
similarity to men; and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled
himself (still further) by becoming obedient unto death, even death by
crucifixion. This is the great example of self-denial and sacrifice which
the apostle here presents. No human example can ever approach this.
The annals of the world present nothing else like it. But the Apostle
could by no means stop' at this point and so he proceeds ;

Vv. 9, 10, II. 8ii5 Kal . . , 4ir€pvi|/<Derev {vir4p, above, and v'i/6u:, to lift

high). Wherefore (let any one ponder the force of this wherefore) also
God highly exalted him [lifted him, when he was in the form of this suffer-
ing human being, high above): Si(! = 8ii 3, Kalillative; introduces an
additional and important particular. — Kal cxap^o-aro (x'^P^C"!'-'", X'^P")
Kri., and freely gave, graciously gave etc. The language is still used
with reference to his humiliation (vom Gesichtspunkte der Unterordnung
au3 gesagt. Meyer). — rb Svojia rh vir^p irdv &voy.a,, the name which is

a'love and beyond {iwepvt. ace.) every name. What name is here meant
is fully explained in the next clause. The name Jesus, given at his in-
carnation, became the most exalted and honored of all names. — Hva iv
T<3 ovo^ari 'Itjcov, that in the name of yesus (as the sphere in which all
this shall take place in the recognition of his exaltation and power)
;

every knee may bow [should bow, R. V., an expression denoting the ac-
I06 NOTES ON PHILIPPIANS.
knowledgment of authority and power, on the part of every one, including
his enemies. Matt. 22. 44, Marie 12. 36, Luke 20. 43, Acts z. 35, i Cor.

15. 25, Heb. I. 13, 10. 13) of things, or more properly, I think, of beings
(B, U., Meyer, et al.) in heaven, and beings on earth, and beings under the
earth. It is not necessary to limit this language, except that it must refer
to created beings nor to define more exactly who are meant. The lan-
;

guage is general and comprehensive. —


Kal iroo-o 7Xu<rirtt ^ft^ja>voyr\fTera,\.
(or -oTiTai, W-H.), and that every tongue may (openly, iif) confess (should
confess, R. V.) the fact that Jesus Christ is With this statement,
Lord.
cf. Matt. 28. 18, All authority has been given me in heaven and on earth. —
cls 86^av KTe., loith a view to the glory of God the Father: els, the end in
view, that into which attention is directed. All that is affirmed above,
particularly the confession that shall be made, shall enter into the glory
of God The entire sentence, from
the Father as the ultimate result.
verse 5th to verse nth, inclusive, most remarkable and deserves
is

careful study, prolonged meditation. The God man, thus exalted, every
eye shall see, even they that have mocked and pierced him and they :

also who have hoped in him, who have loved him and tried to serve
him on earth.
Vv. 12, 13. "flo-re (here w. a finite mood). And so. So then (R. V.),
Wherefore (B. U.), introduces an exhortation, following a view of the
great example. Ka9^9 . —
vm^Kovo-aTc, even as ye always obeyed,
. . —
whom } Undoubtedly, the primary reference is to God. Cf. verse 8.
ivi\Koos, predicated of Christ. But obedience to God would be, at the
same time, obedience to the preaching of Paul. |if| lis (livov, not as — . . .

if in my presence only, — a reference to the well-known and common fact


that the obedience of the servant is ordinarily much more perfect under
the eye of some one who is looking on. The neg. ixi\ leads us to connect
this clause with the following exhortation not with the preceding indie.
;

iTrT)Koi<raTf. — dXXot vBv (in the strict temporal sense) ktI., but tuna much
more in my absence. The conscientious and faithful servant often takes
even more pains when no one is looking on. —
(itTcl <j>(Spou Kal Tpd|u>v,

with (in the midst of) fear and trembling; in view of the greatness of
their work, and of their own weakness and imperfections. rf|v 4avruv —
(2d pers., as often in N. T. =: Att. u^uaK avTav) crun)p(av KaTcpyolcirSc,
work out fully, to the end (\isqne ad metam. Bengel) _i'OKr 07vn salvation.
Note that Paul here, and elsewhere, insists as much on work, as James.
— y&f loTiv KTk.,for (and this is the encouragement. We have thus
flebs

the humanside, verse 12, and here the divine) God is the one who 70orks
in you both the willing atid the working, or both to will and to work (the
working not less than the willing), /«-, /or /•/« sake i. c. to accomplish, his ^
good pleasure. Karfpyd^o/iai, to work out, to bring to completion ; ivfpyfa,
to work with energy, to work effectually.
— :

CHAPTER II. 14-16. 107

Vv. 14, 1 5. iraKTo iroieiTS \ap\i ktc'., Do (pres. imperat., 6e in the habit
of doing) all things without, apart from {xwpls, much more frequent in
N. T. than &vtu)j nntrmurings and disputings^ questionings (R. V.), doubl-
ings ( Ell.), kaesitationihus ( Vulg. ), ohne Ziy^^/^/ (Luther sans disputes (Mar- ) ,

tin, De Saci). Cf. Rom. i. 21, 14. i, I Cor. 3. 20, i Tim. 2. 8, Jas. 2. 4.

The word %uiXo-^ia\i.o'i includes the various ideas, debates, arguings, dis-
futings, questionings, doublings.Against these, the early Christians were
often and the warning would not be out of place even now. It
warned ;

is not necessary, nor as seems to me proper, to limit either of these words

more than the writer has done, so as to inquire whether the murmurings
against our fellow-men, or against God, are here meant nor to determine ;

specifically to what the disputings and doubtings apply. The warning is


entirely general and is in place always and everywhere.
; Vva ^ivrjo-Bj —
(aor. to denote an accomplished fact) ktI., that ye may become blameless
(not liable to be blamed) and harmless (R. V.), simple (B. \J.),pure (Ell.)
iicepaios, for the poetic aK^^paroj, is probably from a priv. and Kfpivvvfu,
to mix ; and hence means, unmixed, simple, pure, uncontatninated. See
L. & Sc. The word occurs but three times in N. T. Matt. lo. 16, Rom.
16. 19 (where it is rendered simple in R. V.). I think it may be rendered

simple in all three places, in the strict and primary sense of simple ; i. e.,

free from all duplicity, from all mixture of guile. — t^kvo . . . &|j,ci>|xa (a
priv. and fia/ios, blame: Lach., Meyer, El!., et al. read a/»(4jtt7)To, not to be
blamed), children of God without reproach, without blemish (R. V ). — (li-

<rov (as prep. w. gen. ; so in Hom. and in LXX) YEVcas ktI., in the midst
of a generation crooked and perverted {SteffTpafifieyijs, fr. Sia-aTpf(pa, to twist
completely, to distort, pervert). — iv ots, among whom, referring to yevcSr,
as collective. — <|>ttCv€(rfl€ tos <f>cijoTf]p€s ktL, ye are plain, are seen, as lumi-
naries etc. — Iv Kac)!!!) (article omitted. Win. § 19, i, a) ?« the world.

V. 16. Xii^ov . . . hriy^vtei (agrees w. the subj. of yirr\<i9i\, holding


forth (R. v., B. U., Alf., Ell., et al.), holding upon, holding firmly (Luther,
Bengel, De Wette, Ewald, et al.), (Meyer et al.).
containing, possessing
Either meaning is logical here, and the word may have either significa-
tion. Perhaps the first is now more generally preferred yet the last two, ;

which are closely allied (possessing and holding firmly], seem nearer the
primary and exact meaning of lit-. The thought is also equally striking.
It is only by holding firmly, and while we hold firmly, the word of life

that we can hope to be seen as luminaries in the world. The particip.


may here be understood in its various relations, ro/;/7^, if, because. Was it
ever more important than now to hold firmly the word of life ? A% nai-
for a ground of glorying (looking forward) into the day of
XT||ia Krk.,
Christ. they should hold firmly the word of life, and thus be seen as
If
luminaries in the world, it would be a ground of glorying and rejoicing
on the part of the Apostle and would be a proof that he had not run in
;

15
.

I08 NOTES ON PHILIPPIAN'S.

vain nor toiled in vain. On the expression, day of Christ, cf. i . 6, note. —
8ti . . . eSpojiov (rpexw) • • • lKOir£a(ra (Koiriaa)), a fuller explanation

of KoiixiMO. that,inviewof the foci that, I did not run in vain (lit. intoany-
thingvain, Lat. in w. ace, in vacuum, Vulg.), nor toil in vain (entering into
anything vain )

Vv. 17, 18. aXXa, Yea. Note this use of kKKi., introducing some-
thing so emphatic that it seems in contrast with what precedes. Cf.

I. 18, 2and often in N. T.


Cor. el KaC (not the same force
7. II, —
ns KoX See Lex.), if even, although: <nr4vSo|i.ai (note the
el, even if.

force of the pres. pass.), / am (being) poured out as a libation, as a


drink offering, —
a striking metaphor, taken from the pouring out of a
drink-offering with the sacrifice (Numb. 15. S, 28. 7). — eirl r-g iva-'wf. ktI.,

upon the sacrifice and service etc. ; or unto the sacrifice and (priestly) service

(Ell.) ; or at, at the time of, the sacrifice and priestly service (beim Opfer

und The objection of Ell. and Meyer to the


Priesterdienste, Meyer).
sense upon, that the Jews did not pour the drink-offering upon, but
literal

around, the sacrifice, is not weighty as few, if any, of the Philippians had ;

ever witnessed a Jewish sacrifice, but must have been familiar with the
Greek and Roman custom of pouring directly upon the burning sacrifice.
Paul therefore takes his metaphor from the custom with which they were
well acquainted ; 6vaia here in the usual N. T. sense, the object sacri-
ficed, not as Alf. and some others understand it, " the deedai sacrifice." —
Tiis irC(rT€<i)S ijJLiiv, of your faith, gen. of object Alf Ell., Braune, Meyer). ( ,

"Your faith is the sacrifice, which I, as 4 priest, offer to God" (Alf.).


Gen. of apposition (Winer, § 59, 8, a). ^aCpu koI ot)vx<i'p"> Kri., I
" I joy and rejoice " is not so true to the

rejoice, and rejoice with you all.

original. The first word, X'^P"' '^ used absolutely and independently.
The second, avvxaipa, expresses his sympathy and union with them. The
rendering, / rejoice and congratulate you (Alf, Meyer, et al.), certainly
seems less accurate, and is not required by the next sentence, as they
affirm. — ri 8J avrji (adv. ace.) Kal 4|i6is ere., and in t)ie same manner,
do you also rejoice, and rejoice with me ( imperatives. So the most al- ;

though the indie, is the same in form). The ground of the Apostle's joy,
and of his exhortation, is not, I think, his probable martyrdom ; but, in
spite of his imminent personal danger, he rejoices in the hopes which the
true Christian ever cherishes.

Vv. ig, 20. 'EXirCja) Si ktI., But (though I am in great personal


danger) / hope in the Lord Jesus (a significant expression, the sphere in
which alone he had hope). tox^ws (here and oiien in N. T. spoken —
oiivcat.), shortly, soon. — ujitv. The dat. seems here to denote motion,
to you ; but may also include the idea of advantage, for von. — tvo KO^it
rui|nixu, that I also (as well as you) may be cheered (B. U.), may be of
good courage LAlf), may be of good hc.irt (Ell.) : ev-i/Mxiai only here in
— .

CHAPTER II. 21-24. 109

N. T. (the imperat. eu\j/ixei is found in epitaphs). — -yvois (ytyvda-xa)


Toi wAen I have known, or by knowing (particip. denoting time
ktI.,

and means) the things concerning you, your affairs. Hearing mutually
from each other would give each other joy. oiSeva -ydp S^w l<ro))'«- —
yifiv, For (introducing the reason for sending him) I have no [other) man

(than- Timothy) like-minded (with myself). So Alf., Ell., Meyer; or,


/ have no {other) man like minded (with Timothy). So Beza, Cajvin,
Lightfoot. " The comparison here is between Timothy and other per-
sons, not between him and Paul; since the object of the remark clearly
is to state why the Apostle sends Timothy rather than any one else."

Hackett. This certainly seems to me the correct view. — oo-tis yvt]o-£o>s

. . . ji,€pt[iv^(r€i (/A€pijUi/(£w),7£;/^£? (such a one as) z£'////?'M/j/,^i?««/«^/j/ (with-


out self-seeking) care for, have solicitude for, your state (lit. tJie things con-
cerning you).
Vv. 21, 22. 01 irdvTcs -yap ktI., For they all (i.e. all the others, ex-
cept Timothy, who were now with the Apostle) seek their awn (affairs, or
interests), not those of fesus Christ. (Hence, they cannot act without self-

seeking. ) Who are referred to, and how much is meant by this state-
ment, cannot with certainty be determined. Cf. verse 4, which may have
been suggested by the Apostle's present surroundings. In the great com-
mercial centre of the world, " the demands of business " might be very
pressing. something similar to what the Apostle here alludes to
Is not
often witnessed now
in our great "metropolitan churches"? Tijv 8i 80- —
Ki|ji{|v airov 7iv<S<rK«T6. But the proof of him, his tested, tried and 'approved,
character (in distinction from that of the others) ye knaiv. The Philip-
pians knew Timothy personally. Cf. Acts 16. i ff., 17. 14. 8ti (manner
in which the proof was given) /ere., that, as a child [serves) a father, he
served -with me [entering) into [the work of) the gospel. Paul does not wish
to say, he served me, and so he changes slightly the const, to avv ^fiol,

with me.

Vv. 23, 24. toStov (emphat. position. Cf. verse 19) (iJv (correl. w. Ss,

verse 24) oSv ktI., This one, therefore (in view of his tried character), /
hope to send. —
<os fl.v d<ti(Su (Stti!, bfias, aor. eISoi/, subjunc. fSa. might We
expect h.Tti'Sm, st. hi^lta. The digamma (f) may have been retained in the
popular pronunciation of fTSoi/, ifSai, and hence the aspirated d(^ st. ktt-.
Cf. i^' iKirlSt, Rom. 8. 20, Tisch. See Winer, § 5. 14), when I shall have
in full view, when I shall see clearly (cf. L,. & Sc. at^opaw), as soon as I get
a glimpse of [Yz.x'c-xt). — riirapl l|j.4, the things about me (in the local sense;
yet not differing greatly from t& irepl lp.ov, the things concerning me) —
l^auTTis (emphat. position), forthwith, directly, qualifies Ten\f/ai. — ir^iroiea

(2 perf. intrans. and meaning, fr. irilSa) SI iv Kvplio, but I trust in


pres. in
tJie Lord (the sphere, and the only sphere, of his trust. Cf. 2. 19) 8ti —
. . . 4\EV(ro|Jiai (in Attic comm. flfu) that I myself also shall come shortly.

no NOTES ON PHILIPPIANS.
For an account of the probable situation of Paul at this time, see Cony-
beare and Howson, chap. xxvi. ; Farrar, chap, xlvii.

Vv. The remaining verses of this chapter speak of Epaphrodi-


25, 26.
tus, sentfrom Philippi to Rome to render some service to Paul, not else-
where mentioned. There is no reason for supposing him to be the same
as Epaphras.

'Avo-yKatov xri. And I thought it necessary. This is ex-
plained more fully in verses 26-28. 'Eira()>p(iSiTov. Not an unusual —
Greek proper name, meaning, lovely, charming (fr. 'A(j>poSiT7i), Lat. veniis-
tus. Note the five designations following ; the article -riv being expressed
but once. Connect the first )uni w. the three preceding words. vpiv 8i —
dir^oToXov (in the primary sense, u person sent forth with delegated au-
thority, Lat. legatus) Kal XeirovpY&v ktI., and your delegate and minis-
ter to my need (u/tSK.emphat. position, connect w. both nouns). Cf. 4. 18.
— ir^|i.i|fai ktI., to send (i. e. to send back) to you. 4Tr«ima stronger form —
of iitei, and not so frequent in 'H.'T.), since in fact, reason for verse 25.
iiriiroSuv (jv (note the frequency of ^x w. pres. particip. in N. T., ex-
pressing the idea of continuance more emphatically) he was longing for
etc. — d&i)|JMiviav (but three times in N. T., derivat. uncertain), was in
anguish, was sorely troubled. — 8i6ti, because etc., the reason for this long-
ing and anguish. — ^Kouo-arc 8ti ^(r9^vt)<rev (lurSiViu) , you had heard that
he was sick. How they had heard of this, and how Epaphrod. had learned
that theyhad heard, is not known. Undoubtedly, commercial intercourse
between Rome and the leading cities of Macedonia was frequent. The
strong mutual affection between the church and their delegate is worthy
of note.

Vv. 27, 28. Kol (copulat., introducing an additional statement) f&f


(causal, introducing a reason), and (you had heard that he was sick),^^-
(it was a fact that etc.) ; for truly, Lat. etenim, and indeed. — iropairX^-
<riov (adv. w. dat. or gen. Cf. in I-at. affinis, similis, etc. w. dat. or gen.)
iav&,Ta, similarly to, like to, near to, death. — ^XcT|(rev (iXciu) ovtov, /»/-
ied, had mercy on, him. Raising him up from his sickness was in the cir-
cumstances an act of mercy. In some circinnstances, it is an act of mercy
to call the Christian home to his rest. God always knows what is merci-
ful and best. — dva Note how seldom the optat.
(I'fl . . . (T^S (subjunc.
occurs in N. T.), that I might not have sorrcna upon sorrow, i.e. sorrow
occasioned by the loss of Epaphrod. added to the sorrow attending his
own imprisonment. — oTrouSoioWpws (adv., comparat. degree) 6iv irrl..

The more With the more haste (B. U.), U^th the more
diligently (R. V.),
urgency, therefore in view of what is said in verses 26, 27 ), I have sent him.
(

— tva xopi^TC (xofpa), M<2/;V0»/, /«az'/»^«CT» him again, may rejmcc ;


. . .

or, that you, having seen him, may agiin rejoice. The former seems to me
better in sense, and not forbidden by the position of iriXiv. So R. V.,
B. U., Beza, Grotius, De Wette, et al. Yet Meyer, Braune, Alf., EU.,et al.
CHAPTER II. 29, 30; III. I, 2. Ill

join n^\iv w. ^ap^re. — Ka-yo) . . . «S, atu/ that / tnay be less sorrow/id

{more free from sorrow), when I hear of your joy. He could not in his
present situation become from sorrow, and so could not say
entirely freed

xiyii xafiSi, but his burden of sorrow would be lightened.


Vv. 29, 30. irpocrSsx'O'^e oSv oirdv, Receive Mm therefore (inasmuch
as I have been so urgent in sending him). — Note
Ik Kvp£(i>, in the Lord.
how often this is expressed in the epistles of Paul. See Rom. ch. 16,
where it occurs seven times. The meaning here seems to be, receive
him as a Christian brother in a Christian spirit. fiexa nfufvp ^tt.faa, —
with ail joy. There need be no limitations, or conditions, attending such
joy; joy kv Kvpiif. — Kal tovs toio«tods . . .
?x*^' (pres. imperat,, denoting
what is be habitual), and have, or hold, such persons (as he) in honor,
to
in esteem {iyTlfiovs, it. ev and Tiyn^j, honor, esteem). on Sid to ^p'yov — . . .

•fJ-yY'''''^ (*'77'C'")> iecause (the reason for the exhortation preceding) on

account of the work of Christ he came near e^ien to death (lit. up to death),
— irapa-Po\ev(rd|X£vas (va.fa.-^oXivoii.ai, cf. vafa-fiiWa) t^ '["'xfi' having
taken a risk in respect to his life, having risked, or hazarded, his life. In
what particular way he thus hazarded his life is not known. Paul only
informs us that it was on account of the work of Christ. It is quite
possible that the Philippians might understand the allusion better than
we. — tva ttvoirX.iipi6(r[| (aor. subjunc. denoting an act accomplished),
that (the motive in thus periling his life) he might fill up, might supply.
— rb v^tAV {tO'Tlpi]iia, that which was lacking, or that which was left behind
on your part, in respect to service to me. No intimation of voluntary defi-
ciency on their part is to be understood here but that which they lacked ;

the opportunity to do in person was done through their delegate. Cf.


t4 vtrrep'lifiaTa ktI. Col. I. 24, note those of the afflictioiu of Christ which
;

come afterwards.

Chap. III. (See General Outline.)


V. I. Tb Xoiir6v. Finally (lit.rtJ to the rest), indicating that the writer
is in his own mind near the end of the epistle. — xatptre tv KvpCu, rejoice
in the Lord. This has been spoken of as the key-note of this epistle,
more than of any other. Note again hi xvpiif. Paul would not-think
of any rejoicing except in the Lord. —
to, avToL 7p&<t>Eiv i5|itv, to write

the same things to you. Whether this refers to what directly precedes (so
Bengel, Wiesinger, Alf., Ell., et al.), or to what follows (Meyer et al.),
may not be determined with certainty. May it not in the connection
have a twofold application ? Thus, To write what I have already said
•and what I am about to say is not irksome to me and for you it is safe,
sure ground.

V. z. pX^irtTc, look to, keep an eye on, beware of. repeated for em-
phasis. — TOVS KWtts, the dogs. It should be borne in mind that dogs
112 NOTES ON PHILIPPIANS.
world and in that age were regarded with much more
in that part of the
disgust than now and
in our country. The term denotes the lower and
baser enemies of Christians. —
Tois KOKois ep-yaTas, the evil workers.
Doubtless the Philippians would understand more definitely than we the
reference here. The expression means not simply those who were evil,
wicked ; but those who were active in wickedness. This class is never
wanting in any age. —
rJiv KaTOT0(i^v (only here in N. T.), the concisim,
a contemptuous expression, denoting a mere hand-wrought, outward mu-
tilation. Note the paronomasia, KaTaTOfnii, »epiTo;u<. The reference is
to those who prided themselves on that which was merely outward, in
the flesh, without any spiritual significance.
V. 3. TIH61S . . . ii irepiTon'i), J^or we (emphat.) are the circumcision,
in the true, spiritual sense ; made plain by the contrast with Korwroiiipi,
and still plainer by what follows. — ot . . . Xarpcvovres . . . Kav)(<i;uvoi
• . . ireiroiflcSTes, who serve (perform reli^ous service) by tfie Spirit (dat.
of agent, cf. Rom. 8. 13, 14) of God, and glory in Christ jfesus, and trust
not in the flesh; — all this in striking contrast with the Jew. I can see
no good reason for departing here, and in two or three other passages,
from the ordinary rendering of Xarpflna, to serve, perform religious ser-
vice. So Alf., Ell., Meyer (Gottesdienst i/iun), Luther, Martin, De Sad,
et al. The art. o2 w. all three participles, thus uniting them more closely
in thought. Note also the neg. oix w. the particip., so rare in N. T.,
denying without condition or qualification. Win. § 55, page 4S5.
V. 4. KaCiTcp (rare in N. T., used only here by Paul, makes the conces-
sive idea, often in the particip. alone, more emphatic here) fyi (included
in the ij/tcis above, but here singled out) t)(av, sc. tlfil, although I am
having (dejure, not de facto), though I myself might have (R. V.). — ireiroC-

0i)inv Kal iv (rapxC, confidence even in the flesh. Note the force of the
ending -««, denoting action ; a confidence that exhibits itself in action,

not a mere passive, lifeless, trust. — tt tis 8oK«t dXXos lerk.. If any other
man seems (either to others or to himself) to have confidence, to have a
ground of confidence, i.e. as I understand the clause. If any other man
apparently has a ground of confidence in the flesh. — i'^&> |iaXXov, sc. Soxw
VfiroiSfvai 4v aapxi, I more, i.e. I apparently have
more reason for con-
fidence in the flesh. Hence no one could say
him that he despised of
those things which he himself did not possess and could not have, as
many persons da
Vv. 5, 6. ircpiTO|i,f| (dat. of reference) JKra^iitcpos (adj. agreeing w.
iyi), lit. in respect to circumcision eight days old, or on the eighth day;
thus, distinguished from the proselytes, as a native Jew. 4k y^wvs —
'Ia-pai(|X, of the race of Israel, i.e. not descended from prosel3'tes of for-

mer generations. — <^vK^s Bnii>a|icCv, of the tribe of Benjamin, " The tribe
of Benjamin enjoyed and conferred a distinction, liecause unlike the

CHAPTER III. 7-II. 113

Ephraimites had remained


it to the theocracy" (Braune). Cf. faithful
Ezra
— 'Eppaios
4. 1 ff. 'EppaCwv, a Hebrew of Hebrews, i^of pure the i. c.

ancestry and the most ancient. See Die. of the Bible, Hebrew. — art.

Thus far Paul has spoken of the genuineness, the illustrious character,
and the antiquity of his Jewish descent he now proceeds to speak of ;

his own character : a Pharisee, a zealous Pharisee, a blameless Phari-


see. — Kara viSp.ov ^opurotos, in respect to the law (i.e. the Mosaic law)
a Pharisee (the strictest sect). — KaroL JiiXos (3d declens., neut. ; in Att.
6 Cv^"^) 8i.iiK<DV K-ri; in respect to zeal, persecuting (pres. particip., de-
noting what was habitual) the church (used here in the collective sense).
— Kara SiKaioirvvT]v • . . fiiienirros, in respect to righteousness, that in the
law, having become (aor. particip. denoting an accomplished fact) blame-
less, not liable to be blamed. Paul speaks elsewhere of a very different
righteousness from that i» v6)>.<t.

Vv. 7, 8. dXXd (retained by W-H. and most editors, omitted by


Tisch.) &T1V0 . . . k^pSt] (plur. fr. KfpSos], But whatever things were to
me gains, profits, these I have considered, have counted, because of Christ,
as loss, damage. — dXXd (verse 8) with its usual adversative force; con-
trasts what follows with what precedes. The first statement falls so far
short of the whole truth that the following one seems to stand in oppo-
sition to it. — )uvovv7£, W-H. ^\v oSc yt, Ell. et al. )i.\v div. See L. &
Sc. j*eV, B. II. — pres.
T)70vp.ai., distinction from (in H\-it\imi, perf.), denotes
something habitual. Nay more, I certainly am even counting all things to
be loss on account of the surpassing value of the knowledge
of Christ Jesus
my Lord. —81 8v to -rravra eEi](i.i(49tiv (C-r\ni6a, same root w. Cvhla"), on
account of whom I suffered the loss of them all (lit. the all things: note
fh. from rdvra above).
Trdvra in distinction Kal TJ70v|Jiai K«pS-<)<r<i» — . . .

(l aor. act. subjunc. same root w. KepSri), and count {them as)
fr. KepSalva,
refuse that I may gain Christ. The derivation of aKv^a\a is not certain.
See L. & Sc. Cf. irepiKcidapijia and veplij/rina, 1 Cor. 4. 13.
V. 9. Kal (vpe6u (eipiaKa) ev avria, and may be found in him ; " as
the sphere and element of my spiritual being." Ell. Cf. Eph. 2. 6, Gal.
2. 17. — (if) i^av
tK v6\um, not having a righteousness of my own that
. . .

from This was the righteousness which he had once sought to


the law.
establish, which many, it is to be feared, are still seeking to establish.
dXXd riiv ktI., but (note the contrast) that through faith in Christ, the
righteousness from Cod, (resting) upon faith.
distinct, clear, and Note how
emphatic is the statement and how much of Paul's theology is contained
;

in it; his great, leading doctrine, —


righteousness from God through faith
in Christ.

Vv. 10, II. Tofl 'YVwvai ajrrciv, that I may know him. Connect this
closely in thought with ciSpeflS iv mn$ and the entire intervening state-
ment. yiyviiffKa expresses a definite, decisive knowledge, as appears in
;

114 NOTES ON PHILIPPIANS.


the compound KarayiyviaKa). — Kal . . . KaC, introduce important par-
ticulars after the general thought. — koI -riyv 8wa(iiv Tfjs dvturrio-ews
a'jTov, and (or even, und insonders, Meyer) the power of his resurrection.
The full meaning of this expression will perhaps never be comprehended
by any man in this world. The resurrection of Christ assures us of our
justification(Rom. 4. 25, Eph. 5) and confirms the hope of our own
\i.. ;

resurrection (Rom. 8. 11 also the entire argument of i Cor. ch. 15).


; It
was the constant theme of the first preachers of the gospel. They ap-
peared as "witnesses of his resurrection." — xal