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THE WORD

OF THE

OLD TESTAMENT EXPLAINED

A POSTHUMOUS WORK
BY

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG

Now tor the tlrst time translated from a phototytled copy 01 the original manuscript preserved In the Royal Academ:y ot Sclencee. Sweden
BY

ALFRED ACTON, M.A., D.Th.


DEAN OF TUB THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL OF
TUB ACA,DBIIT 01' TU NSW CHURCH

VOLUME V

ACADEMY OF THE NEW CHURCH


BRYN ATHYN,

PA.

1941

THE WORD OF THE OLD


TESTAMENT EXPLAINED

JOSHUA

1: 7, 8

Only be thou strong and 'lJery courageous, that thou mayest obser'lJe to do accordiJng to all the law which Moses my ser'lJant commanded thee; turn not thou from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest act with prudence in all things whither soe'lJer thou goest. This book of the la.w shall not depart out of thy mouth; but thou shalt meditate therein day and night that thou mayest obser'lJe to do according to all that is written thereiJn; for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous and then thou shalt act with prudence. (See n. 5880.)
[The above is inserted here in accordance with a sug gestion written by the author on the inside of the front cover page of Codex 61. His words are: "Perhaps the words in Joshua, chapter 1, verses 7 and 8, should precede the explana tion of Genesis and Exodus." Then follows a brief explana tion of these verses, which was afterwards crossed off and the words "Respecting these words, confer n. 4464 [our n. 5880]" substituted. The same suggestion is made on the inside of the back cover, where we read: "The words in Joshua, chapter 1, verses 7 and 8, should perhaps precede the explanation of Genesis or of Exodus, or of both. The ex planation may be seen in n. 4464." In this quotation from Joshua, Swedenborg used Schmidius' version.]

LANCASTER PRESS, INC., LANCASTER, PA.

EXODUS
CHAPTER

XXIII

1 Thou shalt not receive a report of vanity; thou shalt not put thine hand with the wicked, to be a witness of violence. ~ Thou shalt not be behind the multitude for evil deeds; neither shalt thou give answer in a cause, to turn aside after the multitude, for the wresting of judgment. S Neither shalt thou honour a poor man in his cause. 4 If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, returning thou shalt return it unto him. 5 When thou seeth thine enemy's ass oppressed under its burden; if thou hast ceased to remove it therefrom, removing thou shalt remove it with him. 6 Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause. 7 From the word of a lie thou shalt be far removed; and him that is innocent and just thou shalt not slay: for I will not justify him ~hat is impious. 8 And a gift shalt thou not receive; for a gift blindeth them that see, and perverteth the words of the just. 9 Nor shalt thou oppress the soj ourner: but rather ye shall know the soul of the sojourner, seeing ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt. 10 And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the produce thereof: 11 But the seventh year thou shalt cease, and shalt let it rest; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave, the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner, thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard. 1~ Six days thou shalt do thy works, and on the seventh day thou shalt cease: that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner, may take breath. IS And in all things that I have said unto you be on your guard: especially be not mindful of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth. 1

THE WORD EXPLAINED 14 Three times in the year thou shalt keep a feast unto me. 15 The feast of unleavened cakes shalt thou observe; seven days thou shalt eat unleavened cakes, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou earnest out from Egypt; and my faces shall not be seen emptily; 16 And the feast of harvest, of the firstfruits of thy works, which thou hast sown in the field: and [the feast 1] of in gathering, which is in the going out of the year, when thou gatherest in thy works from the field. 17 Three times in the year every male of thine shan appear before the face of the Lord Jehovah. 18 Thou shalt not sacrifice the blood of my sacrifice upon that which is leavened; neither shan the fat of my feast remain over night until the morning. 19 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of J ehovah thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk. 20 Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to guard thee in the way, and to bring thee to the place which I have prepared. 21 Beware of his faces, and hear his voice; provoke him not; for he will not endure your transgression; because my name is in the midst of him. 22 But if hearing thou shalt hear his voice, and do all that he speaketh ; 2 then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and will trouble them that trouble thee, 23 When mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee unto the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, the Hivite and the J ebusite: and I will cut him off; 24 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to their gods, nor ,vorship them, nor do after their works: but destroying thou shalt destroy them, and breaking thou shalt break in pieces their statues. 25 But ye shall worship Jehovah your God, that he may bless thy bread, and thy waters; and I will take away disease from the midst of thee. 26 There shall be none that aborteth or is barren, in thy land: thou shalt fulfil the number of thy days.
1 Omitted by Schmidius. See n. 4605 note.

EXODUS XXIII: 1

[4559

917 I will send my terror before thy faces, and will confound all the people against whom thou shalt come; and I will give all thine enemies toward thee, for a neck. s 918 Yea, I will send the hornet before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee. 919 I will not drive him out from thy faces in one year; lest perchance the land become a solitude, and the wild beast of the field be multiplied against thee. SO Little by little I will drive him out from thy faces, until thou be increased, and be able to inherit the land. SI And I will set thy border from the sea Suph even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness unto the river: for I will give the inhabitants of the land into thine hand, and will drive them out from thy faces. 4 S9l Thou shalt not make a covenant with them, or with their gods. SS They shall not dwell in thy land, lest perchance they make thee sin against me: for when thou serveth their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee.

4559. [Thou shalt not receive a report of vanity; thou shalt not put thime hand with the wicked, to be a witness of violence], vs. 1. A report of vanity means everything that is not holy. Thus what is more properly regarded is, that they should be holy [chap. 9l9l 31 ]. Vanity is all that which strives against heavenly love. Therefore it is said, Thou shalt not take the name of God in vain [chap. 9l0 7 ], the opposite of this being to hallow his name [Matt. 69 ]. Vanity, therefore, involves all that the love of self and the love of the world [strives after]. It was forbidden to receive a report from this source and to be delighted thereby, because thus they will be profane.~ These words look to interiors more than do the preceding words. Thus the laws now pass on in order, to things interior, and it is especially moral laws flowing from spiritual, that are here set forth. That vanity signifies both deeds and words, that is to say, that it signifies the above-mentioned loves, and also lies, may be learned
See n. 4618 note.
, See n. 4623 note.
These last two sentences are emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.

III Ad. 1056-1059

4560-4561] .

THE WORD EXPLAINED

from the word itself, which likewise signifies alie. 8 That it signifies a deed, is apparent from what follows, namely, that one should not put his hand with the wicked. "To put one's hand with the wicked" means to associate with him, to give consent, to favor his lying and his evil. The hand means power and force, and therefore to put one's hand with the wicked means to adjoin one's own forces with his forces, and at the same time to enter into counsel with him. But these forces must be separated, for if a man is not separated from the wicked, he is not adjoined to God Messiah. A witness of violence means acting toward the neighbor from hatred, for nothing must be done from hatred but all from charity. Hence this law is a setting forth of charity by means of the re moval of hatred. This is the first step to reformation. To be a witness involves internal testimony, that is to say, a consensus and a like mind, and so a conspiring to all such things as come from hatred. 4560. [Thou shalt not be behind the multitude for evil deeds; neither shalt thou give answer in a cause, to turn aside after the multitude, for the wresting of judgment], vs.~. The first thing was consent, and now comes the deed, this being called evil. Man must not turn to this because the evil are a multitude. He must be among the few, and so must be in the straight way and not in the broad [Matt. 7 13 ]. These several precepts have regard to charity and truth, to the end that men may follow these and so may put off their evil disposition. Among the evil is a perpetual strife, for strife signifies all that which infringes upon truth. Thus, whatsoever the cause, one must speak only the truth. 4561. [Neither shalt thou honour a poor man in his cause], vs. 3. This signifies that they ought not to make any pretext, and favor a man more than the truth. God Messiah alone is truth and goodness, and He alone gives witness concerning truth, etc., etc. We are commanded to do good to the poor; but when the poor
~,~ yr;,~
:T

The Hebrew words which Schmidius translates" the report of vanity," are (literally" the hearing of nothingness" [or vanity] ). Pagnini trans _ .

lates them "the hearing of a lie "; Tremellius, "the rumor of a lie "; and the Vulgate, " the word of a lie." One or other of these translations was doubtless consulted by Swedenborg.

III Ad. 1060-1067

EXODUS XXIII:

~4

[456!

man is an evil man and perverse, there will be some pretext to ac count for favoring him. Such pretext is prohibited. This is the meaning in general. Here many examples come to mind. It is the truth that must be looked into, and not the person; for it is from truth and goodness that a person is what he is, and not from poverty. A knowledge of the order obtaining in the heavens and on earth must certainly precede, if there is to be a knowledge of the laws, and of the correspondence of superior laws with inferior; for laws are laws of order. As order is in man, such is it in society, such in the universe, and almost such in every part of the universe, except as regards spiritual and celestial things which are in a living sub-, j ect, and [thus] in man. In supreme things, order is God Messiah himself. All order flows from him and is coestablished by him; for without love and conjunction, there cannot be a single thing which is held together and is in correspondence. The knowledge of order requires a knowledge of degrees, a knowledge which is the more difficult because it is little known and has never as yet been cultivated. The first thing created is that which is to be caned supracelestial and truly spiritual; in this is the human soul. The second is that which is to be called spiritual and celestial; in this is the human mind. In the third is the natural mind. Then comes that which is mundane and which corresponds to the two atmospheres of the world, the ether and the air, whence, in the animal world, come hearing and sight. The last in order is the terrestrial, and this again is distinguished into three kingdoms, as it were; in man it is properly called the corporeal. 4562. [If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, returning thou shalt return it unto him], vs. 4. Here the precept 7 of charity toward the neighbor is given as being also toward the enemy; namely, that they should do good works, even to an enemy; for by the ox and the ass are meant man's varied possessions which serve him and pertain to him. These one should bring back to the way, that is, to the master. That one ought to love one's enemies, and not hold them in hatred, as is the common belief in that nation-a belief which is evi
T Swedenborg first wrote "rule." Over this he then wrote " precept" but failed, presumably by inadvertence, to cross off "rule." Hence the Latin edi tion has the words (( regula [sive I praeceptum."

III

~d.

1068-1073

4563-4565]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

denced in many examples-is here absolutely clear. For the pre cept is that they should so far love their enemy as to lead him back to the way and perform works of charity to him. Thus here there is also given them a law that is wholly internal, it being a rare oc currence for an ox and ass to stray. Therefore these words signify in general such things as were spoken of above. s 4563. The precept is the same as that on which God Messiah much insisted, namely, that they should exercise charity toward an enemy, and should do good to him [Matt. 5 44 ]. This is the inmost of love, being entirely devoid of hatred. In this way there is a combat with hatred, and, by the action of God Messiah alone, it is cast out and so is conquered, and with it, he who is hatred. 9 "To return it to its master" means to emend it. Thus in spiritual things, it means that they should be instructed concerning such matters as pertain to faith in God Messiah. It is indeed allowable to hate evil, being the sin of another, but not to hate the person in whom such evil is, for he is capable of being emended. Thus they must be such that they will to bring all their enemies to the church of God Messiah. And even when evil so cleaves to a man that its separation seems impossible, one must still deal well with him; for what seems impossible to man is entirely possible to God Messiah. 4564. As to whether it can be said that one ought to hold evil in hatred, this may be looked into. Hatred is indeed not compatible with love, but the hatred here referred to, is the effect of love, to the end that evil may be turned to good. Thus one must be a man according to the law in the primitive church that evil must be "thought unto good" (Genesis 5020), to the end that the man may be a likeness of God Messiah. 1 4565. [When thou seeth thine enemy's ass oppressed under its burden; if thou hast ceased 2 to remove it therefrom, removing thou shalt remove it with him], vs. 5. The subject treated of in the preceding verse is the straying of the enemy or of that which per tains to the enemy; but the subject now treated of is the burden of
This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin. This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. 1 This paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written three times in the margin. Schmidius interprets this as meaning, "if (being 'Unequal to the task) thou hast ceased," etc.

III Ad.

1074!~1079

EXODUS XXIII: 5-6

[4566-4568

the enemy, namely, that when he shall succumb to it, one should bring aid. Thus the subject is mercy which flows from love to ward the whole human race. In respect to the emendation of life and the relieving from a burden, that is to say, from a perverse doctrine of faith and from oppression by the devil, every man in the entire globe is the neigh bor; and it behooves each individual to will him well and to give thought to the gaining of him for the kingdom of God Messiah. 4566. Wherefore here again comes in the rule that what thou dost not wish shall be done to thyself thou shalt not do to another [Matt. 7 12 , Mark 6 31 ]. If only thou thus putteth thyself in the place of another and considereth the other as thyself, wilt thou not thus be touched with mercy, and thus grieve at the condition of all? and especially of those who are the most unhappy and the worst of men. Thou wilt never feel gladness at another's misfortune, and still less at his torment-unless this be for the sake of his emenda tion. Thus, after the misfortune thou wilt rejoice in the end. While fixing thy mind on this end, thou wilt be able in a certain way to feel gladness [even at the misfortune] ; but when the mind turns to the misfortune and remains fixed thereon,a then thou wilt grieve, etc., etc. God Messiah granting, it may be seen how grief and gladness each have their place. Is there not [here] a wailing as for the dead? as stated above [no 3124]. (Thus is to be seen what anger is, what vengeance, what envy, etc.) 4 4567. In the words of this verse is concealed something still deeper, namely, as can appear at first sight, that thou must not desist until thou hast removed [the burden]. If thou oppresseth, he himself or another [will oppress thee]. The ass is the one who is oppressed, he being then like a servant. What is had in view therefore are things which are servile." 4568. [Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause], vs. 6. This signifies that in judgment thou shalt regard nothing else than the observance of the law, and also justice, that thou may be just in the sentence, that is, may prefer truth to every influence; therefore what follows in the next verse concerns a lie, and the man who is innocent and just. Thus thou shalt not regard
3 [Crossed off:] and when thus the end is not within This paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written several times in the margin. No. 4567 is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.

III Ad. 1080-1086

4569-4571]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the person because of considerations which are extraneous, thus be cause of dignity, poverty, etc.; but shalt regard those things in the man which are true and just, and so shalt regard order and the laws of order. Consequently, thou shalt not regard external ges tures, for men dissemble in order that they may move to pity. 4569. Poverty is an external something, being adjoined to the just man and to the unjust, the pious and the impious. Thus the eye of the judge must be upon those things in a man and in so ciety which are the laws of order; for in perfect order is God Mes siah, he having established order itself. Therefore there must be no recession therefrom. Things external are what blind the man who is in externals. Moreover, in externals he sometimes seizes upon such things as simulate order, and thinks thereby to make himself good when he is not good. Hence the law in verse 3 concerning the poor man. In the present verse is set forth the opposite statement of this law, to wit, that the judgment of a poor man shall not be wrested be cause of the dignities and wealth of others with whom he has a cause. Note that the two precepts concerning the poor, namely, that in verse 3 and that in the present verse, have mutual regard to each other. 6 4570. [From the word of a lie thou shalt be far removed; and him that is iwnocent and just thou shalt not slay: for I will not justify him that is impious], vs. 7. All these words have regard to the truth that a man should suffer himself to be led in the way of truth; for God Messiah is the way of truth-on which matter see above [n. 4561]. Truth has regard to the knowledge of what is true and good, while justice has regard to deeds, to the end that one may be judged in accordance with what is true and good. Therefore it is said in the text, From the word of a lie thou shalt be far removed-a word signifying speech and thought. 4571. Everyone sees that to. be true and just, to which his love persuades him, and thus to which his order persuades him. There fore no one can rightly and clearly see what is just and true so long as he is ruled by loves or cupidities other than love toward the neighbor and the love of God Messiah. It is from these loves that the light comes wherefrom what is true and just can so be seen,
This and the preceding paragraph are each emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.

III Ad. 1087-1091

EXODUS XXIII: 7-8

[457~-4573

a'S rightly to be discerned from what is false and unjust. For everyone thinks that to be just, to which his love persuades him; and then come an infinitude of things giving favor and assent, which dissipate the light of truth. Therefore when man lives in perverse order he continually slays the innocent man and the just. "To slay" here means to pervert a cause, both in things moral and in things spiritual. To slay a man, or to cause that which is in him to perish, amounts to the same thing. He who does this is called impious. 4572. In the supreme sense these words have regard to God Messiah who alone is innocent and just, while all men are impious in divers degrees, those in whom rules the innocence and justice of God Messiah being pious by imputation. 7 Thus of themselves all men are condemned, because all are impious. 4573. [And a gift shalt thou not receive; for a gift blindeth them that see, and perverteth the words of the just], vs. 8. By gifts in general, or in the most universal sense, are meant all things that are a favor, for no man is devoid of the root of evil, and consequently, none is without weakness. A gift therefore is all that which favors his weakness, and so, in common speech, which favors his passion and cupidity. So shrewd is the world that it inquires as to whether-either by open gifts or by dissimulationsmen bestow gifts upon him,S or praises, and things of that sort, which are innumerable, and which perhaps may later be recited in general; for some receive these as a gift. Such also is the case when one simulates benevolence and gives nothing or little, but protests that he is desirous of giving much, proclaiming himself a just man, in that he does not dare to give. To proclaim justice in this way by means of flattery, is a gift which blinds. For the two loves [the loves of self and the world] are such that he who assents to them takes even words and gestures and facial expressions, etc., as a gift; and indeed as more than a gift when he places renown therein, in that he wishes to have the reputation of being just. Man is so easily deceived by a shrewd person that he does not know that he is in the snare. Nay [it is a gift] to act secretly-but so that it may come to be known-as an enemy to the man's enemies; to give witness to justice and truth; and so to make it thought that
1
S

This passage is emphasized by "N B " written twice in the margin. That is, upon a judge.

III Ad. 1 09~-1 099

4574-4577]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

one is of such a character as to merit justice. Thus does he act who simulates poverty, nay, and who simulates anything whatsoever that can move the mind of the judge. 4574. Hence they that see are blinded, and also the just are perverted; for they may be ignorant of the mind of the deceiver who speaks and acts. [The judge] does not know his own dispo sition and mind, still less does he see what mind another has, espe cially when that other is a dissembling serpent who, at the judge's slightest nod and recognition, acts in this way as though from na ture. Thus deceit flows out, as it were, spontaneously.9 4575. This I have sometimes marvelled at in spirits who are not deliberating concerning the weaving of deceits; yet they snatch them up at the slightest nod, and thus, themselves all unaware as it were, weave poisonous deceits. Thus it is their native disposition that acts-a disposition like that of serpents. It appeared to me that they had acted from deliberate purpose, but afterwards I perceived that it was from their native dispo sition which rules generally, and which then snatches up the least thing in the general, and so perverts it; for where the gen eral rules, there all least things are regarded and snatched up as though for some end which they continually have within them selves, and which therefore they have in view. This seemed to me to be the cause of their shrewdness and their mind 1 -which I have sometimes perceived. 2 4576. What they cling to are matters of form, it being in these that man stays; and some [see] essence only from forms. And since there are innumerable forms, a form can be simulated and a different essence be concealed within it. (God Messiah granting, these points should be demonstrated at further length.) 4577. Thus God Messiah who alone is just, never receives any gift save that which comes from love, mercy, and innocence, and consequently from man's true state. All other gifts find no way to Him, to bend Him. For in the most universal sense, gifts which
Nos. 4573-4 are emphasized by "N B" written several times in the margin. 1 eorum caliditati8 et mentis. The last word is a doubtful reading. The Latin editor reads it intern,ae, but this is certainly wrong. This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia.

10

III Ad. 1l0o-llOfl

EXODUS XXIII: 9-11

[4578-4579

come from love and faith and thus from mercy and from innocence are the gifts not of the man but of God Messiah himself. He re ceives the things which He gives, but never the things which man gives from himself. s Hence purity of heart is what holds sway; namely, that one ought not to extinguish spiritual light. 4578. [Nor shalt thou oppress the sojourner: but rather ye shall know the soul of the sojourner, seeing ye were sojourners in the latnd of Egypt], vs. 9. Here, as above [chap. ~~27] the sub ject is the sojourner, that he should not be pressed and oppressed; for he shall be his neighbor. By a sojourner is meant one who is outside the home and comes as a guest; who has his home elsewhere, and there his life and defense; who is not of the same fatherland; in the more interior sense, one who is not of the church; and thus, in the inmost sense, who is not of the doctrine of the same faith, but wanders; consequently, those who are outside the church and faith, and so outside God Messiah, and who come there as guests. These are not to be oppressed. "To know the soul of the sojourner" is to receive him into the home and into the church, there to teach him the way of truth con cerning faith and God Messiah. That the descendants of J acob in Egypt had also been such sojollrners, and likewise Jacob, Joseph, Isaac, and Abraham, in that they had passed their life elsewhere, is well known; see above, chapter ~~20. 4579. [And six years thou shalt sow thy latnd, amd shalt gather in the produce thereof: but the seventh year thou shalt cease, and shalt let it rest; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave, the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner, thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard], vs. 10, 11. These words are one and all entirely significative; and they look to and signify the kingdom of God Messiah which is to come on the seventh day, more directly than do the others; the words namely, that the land wherein is the produce, that is to say, the field wherein is the harvest, the vineyard wherein is the vine, and the oliveyard wherein is the olive, will then be at rest.
No. 4576-77 are emphasized by "N B" written several times in the margin.

III Ad. 1103-11 08

11

4580]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

What is signified by the field and the harvest may be seen else where, namely, bread and all spiritual food; what is signified by the vineyard and the vine, is gladness and felicity; and what by the oliveyard or the olive, is royal dignity, for they who shall be in the kingdom of God Messiah 4 are called sons of the king. By the field, vineyard, and oliveyard are signified those who are sons of God Messiah and thus of his church. These are the seminary of the kingdom of God Messiah. Therefore it is said that six days thou shalt sow, that is, the harvest shall increase and the produce be gathered therefrom; until the seventh day when men shall rest, that is to say, when there will be cessation and the land will be at rest. 4580. That the poor of the people would then eat, represents 5 those who are poor in spirit [Matt. 53], that is to say, spiritual poverty, which is also represented by Lazarus [Luke 1620] ; for the poverty and need of the body is not of so much advantage as is that spiritual poverty and affliction, which discover to man that he possesses nothing whatsoever that is spiritual and celestial, but receives each and every such thing for nothing-as is the case with those who are poor in spirit and who are here represented by the poor of the people. s By the beast of the field is meant all cattle; for the beast of the forest is different. The beasts of the field are rams [and] he goats,7 and it is these that eat such things on the seventh day. Wherefore those are represented who are among the lambs, kids, he goats, spoken of above [no IOU, 1067]. That the beast of the field has this signification may be seen above (Genesis ~73.4), where venison is spoken of, and this venison was the she goat, the ram, and the like. But here it is also the cattle 8 of the house which shall eat. The poor in spirit are in the first and inmost place, as being in the place of innocence and wisdom; while they who will be in the second place are signified by the cattle. The former are true men, but the latter are to be likened to cattle, because, like cattle, they derive much from nature.
This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by "N B " written twice in the margin. Swedenborg first wrote " signifies." No. 4580 is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin.
f [Crossed off:] as well as sheep, horses.
Pecus. See n. 376~ note.

III Ad. 1109-1114

EXODUS XXIII:

1~

[4581-4583

4581. [Six days thou shalt do thy works, and on the seventh day thou shalt cease: that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner, may take breath], vs. 1~. According to the rule: As it is in the general, so is it in every particular. The general is signified by " six years," by " earth," by "vineyard," "oliveyard," "the poor," etc., as above [vs. 10, 11]. The particular is signified by six days. The signification is the same, namely, the kingdom of God Messiah on the seventh day. That work shall be done for six days, signifies the continual com bats and labors which man and the human race must bear through out their general and particular course of life; thus, which entire societies must bear and each individual in the church, and this by means of wrestling, etc. These are the works that man must do. 9 4582. [It is said] that on the seventh day, the ox and the ass shall rest, namely, that which is signified, being everything which has then served; for while man is in the body servitude is perpetual. By the ox is signified general and also more important servitude, and by the ass a servitude that is viler. Which of the things in man that are of service are more signal, and which more vile, can also be evident. The more signal services are spiritual and are sig nified by the ox, while the viler are natural and are meant by the ass. 4583. This is also set forth in the words that next follow, namely, " the son of a handmaid " and" the sojourner." The son of a handmaid is a servant in the house, for one who was born of a handmaid given to service was himself a servant. Previously also a distinction was made between servants in the house and strangers, as in the case of Abraham when he circumcised all his people [Gen. 17 27 ]. Here the strangers are called sojourners, being purchased from another land. Thus they were servants of a viler sort than those who were bought from among the people. Therefore it is said that they shall take b1'eath, that is, shall cease from their servitude, for liberty comes in place of servitude, this liberty being here represented. As said above [n. 4580], there are three classes. In the inmost are the men who shall cease; in the second, they are called" sons of the handmaid," being servants in the house; and in the third are the strangers, that is, the sojourners. These are called sojourners,
This paragraph and also the preceding are emphasized by "N B " written in the margin. '

III Ad. 1115-1U3

IS

4584-4586]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

moreover, because sojourning is in the body, life in the body being called a sojourning. 4584. [And in all things that I have said unto you be on your guard: especially be not mindful of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth], vs. 13. That they should be on their guard with respect to all that was to be said, signifies that they should first abstain from evils; for the first thing is to de part from evil and from connate loves. Prior to this, man is not emended. It was so with this hard people, to whom precepts were given in order that they might abstain [from evils], being given indeed with punishments, unless they did this. The omission [of evil], however, has no other effect than to prepare the man for the influx of things truly spiritual and celestial. Until shades are re moved, light cannot come, nor can the vital come until the deadly is removed. 1 4585. By name is meant the worship of other gods, for the thought and memory of their name involves such things as pertain to their worship. This can be well known to everyone, seeing that the name occurs everywhere in worship. Therefore, in order that they might be more interiorly purified, even in their thoughts, it was forbidden them to be mindful of it, and hence to speak of it. God Messiah alone must be in the thought and in the speech, for thus he alone is represented. 4586. Thus the utmost caution must be taken against thought concerning things that are profane and damnable; otherwise they infest the thought of the mind, as did those things which I have fre quently experienced, in that the mere mention of oaths and profanities so hurt my mind that I knew not whither to turn that they might be shaken off. For when such wicked things are heard, they who are spiritual and who thus should refer all and single things to God Messiah, are as smitten in mind, as when a body is beaten with whips and staves. This I can solemnly testify has been the case with me within the time of a year. For this reason I could scarcely abide in a company whel'e such things were told as were direful; also things which [brought] more grievous sufferings, etc., etc. la
This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin. This indented part of n. 4586 is cited by the Author in the Index to his j)[emorabilia, s.v. Juramentum and Profanurn. See Table of Contents.
1

1.

14

III Ad.

lU4-1l~9

EXODUS XXIII: 13-16

[4587-4588

4587. [Three times in the year thou shalt keep a feast unto me. The feast of wnleavened cakes shalt thou observe; seven days thou shalt eat wnleavened cakes, as I commanded thee, in the time ap pointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt; and my faces shall not be seen emptily; and the feast of harvest, of the firstfruits of thy works, which thou hast sown in the field: and (the feast 2) of ingathering, which is in the going out of the year, when thou gatherest in thy works from the field], vs. 14, 15, 16. The speech of the Word of God Messiah is everywhere marvel lous, there being nothing therein that does not refer itself to the church and thus to His kingdom. This is the case with the times, and with everything whatsoever that is mentioned, for the church and His kingdom are represented in 3 all and single things, so that not the least thing is found, wherein is not a representation, even though it may not so appear. For this reason the ternary and septenary numbers recur throughout these verses, as also do the words harvest, field, and the like, wherein are represented things spiritual and celestial; and this to the end that in all that is men tioned-the times as well as all else--the spiritual man may call to mind the spiritual and celestial things which are signified. 4 4588. In the present text a year signifies the whole time of the new creation, or of reformation. This is distinguished into three times, here signified by the three great feasts now treated of. So likewise the seven days of unleavened cakes signify the seven days of creation, which the reader can see frequently treated of in the preceding pages. When the year is distinguished into three times, then the first time or first day commences from N oah's 5 going out of the ark and continues to the going of the Jewish people out of Egypt. The second day is from this going out even to the coming of the Messiah into the world; and the third day is from then to the coming of God Messiah to judgment. How all these days are con cordant and meet together in a single third day, can be explained
Omitted by Schmidius. In his hasty numbering, Swedenborg mistook this word, which commences a new line, for the beginning of a new paragraph which he numbered 1131. Swedenborg first wrote which correspond. We may add that n. 4587 is emphasized by " NB" written three times in the margin. [Crossed off:] entrance into the ark, when it was evening.

III Ad. 1130-1136

15

4589-4590]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

with many particulars; .and also how, for the new man, each day proceeds from evening to light,6 but for the old man, from light to evening. So likewise the six days of which we have spoken above from time to time. 4589. And first as concerns the feast in the month Abib,7 that is, the feast of unleavened cakes or the passover. Of this wc have treated above; see chapter 1~, from verse 1 to the end, especially verses ~, 13, 14, 15, etc. From those verses it can be evident that this feast was instituted because of the deliverance of the human race from servitude and captivity. This was done first in the time of N oah. So it was also done in the time of Abraham when he was called out of the land of Ur of the Chaldees [Gen. 11 3\ 1~1] ; and, moreover, now, when Jacob's descendants are called out of Egypt; and furthermore on the other days, of which we speak elsewhere. The present deliverance is made by God Messiah, and so also throughout the seven days treated of above. This is the meaning in the universal sense. 4590. That His faces shall not be seen emptily means in the proximate sense that they should offer a gift and also sacrifices, of' which we speak presently. But in the spiritual sense, these offer ings are supplications and acts of gratitude; for then the faces of God Messiah are not seen emptily. The word" empty" is used when one is without spiritual nourishment, and the intellectual mind, with the whole of that spiritual house, is empty, being with out thought of God Messiah, so that it is seen to be entirely inane or as though collapsed. The intellectual mind, that is to say, the spiritual and truly h~man mind, is then empty, for the natural, that is, the prince of the world, never enters into it. Being closed to him, he acts only from the outside, and indeed from below. Thus the intellectual mind can be likened to a house, wherein is a distinguishing wall, on the inside being the habitacle of God Mes siah, and on the outside the activity of this natural crew besieging it as a city. Wherefore it is also likened to a city with its bul warks, of which we have spoken above en. 3007 seq.]. He who understands the form and other properties of this faculty, and how
The preceding part of this paSsage is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin. The autograph has Abid. See n. 3906 note.

16

III Ad.

1137~114~

EXODUS XXIII: 15-16

[4591-4592

it is distinguished from the natural mind, can have a conception as to how entirely concordant this comparison is. But since these matters are hidden from those who do not know how to distinguish between the spiritual mind and the natural, such men can still less know what is the nature of that mind; and yet this can be demon strated to some extent on the basis of the most general.considera tions. From this form it also follows that there is a continual struggle. The enemy acts from without; but he can never enter, for the door is not open, having been closed in Adam, Eke the way to paradise [Gen. 3 24 ]. Hence there is a continual assault and de fence, as it were, and so by this struggle man gains the restoration of his spiritual form, to the end that he may become celestial, this never being possible without combat, etc., etc. '4591. As man is in his intellectual mind which is dedicated to God Messiah, such he is universally; for all principiates flow from their principle, and they become alike; therefore such is the man everywhere. This cannot be described; for, so long as there is no clear conception of the idea, because of ignorance in so many things, it falls into shade; indeed, a still greater shade will come, the more clearly the matter is set forth. But this is the case with those who are in shade and are blinded at the presence of light. Therefore, what has been said is sufficient for the present. That still the spiritual, in order that it may appear, is mingled with the natural, is due to genii who are so disposed 8 and formed, as to be able to act in a mixed way; otherwise man from being natural could never become spiritual, etc., etc. 9 4592. Hence it is now seen what emptiness is. This, moreover, is told by God Messiah who says that when the enemy sees the house empty, he will retum with seven others, etc., etc. [Matt. 12 43--45]. Therefore it is said in the text that His faces shall not be seen emptily, meaning in the proximate sense, not without an offering and sacrifice, wherein is present the spiritual together with the
The text reads qui agunt (in) qui ita dispo1liUntur (who act. [into 1 who are so disposed). The in is crossed off, but Swedenborg omitted to cross off the related words qui agunt. These, therefore, we have ignored in the trans lation. No. 4590, after the words" are not seen emptily," and n. 4591 are each emphasized by "Obs." (Observe) written many times in the margin.

III Ad. 1143-1146

17

4593]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

natural; 1 and in the spiritual and inmost sense, not without faith in God Messiah, etc., etc. What the faces of God Messiah are may be seen above [no 1441, 4304]. Many faces are attributed to Him in respect to man, for when that face or form is not empty but reformed, then the other faces also are concordant, etc., etc. 2 4593. As regards the feasts, which are three in number, the first, as said above [n. 4589], was proclaimed because of the first cause, namely, because we are deli xed fro s 't de, and so from the house of Egypt. This was done immediately after the fall, as also was stated, namely, by the pr~.!1-..fQnceJ.'niDg God )\tIe siah, ( who would tram le t~head of th~e!:p-ent [Gen 31~. As regards the second feast, which is called the feast of the first fruits of works, this was proclaimed in order that [those first fruits] might be sanctified, just as previously they were to give their first born; this, moreover, had been told them as soon as they came out of Egypt (Exodus,3 chap. 13, verse 2, etc., etc.) ; for man is then reborn. Therefore, the first born in this rebirth is faith in God Messiah, and obedience, here signified by the first fruits of works; for faith is the first born whence comes man's spiritual life, there being no rebirth without faith in God Messiah. It is this, therefore, that is signified by the first fruits of works in the field, or by the first of the fruits. Thus fruits signify spiritual food. Without faith in God Messiah, this does not exist, and still less does anything nourish spiritually. This then is the second feast, and therefore the text adds, which thou hast sown in the field. The third feast is at the end of their works, when they shall gather in, according to the words of the text. This signifies the going out, and thus the kingdom of God Messiah. This they cele brated in joy by feasts, it being the ultimate end of the sowing. Therefore it is here said, when thou gatherest in thy works from the field. Concerning this gathering, the reader may see many things which were said by God Messiah when speaking of his kingdom.
1 [Crossed off: J but in the spiritual sense, these are supplications from faith in God. 2 No. 4592 is emphasized by "N B" and" Ohs.," the latter written three times in the margin. S The autograph has Genesis.

18

III Ad. 1147-1152

EXODUS XXIII: 17

[4594

How these three feasts follow in order can now be evident, namely, that MAN MUST BE BROUGHT FORTH OUT OF THE HOUSE OF CAPTIVITY, AND MUST BE SANCTIFIED BY FAITH, IN ORDER THAT HE MAY OBTAIN THE KINGDO~ OF GOD MESSIAH. This is the series of the signification of the feasts. 4 God Messiah granting, more concerning these feasts may be seen in Exodus 34 21 - 23 and Deuteronomy 16, where they are expressly treated of. Here they are pointed out in general, but there in particular. See also Leviticus ~3, etc. 5 4594. [Three times in the year every male of thine shall appear before the face of the Lord Jehovah] , vs. 17. At these three feasts, the people were to appear before the face of the Lord Jehovah. It was also customary that they went to Jerusalem and there offered sacrifices, and, in the Temple, supplications. Of this we speak elsewhere. To appear before the face of the Lord Jehovah is to do this by means of offerings and sacrifices, as told above [n. 459~], and this, lest they be empty; thus by means of divine worship. But the meaning of the expression" appearing before the face of the Lord Jehovah " cannot be understood save from the more interior and inmost sense. No man can appear before the face of the Lord Jehovah save by faith, that is, by the intuition of faith in God Messiah. 6 It is faith in God Messiah, and intuition by faith that causes men to appear, and not a sacrificial act, nor even supplications when unaccompanied by true faith. Faith opens the way, for it removes obstructions. Just as the sight of the eye cannot see the sun without the removal of obstructions and also of an obstructing cloud and other things, so is it with the more interior and inmost sight. Faith is what does the removing, for God Messiah removes all obstructions by means of the faith which he bestows. But the faith must be saving faith, that is, it must be faith with love. This is the reason why prayers,7 without true faith, are never heard, that is to say, heard in the sense that approval is given to the prayers and favor to the supplicant. But these matters in This and the preceding paragraph are each emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin. This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. In the autograph, the words" God Messiah" commence a new line, and in his numbering of the paragraphs, Swedenborg mistook this line for a new paragraph which he numbered 1158. The autograph has doctrines.

III Ad. 1153-1159

19

4595-4596]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

elude more than can be set forth briefly.8 They can be better ex plained in the prayer concerning the Blessing of which we read later, when the people was blessed. There the subject treated of is the seeing of the Lord J ehovah. The Lord Jehovah is God Messiah, for none can appear before the face of Jehovah the Parent but God Messiah alone. Thus man can appear only by means of Him, and so by means of faith in the Lord Jehovah, that is, in His One only Son. 4595. [Thou shalt not sa.:rifice the blood of my sacrifice upon that which is leavened; neither shall the fat of my feast remain over night until the morning], vs. 18. What is meant by "the blood of the sacrifice," is everywhere obvious in THIS REPRESENTATIVE CHURCH. [It is said blood], because blood includes everything holy, that is to say, all spiritual and celestial life, as can be evident from many considerations. Thus this holy thing must not be com mingled with what is profane, there being no communion of the holy with the profane; but they must be held apart, as may be seen above, n. 4590 seq. To human eyes, it appears as though there were a communication or commingling, but there is none whatever. Therefore, to sacrifice upon that whi.:h is leavened or upon leaven, which is the frothing of filth, is to commingle the holy with the profane, and so to be lukewarm; and, as we read elsewhere, the luke warm is spewed out [Apoc. 3 16 ]. This is now prohibited, being here prohibited representatively in things formal which represent it, as can be evident to everyone, if only he suffers the spirit of God Messiah to act upon him. 4596. In the words concerning the fat of the feast, that it should not remain over night until the morning, more is concealed than can ever be known without the mercy of God Messiah; for it must be known what fat is and why fat was llsed in the sacrifices, where the fat of the kidneys, etc., was also sanctified to J ehovah. It is called fat and is the grease. 9 What fat is, can be evident,
The preceding paragraph and this first part of the present paragraph are each emphasized by "N B" written three times in the margin. The Latin words are adeps and pinguis, 'which 'we here translate fat and grease respectively. The two words are almost synonymous and are frequently used indiscriminately. Where a distinction is made, however, adeps is a grosser fat which does not melt so easily as pinguis (Dumesnil, Latin Synonyms). Pinguis, moreover, is frequently used in a figurative sense, as "a fat land," but never adeps.
~o

III Ad. 1160-1165

EXODUS XXIII: 18-19

[4597

namely, that it is the better part of the blood but without the spirit, being a collection of such things as constitute the embodiment of blood and which are separated and laid up in receptacles for future use, and which are again drawn off therefrom for that use. Thus fat or grease signifies that which is natural and is concordant with the spiritual; for in the human mind there must be natural things by means whereof things spiritual can be understood and set forth. This part is called the fat and is holy, the natural becoming con cordant and holy by means of the spiritual. But being a separate part, it must not remain over night until the morning, for then it becomes putrid. During the feast day everything is holy to God Messiah alone who then flows in; but when the feast day is over, there is a turning to the works of the body and to things natural. Wherefore, if it should remain over to the next day when man will be occupied with cares for things natural, or mundane and cor poreal, it becomes putrid. This then is what is represented by these words. For the feast day is holy and represents the spiritual man. Then light flows in from God Messiah, and sanctifies all things that are in order, and that depend in order on things spirit ual. The other days represent the natural man, but on the feast day he is sanctified. Whether fat or grease signifies also oil, and has the same signification as the oil and anointment for a king and a priest, I do not yet know. Perhaps it will become clear later on. 4597. [The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of J ehovah thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk], vs. 19. What the firstfruits are may be seen above at verse 16, namely, that they are the same as the first born and one only thing in worship. Thus, in the inmost sense, they are faith in God Messiah, this being the only thing that shall reign in the regenerate or reborn man, seeing that it must be the first born. All other things that pertain to faith are matters of form which look to God Messiah himself as the one only Essential; that is to say, they are every doctrine concerning faith. Hence it can be evident what the life of regenerate men should be. Things formal should be entirely for the purpose of delineating and expressing what is in God Messiah, that a true image of him may thereby be presented. Hence a true doctrine of faith is required, for no other III Ad. 1166-1171 ~1

4598-4599]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

doctrine can express this image. Wherefore, there is no approach to him by any other doctrine and confession save that of true faith, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 1 These first fruits were to be brought into the house of J ehovah, that is, to God Messiah, who is the Temple and House of Jehovah. Therefore, in this representative church, God Messiah was repre sented by them likewise, and indeed clearly.2 4598. As to the statement that a kid or lamb was not to be seethed or boiled in its mother's milk, that is, while it was still a suckling, this also signifies deeper things; nor can its meaning be learned until it is known how the spiritual man is educated and nourished. In a way, the spiritual man is nourished like an infant. As regards the sustenance and growth of its body, an infant is first given milk. Later, the life of its rational mind is to be nourished in almost the same way, but comparatively; and therefore that by which the mind is first nourished is called milk. While it is still in the infancy of this life, it is not to be seethed, that is to say, this its life must not be extinguished in various ways, for if it is extin guished it cannot become as a man. This imbibing of milk depends on education. So likewise with the spiritual man who is born and nourished later, being first nourished by the doctrine with which he is imbued, to the end that he may have spiritual life. This is called milk, and it is not to be extinguished. 4599. How this first life is extinguished while being nourished by milk, can be described in many ways. It must ever be observed that they are infants and are nourished with milk; nor can any solid food be given them until they are weaned. Thl'lrefore, being infants of the spitituallife, those who are undergoing reformation, who are afflicted and tempted and arl'l in spiritual anguish, must be treated with prudence and caution. This prudence can be de scribed in many ways, but it varies in each subject. This is ex pressed in the text by milk, by a kid, and by the words, that it is not to be seethed, all these expressions being representative of things spiritual. When the kid grows up, it can then be a sacrifice and afterwards can be eaten or seethed, that is to say, can be used in feasts which are likewise representative.
1 This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. 2 This sentenGe is emphasized by "Obs." written in the margin.

III Ad. 1179l-1179

EXODUS XXIII:

~o

[4600-4601

It must be observed that in each of the senses, predicates agree with their subjects; thus, that the present text here treats also of a representative kid, etc., etc. 4600. [Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to gua,rd thee in the way, amd to bring thee to the place which I have prepared], vs. ~o. Here the words, one and all, are most highly significative, and it is they that are had in view by all that has hitherto been said. In the sense obvious to the eyes, the Angel whom He sent was that pillar which went before them by night in a flame and by day in a cloud [chap. 13 21 ], of which we speak elsewhere. In the more interior sense, it is the angel of God Messiah, that is to say, a choir of the angels of God Messiah, which was thus leading them. In the su preme sense, it is God Messiah himself; for when his angel is men tioned, then in the supreme sense it is God Messiah himself, inas much as he becomes present by means of angels who are instru mental causes, and who have attained to their life solely from him, and so, in outmosts, to a light seen by the eyes. To guard thee in the way, that is, in the proximate sense, in the wilderness and in the way to the land of Canaan, where, on their arrival there, he no longer so appeared. But in the spiritual sense, in the way means in the way of truth. To bring thee to the place, that is, to the land of Canaan, by which is represented the kingdom of God Messiah, this being what is meant in the inmost sense. Man is led thither by the angel, by the way of truth, as said above. Which I have prepared. This is a customary expression con cerning the kingdom of God Messiah, in that he will prepare the kingdom for the true sons of Israel; for this kingdom is said to have been prepared for them from eternity [Matt. ~534]. In the inmost sense, by the Angel is meant the celestial man as to his inmost or soul which God Messiah S and the Holy Spirit vivifies. Wherefore John was called the angel who prepared the way of the Messiah for Bis coming into the world [Matt. 11 10 J. He flows into the purer angels in like manner as into man, through the inmost faculty corresponding to the human soul. 4601. [Beware of his faces, and hear his voice; provoke him not; for he will not endure your transgression; because my name is
Swedenhorg first wrote " God Messiah alone."

III Ad. 1180-1190

460~-4604]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

in the midst of him], vs. ~l. That in the supreme sense God Mes siah is the angel who is here meant is stated in the clearest way; 4 for it is said, my name is in the midst of him. As to what is meant by the name in the midst of him, it is all that which is in J ehovah; for by name is meant all that pertains to one, thus all that is con tained in the name J ehovah, [namely], that he is Infinite, Eternal, He who alone is, who gives Being and Living to all in heaven and on earth. In the midst of him means the divinity that is in the inmost, that is, in the midst. Thus, God Messiah is in the midst, that is, in the inmost, of the choir of angels which appeared by means of the pillar. When He appeared before their eyes in a flame and a cloud, that is, in nature, this outmost appearance is considered as a body. Thus He is in their midst and hence is their life. 4602. Hence many faces are here attributed to God Messiah, as is the case in man; for heaven, as also His kingdom, and so like wise a grand society, is compared to a man in whose midst or in most is the one only thing that lives, from which all the others draw their life. Many faces are also attributed to God Messiah, because of man and his faces, as stated above [no 459~]. Furthermore, many faces are attributed to God Messiah because' of the deriva tions of Jove, all of which are derivations of the divine Essence. Thus things formal are also faces. But the subject is one of such great extent that it cannot be set forth at this time. 4603. To hear his voice means to obey, as seen in the name Simeon derived from" hearing." Obedience is faith in act. 4604. Provoke him not, namely, by transgression of the com mandments, especially as understood in the inmost sense. He is not provoked by outward things, for He is Jehovah, not a man. Hc sees men from inmosts, that is to say, He seeS outward things from firsts, and not firsts from things outward, etc., etc. Provoca tion is attributed to Him when yet He is pure love which has no hatred. What is contained in anger when this flows also from love and is called zeal, is grief. Thus it is man who is in the cause of
The text reads clarissime dicitur, (nam) ex verba, nam dicitur (is stated in the clearest way, [for] from the Word, for it is said). Swedenborg crossed out the first nam, but the context demands that he should also have crossed out ex verba, and in our translation we ha\'e therefore ignored these words. Per haps he had intended writing" for from the Word it is clear," etc.

III Ad. 1191-1199

EXODUS XXIII:

~l-~~

[4605

the effect, namely, that he is troubled by evil spirits, the cause of which effect appears as though it were from God Messiah. Fur thermore, the cause of the provocation is explained in the text; for it is said that he will not endure transgression, that is to say, trans gression accompanied with impurity of heart, for thus a cloud, as it were, is interposed, so that He cannot flow into man with mercy and grace. This is the cause of the provocation, so called, that is to say, of grief which is also called sorrow, in that He cannot exer cise mercy, etc., etc. 5 IVloreover, the nature of wrathfulness is learned from its cause, and the causes may be varied. Thus if it arises from love, it is not in itself wrathfulness but is grief and is called zeal. If it arises from hatred, it is wrathfulness. This may be further looked into. 4605. [But if hearing thou shalt hear his voice, and do all that he speaT'eth; 6 then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and will trouble them that trouble thee], vs. ~~. In this text, as previously, "hearing to hear" means obeying. This, moreover, is here ex plained when it is said, If thou do 7 all that he speaketh. For when God Messiah speaks, all must be carried out in the least things as in the greatest. Therefore, lest he be provoked, he speaks in various ways by means of angels. From the mercy of God Messiah these words can be explained in many ways, but whether this is the place, I do not yet know. s He says, I uill be an enemy against thine enemies. In the proximate sense, their enemies were the Canaanites, as stated later [verse ~3]. But the enemies of the spiritual man are many in number, both within the man and outside the man. Thus ultimately they are the devil. He it is who is the enemy against whom He will protect Israel. I !EJll trouble ~hem that trouble th!!.e. Here is described the punishment of retaliation, being the punishment which is incurred by the devil, etc., etc., who troubles the spiritual man.
What follows from here to the end of the paragraph is a later addition written in the margin. Schmidius appears to have been led by the context to a revision of the Hebrew text. Otherwise his translation would have read: " I speak." 1 The autograph has do not. a This indented sentence is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora
bilia.

III Ad.

HWO-l~05

4606-4607]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

\I

4606. [When mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee unto the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Ca naanite, the Hivite and the Jebusite: and I will cut him off], vs. ~3. Here are designated t enemies whom God Messiah will expel. By ( them are signified s .. al e ies. These are six in number, but which of them is mean~ch of the nations her;-mentioned, is not yet evident. It is foretold, however, that they are to be cut off, that is, to be punished :wit s iritual death. Moreover, the death of the body represents spiritual death, which is damnation. For the time being, these enemies 0 u i d the land of Canaan, that is, the: kingdom of God l\1essi~h; wherefore they-will be cut off, that they may give place to tE~_ ~ons of th t srael. But these words contain much else, to wit, the ac ormation, and how iH God Messiah will tram le the h~f the ser ent [Gen~5], and 11 so will introduce Israel into the heavenly kingdom. 4607. [Thou shalt not bow down thyself to their gods, nor worship them, nor do after their works: but destroying thou shalt destroy them, and breaking thou shalt break in pieces their statues], vs. ~4. This at once foHows, namely, that they should worship no god other than God Messiah, who is here called the Angel of Jehovah [vs. ~3]. Who the gods of those nations were is men tioned later. The nations were idolaters, but there are still 9 some remains of true worship. Wherefore they were not cast out until their iniquity came to its height, that is to say, until they had be come wholly idolatrous.! Externally their gods were idols, desig nating either men, or things in men which arise from the loves of self and the world, and which stand forth in the world; for natural men worship all those things which they love. Therefore, they fashion images of the authors of such things, and these they wor ship as gods, thus worshipping cupidities, lusts, the fates; and worshipping these, they also wish them to be gods, as is evident enough from Roman history, etc., etc. They who are of such a
Reading usqu6 for nondum. Otherwise the translation would be: "there did not yet remain," etc. It would seem that the predominating idea in Swe denborg's mind, that these nations were " not yet" to be cut off, unconsciously led him to write nandum where the context demanded uSqu6. Such slips are not uncommon when the instant presence of an idea is impatient, as it were, at the delay in its ultimate expression. 1 This part of the paragraph is emphasized by t, NB" written in the margin.

III Ad. U06-UU

EXODUS XXIII: 9l3-M

[4608-4609

character that they acknowledge nature alone as the author, are utterly prone to the worship of things such as they stand in ad miration of, as for instance, the sun, the moon, gold, etc., thus gods of the world, gods of the earth, gods of the sea, gods of groves, etc., etc. It is still different in the Roman School-whose gods may be enumerated. These gods they raise up for the sake of the people, that the latter may be held in servitude and poverty, and their leaders in power and abundance, etc., etc. 4608. Genii are set over men, who are of the same character as the men themselves; but they have no power whatsoever, there being One, that is, God Messiah, who rules all. These genii excite hu man genii, and when they are worshipped, they are also permitted by God Messiah to be over the man and to rule him like a brute animal. Meanwhile, however, they insinuate spiritual and celestial knowledges, and this lest men become wholly brutes. When they are worshipped, all these genii are called gods, when yet they have no power. 4609. That men should not bow down themselves to them, nor worship them, nor do after their works, follows in order. "To bow down themselves" is to believe and acknowledge that they themselves are of no account, and that their god does all things; hence humiliation. But" to worship" is to believe and acknowl edge that [their gods] can do all things; therefore, they worship their power. " To do after their works" is to imitate them, that is, to lead a life after their example. It being worship that is here described, it was forbidden them to worship these gods as that true God before whom they must humble themselves and bow down, acknowledging themselves to be nothing; whom alone they must worship, acknowledging that He alone has power. They are to do after His works, that is, to live as a copy and image of Him. All these things are the essentials of faith. But to acknowledge and believe that there are other gods to whom a like wor.ship may be given is damnable, being contrary to true faith which must be in God Messiah alone; for then man is turned from the kingdom of God Messiah to the kingdom of the devil, whose crew these gods are, and so is cast into hell. ." To destroy them" means, in the proximate sense, to destroy their idols; also, as stated above [no 4607] to eradicate the like loves in themselves, where they are present fundamentally. III Ad. 19l13-U9l0 917

4610-4613]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4610. [But ye shall worship Jehovah your God. that he may bless thy bread, and thy waters; and I will take away disease from the midst of thee], vs. ~5. " To worship J ehovah your God" is to worship God Messiah. " To bless bread and waters" means, in the more interior sense, to bless all spiritual food, bread being the nour ishment which is required for dry nourishment, and waters, those things whereby this nourishment yields its use to spiritual life. "To remove disease from their midst" means to remove all evils which produce spiritual death, as diseases produce death of the body. 4611. And now, from verse ~5 to the end of the chapter, foHow aU the blessings and all the benefits of those who, from their heart, worship God Messiah alone. To these remain spiritual blessings corresponding, in the Word of God Messiah, to those blessings which are worldly. 4612. Every man receives his reward according as he believes; and this reward remains not only with him who believes but also with his direct generation into which it is propagated, and then, as it were, continued; for a man loves his generation as himself. Thus, by reason of the love innate within it, it remains a likeness of him. Thus he himself remains in the generation, which is his seed and so is from his essence. But, God Messiah granting, occasion will be given elsewhere for speaking of the transfer of rewards and punishments to the direct posterity.2 4613. [But ye shall worship Jehovah your God, that he may blesS' thy bread, and thy waters; and I will take away disease from the midst of thee], vs. fl5. To worship J ehovah God is to worship God Messiah who alone brings supplioations, etc., to J ehovah His Father. Thus, to worship Him is to worship Jehovah the Father through Him, as stated above [iJ.. 4594]. Therefore, in the in most sense, to worship God Messiah is to put off the natural man and put on the spiritual; thus to be reduced to such a state that he shall be perfect. This is done imputatively by God Messiah alone, for without the continual sustentation and mercy of God Messiah, the regenerate man falls every moment, seeing that the root of evil still remains, and this is aroused to action. None can be just and perfect of himself, God Messiah alone being perfect from himself.
This and the preceding paragraph are each emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.
~8

rH Ad.

12~1-11~7

[bis]

EXODUS XXIII:

~5-~6

[4614-4615

4614. The first blessing, therefore, is that which is the principal, from which come all the others as consequences; to wit, that the man wiII be blessed in his bread and in his waters, and so every disease wiII be taken away. By bread is meant everything that is heavenly. Therefore it is likened to manna and is called celestial food [John 631- 5 ] which properly signifies that food which is the food of the mind, being affection or love continued, such as love toward oneself, toward the neighbor in his own degree, and love toward God Messiah above all. By waters are signified things spiritual, such as those which enter into the understanding; for spiritual things digest, as it were, things celestial, and cause them to yield nourishment as waters do with bread. From this it follows that every disease is taken away, disease being all that which arises from evil affection which rends man and brings on spiritual death. Thus, imputatively, the man lives in a state of integrity, as it were, without fear of death, because without evil affection which is the cause of spiritual death; for every evil is then turned to good. 8 In the supreme sense, God Messiah, being Love, is the bread as he is the manna; and he nourishes man with celestial food, that is, with Himself. He is also water, because he alone gives spiritual gifts. The Holy Spirit proceeds from him, and through him from Jehovah his Father. 4615. [There shall be none that aborteth or is barren, in thy land: thou shalt fulfil 4 the number of thy days], vs. ~6. Hence it follows that there shall be none that aborteth or is barren. What is meant by miscarrying a fetus, can be evident from a knowledge of what a spiritual fetus is. When the celestial is joined to the spiritual, an offspring 5 is then born 6 which is the fruit of faith. This is called an offspring because the celestial and the spiritual thus joined together, cannot be without offspring, seeing that from love follows fruit or offspring. The miscarriage of offspring is of various kinds. Thus there is an aborted offspring that is born from a faith not true; or from the doctrine of true faith and with3 The preceding part of this paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written several times in the margin. The Hebrew is " I will fulfill." a {et1U,' and so wherever" offspring" occurs in this and the following paragraph. . [Crossed off:~ which is the disposition from regeneration.

III Ad.

11~8

[bis ]-1131 [bis]

~9

4616-4618]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

out love or affection.' There is an aborted offspring when good and evil are illy commingled. An aborted offspring is an evil disposition. An aborted offspring is one that is deformed and perishes after birth, like those who do not bear temptations. An aborted offspring is every work which is attributed to one's own justice. Thus from the evil marriage of celestial things with spiritual, there are many kinds of aborted offspring. 4616. He is called barren who has no offspring or progeny who lacks every fruit of faith. Thus there is no faith, for the tree is judged from its fruit and not from its leaves, that is to say, man is judged not from his intellectual gifts but from love and so from mercy. Works that are the fruit of faith are faith itself in act, because there is obedience, it being this by which man is actually regenerated. This, therefore, is superadded as though it were man's own, although it is not his. Without act in various degrees, nothing becomes as man's own; for even in the case of natural things, it is well known that act puts on a second nature. Thus acts are called the fruits of faith, etc., etc. 8 4617. [In the proximate sense], "to fulfil the number of days" means to live to a ripe old age without disease and thus in health; but in the spiritual sense, it means to live according to perfect order and thus as a celestial and spiritual man, which is effected by means of God Messiah alone. Therefore, in the inmost sense, to fulfil the number of days is to live to eternity, time not being predicated of spiritual life. As the subject is, such is its predicate. For in stance, in the spiritual sense, the well-being or health of the body is the well-being of the soul and eternal felicity; for although things of the body are finited, they yet represent the state of the interior man which is never finited; and so in all other cases. 9 4618. [1 will send my terror before thy faces, and will confound all the people against whom thou shalt come; and 1 will give all thine enemies toward thee, for a neck 1], vs. ~7. Here enemies are
The rest of this paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written twice in the margin. This paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written three times in the margin. This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. 1 After the words" for a neck" (in c61'vicem), Schmidius adds the inter pretation "to flight." Literally translated, the Hebrew would read "I will give all thine enemies to thee, the neck." In the Arcana Coelestia, Swedenborg interprets" giving the neck" as meaning putting to flight.

30

III Ad.

1l3~

[bis]-1134 [bis]

EXODUS XXIII:

~7-30

[4619-46~0

all the evils in man; and also evil enii, these being man's enemies, as is the devil. When God Messiah rules in man by means o~th \ i~!!imself and so by }~ea~o~e, t~ll evil flees, and also the ~ser of ev~I. The evils are hatreds, revenge, envy, etc., ~e arousers of these are the devil hi crew]. When, as was said, man is ruled b God Messiah, the devil is terrified and confounded of himself, for he an his crew] can never stand, since hatred, etc., ~ disJoins men.) b th it in themselves ani.amo.!,.lg themsehres. There- \ fore they flee awa from love, which conjoins, etc., etc. First the are t rrified. From terror arises confusion, as is well known. Thus they are confounded. Afterwa;:-;--ey are ut under the yoke, which is the same thing as being restrained by a bond, so that they cannot open their mouth to move; for they are so bound that \ the have not the least atom of power. Yet, like the lowest slaves, they are forced to carry out commands, as was shown above-as I j think. 2 4619. [Yea, 1 will send the hornet before thee, which shall drive o'ut the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee], vs. ~8. By a hornet may be meant all that which excites terror in the enemy whoever he may be; that is to say, which infests him, and bites, and stings. In this way evil stings itself, whence comes terror. Moreover, the state with man is similar to the state of the evil spirits by whom he is led. s What is represented by the Hivite and the Hittite and also by the Canaanite, is not as yet clear, as stated above [n. 4606], unless it be that they represent those who formerly had been of the true doctrine and afterwards had become degenerated, etc., etc.' 4620. [1 will not drive him out frorn thy faces in one year; lest perchMU:e the land become a solitude, and the wild beast of the field be multiplied against thee. Little by little 1 will drive him out from thy faces, until thou be increased, and be able to inherit the land], vs. ~9, 30. In the more interior sense, these words signify arcana, being arcana as to how man is reformed; for evil is not
2 Confer n. 397, 1854. [The following unnumbered paragraph is here crossed off by the Author:] As concerns the Hivite and the Hittite, they were primitively nations in the land of Canaan which were of the true faith, as already observed [no 3075], but were degenerated. By them, therefore, is represented The two paragraphs of n. 4619 are each emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.

III Ad. 1135 [bisJ-1138 [bis]

31

46~1-46~g]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

expelled all at once but little by little. What is inherent and has strengthened itself actually, must be uprooted gradualIy; thus an opposite or better disposition is put on. Meanwhile, evil is turned into good, and in place of evil affections come good affections; so also in each and every other respect; for man's state is varied by things successive. As to how this is done, and what state is in duced, this, being the work of God Messiah alone, is known only to the Messiah. As to how evil is turned into good, and how opposites are aroused, that they may serve for the man's better
ment; and also as to many other things which pertain to his re
formation; as to this, it was allowed me, by the mercy of God
Messiah, to make some reflections in the preceding pages [n.
4038]. These things may be seen in a relation concerning
temptation, if God Messiah grants that it be allowed to set it
forth. 5
4621. From this it can be evident how that the earth would be
come a solitude if evil were expelled all at once; and also how that the wild beast of the field would be multiplied, that is to say, natural vices and those which have become natural by practice; conse quently, how that evil is cast out little by little. For while evil is being cast out, it is again called back from time to time, until it is obliterated and yields to good. This is an arcanum; nor do I know whether it is known to anyone, etc., etc. 6 4622. Hence follow the words: wntil thou be increased, and be able to inherit the land, that is, be increased by means of faith and obedience, and thus by the fruits of faith which here are the off spring, and which have regard to what was said above [vs. ~6], namely, that there shall be no~e that aborteth, and none barren [vs. ~6] ; that is to say, the man will increase in actual goods which form a new disposition, and so may be reformed. This is what is signified by inheriting the land, that is, becoming heirs of the king dom of God Messiah. 4623. [And I will set thy border from the sea Suph even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness unto the river: 1
This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia. This indented paragraph, togethel' with the indented portion of n. 46g4, is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Malum, Regeneratio. See Table of Contents. T Schmidius adds the explanatory word (Euph1ates).
3~

III Ad. 1139 [bis]-1l43 [bis]

EXODUS XXIII: 31

[46M

for I will give the inhabitants of the land into thine hand, and will drive them out 8 from thy faces], vs. 31. Here are described the borders, these being from the sea Suph to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the river Euphrates where was the en trance to the land of Canaan, that is, to the kingdom of God Mes siah. As regards borders, these signify the limits of the sphere of the spiritual man from evil to good, thus from the one opposite to the other; that is to say, the limits of that sphere which is formed in man during a long period. For every individual has his own sphere which is more or less extended. The spiritual sphere ex tends from evil, that is, from the sea Suph or the sea of the damned, to the sea of the Philistines where faith commences or where is thc limit of good; also from the wilderness, that is, from no faith, to the Euphrates, this being the border where was the entrance to the land of Canaan or the kingdom of God Messiah. That the Euphrates' has this signification can be evident from many con siderations; also from baptism, in that therein the Messiah was baptised; and, moreover, from the healing of many persons by the water of the Euphrates; and from the miracles done there,9 etc., etc. 4624. "To give the inhabitants of the land into their hands," means to give them power, as it were, over the evil/ it being these who are signified by the inhabitants of the land on the side of the sea Suph and the wilderness; that thus they may be subjected, and no longer have dominion. That they will be driven out from their faces, means that after wards they are no longer seen. Yet they [serve] for a relative, and so contribute to the sensation of good and the knowledge of truth; for without evil there is no sensation of good, and without falsity, no knowledge of truth. Hence the words that are now said, have in view the reason why evil will be driven away so slowly, and not in a single year, etc., etc. This can be illus trated to some extent by fruit, which is first unripe and of una According to the Hebrew, this should be " your hand, and thou shalt drive them out." In tbe Arcana Co%stia, Swedenborg has" your hand, and I will drive them out." The last sentence is emphasized by "N B" written twice in the margin. One would expect to read" Jordan" (Matt. 3 13 , Mark 19 ) instead of" Euphra tes "; yet a statement similar to that in the text is involved in n. 7330. Confer n. 1563 note. 1 Reading malos for malum.

III Ad. 1144 [bis]-1146. [bis]

33

46~5-~6]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

pleasant flavor, but afterwards ripens, is perfected, and be comes sweet. So with temptations, etc., etc. 2 It is said, from thy faces, meaning from the things which ap pear in the face from the natural mind, and from the spiritual or intellectual mind and its will. 4625. [Thou shalt not make a covenant with them, or with their gods], vs. 3~. Evils must never be united with goods, that is, thou shalt not make a covenant; for if they are united, the man can never become spiritual. He must be as though he did not know evil, al though it is present in form and thus secretly, to the end, as was said [n. 46~4], that it may contribute to the sensation of good and the knowledge of good and of truth. God Messiah granting, this can be illustrated by some ex amples; perhaps by certain examples which by the mercy of God Messiah it has been given me to learn by experience. s

4626. [They shall not dwell in thy land, lest perchance they make thee sin against me: for when thou serveth their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee], vs. 33. They shall not dwell in the land, that is, in the mind, for unless the form of the mind be en tirely reduced into the spiritual form according to n. 46~~, etc., then in some way they dwell in the land. More can be said concerning these matters, and' this from the same principles, if it be allowed. 4 For if they dwell together, evil is continually aroused, and there is a combat, and so perchance sin; for victory will come to the one side [or the other] according to the form of the mind, and so ac cording to its state, etc., etc. This is still further confirmed by the words it will be a sna1'e unto thee. Thus, if anything of the evil which infests, remains actually, it amounts to the same thing as was just said; for evil acts from without, while good acts from within, and there is a combat concerning the victory. The victory
This indented paragraph, together with the indented portion of n. 46~1 is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v., Malum and Regeneratio. See Table of Contents. The last part of the paragraph is a later addition, written in the wide margin left by the first part, and marked .. NB." I This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia. This indented sentence is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia.

34

In

Ad. 1147 [bis]-1l53 [bis]

EXODUS XXIV: 1-18

[4627

is doubtful only when evil actually reigns, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 5 4627. From the above it can now be clearly evident that all that is said in this chapter is representative; thus, that everything that happened to this people represents that which will happen to the spiritual man, and so, in the inmost sense, to Israel, who is repre sented by this people, called Jacob, which was in things outmost. That by means of things outmost which are not concordant with things interior, a representation is nevertheless instituted, has been told above [n. 4508] ; as, for instance, by animals, by inanimate things such as trees, by gold, silver and precious stones. d EXODUS XXIV 1 And he said unto Moses, Come up unto J ehovah, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; ye shall bow down yourselves from afar off. 2 And Moses alone shall draw near unto Jehovah; but they shall not draw near; and the people shall not come up with him. 3 And Moses returned, and he reported to the people all the words of Jehovah, and all the judgments; and all the people an swered with one voice, and said, All the words which J ehovah hath spoken we will do. , 4 Then Moses wrote aB the words of J ehovah. And he rose up in the morning at dawn,! and built an altar below the mountain, and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 And he sent young men of the sons of Israel, which offered whole burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace sacrifices to Jehovah, even bullocks. 6 Then Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. 7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read it in the ears of the people; and they said, All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do and hear. 8 Then Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which Jehovah hath made with you over all these words.
This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. No. 4627 is emphasized by "N B" written twice in the margin.
1 See n. 3625 note.

III Ad. 1154 [bis]

35

46~8]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

9 Then went up Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel: 10 And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet, as the work of a sapphire stone, and as the substance of heaven as to cleanness. 11 But against the chosen ones of the sons of Israel he put not forth his hand. And when they had seen God, they did eat and drink. 19l Then said Jehovah unto Moses, Come up unto me into the mountain, and be thou there: for I will give thee the tables of stone, and the law, and the commandment which I wrote to teach them. 18 And Moses rose up, and Joshua his minister. And when Moses would go up into the mountain of God, 14 He said unto the elders, Sit ye in this place for us, until we come again unto you: and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you: whosoever hath words, let him draw near unto them. 15 And when Moses went up into the mountain, the cloud covered the mountain. 16 And the glory of Jehovah abode upon mount Sinai, and [the cloud] 8 covered it six days: and on the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud. 17 And the appearance of the glory of Jehovah was like de vouring fire on the top of the mountain before the eyes of the sons of Israel. 18 And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mountain: and Moses was in the mountain forty days and forty nights.

4628. [And he said unto Moses, Come up unto Jehovah, thou, and Aaron, Nadah, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; ye shall bow down yourselves from afar off. And Moses alone shall draw near unto J ehovcih; but they shall not draw near; a;nd the people shall not come up withhim] , vss. 1, 9l. What is here repre sented in things celestial and spiritual, can be evident from the classification of those who were commanded to come up unto Jehovah. In that a mountain, like a rock and stone, etc., signifies God Messiah, as said above [n. 49l87] , especially mount Sinai where
Omitted by Schmidius.

86

III Ad. 1155 [bis]-1156 [bis]

EXODUS XXIV:

1-~

[46~9-30

the Law was delivered, it is here said come up-but unto Jehovah. By the mountain, therefore, is meant God Messiah. As regards the classification, there is [first] a single man, namely, Moses; [then] three men, namely, Aaron, N adab, and Abihu; and [finally] seventy elders. Mention is then made of the people which was not to go up. By this classification of those who were to go up unto J ehovah is represented the general classification of the grand so ciety of those who will constitute the kingdom of God Messiah. A similar classification was also observed by God Messiah when he was in the world, the principal division being into twelve, like the twelve tribes, and this from causes of which we have spoken above [n. 1861-~, 3051]; [then] there are three classes,9 as stated above [no 586~, 5950] ; and [finally] the seventy, being six from every tribe, six times twelve being seventy-two and thus seventy. Hence the disciples of God Messiah were twelve [Matt. 102 ; Luke 6 15 ] ; were seventy [Luke 10 1 ] ; and were the three who were with God Messiah in the mount, where he shone with radiance/ that is, ap peared in a bright cloud [Matt. 17 1 ,12; Mark 9 2 ,3; Luke 9 28 ,31,34]. Hence, as I suppose, there was a similar division in the primitive church. 4629. As regards a likeness thereto in man who is a least so ciety, this it is not yet allowed me to know. Still, that there is a likeness can be evident from the fact that man's first and principal [ essence] is the soul, which is here represented by Moses (and also usually by a king and chief), who alone was to draw near; for the human soul alone draws near, inasmuch as it is ruled by God Mes siah alone and by the Holy Spirit proceeding from J ehovah the Father through God Messiah. 2 Thus the representation was made by one man, in that Moses alone drew near. As touching the others, namely, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, these were in the second class of those who were to go up; for in perfect order, which is here represented, the intellectual mind goes up, because it is lifted up to God Messiah. 4630. As to whether the seventy elders who were to go up with them, represented the inferior mind, this appears to be the case;
[Crossed off:l of four tribes.. I ubi clarijicat'Us. 2 [Crossed off:] Thus the trinity in man is also represented here.

III Ad. 1157 [bis]-1164 [bis]

57

46S1-S~]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

it being from that mind that man is lifted up to God Messiah. This can be better evident from what, by the divine mercy of God Messiah, I have previously learned from experience. The order must be such that the things which are in that mind would be lifted up into the intellectual mind, it being from the natural mind that those things are drawn which shall serve the intellectual mind. In regard to affections, as to whether these will ascend, and how, this is still a mystery to me, for it now appears to me that the affections of the animus are acquired as the body of the affections of the celestial mind. 2a 4631. As to the others, that is to say, the people, these repre sent the body. This cannot go up, for the body 8 cannot go up into the heaven of God Messiah-unless by the body is meant the mere natural. But to me, these matters are still arcane, that is, they are obscure in their most general aspect. Respecting the fact that the people were to go up afterwards, we read above, that the mountain was meanwhile hedged around; but because that people was of such a nature that they could not be admitted, as can be evident enough, therefore, they were now excluded. See above, chapter 19, verse l~ et seq., to the end of the chapter. 4632. "To bow down oneself from afar off" signifies the height of humiliation. This is here represented as distance be cause it is in a lower degree, as is the intellectual mind, and still more the inferior mind, and so likewise even the soul itself, there being no degree between the Supreme and the inmost human, and thus still less, as it were, between [the Supreme and] that which is next to the inmost, etc., etc. But because of man's formation, degrees and distances are here represented, and this according to influx. In a like degree is saving faith, which flows in through the soul. After this comes intellectual faith and also obedience. Thus the order of faith is perfected; for there is nothing celestial or spirit ual, wherein is not order from inmost things to outer, that is, from things purely spiritual to things natural, and from things supra celestial through things celestial to things infracelestial, etc., etc!
This indented part of n. 4630 is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Atrectio and Corpus. See Table of Contents. [Crossed 0 if: I like na tu re. This paragraph is emphasized 15y " NB" written twice in the margin.

S8

III Ad. 1165 [bis ]-1169 [bis]

EXODUS XXIV: 3

[4633-35

4633. [And Moses returned, and he reported to the people all the words of Jehovah, and all the judgrMnts; and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which Jehovah hath spoken we will do], vs. 3. That the consent of all is required, may
be seen stated above [no 338Q], for no covenant can be made without consent. The consent was unanimous. It is therefore the covenant treated of later that was recited by Moses. Nay, it is noted that this covenant was written [vs. 4] and thus confirmed. 4634. In this text, word.s signify the law, and judgments, the things which follow therefrom. These are treated of in chapters Ql and QQ, where the reader can see what is meant by judgments. The words are called the words of J ehovah, because they are truths and have regard to the interior man, otherwise they are not words of J ehovah; also because they are from the Word, that is, from God Messiah. Exteriors without interiors are not the words of Jehovah but the words of man. Therefore we read also, All the words which J ehovah hath spoken we will do. Thus the people was bound to the observance of the interior things of the law and the judgments. s 4635. But that this is said [by the people]-for it seems to me that this is objected to by spirits, to whom, now as before, answer is given, as was usual in many other cases. sa The people do not say" all the words which Moses hath spoken," but which J ehovah hath spoken. In all that J ehovah speaks is order from inmost things to outer. Thus the one cannot exist without the other. As to how the people understood the words, see above [n. 4399-4400] where we speak concerning the Law. For when the Law was being promulgated, the people both heard and saw, and this cannot be done ~ithout the understanding of the interior things [of the Law], as may be seen confirmed above [n. 4400]. They may urge that at this time, namely, in the first period of their reformation, they understood only the outward things, and that no more was required of them; see above [n. 4350]. But they did not do even these outer things, as is well known. How
This paragraph is emphaSized by "N B" written three times in the margin. This indented part of n. 4635 is not cited by the Author in the Index to his ]';f emorabilia.

III Ad. 1170 [bis ]-1178 [bis]

39

4636-37]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

they did them, and whether or not they at once broke the law when they made for themselves a calf contrary to the first Table, [(chap. 3~1-6) is well known] ; hence necessarily follows the breaking of all the laws in the second Table. 4636. [Then Moses wrote all the words of Jehovah. And he rose up in the morning at dawn,6 and built an altar below the moun tain, and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel], vs. 4. That the words were written and so were confirmed ultimately, as with a seal, has alreaCly been told [no 4633]; and also that they were spoken [vs. 3], and so the people held them in their memory. By he rose up in the morning is signified the same as was previ ously signified by morning; for everywhere there is a representa tion. The altar built below the mountain means that thus the repre sentative worship of God Messiah was instituted, for by an altar is signified God Messiah, and also worship by means of sacrifices .which were representative, as is sufficiently evident from the words that follow concerning blood [vs. 6]. The twelve pillars have the same signification as the twelve gates of the New Jerusalem in the Apocalypse [~112J, which may be con sulted; and also the twelve tribes; for they are so many approaches to God Messiah, because so many approaches in the doctrine of faith whereby men are admitted to God Messiah, etc., etc. More over, in the supreme sense, a pillar signifies God Messiah, as is evi dent from the stone which Jacob set up for a pillar, and which he anointed with oil [Gen. ~818]. Later the temple also had this signification, and so was likewise a representative. For in things supreme, every part of the doctrine of faith signifies God Messiah. 4637. [And he sent young men of the sons of Israel, which of fered whole burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace sacrifices to Je hovah, even bullocks], vs. 5. Peace sacrifices were instituted be cause in this way the covenant was entered into. When a covenant is made, hostility ceases. That this covenant was made by blood, is seen from what follows. That they sacrificed bullocks signifies the things signified by such sacrifices of bullocks, namely, general serv ices. Sacrifices were made of bullocks, kids, and lambs. General things of service are represented by bullocks, and these, therefore,
See n. 3625 note.

40

III Ad. 1179 [bis]-1l85 [bis]

EXODUS XXIV: 4-6

[4638-39

include all the other sacrifices. Hence what is signified is that they served God Messiah. This is confirmed by blood, as was the case in all the rites which were instituted in the representative worship by sacrifices. That young men of the sons of Israel were sent and not the elders or the priests, the priesthood not being instituted as yet, was because a young man signifies the youth of this church. Sacrifices had been in use previously, but inasmuch as they had been perverted by idolatry, they were afterwards instituted according to every representation, in order that they might remain unimpaired. 4638. [Then Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he spriJnkled on the altar], vs. 6. That this covenant involves not the exterior man but the interior; that is to say, that the exterior man and his obedience flows from the interior according to the perfect order into which man was created, can be evident from the several particulars here mentioned. This old covenant is like the new covenant, and the former regards the latter as being one and the same with itself. The old covenant was made by blood and is called" the blood of the covenant" [vs. 8], this having in view the new covenant which also is called a covenant of blood [Luke ~~20]. The former was represented by the blood of the sacrifices, but the latter by symbols, these being bread and wine. Thus both covenants involve the Messiah. This is so clear that none can raise the least scruple concerning it. For what is the blood of a bullock, a he goat, and a lamb, and what are bread and wine, if they do not involve that which is celestial and spiritual? 4639. It is evident from the words of the text that blood brings the remembrance of all things,7 and of the justice of the Messiah, in that he saved the human race from damnation, and thus alone sanctified the people Israel. This is also meant by blood in the preceding narrative [chap. 1~7. 13], when they went out of Egypt or out of the house of captivity. That blood involves all this is a consequence of the fact that human blood contains simultaneously those things which are in man from firsts to lasts, and consequently that whole order which, perverted in man, is restored by the Mes siah. It is this restored order that alone is regarded in His Son by Jehovah the Father; for none can live order and thus restore it save God Messiah alone, etc., etc. Hence the blood is called the
T

[Crossed off:] which [were done] by the Messiah.

III Ad. 1186 [bis]-1193 [bis]

41

4640-43]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

animal life, for in blood, life is contained simultaneously from firsts to lasts in order. This may indeed appear to one as being mysti cal, but since it is the truth, I cannot be silent about it. 4640. As to what further the blood of the sacrifices represents, this can be evident from the sacrifices themselves, wherein is not the least thing that does not involve that which pertains to man's salvation. Otherwise men could never have been sanctified by the blood of animals; for man ought to be saved by a superior and not by an inferior, and so not by things vile-which is absurd; not by animals but by things celestial. 4641. Here, in verse 6, half of the blood was upon the altar, which clearly signifies that it was upon all those things which the altar signifies, and so was in all worship; for the sum of all things is the blood of the Messiah. This, moreover, is stated in the Apocalypse [19l 9- 11 ], namely, that by the blood of the Lamb they conquered the serpent and the latter was thus cast down out of heaven. It was a half, because there was a covenant, and this is entered into between two. One half is in all worship, and one half is upon the people, etc. ; of this we shall speak presently. 4642. [And he took the book of the covenant, and read it in the ears of the people; and they said, All that J ehovah hath spoken we will do and hear], vs. 7. The book of the covenant is the book of the law now promulgated; for we read in verse 4, that "Moses wrote all the words of J ehovah," and the people answered now as they had done in verse 3. N or is there mention of any other book of covenant, unless you would have the precepts concerning circum cision, and these are not mentioned here. The answer was, All that J ehovah hath spoken we will do and hear, as in verse 3. In the present verse, " hearing" is added, that is, obeying. 4643. [Then Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which J ehovah hath made with you over all these words], vs. 8. That is called the blood of the covenant which is the all in all of the book of the covenant, that is to say, the all in all in the Law; and the blood of the covenant can never be the all in all of the Law, if the law itself did not come from within and thus from God Messiah. Otherwise it is in no sense the law but is an animal act, etc., etc. 8 That the
This first part of n. 4643 is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin.

III Ad. 1194 [bis]-UOO [bis]

EXODUS XXIV: 7-11

[4644-46

book of the covenant was the Law together with the judgments previously spoken of, is also confirmed by what follows, namely, over all these words. 4644. [Then went up Moses and Aaron, Nadab arnd Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel], vs. 9. After this sanctification by blood, which was a representative sanctification, the elders could go up, but not the people, for such was the character of the people that it could not go up, being a body separated, as it were, from its head. God Messiah willed that it should not be so separated, and therefore we read above, in chapter 19 13 , [" When the Jobel shall be prolonged, they shall go up unto the mount "] ; 9 for it was then allowed the people or the elders to go up. But afterwards they were prohibited (verses ~3, ~4) ; nor could they go up until they had been sanctified by blood. 4645. [And they saw the God of ISTa-el: and there was under his feet, as the work of a sapphire stone, and as the substance of heaven as to cleanness], vs. 10. That the God of Israel is God Messiah is here most clearly evident, He and no other being the God of Israel; see above everywhere; many passages may be cited. l They saw God Messiah only" under the feet," that is, in those things that are in ultimates, thus in things natural; for order ex tends to things natural. These are the ultimates of order, here signified by the feet, and indeed by " under the feeL" When the works of the Law follow according to order, then those works are" clean"; that is to say, when they follow from faith in God Messiah, then natural things are cleansed. The signification of heaven extends to such things as are in the ether, God Messiah being heaven itself. Moreover, for the sake of order, the ether in the universe is also called heaven. Where fore it is here added that he appeared as the substance of heaven, namely, in cerulean color like the sky. It is said cleanness because all things are then clean, as just stated. 4646. [But against the chosen ones of the sons of Israel he put not forth his hand. And when they had seen God, they did eat and drinlc], vs. 11. "To put forth the hand" was a customary formula of speech [signifying the exercise of power J. [That he
The autograph has" which may be consulted," for which we have substi tuted the words in brackets. 1 This first part of the paragraph is marked "Obs. Obs."

III Ad.

l~Ol [bis]-1~09

[bis]

43

4647-48]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

put not forth his hand] signifies that He did not exercise His power, and this because they saw the God of Israel under the feet [vs. 10]. From this it can be known that they did indeed see the God of Israel with their eyes, but wit.h eyes that had been opened, opened, that is to say, from inmosts, to the end that they might be able to see, when no others saw. This is the case when the eyes are opened, that is, when the whole sight comes from inmosts. Then the eyes are in darkness as regards objects of the world, and the man sees only such things as are more interior. This can be evident to many from what shall be told elsewhere concerning internal sight, God Messiah granting. 2 From the words of the text it can also be evident that the people also were present, and indeed, men selected from among those who did not see, that is, to whom God Messiah did not ex tend that power. s The words also involve many arcana which perhaps can be perceived in part from what has been said at verses 1 and ~ of the present chapter, etc., etc. 4647. That they afterwards did eat and drink, signifies and represents the heavenly feast, as said above en. 1076-7, ~6~1 seq.]. Afterwards feasts were instituted by the people, of which we read later; for the heavenly kingdom is everywhere compared to a feast and, indeed, to a feast of bread and wine; of this also we have spoken above. Thus, when they saw the God of Israel, it is the end, in order that they may eat and drink in the kingdom of heaven; that is to say, may enjoy all good things from God Mes siah. Who they were who saw the God of Israel is evident from verses 9 to 10, namely, those who went up. It is hot said that the people saw Him. But the words are so written as to appear ob scure; for not all among the people were excluded, etc., etc. God Messiah granting, it may be explained why these words are spoken Obsculely. 4648. [Then said J ehovah unto Moses, Come up unto me into the mountain, and be thou there: for I will give thee the tables of
2

This indented sentence is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memol'a

bilia.
3 (The following numbered paragraph is here crossed off by the Author; the fact of its being numbered indicates that it was crossed off some time after it was written. See n. 1540 note, 3369 note: I 1213. The words also signify that this more interior sight did not extend to that part which is called the mind.

44

III Ad. UI0

[bis]-1~18

Ibis]

EXODUS XXIV: U

[4649-51

stone, and the law, and the commandment which I wrote to teach them], vs. Ht That Moses went up into the mountain and re mained there forty days and nights is evident from what follows [vs. 18]. Thus, the universal representative church was insti tuted, that church namely which signified all and single things that are in the kingdom of God Messiah, and so in the inmost church, and consequently, in faith, and in the doctrine concerning faith. This was the reason why Moses stayed in the mountain forty days and nights, to the end namely, that he might remain holy and free from worldly cares, and this in order that he might perceive all and single things. This then is what is signified by his going up unto Him into the mountain, that is, unto God Messiah, into heaven, into the height. For God Messiah is the Word, both the spoken and the written. Thus He is the Law, etc. 4649. The tables are spoken of in what follows. They were two in number, signifying the old and new covenant.
As to what the tables are, consult, if it be then allowed, what is hidden a way; nor as yet is it permitted to take 4 [it J. 5
4650. The law is that which is contained in the Decalogue. The commandment is the interior law; it is also the doctrine of faith in God Messiah that follows therefrom-a doctrine which was represented to that people, and shown to the faithful among them, especially in what was commanded in respect to the offices of the priesthood and to the sacrifices. That this, together with the understanding of the signification of these things, is what is meant by the commandment can be evident. 4651. It was not allowed Moses to open up the interiors before such a people, for interiors would then have been profaned. Im purities were first to be removed, and thus the people Were to be set in order; for profane dispositions do not agree with what is holy. Therefore, the words addressed to them concerning God Messiah were spoken obscurely, like the words of the Prophets. 6 Had they been opened up at that time, the people themselves being profane,
Legere. This word means to take or pick out, choose, gather; also to read. This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia. [Crossed off:] Whether or not Moses was a prophet, in that he prophesied concerning God Messiah, as did the Prophets-

III Ad. U19

[bis]-1~~3

[bis]

45

4652-53]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

then, by means of that people, the whole doctrine would have been profaned by the devil. Concerning the cloud, see below, at verse 15. Concerning God Messiah, see" Observe" below at verse 15

[n.4656].7
4652. To write the Law and the Commandment on tables of stone means, in the inmost sense, to write them on their hearts, that they may remain to eternity, as truth remains to eternity; for stone is enduring. lVIoreover, it was a covenant, the words of which, together with the Law, are said to have been written down by Moses, these words being called "the book of the covenant" [vs. 4 and 7]. And now, after the people's consent, they are written by God Messiah, to the end that the rites of the covenant may be observed. That they were written in the hearts [of men] has been shown above; and every man, when he is a man, acknowl edges it from the dictate of his own conscience. For the truly spiritual man has the Law and the Commandment concerning God Messiah written in his heart. Otherwise man would not be a man, nor would he be distinguished in any way from the brute animal. A brute animal has the statutes of society, and thus moral laws as applied to its own society, inscribed upon itself, and it lives accord ing to them; as, for instance, in loving its fellow creature and its young, in rearing the latter, and desiring death in its defense, and other like qualities, all of which are the forms of a government. These qualities which rule it, are all matters of affection; thus, those affections are so inscribed that they rule the animal. . 4653. As concerns man, when he is a man and suffers himself to be led by God Messiah, he has inscribed upon him not only moral laws but also laws that are deeper or more interior. Those who are spiritual have learned this, and in the primitive church they knew it sensibly and clearly. But because other loves now rule man, these faculties have been lost; but they are restored through God Messiah, and this by the way of knowledges and also of affec tions, and also by both together. (But since this is a matter of the utmost worth, it may be allowed later to set it forth in a better way, if it so please God Messiah.) This then is what is signified by writing on the tables, or by God Messiah saying, which I wrote to teach them.
7

The last two sentences <Ire each marked" Observe."

46

III Ad. 12M-Hl33

EXODUS XXIV: 13-15

[4654-55

4654. [And Moses rose up, and Joshua his minister. And when Moses would go up into the mountain of God, he said unto the elders, Sit ye in this place for us, until we come again unto you: and, behold, Aaron and Hur are 7vith you: whosoever hath words, let hirn draw near unto them], vss. 13, 14. "To rise up," that is, he rose up, signifies the same as " to go up " ; for man rises up when he goes to God MessiaJl; hence the resurrection, etc., etc. ''''hat Joshua represents js not yet evident to me. God Messiah granting, it will become clear later. "To sit for Moses below the mountain," means to remain in things external and representative, and not to go up; for it was not allowed them to go up because of their character, seeing that they would remain in things inferior, that is to say, in that church and its representative doctrine. That they were of such a character that they were not able to go up, is evident from the crime of the calf which was committed within these forty days [chap. 39l 1- 6 J. The elders were the heads of the people, being six from each tribe, and they represented the people. So likewise Aaron and Hur. Aaron was the one who made the calf, and so was below the mountain. The words which they might have, are the judgments, according to the external form whereof, they did their judging. 4655. [And when Moses went up into the mountain, the cloud covered the mountain], vs. 15. The subject of the cloud may be seen treated of above [n. 49l76]. Here it is not said whether the cloud was a dark one, or was bright and clear. Previously it is said to have been thick darkness. s If it was thick darkness [here], it signifies the obscurity which existed with Moses also; for it was in another way that He appeared to sons of Israel. A bright and clear cloud signifies truths, and a flame goodnesses; for a flame gives a bright light in representation of the love of God Messiah which gives a clear understanding. 9 Thus, in the present text the cloud signifies Moses' understanding into which He then entered. If it was thick darkness as before [chap. 199 ], then it signifies an obscure understanding. Not so the cloud in which God Messiah appeared in the mountain before the two apostles, Peter and J ohn/
8 The reference is clearly to chapter 19 9 , where the language is: "Lo, I come unto thee [Moses] in the smoke of a cloud," which Swedenborg explains as meaning" the obscurity of the understanding" (n. 4276). This sentence is marked" Obs. NB."
1 This should be "the three apostles, Peter, James, and John."

III Ad. a34-19l41

47

4656-57]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

as I think, this being exceeding bright, as there described [Matt. 17 5 ], etc., etc. 4656. It may thus be seen whether what was said above [n. 4651] is indeed so, to wit, that Moses was taught the exterior things 2 of the law. Had he been taught the interior and more interior things of the law, then the text would have read" a bright cloud"; nay, had he been taught the inmost things, it would have been" a cloud exceeding bright." Had things inmost been opened to the people, and thus to Moses, those things namely, which are contained in the doctrine of faith concerning God Messiah, then, the people being what they were, the whole doctrine would have been profaned; for when those who are led by the loves of self and the world and thus by the devil [are taught interior things], there can be no other result than profanation. Then, in like degree, the best would be turned into the worst, and would become idolatrous in the highest degree. Especially would this have been the case had the people heard that He would become a servant, and, as a victim, would undergo death. Thus they would at once have made Him an open stumbling block. To them indeed' He was this; for He became the Stone of the corner [Psalm 11822 ], and of stum bling [Isaiah 8 14 ], as also He is to many at this day. Not so after the advent of God Messiah, when the power of the devil was so far diminished that he is not able even to open his mouth, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc.- 8 4657. [And the glory of Jehovah abode upon mount Sinai, and (the cloud) 4 covered it six days: and on the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud], vs. 16. The glory of J ehovah is God Messiah. This is the proper signification, for glory was not a cloud nor a " devouring fire" [vs. 17]. ",Vhat further is signified bY' glory is not yet evident. By six days, the same is signified here as before, namely, the six days of the new creation. nut the seventh day is when the kingdom of God Mes siah is to come. Then all those particulars that follow in effigy concerning the priestly offices and the sacrifices, will appear as things concluded. But see as to how in the inmost sense each and
The autograph has interior things, but this 'is plainly a slip. No. 4656 is emphasized by "N B" written in the margin, followed by " Obs." written five times. It is to this that Swedenborg refers in n. 4651. Omitted by Schmidius.

48

III Ad.

U4~-1~47

EXODUS XXIV: 16-18

[4658-61

everyone of the particulars that follow have in view the kingdom of God Messiah on the seventh day, and his true church; and, in the exterior sense, the true representative church. 4658. Here mention is again made of the cloud, it being out of this that Moses was called. Thus, what is signified by on the seventh day [is clear, namely], that when the glory of ,T ehovah had appeared for six days, on the seventh day Moses was called out of the midst of the cloud. But these matters are still somewhat deep. If it be allowed to make public the things that have been seen, and to draw conclusion therefrom-but this perhaps is not yet allowed. There are certain of them which concern Moses together with this people-that they stilI profane. (Yet I know not whether Moses is among them.)
4659. On the eighth of June 1746, about evening time, and also in a dream during the night, profane things were said to me; also unspeakable things which I wish to ignore. 5

4660. [And the appearance of the glory of Jehovah was like devouring fire on the top of the mountain before the eyes of the sons of Israel], vs. 17. Here it is told how God Messiah appeared to the sons of Israel, namely, like a devouring fire signifying a fire that devours; as does the love of self and the world. This, as it stilI seems to me, is also the fiery smoke seen by Abraham [Gen. 15 17 ], of which fiery smoke we spoke above [no Q39, Q91Q]. Here, as above, they are called sons of Israel, because of the representation. 4661. [And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mountain: and Moses was in the mountain forty days. and forty nights], vs. 18. Hei'e we read concerning the cloud for the third time, namely, that Moses entered into it. Moses was the head of the whole congregation. A cloud is in every way fitting to a " devouring fire," for wherever there is a devouring fire, that is, the loves of self and the world, etc., there on the top is a cloud [vs. 17]. As concerns the number forty, this designates six times seven. Thus it signifies that, in the Word of God Messiah, which is
Neither of these indented paragraphs is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.

III Ad. U48-U55

49

THE WORD EXPLAINED

doubled, as, for instance, "vivifying he shall vivify," or "dying he shall die," and other such double expressions. As to what the forty days and forty nights signify in other respects, God Mes siah granting, this will become evident from what comes later. In the present text, they are referable to six days and to a seventh, thus to six weeks. The last two days signify the predicted morn ing, etc., etc., just as the third day signifies in a sum the morning on which the Messiah rose.
EXODUS

XXV

1 There Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, 2 Speak unto the sons of Israel, and let them bike for me a thrumah: 6 from-with every man whose heart freely moves him, let them take my offering. 7 3 And this shall be the collection which they shall take from with them; gold, and silver, and brass. s 4 And hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed, and the thread of cotton/ and the wool of she goats. 9 5 And the skins of red rams, and the skins of badgers/ and shittim wood, 2 6 Oil for the candlestick; sweet smelling spices for the oil of anointing; and for the incense, aromatic spices. 7 Onyx stones, and stones of infillings for the ephod, and for the breastplate. 8 That they may make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell in their midst. 9 According to all that I shew thee, the form of the habitac1e, and the form of all the vessels thereof, even so shall ye make it. 10 And first they shall make an ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. 11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold; within and with out shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a border of gold round about.
See n. 4664 Therumah. See n. 4669 See n. 4671 1 See n. 4672 See n. 4673
T

note. note. note.


note.
note.

50

III Ad. 1256-1257

EXODUS XXV:

1-~~

[466~

1~ And thou shalt cast for it four rings of gold, and shalt put them on the four corners thereof; that two rings may be on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it. 13 And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold. 14 And thou shalt put the staves into the rings on the sides of the ark, that the ark may be carried by them. 15 The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be withdrawn therefrom. 16 And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee. 17 And thou shalt make a propitiatory S of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof. 18 And thou shalt make two cherubs of gold; a solid work shalt thou make them, at the two extremities of the propitiatory. 19 Make thou one cherub from the extremity hence, and the other cherub from the extremity thence: from the propitiatory shall ye make the cherubs on the two extremities thereof: ~O That the cherubs be stretching forth their wings upward, covering the propitiatory with their wings; and their faces, a man's toward his fellow; toward the propitiatory shall their faces 4 be. n And thou .shalt put the propitiatory upon the ark from above; and into the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee. ~~ And there I will meet with thee; and I will speak with thee from above the propitiatory, from between the two cherubs which are upon the ark of the testimony, all that I shall command thee for the sons of Israel.

4662. The subject now treated of, is the tabernacle which was to be built, wherein God Messiah would dwell, as told in what fol lows. That God Messiah would dwell in this habitacle or taber nacle, as afterwards he dwelt in the temple, and thus would dwell, as it were, in a place, will be mentioned in many passages below. That one place is more holy than another, as for instance, mount Sinai, etc., etc., may be seen stated above [no 33~6]; and that God Messiah appears before human eyes in a place, and this with glory,
See D. 4690 note. See n. 4693 note.

In Ad. U58-U60

51

4663]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

as he appeared in mount Horeb [chap. 3 2 ], in mount Sinai [chap. 19 18 ], in a pillar of cloud and fire [chap. 13 21 ], and afterwards in the tabernacle, and finally in the temple, is because a choir of his angels is in that place; and since they are holy, he is in their midst. 4663. God Messiah is everywhere, but in holy places he is more present than elsewhere, and with different power, that is to say, with truth and love. Wherefore it is said that he can dwell with anyone, just as later it is said that he cannot accompany them to the land of Canaan [chap. 333 ], when yet he is present every where. Therefore also, in the prayer of the benediction [Num. 6 25 - 6 ], he is implored to look upon them, when yet he is continually seeing both them and also the minutest things in the universe. But he is said to turn his face away when they are sinners, etc., because there is then no such presence, that is to say, no presence with light and flame, that is, with truth and love. This presence, by the divine mercy of God Messiah, it has been allowed me to experience; as was the case in London, in the street and at home, and in the church in Stockholm. Hence the presence can be deduced, and so can be described. It is an inmost affection, which can never be described; and even if it were described in many words, yet the subject would never be exhausted. Moreover, there are other presences which manifest them selves by peace, felicity, and a more interior sense, which I have frequently experienced during two years. These presences also cannot be described, for there is a manifest sense of felicity-respecting which in the description, if this be well pleasing. 5 Hence then His presence in certain places, [this being effected] by holy angels, in whose midst he thus dwells. The tabernacle was the place in which they were, and this for the reason that he might be there in a choir of holy angels, as in a center. Hence, also, it now follows, that in the tabernacle and temple, it is God Messiah who is represented, because there, as in a center, are angels, who make a small effigy 6 of his kingdom, he being his kingdom, as stated above [n. 596 seq.].
These two indented paragraphs are cited in the Author's Index to his MemorabiUa, s.v. Dominus. See Table of Contents. Swedenborg l1rst wrote image which he changed to a small effigy.

59l

III Ad. U61-U65

EXODUS XXV:

1-~

[4664-65

In this chapter is now presented a description of the taber nacle, this being constructed after that effigy which Moses beheld; for in the tabernacle are represented simultaneously all and single things that will be in his kingdom, that is to say, that presented God Messiah himself in ultimates before their eyes. But now, God Messiah granting, let us come to its more interior contents. 4664. [There Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the sons of Israel, and let them take for me a thrumah: 7 from-with every man whose heart freely moves him, let them take my offer ing 8], vss. 1 and fl. The subject here treated of is the collection which they should offer to the sanctuary, as we read later [vs. 8].9 In the proximate sense, a collection means that which they offered. Therefore it is called an oblation, and indeed the sacrifice of an oblation, or a gift which they offered. In the more interior sense, it signifies the same as a gift; this involving every spiritual and celestial thing which man seems to offer to God Messiah, that is, which man, as it were, offers. But that every such gift comes from God Messiah who then prepares the man so that he rightly offers such things, is evident from other passages. In the more interior sense, therefore, these gifts are the works of charity to the poor, to the sons of the Church, to many persons, etc., etc. They are also supplications. In the inmost sense, a collection is saving faith which is not devoid of love. This then is what is called thrumah, a collection, an oblation, also a free sacrifice. 4665. But here it should be well observed that they received the collection for the sanctuary; that is to say, they received that which is signified, and which here is represented, by a collection from every man whose heart freely moved him thereto. As regards
1

To this transcription of the Hebrew word

i"19n r;t

Schmidius adds in

parentheses the translation collecta (a collection, contribution); but at the end of the verse and also in verse 3 he translates the word without transcribing it. Moreover, where he transcribes the word, he sometimes has thrumah and some times therumah. The Hebrew is derived from the root O~i (to be raised on high), and means literally an oblation, an offering raised above, or separated, from oneself. In the A.V. it is frequently and well translated" a heave offer ing." In the A"cana, Swedenborg usually translates it aublatio (heave offer ing), far less frequently oblatio (offering), and, in a few cases, therumah. Only once does he translate it collecta (n. 9459), and once thruma aeu collecta (n. 1947), both cases being translations of the present text.
S Therumah.
[Author's) Note: See below n. 5789-90, and n. 5833--4.

III Ad. Ifl66-1fl75

53

4666]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

these latter words, they are highly significative, in that God Mes siah will not accept aught as a gift save what comes freely, that is, from liberty. But it must be known what liberty in spiritual things is, to wit, that it consists in being led to this gift from charity or from love or from affection. All that is free which comes from love, seeing that it comes spontaneously-as can be evident to all. Thus the love of parents to their children causes them to give freely and so from liberty. Herein consists liberty in spiritual things. 1 As for instance, when men make supplication, when they give to the poor, and furthermore, to sacred causes, as they are called, not from merit, as one thinks, but from love and mercy, thus doing these things spontaneously. But since there is no liberty in things heavenly, seeing that all love toward the poor, and all mercy, etc., etc., comes from God Messiah, therefore it is love that then reigns, it being in this way that man is led to these things freely. So likewise when he is led by God Messiah to the best end, which is called wisdom. In a word, affection is what gives liberty, for love does nothing under compulsion. 4666. In offerings there are two things, namely, truth and love. Truth is there, because one must so do by reason of the command ment; and when to this is added love, there is a gift that is made willingly. How the knowledge of truth must be present in faith, and also love, can be stated on many grounds; also what is the quality of gifts in their more interior and inmost senses, when they flow from truth without affection, when they flow from affection without an intuition of truth, and when they flow from both; and how intellectual knowledge is present; what that knowledge effects which is not in saving faith but still is requisite; for without a knowledge of the thing one sees and does, there is nothing human, thus nothing acceptable. Yet knowledge contributes nothing to salvation, as they say, unless it be such that it so reforms the disposition of the mind that the truth exercises persuasion, and thus the man is not seduced. (But these matters contain more than can be set forth in a few words.) In sum, there is nothing free in spiritual things save that which moves one spontaneously, that is to say, from love; and nothing is moved from love unless it comes from God Messiah. Thus no man can ever offer anything that is
1 [Crossed off:) As, for instance, when the neighbor is pitied, not from the . fact that he is thought to be deserving

54

III Ad.

1~76-U80

EXODUS XXV: 3

[4667-69

acceptable, unless it be done from God Messiah who.both gives and receives. Thus He gives Himself and receives Himself, etc., etc. 4667. [And this shall be the collection which they shall take from-with them; gold, and silver, and brass 2], vs. 3. '\Vhat these words signify in their inmost meanings, and also those that follow up to verse 9, cannot well be told as yet, until we come to treat of the ark and the garment of the high priest, etc. It will better be seen what they represent from that to which they were applied. Meanwhile, to speak in a few words, gold represents love and thus charity, in a word, goodness. Being a purer metal, it carries with it a minimum amount of earthly dross, is durable in the fire, not easily consumed, stable, rare, and thus precious. The ancients were aware of this signification, and therefore they called the times during which there was integrity and purity, the Golden Age. The color of gold also involves the same thing. That gold signi fies holiness from purity, may be evident from the fact that men are to be purified as is gold [Job ~31O, Zech. 139 , Mal. 3 3 ] ; but all purity comes from love and thus from God Messiah, as should be evident to alP 4668. Silver, on the other hand, represents the truth, which then follows; for in man truth is acknowledged from affection, and so comes to birth in those who are to be formed and reformed. Silver draws this representation from its brightness which answers to light and to a bright cloud. Therefore, the next age was called the Silver Age because in the human race love receded and truth followed. As to truths being born from affections, this is the case in infants, for affection then rules, and this impresses on them those things that make the understanding; for, in order that there may be reformation, there must first come the knowledge of truth. (But, God Messiah granting, we shall speak of these matters else where.) 4669. From these two follows brass 4 and it signifies the spiritSee n. 4669 note. The latter part of this paragraph, from" That gold" is a later addition written partly in the margin. Aes means copper, bronze, brass, and other metals except gold and silver. The Hebrew word n~n? is equally indefinite in meaning. That it cannot
2

mean brass, however, is manifest inasmuch as brass was unknown at this time. In Genesis 422 we follow the A.V., and translate it brass, though it would be more correctly rendered bl'onze or perhaps copper; but the end of the present

HI Ad.

1~81-1~84

55

4670-71]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

ual commingled with the natural, and the heavenly with the worldly, such as obtains in the natural mind when they follow rightly or ac cording to order. Brass partakes more of earth and clay, and is not pure like silver and gold. Its calor also is golden yellow, etc. 4670. [And hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed,5 and the thread of cotton, and the wool of she goats "'], vs. 4. As concerns these materials, they are the products of growth; more over, they are intended for Aaron's garment, etc., and when this is treated of it will be seen what is their proper signification. Mean while, from their calor we learn what they represent. Hyacinth is a cerulean calor, called also sky blue; thus it is like the calor of the sky when this is serene, with bright clouds ap pearing in it. 6 It therefore represents the clarity of the intel lectual mind wherein truths shine clear. Hence the hyacinthine and heavenly cerulean color is greatly loved by the celestial. This also I have experienced on many occasions, and I know that they greatly esteem this calor, and not so greatly the calor green except so far as it partakes of cerulean. 7 Purple is a red or rosy calor mixed with cerulean. What a rosy color signifies, and also a scarlet, is likewise learned from the color, namely, that it signifies love. As regards an intensely red calor which verges to a dark shade, this is different, by reason of natural loves which verge to obscurity. Not so when a cerulean or bright white calor is suitably mingled with the red. Scarlet double-dyed is a calor which is utterly red, as compared with hyacinth. Thus a mingling [of the two] signifies the same thing as a mingling of goodness with truth or of affection with the intellectual-with clarity. See Genesis, chapter 38 verse 528. 4671. The thread of cotton 8 is snow-white, being taken from
paragraph indicates brass. The word occurs many times in the Bible, includ ing the description of the feet of the image seen by Daniel (Dan. 106 ), but in the A.V. it is nearly always translated brass-though once copper, and once steel. Swedenborg invariably translates it aes. Confer n. 2081, ~088. * See n. 5798 note. Confer n. 4874. This indented sentence and the paragraph preceding it are cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Color. See Table of Contents.. Linwm xylinum. Linum means flax and also a th1"ead and a garment,' while xylinwm (~VA'VOV) means only cotton. The Hebrew W~ is interpreted

56

IH Ad. 15285-15291

EXODUS XXV: 4-5

[467~

cotton; from the description of which plant it can be evident what it represents. Nature produces such thread, and this from a purple flower, etc. From its white or snowlike color, we learn what it represents, namely, the natural. It is snow-white and comes from a purple flower, that is, from a color mediate between hyacinth and scarlet. The wool of she goats 9 signifies that [Aaron's] garments were to be made from not.hing else than sheep 1 and their wool (see below) . Thus the one thing [in these garments] was from the vegetable kingdom, and the other from the animal. 4672. [And the skins of red rams, and the skins of badgers, and shittim wood], vs. 5. As touching the skins of red rams, every one sees that they were significative and representative; for in the absence of any signification it would never have been commanded that they should be of a red color. But what this signifies can be evident from the use to which these skins were applied. Mean while, in the description of Esau and J acob, it was said that Esau was a hairy man and red; see above, [Gen. ~52(j], where the reader may see many particulars; and also that Jacob was clothed with a like skin [ibid. ~716]. Rams are the males of sheep, and badgers 2
by the Lexicographers as meaning both linen and cotton. In the A.V. it is invariably translated fine l'inen; but that Swedenborg here understood it as meaning cotton, is clear from his description of it as being produced from " a purple flower." The flower of flax is blue, while that of cotton is first white, or pale yellow, and then dark and red. See Genesis 4142 where t::irq occurs for the first time in the Bible, being used to describe the garments given by Pharaoh to Joseph, which were perhaps of fine Egyptian cotton, and which, according to Swedenborg, were "white and incombustible" (n. 2354). There, however, our translation reads fine linen, because Schmidius there translates t::irq as byssus, and according to Liddel and Scott's G,'eek Lexicon, this word means a fine flax and the linen made therefrom, though it is " said also to be cotton of which the Egyptian mummy cloths were supposed to be made, but these are now ascertained to be of linen." Wherever the word t::it::i occurs, Schmidius translates it xylinum (cotton), the only exceptions being the present text where he has Unum xylinum, and Genesis 4142 and Ezekiel 1610,13 and 277 where he has byssus. The Hebrew is O'W she goats, the word 10001 being added by Schmidius -and also by Swedenborg in the A "cana Coelestia. 1 Confer n. 859. o't::inl'l. The meaning of this word is entirely unknown. . T:

It occurs in the

Bible fourteen times (Exod. 255, 26 14 ,35 7 ,23, 36 19,39 34, Num. 4, and Ezek. 1610 ) and by Pagnini, Tremelius, and the A.V. is always translated badger. This,

III Ad.

1~9~-1~97

57

4673-74]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the males of goats. As to what they signify, this can become clearer from the sacrifices of these animals. 4673. As touching the wood which is called shittim wood, this was a tree on mount Sinai, or at its foot. It designates the most noble cedar. 8 Being a mountain tree, it surpasses other trees in its aromatic oil, and thus in its odor and its purity. Wild trees were adopted here, and not garden trees, because now the people are not in the fruit garden but in the woods; for that which signi fies things more interior and inmost is taken from ultimates, as fre quently observed above. The ark was made of this wood, that it might be portable; but later the temple was made of stone which answers better for an altar. The sanctuary of the temple (as I think) was also made of the most noble cedars/ as may be seen when we come to that place. 4674. [Oil for the candlestick; sweet smelling spices for the oil of anointing; and for the incense, aromatic spices], vs. 6. The subject now treated of is the lamp, here called the candlestick, and its oil. What the lamp is, and why it was to be always lighted, will be seen better in the sequel. It would seem that everyone can perceive that a flame which is continually burning, is a flame which signifies spiritual love and light; for in like manner as a gentle flame gives a bright light, so also love gives intellectual light or life; and that this should be perpetual in man, can be evident enough. Oil in a lamp signifies one thing, and that used in anointing, another, etc. Respecting the oil in the lamp, see be low at verse 31 seq., concerning the candlestick. The oil of anoint ing is different. Concerning this also see below [chap. fl8 41 , fl9 7 ].
however, is mere conjecture, and most scholars have agreed that it is wrong, since the badger is not found in Asia Minor. Equally conjectural are the sug gested translations, wolf, seal, etc. Guided by Ezekiel 1610, some of the ancient interpreters have supposed that the word referred, not to an animal, but to a color, probably some shade of blue. The Vulgate, therefore, translates it violet. Wherever he quotes the word, Swedenborg always translates it badger; but in the present passage he suggests that what is meant is he goats, or, as in n. 5841, kids. The word shittim is simply a transliteration of the Hebrew O'1l)~. To this transliteration, Schmidius adds the explanatory words: the most noble of cedars, so called. This is not stated in the Bible; see I Kings 715 seq., but Josephus informs us that the walls and ceilings of the temple were wainscotted with cedar covered with gold; confer I Kings 5S,6.

58

III Ad. U98-1301

EXODUS XXV: 6-8

[4675-77

It signifies the anointing as king and as priest. But of this nil much is said later on. There must be sweet-smelling spices in the oil, these signifying the same as odors, to wit, that Jehovah is said to have smelled an odor of sweetness. In the interior sense, it is odor that is meant, in that this soothes the animus; in the supreme sense, it is good pleasure. 5 The third thing was the incense. This also signifies sweetness in divine worship. All these, however, are representations in the old church; they win not exist in the new church for now, after the veil in the temple was rent [Matt. ~71'51, Mark 15 38 , Luke ~345], these types have ceased. 4675. [Onyx stones, and stones of infillings for the ephod, and for the breastplate], vs. 7. As touching the stones [of infillings] these are treated of in what follows when speaking of the Urim and Thummim [chap. ~89 se q .]. Here only the onyx stone is named. This is a transparent stone of a fleshy color; thus it signifies CLARITY or life from love; but as to what clarity from love is, see below. s Stones of infillings, namely, stones tinctured with such a color that they represented divine mysteries concerning God Messiah. These were to be iriserted in the ephod spoken of below [chap. ~86 se q .]. Thus by them the breast ~as to be protected, that is to say, the heart.

4676. [That they may malce me a sanctuary; that I may dwell in their midst], vs. 8. Hence now comes the sanctuary. No one can ever be so stupid as to suppose that J ehovah willed to dwell in a habitacle because of the wood with which it happened to be lined; or to have regard to a man because of the precious stones which he carried on his breast, etc.; but [he must see] that in all this, things heavenly are signified, and that it is these that are had in: view when man looks at such objects with human eyes. Hence comes representation in worship, etc., etc. 4677. What is meant in the more intei"ior sense, is that which was said above [no 4674] concerning the intellectual mind and its life and light. In the inmost sense, this becomes that clarity and imperceptible light which inflows into the intellectual mind as into a general faculty, and produces all and single the things in the human mind that flow in order. For man can never derive from that mind the ability to perceive things celestial and spiritual, even by
This last sentence is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. Reading infra for intra (within).

III Ad.

130~1307

59

4678-79]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

analogy, unless there flows in from above, that which disposes all and single things, and reduces them into analytical order and forms a conclusion. There is no one but can perceive this if only he gives attention to the matter. This influx takes place through the soul and thus from man's inmost. Nor can anyone be so stupid, if only he is able to give attention to the matter, [as to ,think] that this property flows in from the soul; it flows through the soul from God Messiahwho is the one only Love of Jehovah his Father. So long as [the mind is] without love, there is no order, no ordination, no analysis, no conjunction of one thing with another, and consequently no conclusion, and so no intellect and no judgment, and hence no will, etc., etc. As to what" dwell ing in their midst" signifies, see above [no 4662-3] at the com mencement of this chapter. 4678. [According to all that I shew thee, the form of the habitacle, and the form of all the vessels thereof, even so shall ye make it], vs. 9. That all these words have regard to heaven, to the kingdom of God Messiah which is presented in small effigy in the choir of angels spoken of below, and so to God Messiah himself, can now be evident enough. For seeing that the form was shown to Moses, that form can be no other than a form in outmosts which corresponds to inmost forms, and thus to forms which represent the supreme Form or God Messiah. Nothing can ever be shown by Jehovah God save that which is from him according to order, and which thus flows through inmost human things into outer things. Hence the form shown to Moses. He himself could not' see God Messiah, except in a cavity, and thus in obsCUl'ity, and then only His back 7_(as I think it is said, but this should be looked up). 4679. As touching the vessels, these also are treated of in what follows. In general they are instrumental means. There is no such thing as a principal subject, if it is to become anything, with out there being also an instrumental which shall he concordant with it. It is from this that the principal becomes the efficient. In general this is the case in every cause, each principal cause re quiring its own instrumental. It is this that is meant by the vessels that were used in divine worship, in the temple, and for the ark.
Chapter
3322, 23.

60

III Ad. 1308-1312

EXODUS XXV: 9-10

[4680-82

But instrumental causes are natural, moral, spiritual and celestial, and according to the nature of the principal causes, so instru mental causes of the same kind are adapted to them. Therefore, in each of the senses, vessels stand for instruments, and predication is made of them according to the subject. Thus, when the subject is spiritual and celestial, the instrumental must also be spiritual, etc. In general, every principal in one degree becomes an instru mental in respect to the superior degree, since it ministers to the latter. Thus, it follows that there is nothing in heaven and in the world which is not an instrumental in respect to God Messiah, who is the sole principal Agent in all and single things. s 4680. [And first they shall m.ake an ark of shittim. wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof], vs. 10. As to the ark being made of the finest cedar, see above [n. 4673]. It was to be made of wood, to the end that it might be portable, and at the same time might signify that tree in paradise which is called" wood" [Gen. 3 24 ].9 The present tree is taken from the mountain for the sake of the remembrance of all things. Moreover, it was a tree possessing the most excellent odor and oil, as can be ascertained in respect to cedars of this kind. 4681. As regards its dimension, namely, its length and breadth which are here described, the length, being two cubits and a half, signifies th~ same as the days of reformation which commenced from the evening and were finished in the morning, and this on the third day; in like manner as it signifies the time of reformation which these days look to, and which is looked to [in the present text], distinguished into three days, namely, from N oah to the de parture of this people from Egypt, from this time to the coming of God Messiah into the world, and then from this coming to his coming into glory, this being the morning. The breadth and height, which was one cubit and a half, signifies one day less, namely, from Noah to the first coming of God Messiah into the world, this being the result when one day is subtracted. 4682. One may think that it is somewhat farfetched to say that even the dimensions of the ark have respect to the above; but it must be observed that these times are divided into three days and
8

This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin. See n. 4086 and note.

III Ad. 1313-1321

61

4683-84]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

also into seven, and these numbers occur everywhere [in the Word], Thus there is nothing that does not refer to [these days], It is as though a memorial were given in order that there should be nothing which would not have them in view, just as there is nothing which does not have in view God Messiah and his kingdom and church, Therefore, wherever any number occurs, whatsoever the occasion, it presents and represents this time. So in the time of the pass over, whatsoever they then saw and thought, recalled the memory of their going out from Egypt~ and of the miracles, etc. 1 This was especially true of the ark, for this was the ark of the covenant, a covenant made by blood. Thus when God Messiah is effigied, as, for instance, in the ark, He is presented as being in spaces and in times; and so in every other case. Thus this would arouse the memory and so the representation; AS FOR EXAl\IPLE, IN THE CASE 2 13 OF THE RAINBOW [Gen. 9 ], etc. 4683. [And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold; within and without shalt thou overla,y it, and shalt make upon it a border of gold round about], vs. 11.3 That the ark was overlaid with pure gold signifies what gold signifies, namely, love or goodness, the meaning being that the things here represented were one and all so filled with love, that nothing else was seen by the eyes; and this, to the end that from the eyes they may come into the mind, being all the things which flow from love and which are infinite in number. Hence the ark was overlaid within and without with gold, that so it might represent nothing but gold. 4 4684. The crown work,5 as it is called in chapter 37, was of
1 [Crossed off:) Therefore it is not to be wondered at tbat~ This paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written several times in the margin. ' We have introduced the text of verse 11 in this paragraph, though accord ing to the autograph it should be inserted as tbe opening words of n. 4684 which commences" Verse 11." But Swedenborg inserted this" Vers: 11 " at a later time, and it is quite evident that he inadvertently inserted it in the wrong place. i.e" might represent solid gold. C07'O'1Iamentum (a crown or garland). In chapter 37 the Hebrew word is the same as in the present text, namely '.~ meaning a border, or edge, whether

of a square object or of a round. It occurs only in Exodus 51511,24, 25, where Schmidius renders it limbu8 (a border), adding in verses 514 and 515 the ex planatory word 8ertum (a garland); and chapters 30s, 4, 372,11,12,26,27, where he translates it C01onamentwm. In all these places, Pagnini and Castellio, whom Swedenborg doubtless consulted, consistently translate the word corona (a 'crown).

III Ad.

13~~-13~4

EXODUS XXV: ll-Hl

[4685

pure gold. It signifies the same as the diadem around the fore head of the high priest, of which we read later. Thus it signifies the top of the head or the forehead, and consequently that which is supreme. Concerning the crown upon Aaron's mitre, see chapter ~96, where it is called the" crown of holiness." 6 A crown of this sort is called" glory" [Isaiah ~85], like the crown of a king and also the crowns with which brides were adorned and which there fore are called" glory" [Isaiah 6~3], like the glory of the church of God Messiah; and God Messiah himself is the glory of J ehovah his Father. It is this that is represented by that crown which was of pure gold. All else was then like a body which was ruled from this crown, or from this Head; into which body, as into the choir of angels, rays of love are radiated whereby they shine with efful gence, as though overlaid with pure gold; for goodnesses from love so radiate into the whole of heaven that nought else is seen. Yet, within, the ark was of wood, but of wood of surpassing excel lence, representing, as was said [n. 4680], the tree of life in paradise, which also is called wood [Gen. 3 24 ].1 This tree is merely the sap so formed, or the life so going forth, which thus is the all in all, etc., etc. 4685. [And thou shalt cast for it four rings of gold, and shalt put them on the four corners thereof; that two rings may be on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it], vs. 1~. As touching the rings, to these four rings answer the four quarters of the world or universe. This is plainly stated in the next chapter, ~618, 20, 22, where they are called corners, being" the corner of the south," " the corner of the north," etc. That the rings were of pure gold, follows from the crown with which they were thus con tinuous, in that this crown was of pure gold. That is to say, what gold represents has regard to the universe, which is described by the four quarters, these quarters being designated by the four corners. This can be more clearly evident from the passages cited in what follows. The rings were circles, for in ultimates the uni verse is likened to a globe; hence then the rings of pure gold. But the staves by which the ark was carried [vs. 13] are powers, as is evident from what was said above en. 4191] concerning Moses'
This sentence was interpolated when Swedenborg was writing on chapter
9g6.
T

See n. 4086 and note.

III Ad. 13M-1330

63

4686-88]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

rod, and concerning the wood cast into the bitter water [chap. 15 25 ], etc. These staves, however, are spoken of in the next verse. Here as below [chap. 9l6 18 , 20], the two sides are those which look to the south and the north. Thus, as regards their corners, though from different situations, they look from the one side to the west and east, and from the other to the east and west, and so to the evening and the morning, this being the same as the west and east. 4686. [And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold], vs. 13. A conception of what staves signify may be obtained from the rings in which they were inserted, and also from the corners, of which we have just spoken, and their situation toward the south and the north, or the day and the night, and so, on either side, toward the west and the east or the evening and the morning; also from those who carried them, for it was not allowed anyone to carry the ark except those appointed thereto. From the signification of all these, it is evident that the staves, like the hands and arms in man, are power and strength-and this over the universe. s That the staves were of the most excellent cedar, and, like the ark, were overlaid with gold, signifies, as said above [n. 4684] concerning the ark, that it was choirs of angels, who carried the ark of God Messiah into the universe, and so carried all that is signified by the ark, with the sanctuary, the testimony, and the propitiatory, etc. The ark, therefore, was as in the center from which rays of goodness stream forth. Concerning silver that it signifies truth, see below. 4687. Altars, and the altar at Jerusalem, and also the temple of Jerusalem, likewise looked with their sides to the quarters of the world; as also do churches at this day.9 The temple lay from the east to the west, and, like the churches of today, had its aspect to these quarters and not to the south and north.! 4688. [And thou shalt put the staves into the rings on the sides of the (/,rk, that the ark may be carried by them. The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be withdrawn there from], vss. 14, 15. What has just been stated is still further con
This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin. This sentence is marked" Obs." 1 This sentence is written in the margin, but it has its separate number (n. 1335) as though intended to form a separate paragraph.

64

III Ad. 1331-1336

EXODUS XXV: 13-16

[4689

firmed; for we read [1], That the staves were put into the rings on the sides, it being expressly said on the sides, these sides, like the Temple of Jerusalem, having their aspect to the two quarters [the south and the north], as also may be seen below [chap. ~618. 20]. [~] That they should be made fast in the rings of pure gold. [3] Furthermore, that the ark should be carried by them. What " carrying" is, can also be evident, namely, that it is carrying the Word of God Messiah and thus whatever pertains to God Messiah, this being signified by the ark and by what was enclosed within the ark, such as the testimony, the tables of the Law, the manna, Aaron's rod, and thus all that these contents signify, etc. [4] And finally that the staves were to be so fastened in the ring that they should never be withdrawn; for [these] instrumental powers are the angels of God Messiah who never withdraw but, like the staves in the rings, are steadfast, as it were, and are bound and united by his love. 4689. [And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee], vs. 16. As to what the testimony is which was to be given by God Messiah to put into the ark, it is indeed mentioned in various other passages, that he put the testimony [into the ark]. It is clear that the tables of the Law were put in, and also the song of Jehovah spoken of by Moses in Deuteronomy 31 19 ,. where we read that he placed it " at the side of the ark of the covenant that it may be there for a witness" against the people. The ark is there called" the ark of the covenant," verse ~6.t :Moreover, in n Kings, chapter ~32, the whole book of Moses is called "the book of the covenant." Furthermore, we read in Exodus, chap ter ~44, that Moses wrote all the words which Jehovah spake, being those which had been spoken on mount Sinai, respecting which see
* The autograph has" Deut. 31 ,"ers. B6," but according to this verse it was the" book of the law" that was put" at the side of the ark of the covenant." In verse 19, however, we read that Moses said: " Now, therefore, write for you this song and teach it to the sons of Israel, . . . that this song may be to me for a witness against the sons of Israel." In verse BB it is said that Moses wrote the song and taught it to the sons of Israel; and in verses f14-B6 we read: " And it came to pass when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law . . . Moses commanded the Levites . . . Take the book of this law and put it at the side of the ark of the covenant of Jehovah, your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee." It would appear that Swedenborg under stood that both" the song" and the" book of this law" were placed in the ark. The song itself occupies the whole of Deuteronomy, chapter 3B. t The autograph has " B5 and B6."

In Ad. 1337-1341

65

4690]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

chapters ~o and ~4. From this, the conclusion can be drawn that it is the tables of the Law that are especially called the testi mony and also the covenant, for which reason the ark is called "the ark of the testimony" [vs. ~~] and" the ark of the cove nant." That other writings were indited by Moses besides the Law, and were placed there in addition to the Song, is not yet ap parent. This then is the testimony, for it was given to Moses. But as to whether there were other things [put in the ark], this, God Messiah granting, will be told below. Hence the ark was called the covenant, or the ark of the covenant and of the testi mony. What Moses wrote by command of God Messiah is also called" the book of the covenant" (chapter ~47). Since the law is the testimony, and the testimony was laid up in the ark which signifies a choir of angels of God Messiah, it can thence be evident what is meant by the testimony, to wit: In the proximate sense as related to this people, that it gave testimony as to whether they have lived according to the law, and have observed the covenant; in the more interior sense, the testimony of the in ternal law with conscience as a witness; in the superior sense, the book which is opened in the last judgment, by God Messiah alone, as we read in the Apocalypse [5 1- 9 ]. In the supreme sense, God Messiah is himself the Law and the Tables, and thus the Testi mony, etc., etc. 2 4690. (And thou shalt make a propitiatory S of pure goZd: two cubits and a haZf shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof], vs. 17. There is no one in the entire globe to whom it cannot be evident that it is God Messiah who is signified by this propitiatory of pure gold within the border above the ark, for the sake of which that border was formed that it might sur round and closely embrace it. For what is the purpose of pro pitiation save that an approach might then be afforded to the Most Holy One, .lehovah the Father of God Messiah. Wherefore the propitiatory must necessarily signify God Messiah, the Son of
2 This paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written several times in the margih. nje~ from 'e.~ (to make atonement, reconciliation) means a place or

thing of atonement, propitiation or reconciliation. In the A.V. it is always translated mercy seat, which gives only a general idea of the meaning; more exact would be "the atonement seat."

66

III Ad.

134~-1348

EXODUS XXV: 17-18

[4691

Jehovah his Father; and indeed, a propitiatory of pure gold, signifying purity and holiness from love and so from infinite mercy. As to how propitiation was made by the priest by means of victims and especially of their blood, this is indicated in many later pas sages. The propitiatory can by no means signify the blood of bullocks, he goats, and sheep, and all the animals whence came propitiation before the Most Holy, for the whole human race; but concerning propitiation, see below. Length and breadth here signify the same as above [no 4681
8~].

4691. [And thou shalt maketwa cherubs af gold; a solid work shalt thou make them, at the twa extremities of the propitiatory], vs. 18. What these cherubs signify can indeed be seen above at Genesis, chapter 3 2 4, namely, that they were guards placed within 4 paradise to guard the way to " the wood of life," or to the tree of life, that is, to God Messiah, lest, in the state in which they then were, they should eat of that tree and die; for they were con demned, and so would have eaten death, as is evident from the words of God Messiah in the New Testament. Being guards, the cherubs therefore signify an that which guards the way to the Most Holy. This is true in every degree, to wit, in the proximate sense, which guards the way to the inmost church of God Messiah on this earth; in the interior sense, which guards the way to the celestial genii who are genii of God Messiah; and so, in the more interior and inmost senses, [which does this] in respect to those who are in heaven. In the supreme sense, what is here represented is the Holy Spirit which proceeds from J ehovah the Father by means of the One only Son, it being the Holy Spirit that guards. That it is the Holy Spirit that is meant in the supreme sense is most clearly evident from the words themselves and from the whole description; 5 to wit, first that there were two cherubim, having respect to the quarters, that is, looking toward the east and the west, thus toward the evening and the morning, that is, looking from the first day of reformation to the last, and, in the supreme
Reading intm for inter (between). This sentence is marked "Obs. NB., N B." Following it comes the fol lowing addition to the text, which we print as a footnote in order not to inter c rupt the original sequence: "Thus, it is especially evident from the command that they should make the cherubim of gold like the propitiatory, and should make it a solid work. Thus the cherubim likewise were of gold."

III Ad. 1349-1355

67

469fl-93]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

sense, from eternity, inasmuch as, in the supreme sense, what is here called " from the evening and the morning" and thus time, is eternity, like" today and tomorrow" [chap. 19 10 ] ; and what is here set forth as the quarter to the east and to the west means the universe, and this to infinity; for as with time, so also with space. 4692. [Make thou one cherub from the extremity hence, and the other cherub from the extremity thence: from the propitiatory shall ye make the cherubs on the two extremities thereof (vs. 19).] The Holy Spirit is one, but two cherubim were formed by reason of their aspect, as just told. Moreover, in the temple of Jeru salem, several were formed; and there were also four 6 (if I mistake not). Thus the number makes no difference. When, in the in most sense, heaven is signified, it is one heaven, though there are heavenly beings in indefinite number. That heaven is one, comes from their harmony and love, so that they are one. Unity comes solely from love, thus from unanimous consent with respect to the one only End, etc., etc. The same consideration shows that the cherubim extended from the propitiatory, that is, they proceeded from God Messiah, or, what comes to the same thing, from Jehovah the Father through the Son. Thus they are celestial cherubs from Jehovah God, that is, from Jehovah the Father through the Son and the Holy Spirit. That this is the meaning may be seen in Ezekiel, chapter 10, where cherubs are spoken of and described, which description confirms what has been said. 4693. [That the cherubs be stretching forth their wings up ward, covering the propitiatory with their wings; and their faces, a man's toward his fellow; t07tJard the propitiatory shall their faces 7 be], vs. flO. As regards the wings, these signify the Spirit; for wings are instrumental causes which here, as elsewhere, are as sumed for the principal. In relation to wings, the principal is the atmosphere which also is frequently called spirit; see above [n. 9lfl], and the many passages there cited. Therefore, in the differ ent senses even to the supreme, by " wings stretched on high" is here signified the Spirit, and, indeed, the Holy Spirit who raises human minds upward; and this because the cherubs proceed from
Confer Ezekiel 109,21. * The autograph has" 5." 7 Schmidius has substituted "their faces" for the Hebrew "the faces of the cherubim."

68

III Ad. 1356-1361

EXODUS XXV: 19-22

[4694-95

the propitiatory to which they were attached, as the words state [vs. 19]. The same is also confirmed by the present words, that the cherubs covered the propitiatory with their wings and so will guard the way; and furthermore, that their faces shall be toward the propitiatory; for there is no Holy Spirit save what proceeds from God Messiah, and so none which does not turn its face toward the propitiatory, that is, to God Messiah who alone is the Propitiator, etc. As regards the guardianship, that is to say, as to how they guard and why, etc., many things might be said, but there is no occasion for this now; for the way is guarded in an infinoitude of modes, lest any who is condemned should draw near and so come into spiritual death. The words a man's face toward his fellow, meaning that they look at each other, confirm the statement that [the Holy Spirit] is one and not two, and that two are here represented by reason of their aspect to the universe, as the reader may see stated above [no 4691]. 4694. [And thou shalt put the propitiat01'y u,pon the ark from above; and into the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee], vs. ~l. Thus the propitiatory, covered by the cherubs and thus protected, was to be put upon the ark, which in the inmost sense then signifies heaven, while in the supreme sense it signifies God Messiah; for he is heaven, and in him is the fullness of the Godhead [Col. ~9], etc., etc. As to the testimony being put into the ark, this the reader may see treated of above [no 4688-9]. Thus the law is holy, being the inmost in the midst of the ark under the propitiatory. 4695. [A nd there I will meet with thee; and I will speak with thee from above the propitiatory, from between the two cherubs which are upon the ark of the testimony, all that I shall command thee for the sons of Israel], vs. ~~. That which was said above [n. 469~-3] is here confirmed, namely, that J ehovah the Father would speak to human souls from above the propitiatory, from between the cherub,Y, that is to say, through God Messiah who is the Word, and thus through the Holy Spirit; and so the one God, that is, J ehovah God, would speak to human minds through his heavenly angels. As regards the words from above the propitiatory, and from between the cherubs, this is a divine discourse, without which supreme things cannot be expressed so as to be intelligible in some measUre. III Ad. 136~-1368 69

4696-97]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4696. In this verse, the ark is now called the ark of the testi mony. Elsewhere it is called" the ark of the covenant," as stated above [n. 4689]. It is called the ark of the testimony from the last judgment when the world is to be judged according to the Law as understood in its inmost sense, thus when the Law itself will give testimony. For truth is such that it can never be con tradicted except in this life when the mind is blinded; but in the other life when it will appear in the clearest light, no mind can ever have the least thing whereby to defend itself. Hence then the ark of the testimony, and the statement that thus J ehovah God would speak all that he has commanded to the sons of Israel, etc., etc. 8 4697. Moreover, all and single things that were contained in the ark and its fabric had regard to the Testimony, that is, to the Law, for the containing of which, the ark was constructed. It was from this that it had its holiness, for without the Law, none of the other contents was holy in itself. But the Law is holy in itself, being written by the finger of God Messiah, that is, laid down by God Messiah and inscribed on human minds from the beginning of creation. Nay, there is not a thing in the universe in which the Law is not implanted, and which, in its own mode, does not hark back to the same; as, from afar off, do the laws of nature, which are the truths of nature, being many in number; and, in civil life, as do moral laws whence comes justice, these laws being circum stanced according to society; and also the laws implanted in ani mals. But in man they are more interiorly implanted. Thus in the Testimony or the Law, are contained laws from inmosts, and, when order is perfect, these are what are r,egarded by the laws in ultimates. Thus, for example, there is not one thing in nature which does not have regard to conjunction and union, without which regard, all and single things would fall asunder. Indeed, so marvellously is this the case that the conjunction itself and the cause of the conjunction or union, is inseated within, being marvel lously impressed. But, by means of harmony and the laws thereof, these being natural truths, conjunction has regard to concord,
It was Swedenborg's first intention to close this section at this point; for he now commences a new page headed "Exod: XXV vers: iil3 to -." This, however, he crossed off' and added the paragraphs numbered 4697-9-para graphs to which he gave particular emphasis by writing in the margin " Obs." and repeating this at almost every line.

70

III Ad. 1869-1871

EXODUS XXV:

~~

[4698-99

and, in living creatures, to moral charity. The latter is found also in brute animals, though by them, it is not understood, and so is called an analogical thing. Furthermore, charity has regard to love, this being the cause of all charity, and charity of all union. But love has regard to God Messiah himself. Thus, there is nothing in truths, from natural truths onward according to order, that does not have regard to God Messiah. Without him nothing whatever can exist, because nothing can be united, but all would fall asunder. 4698. This then is what the Law has in view, law being truth. As to words, this Law is contained in things that are further ulti mated in man; but without connection with interiors and so with inmosts, and without the Supreme, that is, God Messiah, it is not Law. Thus God Messiah is Law itself. The ark, therefore, was sanctified by the Law which lay inmostly within it. All and single things in the ark were representative, and, in like manner, all harked back to God Messiah, because to the propitiatory; for the ark was so made that the propitiatory might be fitted to it from above. Thus the ark was the instrumental and the Law the princi pal; and as the instrumental regards the principal, so the ark re gards the Testimony. For, as external things depend on interior, and are formed therefrom, that is, exist and subsist therefrom, and these from things inmost; so the ark had regard to the Law. 4699. It is the most common thing in the whole of nature, that instrumentals have respect to principals, as externals to inmosts or, as the saying is, as [a shell] to its kernel. From shells which are fitted to their kernel and serve it, it is evident that there is not a thing that does not regard a kernel. Thus in the shell are repre sented those things which exist in the kernel. So is it in man, and so in the universe, etc. 9
EXODUS XXV
~3 Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood: two cubits the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.

Nos. 4691-99 are referred to by the Author in his notes entered in Schmidius's Bible at Genesis 3 24 , as follows: "Concerning the cherubs, see Exodus 2518-22 and the notes in Tome IlL"

III Ad.

137~-1375

71

4700]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

~4 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make for it a border of gold round about. ~5 And thou shalt make for it a band of an hand breadth round about, and thou shalt make a border of gold for the band thereof round about. ~6 And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings upon the four corners that shall be on the four feet thereof. ~7 Over against the encircling band shall the rings be, for the entry of the staves to carry the table. ~8 And thou shalt make these staves of shittim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold, that the table may be carried with them. ~9 And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and the incense pans thereof, and the salvers thereof, and the brooms thereof, wherewith to cover it: of pure gold shalt thou make them. 30 And thou shalt set upon the table the bread of faces before my faces continually.

4700. The subject now treated of is the table on which was to be laid the bread of faces. 1 The like thing comes up in respect to this table as in respect to the ark; for the bread of faces was the principal, and the table with its adornment the instrumental which was to be sanctified by means of its principal. That the bread of faces is God Messiah himself, he being the Spiritual Food, and this involving all that is spiritual, and everything whatsoever that spir itually nourishes the mind, can be evident from the manna and from" bread" where mentioned here and there above; and espe cially from that symbol by which is signified the body of God Messiah, etc., etc. That bread includes all natural food is most clearly evident from what has been frequently said above in the Word of God Messiah. Thus the eating of bread is the making of a feast to which men were invited, as were J oseph's brethren, etc. Therefore, when bread is mentioned, what is meant is all food, or everything that nourishes the body. Thus spiritual bread is everything that nourishes the mind, and so, inmostly, everything that saves the mind, such as faith in God Messiah which, by means of love, is saving faith. These then are the essentials for the sake of which are the formals, being here the instrumentals. These
1

In the A.V. the shew bread.

In Ad. 1376-1381

EXODUS XXV:

~3-~9

[4701-0~

therefore are sanctified by their essential and the essential, as, in the present case, the bread, by the fact that it signified God Messiah. 4701. [Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood: two cubits the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make for it a border of gold round about. And thou shalt make for it a band of an hand breadth round about, and thou shalt make a border of gold for the band thereof round about. And thou shalt make for it fOiLr rings of gold, and put the rings upon the four corners that shall be on the four feet thereof. Over against the encircling band shall the rings be, for the entry of the staves to carry the table (vss. ~3-~7).] In the form of the table we meet with almost the same things as in the form of the ark, to wit, that it was made of the finest cedar, was overlaid with gold, crowned with a border of pure gold, and this again with a band which was raised to the height of a handbreadth; that within it was the bread of faces. Moreover, it had four rings of pure gold, and also staves in the rings, these also being of the finest cedar overlaid with gold. As in the case of the ark, all these refer themselves to things inmost, though in another form, in that they were not closed in and covered over by the propitiatory. Never theless, the form involves the same thing; for here, in place of the propitiatory, was the bread, bread being a symbol of the body of God Messiah who was the propitiatory. 4702. [A nd thou shalt make these staves of shittim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold, that the table may be carried with them. And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and the incense pans thereof, and the salvers thereof, and the brooms thereof, wherewith to cover it; of pure gold shalt thou make them (vss. ~8-~9).] Moreover, here were instruments, such as dishes, in cense pans, etc., being, as it were, little arks or arklets of divers shapes; but since they are not described, nothing can be said here concerning them. From the words themselves, in the absence of any description, it cannot as yet be seen to what use these instru ments were put, namely, the dishes, the censers, the salvers, the brooms, all of pure gold; nor what is the meaning of that word which the translators render in different ways, namely, the word

IH Ad.

138~-1387

73

470~]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

translated to cover. 2 Others translate it as meaning that drink offerings were made with them,3 that is to say, that, wine was poured into them. The question is as to whether oil and aromatics for the incense was to be kept in these vessels as seems to be the case; but the altar for the burning of incense is treated of in chap ter 30 1 seq.. Therefore, in the present text it was not aromatics that were contained in the incense pans, etc. On the other hand, in chapter ~92, mention is made of "bread from things unleav ened," and of " cakes from things unleavened mingled with oil." Therefore, the vessels in the present text contained such things as went to the making of the bread, such as oil, wheat, fine flour. 4
2

The word here referred to is


'!J;?~

'l~:

which is taken by some translators to be

the future Hophal of Hophal of


'!J~~

(he covered), and by others to be the future In the A.V. the word is translated "to

(he poured out).

cover," with the marginal alternative" to pour out." The variety in the trans lations of this verse is shown as follows: T!lEl\tELLIUS: The same as Schmidius, as in the text. CASTELLIO:" Make also his salvers, saucers, plates, and the vials wherewith to make drink offerings." PAGNINI: "And thou shalt make the salvers thereof, and the spoons thereof, and the split reeds thereof, and the ladles thereof wherewith drink offerings shall be made." VULGATE: "And thou shalt prepare cups and vials, censers, and ladles wherein to offer drink offerings." The old SWEDISH BIBLE: " And thou shalt make its dishes, spoons, pitchers, and bowls to pour in and out therewith." Swedenborg's translation in the Arcana Coelestia is the same as Schmidius's, save that for incense pans he has cups. The Hebrew word variously translated "brooms," "vials," "ladles," is n'P.~1:? a noun formed from the root il~~ meaning to be clean, and therefore

to be empty or devoid of guilt; also to cleanse, empty out, desolate. Thus the noun-form has been interpreted as meaning a broom for cleaning, and also a vial or ladle as being an empty or hollow vessel. Pagnini's curious translation of ni~~ as " split reeds" is based on a rab
binical tradition that split reeds were placed between the cakes of the shew bread to provide aeration. The root meaning of the Hebrew word is " a hollow
ves~el."
3 The wordS "that drink offerings were made with them" are crossed off by the Author, but we have restored them as being demanded by the context. [Marginal note by the Author, numbered as a separate paragraph:] 1388. Observe in other passages, whether these instruments are for oil ([crossed off] and aromatics), wheat, etc. [Following this suggestion, we find that the He brew words for the four receptacles mentioned in the text occur very rarely in the Bible, and, with the exception of the first, there is no indication as to what they were intended to contain. Of the first, however, we read that it was used to hold "fine flour mingled with oil" (Num. 713 ,14). This would go to con firm the suggestion here made by the Author.]

74

III Ad. 1388-1388

EXODUS XXV: 919

[4703-04

God Messiah granting, these words will become clear later on. This bread is called " bread of holiness" (I Sam. 9l1 6 ), and it is said that the bread will be made holy by the vessel (ibid. vs. 5). 4703. It must be well observed that every instrumental or formal so entirely adapts itself in accordance with its principal or essential, that they are concordant. Therefore, the form of the ark which had regard tothe Law or Testimony was different from that which had regard to the bread of faces; but although forms vary according to the use, nevertheless, they are entirely con cordant, as, in the present case, the form of the ark and that of the table, and afterwards also of the altar. The form of the temple was different,5 etc., etc. 4704. In natural things there is the utmost diversity of forms, because they regard their essentials in accordance with their every use. This is the case with all forms in the vegetable kingdom, with all forms in the animal kingdom, nay, and in every individual part thereof. They are like coverings which have respect to inmost things and thus to their use or fruit. It is a constant truth that in both kingdoms, coverings or forms recede when inmost parts ripen and aspire to a superior use. [In the vegetable kingdom], it is well known in respect to trees, that when their fruits ripen, the fruits and seeds, looking to their own renewal, and so to a further use, release themselves from their coverings and stems; so likewise, in respect to the fruits and seeds themselves, that when growing up anew and germinating and producing further fruits and uses, they separate from their coverings; and so in all and single cases. It is not permitted to see the inmost things within them, but these also are represented in the outer parts, and come into existence in like manner. It is the same in the animal kingdom. The human body which is the clothing and covering of the mind and soul and so forth, is necessarily dissolved when the man matures or comes to a more perfect state, and will bring forth further fruits. So is that dissolved which clothes the intellectual mind, to wit, the natural mind with its concupiscences; whence the man, that is to say, his spiritual and celestial mind, is perfected. After this, the body will be separated, in order that the man may perform most signal uses in the kingdom of God Messiah-that kingdom which all and
[Crossed off:] but still-

III Ad. 1389-1399l

75

4705-07]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

single the things in man must thus have in view, for so were they created; and so likewise everything in man. 4705. Hence it now follows that when the worship of God Mes siah became more perfect, that is to say, more internal, those types which were external rites necessarily receded and were separated from internals; consequently, the ark also, which was an external form, the Law meanwhile remaining in its internal form and thus in its essence. So likewise aU the other instrumentals-of which we speak below. Since this is most clearly evident before the eyes, to be seen by men, and by natural men, who could ever doubt with respect to these matters, that God Messiah came into the world, and that he abolished aU types, rites, and externals, the more per fect internal man then remaining, from whom external things, that is, the fruits of faith, would flow according to the order which God Messiah induces? 4706. From the above it is most clearly evident what was the nature of the church when it was an infant and was growing up; and afterwards, what then its nature when it was adult and was . being perfected; also what it will be when it becomes perfect, to wit, that in the kingdom of God Messiah, all externals will then be separated from it. And since every form comes into being, that it may be adapted to things internal or inmost according to every use which the inmost ought to have in ultimates, such as are the external things in man, all of which are formed according to the use which the soul will have on earth, in the body, in a world partaking of the spiritual, in the animus which is to dwell in heaven, in the king dom of God Messiah, that is to say, in t.he spiritual mind; therefore, these things, one and all, flow in this order from the soul, which is thus the instrumental formatrix of all things. G 4707. As regards the adaptation of the form of this table to the bread and its instruments, it is evident that the latter are varied according to use, for it was the hl'cud of faces which was to be put on the table, to the end that this bread might thus appear before the eyes, for the remembrance of the things which bread signifies. The Law was enclosed within [the ark] because, before the eyes of this people, inmost things were still concealed. But the propitiatory with the cherubs stood forth before their eyes,
Nos. 4703--6 are emphasized by "Obs." repeated in the margin at almost e\'ery line.

76

III Ad. 1393-1397

EXODUS XXV: 919

[4708-11

being significants which they were to behold because they could not behold the Law, which latter none could fulfil save 7 Messiah alone who therefore was the propitiator to all who were under the Law, provided only they observed it in internal form. If this were done, then propitiation was made for their infants because of the latter's ignorance; and the adults were led to the knowledge of more interior things and so of inmost. This can be still more evident from the many things that follow concerning the approach and drawing near to the ark, to the staves, to things more interior, etc., etc. ; for every man could be perfected, since every man repre sents in himself infancy, childhood, and the following ages even to old age; and likewise the universe-of which matter we now treat. 8 4708. Whether these descendants of Jacob could have been saved by the mere observance of the Law in externals-as to this, doubt is indeed now raised; but the answer is given that ex ternals are nothing unless they flow from internals. Externals can indeed lead man to internals, but only when God Messiah leads the man, and so removes him from the loves of the world and self; and then the man does not place justice in externals.. But this in passing. 9 4709. Since, therefore, a form of infinite variety can exist ac cording to the use-a form which things inmost dictate, and which they must have-so now with the table on which was the bread; which table, nevertheless, referred itself to God Messiah and to the salvation of the human race by him. For this reason, bread was made a symbol, being a symbol that every spiritual thing had re gard to Him, and that in this way alone would man be filled, etc., etc. 4710. Yet we meet with the same things here as in the ark, but with this difference, that here a band was added, a handbreadth in height [vs. 9l5]. This was set here in place of the cherubs~and that the latter were guards has been explained above [n. 4691]; thus this band or border or crownwork was of pUre gold. 4711. It can be evident that every single thing has around it a sphere of activity. Although this does not appear before hu
T [Crossed off: JI God.

8 No. 4707 is emphasized by "N 13" written several times in the margin.
This indented passage is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia. \\'e may add that n. 4708 and its indented paSSage are each emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.

III Ad. 1898-140Q

77

4712]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

man eyes, yet there is not a created thing, whether inanimate or animate, which is not surrounded by a sphere of activity according to the nature of the activity of that thing. It is so with men, with angels, and with every part in a man. This can be demonstrated by so many proofs that experiences alone would fill pages. The sphere of J ehovah God is called his throne and seat, from which comes the sphere of the universe. This sphere, therefore, which is called the supreme sphere, is signified by 1 "the crownwork " 2 [vs. 24] and by the other crown a handbreadth in height [vs. 25], both of which were of pure gold. These coincide with the crown work and the cherubs in the ark [vss. 11, 18]. God Messiah is like a bright flamy border round about a center [arising] from 3 that other border or crownwork which flows from Jehovah the . Father through the Son and thus through the Holy Spirit, etc., etc., as a unit, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. The instruments, to wit, the dishes and incense pans, etc., were likewise lesser spheres formed after the image of the supreme sphere. Therefore they were of gold, for they were within the crownwork. [Thus] golden instruments guarded those things which were the bread. 4712. [And thou shalt set upon the table the bread of faces before my faces continually], vs. 30. The bread is here called the bread of faces, being in the proximate sense, the bread before their eyes. As to what else is signified by faces, which are here men tioned in the plural, this the reader may see explained above [n. 3080]. On the human countenance, as on an external form, are inscribed simultaneously things interior, more interior, and, if the man is perfect, there will also be inscribed things inmost, these being successive in the man; thus 'all those things which follow ac cording to order, and which, in the human face, are, as it were, depicted simultan.eously. Hence it is said faces, these signifying the whole of order simultaneously. Therefore, the bread is here called the bread of faces, to the end that they might contemplate Him not with their external eyes, and so as to the ultimate face, but with their internal and more interior eyes, like internal and
{Crossed off:] the border and the band [vss. 24, 25]. See 11. 4684 note. The ea: (from) was crossed off and circum (around) substituted. This in "turn was crossed off, but the Author inadvertently neglected to restore the ea:, which, however, is necessary to the sense, and was therefore inserted by the Latin Editor.
1

78

III Ad. 1403-1408

EXODUS XXV: 30

[4713-14

perfect men who were living in order, and therefore living in order successively and so simultaneously. 4713~ It is said before my faces contmually, on account of the representation of faces in man. Thus it is because of the order in man, that many faces are attributed to God Messiah; for when man lives in a state of perfect order, one thing has respect to another in the most perfect harmony. This is the case in the state of integrity. Therefore, they have regard both to the one face and to the other, that is to say, to all the faces, and because these are regarded, therefore they are said to look [upon them], etc., etc. Thus they were to look upon this Bread continually, that is, upon God Messiah; and in this way he is continually beholden. What is meant by being looked upon by Jehovah God, will be evident from the prayer of the Benediction [Num. 6 24- 26 ]. Moreover, it must be observed that the tabernacle, the temple, and all the rites in the Jewish church represented man's body; for which reason, the body is called the earthly tabernacle [9l Cor. 51 ,4; 9l Pet. 1 13 ,14] in which God Messiah dwells. This body, like the human body, was to be dissolved. 4714. Moreover, in the Hebrew text, gold signifies also splendor, and thus glory, which corresponds to splendor. 4 EXODUS XXV 31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: solid shall the candlestick be made: and out of it shall be its saaft, and its branch, its bowls, its oblong apples,5 and its flowers. 39l And six branches shall go out from the sides thereof; three branches of the candlestick from its one side, and three branches of the candlestick from its other side. 33 In the one branch, three almond-shaped bowls, an oblong apple and flowers; and in the other branch, three almond-shaped
Is this an eVidence that Swedenborg consulted the Hebrew text? or a Hebrew dictionary? But confer n. 5034 note. We note in this connection that in Robertson's Thesaurus Linguae Sanctae (l.ondon, 1680), a copy of which was in Swedenborg's library, under the heading :Jnl (gold) it is said: " Aben
-T

Ezra says that

o'~lYn
.- T -

.,i1it means the splendor of heaven which is like the


-

color of gold." See our Intl'oduction, p. 124, note 5. See n. 4727 note.

III Ad. 1409-14l9l

79

4715-16]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

bowls, an oblong apple and flowers: so for the six branches going out from the candlestick. 34 And in the candlestick shall be four almond-shaped bowls; the oblong apples thereof and the flowers [thereof 6]. 35 To wit, there shall be an oblong apple 1 under two branches 'thereof, and a pomegranate under two branches thereof, and an oblong apple under two branches thereof; so shall it be for the six branches that go out from the candlestick. 36 Their oblong apples, and their branches shall be from the same; the whole shall be one solid thing of pure gold. 37 And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: that he 8 may make the lights 9 thereof to go up, and it shall give light over against the faces thereof. 38 And its tongs, and its snuffdishes, of pure gold. 39 Of a talent of pure gold shalt thou make it, with all these vessels. 40 And look thou and make them in their form, which thou wast made to see in the mountain.

4715. The subject now treated of is the candlestick. That the candlestick is an instrument for the lamps, that is, for a fiery flame and the light coming therefrom, is well known. It is also well known that in the Word of God Messiah, instruments are taken for the things which they carry, etc. Here, because the candle sticks, as instruments, have regard to their principal, the subject first treated of is the candlestick; afterwards the lamps are men tioned. As touching lamps in general, these also are instruments, but they are taken for the things that were in them. Thus lamps are taken for oil, and for a flame with its light. Therefore, from the signification of oil and flame, comes an understanding of the rest. 4716. Here, in the inmost sense, oil signifies faith, and a flame love. Thus the flame arising from the oil signifies saving faith. That in the inmost sense, oil here signifies faith and indeed true faith, that is, faith in God Messiah, can be evident from other pas sages in the Word of God Messiah, as from the passage concern
Omitted by Schmidius. '" Oblong apple" and" pomegranate" represent the same Hebrew word; see n. 4727 note. S See n. 4729 note. See n. 4729 note.
s

80

In

Ad. 1413-1418

EXODUS XXV: 31-40

[4717-19

ing the ten virgins with their lamps, who wished to buy oil for their lamps from their sister virgins [Matt. ~51-13] ; also from the comparison to a lamp, when it is said that no one putteth it under a table but on the table that it may give light,! etc., etc. Since, therefore, oil signifies faith, it also signifies all that goes with faith, and that nourishes love, or causes it to give light with heat. Hence it follows that oil signifies every doctrine of faith, and thus the knowledges that nourish saving faith. In this sense, saving faith itself signifies love, love being the principal, and faith the formal. Thus the two are inseparable. Therefore, whatever nourishes love, that same is oil; for love, here likened to a flame, is oil purified which thus has flame and gives rise to flame. In this respect, both by reason of the similarity and by reason of the matter itself, faith is continued love, like the flame of oil, etc., etc. 4717. That a flame signifies love, is too clear to need explana tion. Hence, in the Word of God Messiah, love is assumed in place of flame. Nay, this is done in common speech, as in the expres sions " the heart's flame," " the sacred flame." :Moreover, it is ap parent from nature, in that minds grow warm from love, as is evi dent from cases of zeal, and from each and every case where there is love; for in the degree that this increases, it issues forth as a kind of spiritual and celestial flame. In the supreme sense, there fore, God Messiah, being Love, is the divine Flame; thus it is He who gives faith, and enkindles, and nourishes it, etc., etc. 4718. As touching the candlestick with its shaft,ta branches, bowls, apples, and flowers, this can be compared to the body of faith. Do not wonder that we say" the body of faith," for every thing in man, from inmost things to outer, is formed as a body. Moreover, things without and below are said to be the body of all the rest, inasmuch as they invest and clothe things inmost. Thus, every individual thing has its own body, as it were. For instance, the soul and mind, which are celestial and spiritual, have the natu ral mind as their body, etc., etc.; and so in all other cases. 4719. That which contains the lamps is called the candlestick, etc. Thus, when the one regards the other in perfect order, then by reason of the perfect correspondence, the one is assumed for the other; for the one is seen, as it wer~, in the other and together
1

1&

Confer Matthew 515, Mark 421, Luke 1138.


TIle autograph has 8capho which is clearly a slip for 8capo.

III Ad. 1419-14Q5

81

THE WORD EXPLAINED

with the other, and this makes them to be one. So with saving faith, the knowledges of the mind which nourish faith, and also the fruits of faith, etc., etc. It is not unlike as with a tree and its trunk, branches, foliage, leaves, and fruits. These, when they are coherent parts of the tree, are together called the tree, for the one has entire regard to the other, one thing being so connected with the other that if o~e is lacking, the other at once perishes-so closely are they connected. So now in all other things which look to inmosts, thus to things spiritual and celestial, as their life and soul from which they exist. 4720. [And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: solid shall the candlestick be made: and out of it shall be its shaft, and its branch, its bowls, its oblong apples, and its flowers], vs. 3I. Here it must first be observed that this candlestick with its branches, etc., is related to the lamps, as a tree to the inmost of its fruit, as said above [no 4719] ; or, in man, as the man who lives in order is related to his soul; for, as was said, the oil is faith, and the flame love. The instruments of the candlestick are what serve the oil and the flame, and together with it, they constitute, as it were, a single body. 4721. Since, therefore, faith and love, or saving faith, is the lamp, that is, is the oil and flame, or the flame with its light, from this it can now be deduced what the other parts signify, that is to say, this can be done when, God Messiah granting, it is permitted to examine what, in order, it is that constitutes that love which is represented by the fIame. But since these are subjects of wide extent, and involve many other things, they cannot be set forth in a few words. Moreover, that the matter is as presented, can be evident enough from the fact that it is said in verse 40, that Moses made these things according to the pattern which he was made to see in the mountain, that is, in a place most holy. The same is also the case with the ark and the table [vs. 9). 4722. For the rest, the fact that everything was thus of solid gold signifies that everything was holy, being sanctified by the flame, just as they who are in Him are sanctified by God Messiah who is the Love of J ehovah the Father; for then there is nothing that is not holy, pure, and loved, or that is not like gold, solid and 89l In Ad. 14~6-149l9

EXODUS XXV: 31-33

continuous, that is to say, that is not coherent and corresponding. 2 4723. What is meant by the shaft, this being the most general thing, like the body in a man, and the trunk in a tree, is therefore evident. Thus the branches are like the limbs in a tree, and the bowls are that which contain the fruit, being the hulls of the fruits with their flowerings which are here called oblong apples, and also, on the other side, pomegranates 3 and flowers. What each of these signifies can never be described in a few words; for faith has regard to every saving doctrine, etc., etc. 4724. [And six branches shall go out fr01u the sides thereof; three branches of the candlestick from its one side, and three branches of the candlestick from its other side], vs. 3~. In this verse, the fact that six branches went out from the sides, three from each side, clearly signifies the times of reformation, as stated above [n. 4588], namely, the six days of the new creation, as of the old; there is not one thing [in the Word of God Messiah] but must represent an arcanum. So likewise the number of the branches, being the numbers six and three. Regeneration, or the new crea tion, is effected by means of faith in God Messiah; and so the out going branches are also [six], etc., etc. That they are said to be three branches from the one side, and three branches from the other side, signifies that they [faced] to the east and to the west. Thus it signifies the same thing as that which was said above in respect to the ark [n. 4685, 4691], and in respect to the table [n. 4700], and also as the six times or days, in that all the branches bore these lamps, of which we shall speak presently. In the su preme sense, the candlestick is God Messiah himself as the Tree of Life [Apoc. ~~2], for from him comes the whole of order, in that without him there is nothing; but it is rejected, etc., etc. 4725. [In the one branch, three almond-shaped bowls, an oblong apple and flowers; and in the other branch, three aZmoniJ, shaped bowls, an oblong apple and flowers: 80 for the six branches going out from the candlestick], vs. 33. The number three again occurs, and this because there is nothing that does not refer itself to six and three, by reason of the numbers of the times and days of reformation; for thus, in place of faith in God Messiah, is assumed
2 The end of this paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written in the margin. 3 In Sehmidius's translation oblong apples and pomegranates represent one and the same Hebrew word; see n. 47fJ7 note.

III Ad. 1430-1434

83

479l6-9l7]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

reformation, regeneration, and the new creation. The bowls are said to be almond-shaped, because they resembled an almond. What an almond is can be evident from Aaron's rod made into an almond rod and flowering [Num. 17 8 ], this rod being likewise set in the ark; hence, the signification can both be understood and derived.' The oblong apple refers to the fruit, while the bowl refers to its hull or rind. The two thus constitute a one. Flowers are mentioned because the flowers were applied [to the fruits] signifying the fragrance, savor, and the like in fruit, and so its form also, this being commonly expressed by flowers. The bowls outside the candlestick were thus eighteen in number, being three multiplied by six, that this may signify multiplication or confirma tion, as in the words" multiplying he shall multiply," etc. 4726. [And in the candlestick shall be four almond-shaped bowls; the oblong apples thereof and the flowers (thereof 5) ], vs. 34. That there are four additional bowls in the candlestick, signi fies the same as the four corners in the table and in the ark; thus it signifies the same as a square; see above [n. 4685 J. A square, moreover, signifies that which is ultimate in nature, this being square and angular. Next to this comes the circular, such as was the shaft, after which come the other primary forms in their order. 6 But because these forms, in respect to the mode of their succession, are not yet understood by minds which stick fast in ultimate forms, that is to say, in forms angular and circular, and thus geometric, we merely note for the present, that progression from ultimates to things more interior and so to things inmost, is effected by means of forms continually more perfect which at once become incom prehensible, nay, and inexpressible by any geometry; and indeed, more and, more so. Hence conclusion can be made in some meas ure as to what it is that the geometrical mind comprehends. Yet the things which that mind comprehends are so few that, with one who has the reputation of being most highly cultivated and learned, they amount to almost nothing. 4727. [To wit, there shall be an oblong apple 7 under two
These two sentences are emphasized by "N B " written in the margin. This word is omitted by Schmidius. Confer The Pibre, n. flGl seq. "iJ:1~:;) from a rodt meaning " to be round," signifies an ornament in the shape of an apple or pomegranate, but not the fruits themseh'es, these being

84

III Ad. 1435-1441

EXODUS XXV: $4-36

[47~8

branches thereof, and a pomegranate under two branches thereof, and an oblong apple under two branches thereof; so shall it be for the six branches that go out from the candlestick], vs. 35. That there shall be an oblong apple under two branches thereof, and this on both sides, gives an oblong figure like that of the ark and table; wherefore, here the approximate dimension is described. An ob long apple resembles an almond, according to the figure of which the bowls were made. It is not said, however, "two oblong ap pIes" but others are mentioned which are translated pomegranates, these being indeed of the same shape but differently graven. They have a mystical signification, [which can be deduced] from their division into parts of a like shape, also from their little seeds, and the color, shape, and multitude thereof, etc., etc. (Look up the other interpreters and the Hebrew text, before 8 things of this kind are inserted.) 9 4728. [Their oblong apples, and their branches shall be from the same; the whole shall be one solid thing of pure gold], vs. 36. These words coincide with those which were said above, in verse 31, namely, that the candlestick should be a solid work like a unit; and this that the one may correspond in every way to the other, and the one thus look to the other-which comes about solely by love. It thus becomes gold from that which gold signifies, to wit, purity, holiness, etc., etc. Wherefore, it is here said, the whole shall be one solid thing of pure gold.
expressed by wholly different words. It occurs only in chapters 25 and 37 of Exodus, in Amos 9 1 , and in Zephaniah 214. In all these places, the A.V. renders it "knop." In Exodus 25, verses 31, 33, 34, 35 (once), and 36, Schmidius renders it mallUm oblong-um (an oblong apple), but in every other passage where it occurs (and once in verse 35), he renders it malum granatum (a pomegranate). In the present text it occurs tWice, being translated first oblong apple and then pomegranate. \Ve presume, therefore, that Schmidius meant a pomegranate by his mavum oblO1igumj but we translate it "oblong apple" because it is quite evident from the present text that Swedenborg un derstood it as referring to an oblong shape. Pagnini translates the word pomum (apple) or spherulaj Castellio, globus; Tremellius, malum oblongatumj the Vulgate, spherula. In the Arcana Coelestia, it is translated malogranatum. (pomegranate) . [Crossed off:] these wordS The words which we have put in parentheses are written in the margin. They indicate that at the time they were written, Swedenborg was able to " look up " the Hebrew text. See n. 4136 note, and 4714.

III Ad.

144~-1443

85

47fl9-30]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4729. [And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: that he 1 may ma/ce the lights 2 thereof to go up, and it shall give light over against the faces thereof], vs. 37. How many lamps the candle stick had, is evident from the number of the bowls which were lamps or lights. But here seven lamps are added which are to make the lights of the candlestick to go up, that is, whereby they were to be lit. As touching the seven lamps, the reader may consult what was said above [no 4715-16], to wit, that since the lamps of the candlestick signify in the inmost sense faith, the present seven lamps by which they were lit, signify love, it being from love that faith is enkindled and enlivened. 4730. These were separate lamps, and were given no other name than lamps, while the others were called bowls, because the latter, that is, the bowls are vessels, as also, in the inmost sense, is faith in respect to love, faith being the vessel that receives love, the vessel thus growing warm and becoming luminous. They were seven separate lamps, because, in the supreme sense, lamps signify God Messiah, who is Love, and this is separate from man's inmosts, He alone being Life from whom is the life of human souls, and so the life of man; for without Him no man lives. Thus, because life is His, and because men draw their life from Him, this life being poured in like the rays of a sun upon objects, therefore, these were separate lamps whereby the lamps of the candlestick were lit. That God Messiah is the Lamp, and, consequently, is here repre sented by the lamp, being Life itself which flows from Love, is an evident truth and is confirmed in plain words in the Apocalypse 113 , where are these words: " I saw in the midst of the seven candle sticks one like unto the Son of Man, clothed with a garment and girt about at the paps with a golden girdle," etc.; and chapter fl1 23 , where are these words: "The city (the New Jerusalem) hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it and the Lamb is the light 3 thereof," etc., etc.
, Schmidius interprets this as meaning the priest. Confer n. 4731. Lucerna. Both in the Hebrew and the Latin this is the same word which just before was rendered lamp. The word for lamp, meaning the vessel only, is lampas. Lucerna, on the other hand, means a lamp and also the light that comes from it, as distinguished from light (lux) in general. Therefore we here translate it lamp or light according to the context. 3 Lucerna.
2

86

III Ad. 1444-1449

EXODUS XXV: 37-40

[4731-33

. 4731. When it is understood that by these lamps those which were in the can.dlestick were to be lit, then, by the words in the text, that he may make the lights to go 1p, is meant that the priest was to do this; but when the words that follow are inspected, the words namely, it shall give light over against the faces thereof, it is seen that, although these lamps were seven in number, yet one was to give light to the lamps of the candlestick over against the faces, that is to say, in front. As touching the number seven, it is seven periods of time that are signified, or six periods together with a seventh and holy one. The seventh and holy day is the kingdom of God Messiah, and so is God Messiah who is his kingdom. It is from this day that the six other days are sanctified. When the subject treated of is the Messiah alone, then it is a week; otherwise, 'it is six days, for God Messiah alone is holy. What the faces are which it shall enlighten, has been told above [n. 471~] ; the light is life, being a spiritual light that comes from a celestial flame. It is this that enlightens the faces, that is, that enlightens from the front, etc., etc. 4732. [And its tongs, and its snuffdishes, of pure gold], vs. 3S. Here we have the instruments by which this work was to be done, that is to say, by which the lamps were to be cleaned and refille~ that they might shine perpetually-like heavenly love in human hearts. WJlO they are who are meant by the instruments can be better evident later when (perhaps) we deal with the services which were connected with the candlestick, etc., etc. These instruments were to be of pure gold because they were to be sanctified; other wise they could never have been used in connection with things holy. Hence also the origin of other forms of worship by candle sticks, lamps, perpetually burning fires, priestly offices, garments, etc., etc. ; for all idolatrous worship was a perverted worship, just as, in the Schools 4 at the present day, all degenerate and per verted faith is drawn from the Word of God Messiah perverted. Of these perversions, we read in the idolatries of the gentiles. 4733. [And look thou and make them in their form, which thou wast made to see in the mountain], vs. 40. The subject here treated of is the form of both the ark and the table, and also of
Palaestrae.

III Ad. 1450-1457

87

4784]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the candlestick which Moses saw in the mountain. That Moses had seen their form in the mountain, that is to say, their external form, is clear; and that this form was a form representative of the internal and inmost form, and so came from the Supreme Form, is clear from chapter ~416, 17, to the effect that the glory of Jehovah abode in mount Sinai but that Moses entered into a cloud (verse 18 seq.) ; but see the explanation there. Therefore, what is here meant is the form that Moses saw, being the external form. As to whether he saw also the internal form, this does not appear to be the case, seeing that he entered into a cloud. That this form flows from inmost forms, may be seen stated above [n. 4678] ; and that it comes from the Supreme, that is, from God Messiah, clearly fol lows, seeing that God Messiah was the glory which abode in the mountain (chapter ~416) who appeared to these sons of Israel like a devouring fire (verse 17). Thus it is God Messiah who is signified by a mountain, especially by mount Sinai where the Law was promulgated by Him and inscribed on human hearts.

EXODUS XXVI
1 Moreover thou shalt make the habitacle, ten curtains of twined cotton, and blue, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed; cherubim, the work of a cunning workman shalt thou make them. ~ The length of one curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth four cubits: this shaH be one curtain. There shall be one measure for all the curtains. 3 Five curtains shall be joined together one to the other; and five curtains shall be joined together one to the other. 4 And thou shalt make loops of hyacinth upon the edge of the one curtain at its outermost in the joining; and so shalt thou do in the edge of the outermost curtain in the second joining. 5 Fifty loops shalt thou make in the one curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make in the outermost edge of the curtain that is in the second coupling; the loops shall be turned, the one toward the other. 6 And thou shalt make fifty hooks of gold, and shalt join the curtains, the one to the other, by the hooks, that the habitacle may be one. 4734. The subject now passes on to a description of the habita cle, within which the ark, the table, the candlestick, etc., were to be 88 III Ad. 1458-1461

EXODUS XXVI: 1-6

[4735-36

placed. Thus, at the sides and from above, the habitac1e was what surrounded the ark which was enclosed in its midst. The habitac1e was therefore like the first court or the first thing that lay outside or around the ark where was the Holy of Holies. Thus the signification of the habitac1e can be evident enough from its situation; that is to say, since the ark is the inmost heaven, the habitacle represents the second heaven whereby the inmost is engirded, as it were; and, since it signifies the second heaven, it is evident that it signifies those who will dwell in the second heaven, including men, spirits and angels. But as to the mutual respect which they have to each other, this can be evident at the end of the chapter when all these things are again recited, and where they are combined together. 4735. [At oreover thou shalt make the habitacle, ten curtains of twined cotton,5 and blue, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed; cherubim, the work of a cunning workman shalt thou make them]', vs. 1. That this habitac1e was to be made of curtains, and in fact of ten, can be seen below. For the rest, curtains were made, to the end that in them might be inwoven such things as signify this second heaven; for here the work was not solid gold, etc., but was the work of a cunning worlcman, being a woven work-by which also something interior is signified. Moreover, because the intellectual mind with the will is in the more interior or second heaven, it was a work wherein those faculties are represented by the inweavings of various colors, from white or snow-color to scarlet or red, throughout the texture. As to what it is in spiritual things and, indeed, in the intellectual mind and its will, that is signified by colors and their mixtures, this the reader may see stated here and there above, as where we treat of the rainbow, J acob's flock, J oseph's coat of many colors, Esau, etc., etc. :Moreover it can be evident from the Prophet [Isaiah], where he says that even though men were utterly defiled, they might yet become white, etc., etc. [chap. 1 18 Seq']~a saying which is therefore so common, that it generally obtains in speech concerning spiritual things, and so is acknowledged. 4736. The cotton, and thus the background, was of a snowwhite color. As to what is meant by a snow-white color, this also
xy lillum.
See n. 4671 note.

HI Ad. 1469l-1479l

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4737-38]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

may be seen explained above [n. 4671], to wit, that which is shin ing white in spiritual things; thus that which is without blemish; consequently, that which corresponds to the light from which its brightness comes; thus intellectual life which consists in truths, and so, truths themselves, these being likened to rays of light. But the color white is taken, for the reason that in that color all colors are becomingly [presented]. Such is the case in the form of truth, wherein aU colors must be becomingly interwoven, as it were, otherwise, truth cannot exist; for it must have a relation to all those things that give due testimony to its verity, and that come near it; and this, moreover, in order that something may be borrowed from opposites, to the end that the truth may be seen distinctly.6 It is this that is here represented in general, being represented in the interwoven colored threads, from the white to the scarlet red, the mediate colors being the hyacinth and the purple. This everyone can comprehend from an intimate examination of colors. 4737. Bright white is here put in contrast with scarlet double dyed. the curtains being bright white in one part, and scarlet red' in another. As to what scarlet signifies, this can be evident from the color itself, to wit, that it signifies heavenly love. This is com pared to red and to the reddening rays of the summer sun, and also to the dawn or morning. Thus, in the spiritual sense, it is the intellectual in the human mind that is here meant by cotton, etc.; and love, which rules the will and enters into the intellect and when entering the intellect-is what is meant by the cotton to gether with the entire series of colors. In the supreme sense, it is God Messiah himself who is meant, Truth being meant by the snowy colors, and Love by the red. By the red is likewise meant justice, this color being the color of blood; for which reason this color was set [in the curtain]. 4738. That by inweavings they were thus to make cherubim, signifies the same as was said above (Genesis [3 24 ]), concerning the cherub and the waving flame in front of paradise to guard the way to thlil tree of life, that is, in the present case, to the Holy of Holies. Cherubs are guards. In the supreme sense, the guard is
This paragraph is emphasized by .. NB" written three times in the margin,

90

Hl Ad. 1473-1480

EXODUS XXVI: 2-3

[4739-40

the Holy Spirit; in the inmost sense, it is the inmost heaven; in the more interior sense, as in the present case, if is this more interior heaven, generically, specifically and particularly. Generically it is the heaven which surrounds the inmost heaven, thus each one in that heaven; specifically, it is every choir in that heaven, and particularly, it is every individual. So likewise in the church of God Messiah on this earth. With respect to guards, the reader may see what was said above [no 4691-3], but this is not the place to treat concerning them, for the subject is one of great extent, and contains numerous arcana which no man can con~eive of, nor consequently can believe, namely, the inmost within these arcana. The generals can indeed be conceived of, but these also are extremely obscure, and natural minds [conceive of] them fallaciously. 4739. [The length of one curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth four cubits: this shall be one curtain. There shall be one measure for all the curtains], vs. 2. As touching length and breadth, see above [no 4681-2], to the effect that there is nothing in measures, places, distances, etc., etc., which does not refer to periods of time, namely, to the six days of creation, both the old and the new. So likewise in the text, to wit, in the statement that each curtain was oblong. 'Vhat this signifies may be seen in the construction of the ark and table, and also of the candlestick. Moreover, all ten curtains, when joined together, formed an oblong space, and this for the same reason; for the oblong is the ultimate of nature, and from its sides and corners, it looks to the universe, see above [n. 4685]. That each curtain had a breadth of four cubits is a consequence that now follows, for as the general is, so also is the part. Hence then comes the height, being four multiplied by 7 seven, from which we have twenty-eight. Here, therefore, the septenary number is used, that it may thus signify inmost things simultaneously, and also supreme things, these being contained in the septenary number, etc., etc. 4740. [Five curtains shall be joined together one to the other; and five curtains shall be joined together one to the other], vs. 3. The fact that there were five curtains on each side, and thus ten curtains in all, shows the common breadth, that is, the breadth of all ten together, namely, forty cubits, each curtain being four cubits broad. As to what forty signifies, namely, the forty cubits
T

The autograph has divided by.

III Ad. 1481-1491

91

4741-49l]

,THE WORD EXPLAINED

in the present text, the forty days of Moses in mount Sinai, the forty years of the sons of Israel in the wilderness, and also the forty days of God Messiah in solitude, this will be seen elsewhere. Concerning the number forty, see above [n. 3086, 4661]. But as to whether the number ten involves any special thing, apart from being a fourth part of forty, the width being four cubits on ac count of the signification, this I do not yet know. 4741. [And thou shalt malce loops of hyacinth upon the edge of the one curtain at its outermost,in the joining; and so shalt thou do in the edge of the outermost curtain in the second joining. Fifty loops shalt thou make in the one curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make in the outermost edge of the curtain that is in the second coupling; the loops shall be turned, the one toward the other], vss. 4, 5. What the number five or fifty signifies, cannot as yet be ade quately apparent; for that all numbers in the Word of God Mes siah involve arcana, can be sufficiently evident from what has been said above [n. 4689l, 479l4] , and also from the fact that the ternary and septenary number are so often repeated. Meanwhile, it can be evident that the number one involves the Divine, for J ehovah God is One. So likewise the septenary number, inasmuch as the seventh day will be a holy day. But what the number two or " 9l " signifies cannot as yet be adequately apparent. This number does indeed serve for multiplication, but it is also significative of God Messiah and the church, and thus of conjugial love. Further more, as said above [no 4739], four involves the ultimate in the universe when it is in order, and also the same as the four corners which look to the four quarters, namely, to evening and morning, and to noon and night. Meanwhile, it is also dictated to me that five arises from this number, in that it is one added to four, and that the unity in the things described thus involves the Divine. So one added to six, that is, to six days, signifies what is holy inas much as the seventh day is holy and makes holy the other six days. 4742. Hence, then, mystical things are contained in the num bers one, two, three, four, five, six, and seven. From these num bers, by multiplication arise all other numbers. Multiplication of a number by some simple number, from seven [down], involves that which is signified by the multiplying number, as, for instance, ten, arising from twice five, and so forth. Moreover, in certain meas 99l Hl Ad. 1499l-1501

EXODUS XXVI: 4-6

[4743-44

ures, multiplication denotes nothing, as for instance fifty which is ten times five; thus the measures are proportionately larger. 4743. That unity added to an even number, involves something of the Divine according to the signification of the even number; and that the number seven is significative; and that the other num bers arise thence by multiplication; all this appears to me to be very likely. As to the other numbers, I can be instructed con cerning them by what further is said in the "\Vord of God Messiah. The number ten may also signify the ten precepts of the Deca logue, the first table of which contained three precepts, and the second seven; hence ten. And two may signify the two tables, thus the old and new covenant. Three, moreover, signifies three periods of time, as said above [n. 47~4-5]. Four signifies the things which were in the ark, on the table and in the candlestick. Five signifies the half of ten; thus, this also signifies the two tables which were inserted in the ark. Six signifies the six periods of time, as above en. 47~4-5]. Seven signifies the entire week, to gether with the seventh day. 4744. [And thou shalt make fifty hooks of gold, and shalt join the curtains, the one to the other, by the hooks, that the habitacle may be one], vs. 6. And now as to what the loops [vs. 4, 5] signify, and what the hooks. [As to the loops], this can at once be evident from their hyacinthine color, and also from the loops themselves, these being little bundles bound together in this man ner. And [as to the hooks], it can be evident from the gold, which signifies love, from which comes all holiness. Hence it can be evi dent that in the inmost sense [the loops and the hooks] signify faith joined to love, or faith embracing love. In the more interior sense, they signify the intellectual faculty together with the will, the intel~ lectual faculty being signified by the color white, and also by the color hyacinth, which i.s the color of the sky when it is serene. Thus truth or the light of truth rules the intellectual faculty, and love rules the will. The manner in which these two, the under standing and will, or faith and love, are joined together, is repre sented in the present text, in its more interior sense as above; it is also represented in the connections, to describe which, even in the most general way and thus somewhat obscurely, would be a lengthy undertaking; the reader may see something concerning it above en. 4719]. III Ad. 150~-1513 93

THE WORD EXPLAINED


EXODUS XXVI

7 And thou shalt make curtains of the wool of she goats for the tent over the habitacle: eleven curtains shalt thou make them. 8 The length of one curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the breadth four cubits, being one curtain. There shall be one meas ure for the eleven curtains. 9 And thou shalt join together five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves, and shalt double the sixth curtain over against the faces of the tent. 10 And thou shalt make fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain that is outmost in the joining, and fifty loops on the edge of the curtain of the second joining. 11 And for them thou shalt make fifty hooks of brass,8 that thou may est bring the hooks into the loops; and thou shalt couple the tent together, that it may be one. 12 And the excess that overfloweth of the curtains of the tent, even the half of the curtain in excess, thou shalt cause to overflow over the hinder part of the habitacle. 13 As to a cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side of the excess in the length of the curtains of the tent, it shan over flow over the sides of the habitacle on this side and on that side, to cover it. 14 And thou shalt make a covering for the tent, even the skins of red rams, and a covering of badgers' skins above. 15 And thou shalt make boards for the habitacle, even shittim wood standing up. 16 Ten cubits shall be the length of a board, and a cubit and half a cubit shall be the breadth of each board. 17 Two hands -shall there be in each board, united, the one to the other: thus shalt thou do 'for all the boards ot the habitacle. 18 And thou shalt make the boards for the habitacle, twenty boards for the corner of the south, southward. 19 And thou shalt make forty 'bases of silver under the twenty boards; two bases under one board according to the [two] 9 hands thereof, and two bases under another board according to the two hands thereof.
See n. 4669 note. Omitted by Schmidius.

94

EXODUS XXVI: 7-fl9

[4745

flO And for the second side of the habitacle toward the corner of the north, there shall be twenty boards: fll [And] 1 their forty bases of gold 2; two bases under one board, and two bases under another board. flfl And for the two legs of the habitacIe toward the sea, thou shalt make six boards. fl3 And two boards shalt thou make for the corners of the habitacle in the two legs: fl4 That so they may be twinned 3 from beneath, and also be twinned above their head unto one ring 4: thus shall it be for them both; they shall be for the two corners. fl5 Thus they shall be eight boards, and their bases of silver, sixteen bases; two bases under one board, and two bases under another board. fl6 And thou shalt make bars of shittim wood; five for the boards of the one side of the habitacle, fl7 And five bars for the boards of the other side of the habita cle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the habitacle at the legs toward the sea; fl8 That so the middle bar shall pass through in the middle of the boards from end to end. fl9 And thou shalt overlay the boards with gold, and shalt make their rings of gold, even the receptacles for the bars: and thou shalt also overlay the bars with gold.

4745. These and many other particulars as to the form [of the habitacle] cannot now be well understood except from a drawing, such as was preserved among the Jews, the form being then de lineated; likewise from the description of the Temple at Jerusalem, which must be entirely concordant with [the present habitacle] the ark, etc.-and, in the Temple, still more particulars will be desig nated; likewise from the New Jerusalem [as described] in the Prophets and the Apocalypse. All these are concordant with each other, for they signify the kingdom of God Messiah. There fore, the several descriptions must be compared together and ex
1
2

Omitted by Schmidius. According to the Hebrew, this should be of silvel'; see vs. g5, and n. 4756

note.
3 Schmidius adds the explanation: " or inserted in each other." Schmidius has anguluffl (corner) which is clearly a misprint for a1muluffl.

III Ad. 1514

95

4746-48]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

plained simultaneously.5 Meanwhile, as concerns the tent above the habitacle, this was the court or the inferior heaven; for there were three things, namely, the inmost or Holy of Holies, being such from the Law which was in the midst, and thus from the Lawgiver, the Supreme and Inmost of the Law; the second was the habitacle, otherwise called the Holy; and the third was the tent now spoken of. In man these correspond to the soul, the spiritual and celestial mind, and the natural and infracelestial mind. So likewise in the church. The inmost was of solid gold, and was overlaid with the finest cedar; the second was "the work of a cunning workman" woven of the threads that were mentioned [in vs. 1] ; but the present, that is, the tent was woven of the wool of she goats. Thus a difference in value is designated. 4746. [And thou shalt make curtains of the wool of she goats 6 for the tent over the habitacle: eleven curtains shalt thou make them (vs. 7).] There were eleven curtains. For the tent, as will be seen later, there were ten, the same as for the habitacle, the extra curtain being expended on the habitacle (verses 19l and 13). 4747. [The length of one curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the breadth four cubits, being one curtain. There shall be one measure for the eleven curtains], vs. 8. "Over the habitacle" '[vs. 7] seems to mean around it or serving as a covering. Thus the tent was perhaps like a girdle encircling the habitacle. As to whether it surrounded it closely, this may be looked into [on the basis of other passages] in addition to what was said above [vs. 9l] ; for in the present text the height or length '[ of each curtain] was thirty cubits, and the breadth, as in the case of the curtains of the habitacle, was four cubits. For the rest, thirty signifies the same as three, for it amounts to the same thing whether the number is large or small, provided only it consist of threes. The breadth being four cubits signifies the same thing as in the case of the habitacle to which it is thus applied; (see below). 4748. '[And thou shalt join together five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves, and shalt double the sixth curtain over against the faces of the tent], vs. 9. Here, in like manner as above '[vs. 3] when treating of the curtains of the habitacle, five
This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written rfour times in the margin. See n. 4671 note.

96

III Ad. 1515-159l9l

EXODUS XXVI:

7-~9

[4749-51

curtains 7 were coupled by themselves; so in the present case, ex cept that there was a sixth curtain on account of the doubling to ward the faces of the tent. 4749. [And thou shalt make fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain that is outmost in the joining, and fifty loops on the edKe of the curtain of the second joining], vs. 10. Here we meet with the same particulars as [in verse 4] concerning the loops of the curtains [of the habitacle], the number also being the same. Thus the signification, with a variation of excellence, is the same as that described in the curtains of the habitacle, and also in the loops of those curtains. 4750. [And for them thou shalt make fifty hooks of brass,S that thou mayest bring the hooks into the loops; and thou shalt couple the tent together, that it may be one], vs. 11. Here is de scribed the somewhat rude state of the lowest heaven which ,par takes of the natural, being like the natural mind. Nature herself, thus mingled with the spiritual, being a meaner state, is compared to brass, a comparison which was in use in ancient times. Here silver is passed by without notice, but something concerning silver. is mentioned in what follows, and also as being in the temple [I Chron. ~814, 15, ~92, 5] and perhaps in the New Jerusalem. In all other respects this description of the tent agrees with that of the habitacle, the one being a likeness of the other; though, as differing in degree, it also greatly differs in excellence and per fection. H ooles are connections, and these vary when applied to things spiritual and celestial and, finally, to things natural. The tent becomes one from the joining together, the connection, and so the conjunction, this being effected by love, as the reader may see stated above en. 4744]. 4751. All that follows is still obscure to me; perhaps there will be some clarity from a delineation, especially from a description and delineation of the temple of Jerusalem, and also from a de scription of the New Jerusalem, all which are to be explained at the same time, God Messiah granting. 9 Therefore, verses 1~ to ~9 * are left for another time, God Messiah granting.
The autograph has cubits, which is clearly a slip. See n. 4669 note. The above paragraph is emphasized by "N B " written in the margin. * Instead of our" 12-29," the autograph has" 12, 13, 14," etc., up to " 29."
7
S

III Ad.

15~3-1530

97

475~-54]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

EXODUS XXVI 30 And thou shalt set up the habitacle according to the fashion thereof which thou wast made to see in the mountain. 31 And thou shalt make a veil of hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed, and cotton inwoven; with the work of a cunning workman: with cherubs shall he make it. 3~ And thou shalt put it upon four pillars of shittim overlaid with gold: [and] their hooks of gold, upon the four bases of silver. 33 And thou shalt place the veil under the hooks. Then shalt thou bring in thither within the veil the ark of the testimony: that the veil may make for you a distinction between the holy and the holy of holies. 34 And thou shalt put the veil l before the ark of the testi mony in the holy of holies. 35 And thou shalt put the table without the veil, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the habitacle to ward the south: for thou shalt put the table on the north side. 36 And thou shalt make a covering for the door of the tent, of hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed, and cotton inwoven, the work of the embroiderer. 37 And thou shalt make for the covering five pillars of shittim, and shalt overlay them with gold; [and] their hooks shall be of gold: and thou shalt cast for them five bases of brass. 4752. As is here apparent, the tent belonged to the habitacle, for it is said that he should set up the habitacle [vs. 30]. Up to this point it is the parts that have been recounted. The subject now treated of is the setting up or putting together of the habita cle, which is described. Elsewhere it was caned the tabernacle. See whether the tabernacle signifies all and single things when these are put together. 4753. [And thou shalt set up the habitacle according to the fashion thereof which thou wast made to see in the mountain], vs. 30. For the explanation of these words, see above at chapter
~540.

4754. [And thou shalt make a veil of hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed, and cotton 2 inwoven; with the work of a cunning workman: with cherubs shall he make it], vs. 31. What
1

See n. 475B note. See n. 4671 note.

98

III Ad. 1531-1534

EXODUS XXVI: 30-32

[4755-56

the veil between the holy and the holy of holies signifies will become apparent from the veil in the temple. Moreover, the veil is here inwoven, that is to say, it is inwoven of as many colors as would delineate the cherubs. Thus the veil represented the cherubs or guards. Consequently, the veil is the Holy Spirit which proceeds from God Messiah, or from J ehovah the Father by the Son. This is signified by the weaving which was delineated in so many colors, namely, from white to scarlet. Since white and hyacinth are spiritual truth or light, and purple with scarlet is love to which truth is adjoined, then the former, especially hyacinth, is truth within which is love. The cherubs thus delineated guard the holy of holies, as the cherubs above the ark guard the propitiatory. In both cases, the signification is the same, but it is differently set forth. 4755. [And thou shalt put it upon four pillars of shittim overlaid with gold: (and) their hooks of gold, upon the four bases of silver], vs. 32. Here also four pillars involve a like signification [as above, n. 4741], that is to say, as the number four. Moreover, the number four involves the same as the number of the firstborn four sons of Jacob, namely, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, that is, faith, obedience, love, confession. The number four may also signify the four faculties or degrees in perfect order, as in man, and in the church. 4756. These pillars were overlaid with gold, that is, with love; otherwise the veil is not held up. So there must be hooks which shall make the connection, and these must be of [gold or] love, and indeed of solid gold, for without love there is no connection. The bases, however, must be of silver, that is, they must be truth, silver, from its whiteness and its value [signifying truth]. Here it should still further be seen in what way truth is the basis of all things in the reformed man and in the man who is to be reformed; for truth testifies of God Messiah, just as God Messiah says that the Holy Spirit testifies of him [John 15 26 ], and that then his Testimony is true [ibid. 5 32 ]. Law is truth, thus it is the Testimony of the Holy Spirit. As touching what was said above [vs. 18-21], namely, that the bases under the boards at the north were of gold,3 while the others were of silver, this is entirely mystical;
3 The Author bases this statement 011 an error by Schmidius, who has gold, whereas the Hebrew text demands silver. See verse f21, above, and note.

III Ad. 1535-1545

99

4757-60]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

for it must then be known what the north is, to wit, that it is night, shade, ignorance, cold. But the north is treated of very fre quently in the Word of God Messiah in the Prophets, and the matter may be looked into then, if this be permitted. 4757. [And thou shalt place the veil under the hooks. Then shalt thou bring in thither within the veil the m'k of the testimony: that the veil may make for you a distinction between the holy and the holy of holies], vs. 33. Thus the ark of the testimony was the holy of holies before which was placed the veil. 4758. [And thou shalt put the veil before 4 the ark of the testi mony in the holy of holies], vs. 34. This is again confirmed, namely, that that which was within the veil was the holy of holies. 4759. [And thou shalt put the table without the veil, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the habitacle to ward the south: for thou shalt put the table on the north side], vs. 35. As to what the table is, and what the candlestick, see above [n. 4701 seq., 4718 seq.]. The table had bread and thus love which nourishes all things spiritual, for without celestial love there can be no spiritual truth. The reason why the table was on the north side was because the bases of the boards (verse Q1) were of gold," the meaning being that celestial love dissipates cold and shade, and thus from evening makes morning. The table or bread is spiritual food, and there can be no spiritual food without love. The candlestick, on the other hand, was at the south, to the end that the south might be illumined. But these matters are still mystical. They will open up later, God Messiah granting. 4760. [And thou shalt make a covering for the door of the tent, of hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed, and cotton in woven, the work of the embroiderer], vs. 36. The covering 6 an swers in its own degree to the veil, the one referring itself to the other. Hence it was of a similar texture [vs. 31] ; but what was
This should be the propitiatory upon. The error is perhaps due to the similarity between the two words r,.;e::);1 (the propitiatory) and n!lieil (the
~

--

~-

veil). See n. 4690 note. See n. 4156 note. The text reads: Tegumentum idem significat (a.c velum)-the covering signifies the same thing (as the veil). But the words ac velum are crossed off, and the text continues "answers to the veil," etc. This shows that idem sigwificat should also have been crossed off. These words are therefore ignored in the translation.

100

III Ad. 1546-1553

EXODUS XXVI: 33-37

[4761-69l

inwoven in it is not stated. For the rest a covering signifies the same thing as the way to the tree of life, which was guarded both by a cherub and by a waving flame (Gen. 3 24 ), and which is thus set forth in the present text.. Concerning that way, see the pre ceding pages here and there. That the way to the tree of life will be laid open, see the Apocalypse [9l 7 , 9l9l 14 ] ; thus that the veil is to be taken away, as indeed it was taken away when the Messiah died [Matt. 9l7 51 , Mark 15 28 , Luke 9l3 45 J. As to whether, in the su preme sense, the north is also the sepulchre when the Messiah died, this may be looked into. 4761. [And thou shalt make for the covering five pillars of shittim, and shalt overlay them with gold; (and) 7 their hooks shall be of gold: and thou shalt cast for them five bases of brass 8], vs. 37. Here the bases are to be of brass, that is to say, of that which brass signifies, as stated above, at verse 11. From what has preceded can now be deduced the entire form [of the habitacle] in its order and series. 9 4762. Since gold signifies love, and silver truth or the intellect, therefore, in order that those things may be understood whigh are here said of gold and silver, it is necessary to understand how the intellect is formed, and then how it rules the will, etc. Here the will is put in place of love, because it is carried away by love. From the time of infancy the intellect or reason is born from loves or affections which insinuate themselves. From these it is born, grows, and comes to a certain degree of perfection, that is to say, it is perfected according to the quality of the man. After this, however, the intellect rules the will, for the will is aroused by cupidities and loves of the lowest kind. Meanwhile spiritual and celestial truths insinuate themselves. That the man may be re born, truths or the knowledges of spiritual and celestial truth and good must be present as a foundation. Moreover, while he is being reformed, affection is given him, that is, love, and this enters into his faith. Then, when he has been reborn, love rules the
Omitted by Schmidius. See n. 4667 note. D This paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written twice in the margin. Originally it constituted the last paragraph in the exposition of chapter 26, being followed by a new heading" Exodus XXVII: vel's. 1 to -." This, how ever, is crossed off, and is followed by the four paragraphs which we have combined as our n. 476fJ.
T

III Ad. 1554-1561

101

4763]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

intellect, and this because love is the Supreme, being God Messiah himself who by affection or love then rules the whole of the intel lect. Thus the state is an opposite one. From this it can ap pear to some extent why 1 gold and silver [are mentioned] and also brass, which latter signifies the natural with the spiritual; for by natural affections the human mind is formed, and by natural ideas the intellect perceives things spiritual and celestiaP
EXODUS

XXVII

1 And thou shalt make an altar of shittim wood, five cubits shall be the length, and five cubits the breadth; the altar shall be foursquare: and three cubits shall be the height thereof. ~ And thou shalt make the horns thereof upon the four corners thereof: from it shall the horns be. And thou shalt overlay it with brass. 3 And thou shalt make his pans to take away his ashes, and his shovels, and his basins, and his fleshhooks, and his tongs: all the vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass. 4 'And thou shalt make for it a sieve, a network of brass; and upon the net shalt thou make four rings [of brass] 8 upon the four ends thereof. 5 And thou shalt put it under the compass of the altar be neath, that it may be a net even up to the half of the altar. 6 And thou shalt make staves for the altar, staves of shittim wood, and shalt overlay them with brass. 4 7 And his staves shall be put into the rings, that the staves may be upon the two sides of the altar, when they carry it. 8 Hollow, of boards shalt thou make it, as he made thee to see it in the mountain; so shall they make it.
4763. The subject now treated of is the altar which was placed before the door of the tent of assembly. Command had previ~ ously been given with respect to an altar, that it should be con~ strueted of stone, without [the use of] iroh [chap. ~02:;J ; but the
1 reading quamobl'em inStead of quare itm"um (why again) as in the printed text. Either reading may be correct. This paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written four times in the margin. Omitted by Schmidius.
'See n. 4769 note.

lO~

In Ad.

156~-1564

EXODUS XXVII:

1-~

[4764-65

present altar was to be of wood and brass. As to the signification of an altar, the reader may see above [ n. 44~7 seq.], that this comes from the fact that their divine worship was enacted upon it by means of whole burnt offerings, etc. Thus it signifies the wor ship of the old church which then consisted solely in representa tions of things which are in the interior man, and so, in the su preme sense, of that which is in the Messiah. Therefore, the altar is taken for God Messiah, and it is He who is meant by the stone and also by the temple. In the present case, it is He who is meant by the wood, as above [n. 4691] ; for the fact that the wood cast into the bitter water made the water sweet [chap. 15 25 ] repre sented God Messiah (see above, n. 4086-87), as also did the wood or tree of life in paradise [Gen. 3 24 ], etc. As to what sacrifices represent and how they correspond to things spiritual and celestial in the interior man, and, in the supreme sense, to the Messiah, this win be treated of later. 5 4764. [And thou shalt make an altar of shittim wood, five cubits shall be the length, and five cubits the breadth; the altar shall be foursquare : and three cubits shall be the height thereof], vs. l. The altar as consisting of wood or cedar, like the ark and the table, has the same signification. Five cubits and foursquare like wise signify the same thing. Four signifies those things which are involved in the names of the first-born four sons of J acob, and also, what comes to the same thing, the four things involved in the colors recounted above [chap. ~61. 31], namely, white, hyacinth, purple, and scarlet; [and five is four] with the addition of one, to the end that the Divine may be signified, just as with the seventh number [in relation] to the sixth. Three cubits the height, signifies the three periods in time, etc., etc. 4765. [And thou shalt make the horns thereof upon the four corners thereof: from it shall the horns be: and thou shalt overlay it with brass 6], vs.~. As touching the horns [their signification] can be evident from what will come to be said later. It seems to me now that they signify strengths or strength, an animal's horns being its strength whereby it defends itself. Thus they signify force and power, and the same thing as hands. Hence the" horn of salvation " [~ Sam. ~~a, Psalm 1846 , Luke 1 69 ). From it shall
This last sentence is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. See n. 4669 note.

HI Ad.

1565-157~

103

4766-68]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the horns be, that is, forces were to come from the worship enacted upon the altar; for which reason these horns were a continuation of the latter. They were overlaid with brass in order that things natural or exterior might be signified; for the worship was an ex terior worship by sacrifices, which looked to the interior things signified by the cedar of finest quality, as above [no 4684]. 4766. [And thou shalt make his pans to take away his ashes, and his shovels, and his basins, and his fleshhooks, and his tongs: all the vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass], vs. 3. .As touch ing these instruments, each of them signifies some particular, thing. Perhaps they will be treated of in connection with the sacrifices to which they belong. In another aspect they are mediate causes; for nothing is carried on without mediate causes which look to the principal cause. Thus, by all these instruments are meant those instrumental causes, so called, in things spiritual and celestial, whereby advance is made to the principal cause and the end. As there is a principal cause, so there is a mediate. At that time the principal cause consisted in external worship, and thus the mediate causes also, these being many in number. Mediate causes, in whatsoever degree, receive their predicate from their principal. Therefore, these instruments were of brass. 4767. [And thou shalt make for it a sieve, a network of brass; and upon the net shalt thou make four rings [of brass] 7 upon the four ends thereof], vs. 4. As touching the sieve or grated work by which the compass [of the altar] was covered even to the half [vs. 5], this seems to signify the same thing as clothing, thus that which is further remote; to wit, the natural. That which is ulti mate is relatively like a sieve, while that which is interior appears as something more solid. That it was to be a network only up to half the altar [vs. 5] is a mystical statement. When it is viewed in the natural man, [the sieve] means that which is called the body; in the body are the senses. It was" up to the half of the altar," in order that it might not extend all the way to the ground and mire, whereby is signified that which is lowest, and thus hell; thus it was not to extend so far, [for] then it will not be natural truth, etc., etc. 4768. [And thou shalt put it under the compass of the altar beneath, that it may be a net even up to the half of the altar], vs. 5. These words have now been explained in some measure.
T

Omitted by Schmidius.

104

III Ad. 1573-1580

EXODUS XXVII: 3-8

[4769-7Q

4769. [And thou shalt make staves for the altar, staves of shittim wood, and shalt overlay them with brass 8J, vs. 6. As to what the staves signify, of this we have spoken above [n. 4685-6]. 4770. [And his staves shall be put into the rings, that the staves may be upon the two sides of the altar, when they carry itJ, vs. 7. So likewise in this verse. The altar was portable because they were in their sojourning. 4771. [Hollow, of boards shalt thou make it, as he made thee to see it in the mountain; so shall they make itJ, vs. 8. It was hollow in order that it might represent a recipient, and might ap ply itself to such things as were carried out upon it, as formal things apply themselves to their essential. From the correspond ence, it is thus taken for the essential; that is to say, the altar was hollow, in that it receives; thus it represented every reception ap plicable to it, and this because things could be placed upon it. So with other hollow things, the things on the table for recelvmg grain, bread, etc.
ODSERVANDA

4772. Essentials: In the supreme sense, the Essential is God Messiah and, consequently, all that is in God Messiah and that proceeds from him immediately. In him there is no formal. Essentials: In the inmost sense, the essential is saving faith, that is, love towar<;l God Messiah above all things; thence descend things spiritual and celestial. Essentials in the more interior sense are intellectual faith, and charity toward the neighbor, thus the intellect and the will. Essentials in the interior degree are what correspond to these, as, for instance, the perception of knowledges, and also various de lights flowing from a more interior love, but not from the love of the world and self and thus from what is inferior; there must be no such loves, seeing that they are hatreds. Essentials in the external sense are such things as correspond to the above and proceed therefrom; affecting sensations; also the fruits of faith or moral actions which are celestial and truly spiritual.
8 Schmidius has auro, evidently a misprint for ae1'O (brass) which is the correct rendering of the Hebrew. Confer n. 5186.

III Ad. 1581-1588

105

THE WORD EXPLAINED

All things inferior are successively instrumental in respect to things superior, etc., etc. g EXODus XXVII 9 And thou shalt make the court of the habitacle: at the corner of the south southward; there shall be hangings for the court of cotton inwoven, a hundred cubits shall be the length for the one corner: 10 And the pillars thereof shall be twenty, and their bases twenty, of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver. 11 So also at the corner of the north in length, the hangings shall be a hundred in length, and its pillars twenty, and the bases thereof twenty, of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets, of silver. 1~ And the breadth of the court at the corner of the sea shall be hangings of fifty cubits: their pillars ten, and the bases thereof ten. 13 And the breadth of the court at the corner of the east east ward shall be fifty cubits. 14 Fifteen cubits shall be the hangings at the wing: their pillars three, and the bases thereof three. 15 And at the other wing fifteen cubits shall be the hangings: their pillars three, and the sockets thereof three. 16 And for the gate of the court shall be a covering of twenty cubits, of hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed, and cot ton inwoven, the work of the embroiderer: their pillars four, and the bases thereof four. 17 All the pillars of the court round about shall be adorned with fillets of silver; their hooks of silver, and their bases of brass. 18 The length of the court shall be an hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty by fifty; and the height five cubits of cotton inwoven; and their bases of brass. 19 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all the worship thereof, and all the pegs thereof, and all the pegs of the court, shall be of brass.
No. 477B is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin.

106

III Ad. 1589

EXODUS XXVII: 9-19

[4773-74

4773. As touching the court, namely, that it was outside the habitacle, it is clear that it signifies the third class in the kingdom of God Messiah, being the class where are things of service, that is to say, such things as serve things interior. So also in the church of God Messiah. As to what a court is, this can be conceived of as seen in a well instituted society. It can also be conceived of as seen in the individual man. There the natural mind is the court, and in that court all and single things are carried on, to the end that they may serve the intellectual mind, which is the habitacle, and this again that it may serve the soul where is the abiding place of God Messiah who is very holiness, love, truth, and thus law, order, etc., etc. And since the court involves things of this sort, the reason can be evident why it must needs be so capacious; also why its bases and vessels were of brass, because therein is the natural; and likewise why the hangings were of cotton [vs. 9] or were white, as above [n. 4736], for when things succeed in order, what is white and pure comes from inmosts. [That the pillars were] partly of brass and partly of silver [vs. 10] has regard to that which is partly natural and partly spiritual. As touching the aspect of the corners or sides which are here mentioned [vs. 9, 11-13], these can be better comprehended from the description of the temple and of the New Jerusalem.

EXODUS XXVII
~O And thou shalt command the sons of Israel, that they take unto thee pure oil of the olive, beaten, for the luminary, to cause the light to go up continually. ~1 In the tent of assembly without the veil, which is before the testimony, Aaron and his sons shall order it from evening to morn ing before Jehovah: a statute of an age for their generations from with the sons of Israel.

4774. [And thou shalt command the sons of Israel, that they take unto thee pure oil of the olive, beaten, for the luminary, to cause the light 1 to go up continually (vs. ~O).] By oil is meant that to which it is applied; thus the oil of anointment was a differ ent oil. Oil is suitable tor its object inasmuch as it is the tree's very essence which gives it life, and lays down all that is contained
l

See n. 4729 note.

III Ad. 1590-1600

107

4775]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

in its fruit, such as its odor, taste, color and the like. But what is here designated is oil for lighting the lamp. Therefore its essen tial is faith, thus, in their order, the things that correspond to faith. And since oil of the olive is pressed from the olive, which is a fruit partly bitter, when this flame is enkindled from such oil, what is also meant is that it springs from bitterness of life and from affection; but in itself the oil is sweet. As with the flame, which signifies love, so also is it with the cause of the flame. Thus the oil itself is usually taken for love, it being oil that feeds the flame. That it causes the light to go up continually, clearly indi cates that celestial love will be continually enkindled, and will con tinually give light in human hearts, that is, in human minds. 4775. [In the tent of assembly without the veil, which is before the testimony, Aaron and his sons shall order i.t from evening to morning before Jehovah: a statute of an age for their generations from-with the sons of Israel (vs. n).] As touching the candle stick or the lights,2 these were set in the hpl}' place by the table in front of the holy of holies. But the oil was in the court, to be kept there, namely, in the memory, this being the court; also in human hearts which are in the court, that is, in all hearts. For as the' court surrounds and encloses all the rest, namely, the habitacle and its holy of holies, so, in like order, the heart, taken for the blood, encloses all that is interior, as shown above [n. 4639]. Thus oil contains such things as pertain to flame, and therefore it was kept in the court of assembly. F1'om evening to morning, that is, all the time, to wit, during the time of reformation. This was a statute from-with the sons of Israel, namely, a statute with true sons of Israel.
EXODUS

XXVIII

1 And thou shalt cause Aaron thy brother to draw near unto thee, and his sons with him, from the midst of the sons of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aar~n, Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar, Aaron's sons. fl And thou shalt make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, for honor and for splendor. 3 And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom soever I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make
2

See n. 4199 note.

108

III Ad. 1601-16Hl

EXODUS XXVII:

~1

[4776

Aaron's garments to sanctify him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office. 4 And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a tunic of checkerwork, a mitre, and a belt; and they shall make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office. 5 And they shall take gold, and hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed, and cotton. 6 And they shall make the ephod of gold, hyacinth, and purple, scarlet double-dyed, and cotton inwoven, the work of a cunning workman. 7 It shall have two shoulders joined at the two extremities thereof, that it may be joined together. 8 And the belt of its covering,3 which is upon it, shall be from the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed, and cotton inwoven. 9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and shalt engrave upon them the names of the sons of Israel. 10 Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names on the other stone, according to their generations. 11 With the work of a cunning workman in gems, with the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones according to the names of the sons of Israel: encompassed with settings of gold shalt thou make them. 1~ And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod, stones of memorial unto the sons of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before Jehovah upon his two shoulders for a memorial. 13 And thou shalt make settings of gold; 14 And two chains of pure gold; placed at the ends shalt thou make them, with the work of a cord; and thou shalt put the chains of cords upon the settings.

4776. In these verses, is now presented to view Aaron's adornment, or the garment wherewith he was clothed when ministering. No one can be so insane as to suppose that there is anything of holiness in these garments, their threads, stones, gold, etc.; but [everyone must see] that the holiness comes from some other
3

See n. 4810 note.

III Ad. 1613-1614

109

4777-78]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

source, namely, from the Most Holy who was thus represented. These garments represented both glory and righteousness, the glory, which pertains to a king, being meant by " honor," and the righteousness, which pertains to a priest, by " splendor" (vs. 9l). Kings of old were also high priests, as was the case with Melchise dek in Solyma [Gen. 14 18 J, and as was afterwards the case with this people also. How can anything external taken from stones, vegetables, etc., from which come garments, sanctify a man unless at the same time they have some representation? that is to say, un less they represent that which is holy? And for what reason was there such variety [in Aaron's garment] and such composition, unless for the sake of the representations, that each part should have its own signification? How can the ,V ord of J ehovah say anything or give any command which does not inmostly regard something holy and thus most holy? Nay, in the present case, there cannot be the least thread, the least hook, the least fillet, nor any color, nor anything whatsoever, that does not signify some heavenly thing, so that if these several things were known, one would see the utmost arcana. This also no one can deny save he who takes upon himself to deny the Word of J ehovah God, saying that it is not the ,Vord of J ehovah God. 4777. In the old or primitive church, those who were inspired could at once have perceived from the least particular of these furnishings whar they signified and what they represented in things supreme; but while at that time there was clearness as of light, today this is obliterated, and shade is at its darkest. Indeed, there is nothing whatsoever upon the earth that does not in some way represent things heavenly, for earthly things are merely the representations of heavenly, as can be demonstrated from many considerations. Therefore, had the men of the church of old seen the priestly garments of Aaron, had they seen the tabernacle, the offices and ministrations, then, from each and all of them, they would have known that they signified God Messiah and all that was afterwards made known by God Messiah. 4778. But at this day mortal men have fallen into such dense darkness that they s@e nothing, even in the presenc@ of light itself. Consequently, they perceive nothing in the present particulars save the fact that there was gold, silver, brass, hyacinthine threads, etc., and precious stones, which were holy for no other reason no III Ad. 1615-16M

EXODUS XXVIII: 1-14

[4779-80

than that they were precious; for men do not wish to be wise be yond the senses. Such also are demons, being those within whom is a natural soul or life. From all this it can be evident why at this day there is no faith, nothing of wisdom; for it brings to view how great at this day is the kingdom of the devil, inasmuch as men live in utter shade, as though within them there were merely natural life, and none that is spiritual and celestial! 4779. There are heavenly representations, which appear before a man who has been admitted into heaven, and Indeed representations of divers kinds when heavenly things which concern the kingdom of God Messiah are represented by divers forms in a long series, as though before the eyes; which forms, when brought down to actuality, would signify exactly the same things as are here signified by Aaron's garments, with the mitre, the cloak, etc. But being still arcane, these matters are not as yet to be divulged in detail-save only this, that nothing is ever represented that does not involve something mystical, and that does not signify in the supreme sense the kingdom of God Messiah. These representations are pre sented by things like those that exist before the eyes, as, for instance, by pyramids diversely adorned in the most beautiful way, crowned, etc., etc.' 4780.. As concerns these highly ornate pontifical garments in general, they involve [1], in the same way as the ark, things which are inmost-as does the breastplate of judgment, or the Urim and Thummim [vs. 30]; [2] things which are proximately exterior, that is to say, things more interior-as does the robe [vs. 4], and that which is called the holy place, or the habitacle; [3J that which is exterior, that is to say, the court~as does the tunic of checker~ work [ibid.]. Since Aaron carried around him the kingdom of God Messiah thus represented, it must needs be that he could enter the holy place and administer holy rites; for the things that he bore were so many insignia and memorials of the kingdom itself. Thus the one holy thing corresponded to the other, that is, the garments of Aaron to the ark.
This paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written three times in the margin. This indented paragraph is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Pyramisj with the indented part of n. 4782, s.v. Naluraj and with n. 4917 and the indented part of n. 4782 and 4907, s.v. lleglllU'rn and Repraesentatio. See Table of Contents.

III Ad. 1625-1629

III

4781-84]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4781. Aaron, when thus clothed, could not, however, be said on this account to have been any the more holy as to his interiors. The representation of holiness was in the garments, just as it was in the ark. That representation falls also on those who are not holy, is clear beyond doubt, in that it falls on things inanimate, such as the ark or the tent of assembly, etc., and also on such animate creatures as bullocks, rams, and doves. 4782. As to the manner of such representations when viewed by human eyes they appear in an entirely different form with God Messiah, appearing namely, in a form truly spiritual and celestial. Thus they are abstracted, as it were, from the things presented before the eyes, and are turned into forms truly spiritual. Of this, moreover, I might speak from experience, in that when natural things have been thought of in a long series, they were understood in heaven spiritually. So likewise wi~h the several particulars in the Word of God Messiah. In the Old Testa ment these are in no wise intelligible according to the letter of the Word of God Messiah, but only according to that inmost sense of the letter wherein is the life of the 'Word of God Messiah. 6 4783. This, moreover, is signified by the words in verse 3, that all the wise hearted, whosoever was filled with the spirit of wisdom, should make the garments of Aaron to sanctify him, that he may minister in the priest's office. But let us come to the several particulars in the Word of God Messiah. 4784. [And thou shalt cause A aron thy brother to draw near unto thee, and his sons with him, from the midst of the sons of Israel, that he ma,y minister unto me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons], vs. 1. The subject here treated of is the choice of the Levites to become priests, and thus the institution of the priesthood. The Levites were chosen because' of their representation which was in mostly involved and signified in the supreme sense by the name Levi. Of this we have spoken above at Genesis 29 3 4, namely, that when Levi was named, these words were said: " This time will my man cleave unto me because 1 have borne him three sons." It was
This indented paragraph is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.\'. Spiritualia,' with the indented part of n. 4779, S.\'. Natura, and also of n. 4907, 4917, s.v. Regl~urn, Repraesentatio. See Table of Contents.

In Ad. 1630-1638

EXODUS XXVIII: 1

[478,15-87

there stated that in the inmost sense "cleaving" signifies love, thus, in the supreme sense, God Messiah himself who is very Love. This is evident from Genesis, chapter 4910, where we read: " The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor the Lawgiver from be tween his feet, until Shiloh come; and to him shall be the cleaving of the peoples." From this verse it may be seen that, in the in most sense, " the cleaving of the peoples," and thus" cleaving" is love, and consequently saving faith, this being contained in the [names of the] first-born three sons of J acob, and simultaneously in the name Levi, he being the third in order. 7 4785. That Levi-as the Levite in Aaron and the other priests -was not chosen because of himself and his morals, but that in his being chosen for the priesthood, it was the inmost of the name that was had in view, can be evident enough from what has been said above [n. 4784] concerning Levi, and from the dreadful words uttered by the father of these first-born three sons (Genesis, chap ter 49 5- 7 ). With respect to Aaron likewise, the same thing is evident from what we read later, in that he founded an Egyptian calf, etc. [chap. 3~4J. [The election of the LevitesJ was there fore a mere representation; thus they can attribute nothing to themselves on this account. 4786. First the commencement is made from the high priest, thus from the house of Aaron, Moses' brother. 'Vhat is signified by the choosing of a single house and afterwards of several, and finally of the entire tribe, can be evident enough. The entire tribe signifies the society of the priesthood, in which society they were, who did the work of the ministry; for the case in every society is the same as in the body. Therefore the first thing that is formed is the head, it being from the head that all the rest is to be ruled. So is tormed the entire society of the kingdom of God Messiah represented in this society. God Messiah himself, however, is represented in Aaron, and furthermore in his house, and finally in the entire tribe. Therefore, Aaron's house, togethel' with himself, that is, with Aaron, is understood as a single person; for which reason, when speaking at the same time of his sons, it is said in the singular, that he may minister in the priest's office. 4787. Because of the life of Levi their father, and also because of Aaron's own life, etc., the garments were not shown to the latter,
1 The latter half of this paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin.

III Ad. 1639-1646

113

4788-89]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

and so the priesthood was not adjoined to him immediately, he not having been summoned into the mountain; but this was done by means of Moses, and thus mediately. Wherefore, in the text it is said, thou shalt cause thy 8 brother to draw near; and later [vs. 41], that Moses invested him and anointed him, etc. Accord ing to the series of creation, inmost things are formed first, and then from these inmosts the things that follow. So is it in man; first his soul is formed, and from this all the other parts succes sively. So in the present case, Aaron was chosen first, and then the others were added to him, first his sons, and then all the men of that tribe. 4788. In the supreme sense, society is for the sake of the King, and so the church is for the sake of the Supreme Pontiff. But as to how the matter stands in the inmost and the proximately in terior sense, this is another thing, and is circumstanced according to the representation of the one sense in 9 the other, which is not as yet clear to me. Meanwhile, it is well known that a people is punished because of its king, just as they were punished because of the kings of the Israelites and the Jews; for the people was repre sented in its king, like the body in its head. (But, God Messiah granting, these matters will be treat.ed of elsewhere if this be well pleasing. ) 4789. [And thou shalt make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, for honor and for splendor] , vs.~. By garments of holiness are signified all those things that. are called exterior, such as things formal; for form is the determination of essentials, and thus indicates the nature of the essential. There is no part of a form that does not have some image of its essential, thus that does not reflect or represent that essential. 1 Therefore all formal things which are called types, and here l'epresentations, are gar ments. But the essential itself is the love of the Supreme. From this comes all holiness. From love and thus from holiness, as from their essential, flow the formal things which are called garments and which are sanctified-but by the representation as stated above.
8 Reading tuum for 8uum. Reading in for ab (by). 1 This part of the paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written in the margin.

114

III Ad.

1647-165~

EXODUS XXVIII: !'l

[4790-93

4790. No one can be so greatly insane as to think that these garments could be holy without the representation of the Most Holy, that is, of God Messiah, seeing that they were made up of clay such as threads from worms, the wool of she goats, metals which come from dust, etc. Thus, for example, the sound of words is not holy, save as there is inmostly drawn from them a holy meaning which is entirely abstracted from the words, being under stood abstractly in a single complex. So likewise in all other cases. In this sense, even letters and words may be called gar lI~ents of holiness. Many examples may be adduced, but this may suffice for the present. 2 4791. Such abstractions proceed according to degrees. This also can be seen from speech. Words are acquired from things natural. From words is perceived their inner meaning. These inner meanings taken together are nothing but garments to that more interior meaning which is in the intellectual or truly spir itual mind; this again is in like manner merely a garment to that inmost meaning which is again abstracted and is called supra celestial. And, finally, this likewise is abstracted, and from it comes the supreme meaning wherein is God Messiah himself. Thus there is nothing essential save Goel Messiah himself and all that is in him, all else being matters of form, types, represent~tions, and thus garments. Therefore, when such garments are adapted to the essential itself, in order that the essence may be presented in a form, they are called garments of holiness. 4792. Hence it is that the speech, so called, of those who are in the third, that is, the inmost heaven, is inexpressible in human words, for it is effected simultaneously, and simultaneously includes innumerable things, and if these are evolved, there remain mere garments. One single thought of theirs, as it were, being a thought belonging to a superior degree, were it to be merely ex pressed, would necessarily be expressed by thousands and myriads of words, and this in the order already stated. Thus there is a continual abstraction until at last the meaning is no longer under stood. 4793. In this heaven, namely, the third, where such speech ob tains, is the human soul; but because the gate thereto is closed, like
2 The last two-thirds of this paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written twice in the margin.

III Ad. 1653-1659

115

4794-95]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the gate to paradise, this speech cannot be comprehended by our intellectual mind. Respecting such speech, moreover, I can testify that it has been heard by me in a dream when I was almost awake; and then the things seen were indeed understood to some extent as to their meaning; but when recalled to thought, this speech was inexpressible. But these matters cannot be so expressed in words that the understanding will comprehend them, for they are above its sphere, and what is thus above cannot be understood. W"ho, for instance, can believe that in things great and small, where are such innumerable varieties, the soul, the truly human, rightly ordinates each and all, and this simul taneously and as though in a~ instant, etc., etc. 3 4794. As touching the words for honor and for splendor, they are in the highest degree significative, for the expressions of the Word of God Messiah include simultaneously things that are more interior and inmost. As to how these garments were for honor, this can be evident from knowing what honor is. H onor, in its ex ternal meaning, is well understood, being the honor shown to a man by means of various ceremonies. But by honor here is meant the honor that should pertain to Aaron, by whom, as pontiff, is represented God Messiah. Honor is shown Him when man sub mits himself, knows himself to be nothing, that is, to be dust, and something inanimate, as it were; and so knows that .T ehovah God alone IS. Then is honor shown Him, this being done by humilia tion even to nothingness; for this is the way of truth because it is the truth. tn man this is the essential thing, and being the essen- " tial, it must enter into every form, that is, into all worship; and this worship is in the way of truth so far as man humiliates himself before Jehovah God. Thus humiliation must be the all in all in worship, it being from this that honor is shown. In this way honor is shown to the priesthood, that is to say, to the High Priest, that is, to God Messiah. 4795. And for splendor. In the proximate sense, splendor is the adornment whence splendor comes; but being a splendor that must come from things inmost and hence from the Supreme, it here designates what elsewhere is called beauty, cleanliness, brightness.
3

S.v. Angel1/s and Loq.d.

This indented paragraph is cited in the Author's Index to his il'Iem01'abilia, See Table of Contents.

116

III Ad. 1660-1667

EXODUS XXVIII: :3

[4796-97

As to whence comes this beauty, it is from the righteousness 4 of God Messiah; and as to whence comes the righteousness, that is, the holiness for the sake of which the garments of holiness are said to be for splendor, this will be seen later. For in things more in terior and inmost there is nothing that is beautiful save what is justified, and this by the righteousness of God Messiah. There fore, when man shows honor such as was spoken of above [n. 4794], that is to say, when he makes himself to be nothing, as also he is, then this spiritual splendor, that is to say, righteousness, is attributed to him. 4796. This, namely honor and splendor, is represented in the whole clothing, for they are the two essentials, and therefore must needs stand forth in form in the whole clothing. The latter was then a clothing wherein these essentials were represented, but yet they signify such things in man as are holy, to the end namely, that the man shall be holy; for this was a representative church. Therefore, with the coming of God Messiah, these outer garments which were merely inanimate stuffs, were rejected, and man came to view as to his inmosts; for garments signify the more interior and inmost things in man, and these represent God Messiah, being like a vessel into which holiness can be infused. 4797. [A nd thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whomsoever I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to sanctify him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office], vs. 3. Here the several expressions must be observed with the utmost care. From each one of them it should be evident that they pertain to the interior man; that is to say, that Aaron was in no way sanctified by the garments which he wOre before the eyes of the people, but by the signification of these garments in man, and thus by the representation of a man thus clothed, before God Messiah. Hehce the holiness; this surely must come from its own fount, for He alone is holy who had merit and who fulfilled the whole of righteousness, and this in the human form. As to his divill Essence, He is of himself most holy, but in
Justitia. The most common meaning of this word is 1"ighteousness, and it is so used in theological writings: Justice in the English sense of the word, is a secondary meaning, and is better expressed in Latin by the word equitas. Nevertheless, in the pI"eSent work (and perhaps not always consistently), the words Justitia and juSt1/S are translated sometimes as righteousness and righteous, and sometimes as justice and just.

HI Ad. 1668-1673

117

4798-99]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

order that he might save the entire human race, he willed to merit holiness in the human form or as a man. Thus he willed to put on the garments of holiness [vs. Yl]. Hence he became the Most Holy, and priest to the Most High, as we read of Melchisedek [Gen.
1418 ].

4798.* That Moses spoke to all the wise hearted who were filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they should make Aaron's garments, means, in the proximate sense, that he spoke to those who enjoyed ingenuity and skiH; indeed, as is evident later on [chap. 31 2 ,3] from the men who were dedicated to this work, there were only a few to whom this wisdom was given. Here, however, it is clearly seen that deeper, nay, and more general things lie hidden within the statement that Moses spoke to all the wise hearted, filled with the spirit of wisdom. The wise hearted are they who understand what Aaron's garments signify and involve, so that to them these garments are not bare adornments; and who are also affected by the heavenly things which the garments signify. In the inmost sense, they are those who from heart and affection look to God Messiah, that is, to the Priest to the Most High, whom these gar ments signify. 'Visdom is intelligence and at the same time affec tion; that is to say, it sees ends, both the better and the best, and is affected by them and by Him, being led in this way by the End itself, that is, by Love or by God Messiah. It is these two, to wit, affection and intelligence, that are here signified. The wis.e hearted is the man who is affected, affection being attributed to the heart; and to be filled with the spirit of wisdom is to be filled with intelligence. This speech, therefore, is addressed to all men. Thus it is addi"essed not only to those who were living at the time but to all whom the Word of God Messiah reaches through Moses. This, then, is what is meant by making Aaron's garments, namely, understanding the things which those garments represent, and then being affected by such things. Merely to be affected by gar ments is nothing, but to be affected by things more interior is human, spiritual, celestial, and so forth. 4799. That he may minister in the priest's office. What is here regarded is the intelIigence and affection of him who makes these
* In the autograph this paragraph commences with" Verse 4," Swedenborg evidently intending to commence here the explanation of that vei'se. He im mediately changed his mind, however, and continued the exposition of verse 3, but without crossing off " verse 4" which, however, we omit in the translation. This verse is explained in n. 4809 seq.

118

III Ad. 1674-1689l

EXODUS XXVIII: 3

[4800-01

garments; for" to make Aaron's garments" is thus a customary formula, like" putting on the garments of holiness" (see below respecting a similar form of speech); also that a white coat or cloak should be put on; likewise that one should be covered with shield and breastplate. 4800. As to what is effected by this representation among a people without any understanding of things more interior and inmost, and without any affection for such things, this can be clear enough to everyone. It is something not human but merely corporeal and thus animal-like a parrot when it talks, or like Balaam's ass which is said to have talked [Num. 9l9l 28 - 30 ] ; thus it is death s~parated from life. Separate the mind, or separate things more interior, from the objects of the eye, and do you not have what is merely animal? 5 But a representation together with the interior things within it, and thus with things more interior, results in a corresponding closer approach to God Messiah; otherwise the representation is separated and the gate to heavenly things, that is, to the shrine, is entirely closed. As to how man draws near and finally approaches [to God Messiah] by means of the understanding of things more interior, and thus by means of the affection of such things, this would take long to tell. In a word, no other application and, consequently, no other conjunction is possible; that is to say, that God Messiah then gives man faith and infuses the love of faith. But these are lengthy matters. 4801. Here, however, was only a type, to the end that in this way the people might be instructed and might gradually be introduced by God Messiah into what is holy, etc., etc. This, therefore, is what is signified in the genuine sense by these words, namely, Speak unto all that are wise hearted, etc., that they may make Aaron's garments to sanctify him. In this way he is indeed sanctified in human minds. Thus all must be priests, and so there must be a general sanctification according to what was said above in chapter 19 6 , where we read: " Ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests and a holy people," etc. 6 Aaron was the head, and the people the body. Thus there was a kingdom, with Aaron representing the first in rank.
This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin. This sentence is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.

III Ad. 1683-1688

119

4802-05]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4802. [And theu are the garments which they shall malce; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a tunic of checlcerwork, a mitre, and a belt; and they shall make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office], vs. 4. These garments are now called gar ments of holiness. As to whence they derive their holiness, this the reader may see above [n.4789, 4797]. Whence does what is holy come into garments save from holiness, that is to say, save from the Most Holy One who was represented? The representa tion itself will indicate clearly enough whence the holiness comes, and what its nature, etc., etc., thus, whence and what is the priest hood. 4803. In these garments are also represented the like things as above were represented in the ark of the testimony, in the habitacle, and in the tent of assembly, being the court. Here the inmost thing, that is, the ark with the tables of the law, is represented by the breastplate, the one breastplate representing the ark of the testimony, and the other breastplate, being the Urim and Thum mim, representing the testimony or law itself. The second thing, that is, the habitacle which also is called holy, is represented by the ephod, and the covering of the habitacle by the robe. The third thing, that is, the court, is here represented in the tunic of checlcer work which was the outer garment. The belt was a girdle, being thus the same as those things in the tabernacle which represented connections and also guards. As touching the mitre, this is the supreme thing. But as to the specific representation of these gar ments, this can be seen to some slight extent from what will be said below. 4804. [And they shall take gold, and hyacinth, and p'urple, and scarlet double~dyed, and cotton. And they shall 7nake the ephod of gold, hyacinth, and purple, scarlet double-dyed, and cotton in woven, the work of a cunning workman], vs. 5, [6]. Her~ occur the same words as above [chap. 26 1 ,31] in connection with the tabernacle. Thus they signify the same thing, but as applied to garments, etc., etc. But an idea of the garments can be obtained from a delineation, and this inust still be preserved among that people. 4805. Here the ephod is put in the first place, although it is in the second, for as was said [n. 4803], it represents the same thing 120 III Ad. 1689-1699

EXODUS XXVIII: 4-6

[4806-08

as the habitacle or holy place in the tabernacle. It is the breast plate that is in the first place, as in the preceding verse. But the ephod is put first because the connection with the breastplate, by which latter the same thing is repl'esented as by the ark or by the holy of holies, cannot be described without a previous description of the ephod. 4806. In man also there is that which is his peculiar property, what is properly human being his inmost. What is called his more interior part is the intellectual mind, together with all that is con tained therein. As to what the habitacle represents, and also the ephod which is next to the body, this can be perceived from that which is more interior in man and which must be the holy place; that is to say, from his intellectual mind and his will. The things contained therein are truths and goods, namely, the intelligence of truth and good and the affection of good and truth; and, further more, all else that pertains to faith and love, that is, to things spiritual and celestial. As it is in the more interior part of man, so is it in the more interior part of the church or of a society in the church consisting of many men, and also in heaven, and finally in the kingdom of God Messiah. From the one, conclusion can be made concerning the other. 4807. That these are the inweavings of the ephod, that is to say, are the things inserted into human minds, which, when a disposition is induced, and when the man is thus led by God Mes siah, finally become, as it were, connate, is evident from the colors, ranging from white to red, which have been explained above [n. 4670-1, 4735-7, 4754]. Here hyacinth is put in the first place, and cotton in the fourth, differently than in the caSe of the habitacle [chap. ~61] wherein was a like weaving; and this to the end that love may enter into faith, goodness into truth, etc. Why the order here is different than in the case of the habitacle will be seen elsewhere, God Messiah granting. That these more interior things have regard to things inmost, and thus, by things inmost, have regard to the Supreme, that is, to God Messiah, his justice, integrity and love, can be perceived by anyone from the colors. 4808. That in the case of the habitacle, scarlet is mentioned in the first place [before cotton], signifies that in the ark were choirs of angels representing the kingdom of God Messiah, thus angels III Ad. 1700-1710 U1

4809]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

made holy from the blood of God Messiah, that is, by God Mes siah, who was inmostly present, or was in their midst. Thus the order was from scarlet double-dyed, this being the middle, to cot ton. Here, however, it was the man Aaron who commences from more interior things and passes on to things inmost. Hence the order, nay, the series of the colors is different. 7 Of this matter, God Messiah granting, we shall speak elsewhere when comparison is made with the temple and with the New Jerusalem. The ephod is called the work of a cunning worl.man because it is the work of the intellectual mind, or 8 of one who is wise hearted and filled with the spirit of wisdom. It must here be observed that gold also was lnwoven. 4809. [It shall have two shoulders joined at the two extremities thereof, that i.t ma,y be joined together], vs. 7. These words cor respond to those in chapter 26 6 concerning the habitac1e, which the reader may consult; the words namely, that they should be joined together [and this] to the end that they may signify con junction. No otherwise can continuity be effected. Moreover, this conjunction has regard also to what follows, for if men should learn the order of things more interior in respect to those that are inmost, the one beautifully looks to the other. Here the two shoulders have regard to the same things as the two sides of the habitacle which was made of curtains connected together in almost the same way, respecting which sides the reader may consult the passage cited; so likewise the conjunctions mentioned in the pres ent text, and those in the habitacle, and this both in general and in particular. That the sho\)lders are those parts which cOver the region of the breast and which, from both sides, look to the breast as the center of strength [and] of human life, is evident. From this comes the signification; for the ephod, together with its shoulders, looks to the heart as center; so the holy place or habita de looks to the holy of holies or to the ark of the testimony, etc., etc.
, It may be noted that with one exception in all the passages where this series of colors is mentioned, the order is the same as in verse 5 of the present text, namely, " hyacinth, purple, scarlet double-dyed, cotton." The one excep tion is chapter f261 treating of the curtains of the habitacle, where the order is "cotton, hyacinth, purple, scarlet double-dyed." 8 Reading seu for sed (but).

III Ad. 1711-1717

EXODUS XXVIII: 7-8

[4810

4810. [And the belt of its covering,9 which is upon it, shall be from the same, according to the worTc thereof; even of gold, hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet d01tble-dyed, and cotton in woven], vs. 8. Here a belt signifies a bond, albeit a general one. In the habitacle, this bond in particular is represented by a num ber of things. 1 In the whole of nature there is not a single thing that is not encompassed by a kind of girdle which so contains in teriors that they shall not flow away. These are ligaments or bonds, both particular and general. In the present text, the particular bonds are represented by the general bond. As it is in natural things so also is it in things spiritual and celestial, for in these respects they correspond, in that they have connections, lest they flow apart, these connections being here called a belt. And seeing that there are similar connections in things spiritual and celestial, a belt is applicable to everything spiritual and celestial. Therefore also it is used in so many cases, and consequently, in [speaking of] faith, love, and every spiritual virtue, etc., etc. 2 Moreover, it signifies protection, for that which contains, also pro tects. Therefore, granted the subject in things spiritual and celestial, deduction can then be made as to what it is that is predi cated as the belt or colligation, etc., etc.
This is Schmidius' translation of the Hebrew
i1"'!:)~,

but it would be more

correctly rendered ephodah or ephod (as in the A.V.), being simply another form of the word 'i!:)~ (ephod). 1 The words that follow, being n. 1719 of the Latin text, commence a new page in the autograph, namely, p. C 24. But preceding them on the same page, come the following words which are crossed off by the Author: "HEAVEN. That the nature of heaven can be known from our organic body. See body." We here refer the reader to a preceding note (n. 4301 note) wherein we stated that the crossed off entry there noted" is the only one of its kind in the present volume (Codex 61)." This statement must now be corrected (see also n. 5463 note), as the present is a note of the sallle kind, indicating that the codex from which we are now translating (Codex 61) was first paged as an index. It might naturally be supposed that the Index here contemplated was that which Sweden borg subsequently made, and which was published by Doctor Im. Tafel as The Index Biblicus. But the present crossed out entry, and also that noted above (n. 4301 note) indicate that when Swedenborg numbered the pages of Codices 60 and 61, A, B, C, etc., he contemplated writing an index of a different naturl' than that which he subsequently wrote, and which was published by Doctor Immanuel Tafel as Index Biblicus; namely, an Index not merely of Scripture passages, but a.]so of definitions derived from a study of such passages. 2 The word here translated belt is balteus, but in EngliSh, the word used in the sense indicated in the text is girdle. Thus we have" to girdle oneself," " to gird the loins," " to gird with strength," "with gladness," etc.

III Ad.

1718-17~4

4811-13]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4811. For the rest, the human mind, and each of its faculties, is also girded and thus held together as though by a belt, and this in a substance. So also is all else that is in man, both in his great est parts and in his least, and likewise in the several parts arising therefrom and which are designated by various names, the predi cates being suited to their subjects. s All things tend, as it were, to conjunction, and thus refer themselves to love. It is said from the same because it was continued from the ephod (as I think)" As fi predicates are suited to their subjects, so the connecting means are suited to the things which they con nect, for thus a single unit is represented. Hence it is said that it shall be from the same, and that it shall be of like texture. 4812. As to what belts signify in other respects, many things might be said, but as yet it is not clear whether it is allowable to publish them. Thus belts signify protection, seeing that man is girded about with a belt, etc., etc. 6 In other connections, this belt is called a zone, as in the case of the universe; also a wall, of which we speak elsewhere, for so it distinguishes interiors from exteriors. In 7 a word, every single degree, or every single thing in that degree, is girded about with a belt that it may be distinguished from that which is inferior; for a belt encloses interiors, and its signification is according to what is contained within the belt,8 etc., etc. So spiritual things are sepa rated from natural, and heavenly things from worldly; for they must never be confounded. 4813. [And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and shalt eng1'ave upon them the names of the sons of Israel], vs. 9. The onyx is among the less precious stones. Its color is almost fleshy, ranging
3 This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. From this point on to the end, this paragraph is emphasized by "N B" written in the margin. Reading Sic'ut for Quia (because). Quia belongs to the sentence as origi nally designed, namely, Quia pmed:icata conveniunt s1tbjectis (sunt). The last word is crossed off and sic (so) substituted, thus making Quia inapplicable. TIns indented passage is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora. bilia. T From this point on, this paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. S A literal translation would read: "according to the signification what is in the belt."

U4

III Ad. 179l5-1733

EXODUS XXVIII: 9

[4814-15

from reddish to white. The precious kind is transparent. What it 9 represents can be judged from its color, and also from its value. As to what the outer breastplate signifies, this can be evi dent from the inmost,! of which we speak presently; for it signifies spiritual things next to natural, this being usual in the human mind, seeing that man perceives spiritual things by the aid of natural, thus by the aid of his natural mind; the saints in the other life, on the other hand, understand natural things from spiritual. Consequently it signifies the Jewish church, from which would be regarded the church truly Christian; for the two are in entire correspondence, and the one sees and beholds the other as in a mirror; that is to say, they are like an effigy in an image, the effigy being the spiritual man. Thus what are here meant are the works of the law and like things, in that these have in view the interior and inmost law, just as this breastplate has in view the inmost breastplate of which we speak presently. Consequently, this breastplate signifies such things as are exterior and are, as it were, the instrumentals to saving faith; thus, from exteriors [it looks to] things inmost. The onyx stone shows by its color what it signifies, namely, the righteousness of God Messiah, and such things as are signified by the colors red and white, and by trans parency. 4814. As to what the names of the sons of Israel 2 signify, see in what follows. The same thing is signified in the ark which was of cedar and was overlaid with gold. 4815. What is signified by Aaron's garments, and also by the other things spoken of later, can be learned from the office of the Priesthood in the Messiah. Wherefore, the priest's office must be perceived distinctly. In a sum, it is that the priest should sanctify the people, this being the office of the priesthood. The sanctifica tion of the people can never be effected save by righteousness, the righteousness namely, that all the Law should be fulfilled in its whole complex and its whole series. This is what is meant by sanctifying, for he is holy who is righteous. He is righteous who fulfills the entire Law, or, what amounts to the same thing, who fulfills the order of life in its utmost integrity. The people was
[Crossed off:] signifies. By the inmost or inner breastplate, Swedenborg means the Urim and Thummim. See n. 4817. The autograph has Jacob but this appears to be a slip.
1

III Ad. 1734-1746

1~5

4816-17J

THE WORD EXPLAINED

never sanctified by garments, but these garments were for the sake of the remembrance of all things in the Messiah and of his justification.s 4816. What this breastplate signifies, being the outer breast plate, can be learned FIRST from the color of the stone, which was fleshy and signifies righteousness; SECOND from the value of that stone, which was not so great as that of many of the stones spoken of below [vs. 17-~OJ ; THIRD from its position, being like a shield over the chamber of the breast, to wit, over the shoulders and the pectoral muscles which rule the entire chamber of the heart in a general way, thus over the exterior and general things which per tain to the heart; FOURTH from the respect that it has to the in most breastplate. Wherefore, as being over the heart, this breast plate signifies the same thing as the inmost, but in a general way, as can be evident from the several particulars. 4817. That the names of the sons of Israel were engraved on the breastplate, and that thus the priest carried them upon his breast, clearly signifies that Aaron stood for the people, and, so standing, performed the office of the priesthood, that is to say, performed it as a shepherd for the sheep, these being thus in his bosom; for later on it is evident that the people was sanctified by him. Thus it is quite clear that his holiness, that is to say, the righteousness imputed to him, was imputed to the people. This will be most clearly evident in what follows. It is this that is meant by ministering in the priest's office [vs. 1, 4 J, to the end namely, that he may be the head of the church, and might repre sent the entire church and its sheep which he carried in his bosom, and so might represent all men. s Aaron most clearly represents the Messiah who came into the world and became Righteousness for all men and especially for Israel whom He then carried upon His bosom and willed to gather under His wings, as it were [Matt. ~337, Luke 1334], wings signifying the same thing as shoulders, being then in place of shoulders. This breastplate was upon him, to the end that he might represent the people in general; but the
This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written four times in the margin. Up to this point, n. 4817 is emphasized by "Obs." written three times in the margin. From this point on, n. 4817 is emphasi2led by "N B " written three times in the margin.
1~6

III Ad. 1747-1754

EXODUS XXVIII: 10

[4818-19

inner breastplate, namely, the Urim and Thummim represented peoples still more interior, to wit, sons of Israel, etc., etc. 4818. [Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names on the other stone, according to their generations], vs. 10. That there were two stones, signifies the two tables in the ark whereon was inscribed the Law, and which were likewise made of stone; for the second breastplate signifies the law inscribed on these tables, for which reason this inmost breastplate is also called" the breast plate of j4dgment" [vs. 30], and this from the law according to which judgment was to be made. As to how the law was in scribed on the twelve stones of the inmost breastplate [vs. 17-~0], that is to say, the inmost law, this may be looked into. 6 Six of their names, therefore, were on the one stone, and six on the other. Why there were two stones in the breastplate of the shoulders, can also be evident from the signification of the two tables whereon the law was inscribed, namely,7 because there were two covenants, the old and the new, that which regards the interior man and that which regards the exterior, that which regards God Messiah and that which regards the church, that which regards the inmost and that which regards the more interior in man, in a spiritual society or church, in the kingdom of God Messiah; also that which regards faith and that which regards love; the third thing is merely a court. These words then have respect to the breastplate of judg ment, that is, to the Law. Hence also the number six, to the end that it may signify the same thing as above, namely, that each may be judged according to judgment from the internal law. 4819. What the names indicate specifically can be evident from what has been said above, and from what is to be said below [at verses 17-~0] where each name has its own stone. That these names were on two stones, while in the inmost breastplate they were on twelve, comes from the cause of which We have spoken above [n. 4813], to wit, that there is nothing that does not refer itself to the inmost and that is not regarded by the inmost. This can be better evident from the soul and the intellectual mind; also from these two and the natural mind, etc., etc. The relation is the same in the present case, the relation namely, of this breastplate to the
This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin. The words that follow, up to "merely a court," are emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. Opposite them is the further marginal note" Obs. Concerning the bibles."

III Ad. 1755-1763

48~O-~1]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

inmost, and of the inmost to the outer, by influx into it. That in every entity there is this relation as of coverings to their interiors, and of interiors to their coverings which are general coverings, or refer themselves to a general covering, see above [n. 4698-9] ; for this is a principle which is applied to every single entity both in things spiritual and celestial and in things natural. Hence comes their connection arising from mutual respect. 4820. Merely by the way, as being also what is meant here, it may be noted that the relation is like 'that of calling to election; calling is universal, while election is the election of individuals, etc., etc. 4821. [With the work of a cunning workman in gems, with the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones accord ing to the names 8 of the sons of Israel: encompassed with settings of gold shalt thou make them], vs. 11. It is said above that it was to be made by " a cunning workman" [vs. 6], " with the work of a cunning workman" [chap. ~631] ; here it is said, with the work of a cunning workman in gems or stone; 9 and below, in chapter 39[3], "the work of a deviser." Hence here as above En. 4735, 4797], this word signifies more interior things such as are in man. From man's more interior things, that is to say, from his intellect and will, we learn what is meant by a cunning workman, a deviser, an engraving as of a signet; for every affection and every under standing is, as it were, engraven, both from first birth, it being in this way that it is born, and likewise afterwards when man is re born. For the mind is like a signet on which are made engravings, that is, in the more interior sense, impressions. 1 Hence come those impressions which are retained in the memory, and from which the
Schmidius has name, but this is an error. In verse 6 and also in chapter ~61. 31, the Hebrew word which Schmidius translates artifex (a cunning or skilled workman, a master workman) is Jr&,n. the participle of 39 3 ,
J~~

(he thought), and means simply a thinker.

In chapter

quoted later in the paragraph, Schmidius translates it excogitator (one who thinks things out, a deviSer), and it is uniformly so translated by Sweden borg in the A rcana Coeleatia. Blit the word used in the present text (vs. 11), and which Schmidius also translates artifex, is ~~~ meaning an engraver, a ploughman, and, in general, a workman of any sort. In Exodus 3823 where both words occur, Schmidius translates the last named artifex, and the first named, excogitator. 1 This last sentence is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.

U8

III Ad. 1764-1769

EXODUS XXVIII: 11
matters impressed are seen in a form, as it were, or as having been formed. Hence also comes the disposition, which is born from the affections; that is to say, from first birth it is born from the affection of the world and of self. Later, that is engraven or impressed which is superior, namely, the knowledges of things spiritual and celestial and hence the memory of such things; and then from heavenly affection, being from the Love of the entire heaven, comes a new disposition, or a new creature, and hence a new disposition. 4822. In this sense, by the names of the sons of Israel is meant that which is signified by those names in the more interior sense, respecting which names the passages may be consulted. For example, in the more interior sense, Reuben, so called from sight, signifies intellectual faith, and thus the understanding arising from internal sight. So likewise, 'in the more interior sense, with the other names, which the reader may look up. From man and the more interior things which are impressed upon him, conclusion can be made with respect to those things which are more general, also to those which are universal, and likewise to those which are particular. These are here passed by because they are circumstanced in like manner, and this with a general, specific, and particular diversity, in accordance with what was said above [no 4738]. 4823. Bottoms 2 of gold here mean celestial and spiritual affections, for as stated above [n. 4756], gold signifies love and thus affection, and, indeed, celestial love, whence also comes holiness, as said above [n. 4789]. The bottom of all the more interior things in man is celestial love. Hence comes the understanding of truth and good, these never being possible without light from love. Celestial affections are many in number, and therefore it is here said bottoms in the plural. Thus the bottoms look to the stone on which the names were engraved, that is to say, they look to them in respect to their fleshy color, of which we have spoken above [n. 4813-16].
Fundi au,i. In Latin a distinction is made between fundus (pI. fundi) and funda (pI. fundae). Both mean the bottom or foundation to a thing, but the specific meaning of funda is the bottom or setting to a jewel, and also the bottom or setting to a pebble in a sling; while fundus means a bottom in general, and thus a foundation. In the ablative plural, which is the case used by Schmidius in the present text, the two words take the same form, namely, fundis. Here the Author takes this word to be a form of the plural fundi, for he writes fundi and fundu.,; but later (n. 48!i?5) he notes that it is a form of fundae.

III Ad. 1770-1779

129

4824-26]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4824. The stones were to be encompassed with gold, that is, to be inserted in gold, orfitted into it. This is clear, seeing that all and single things come forth therefrom like radiations. Thus love is present both in general and in every particular, there being nothing else. Therefore they were inserted in gold. This can be conceived of from the human intellect, in that this is formed from affections, affection thus being its root, and its all in all. When more interior things are understood, then the bottoms are charity, hope, patience, etc., etc. That is said to "encompass" which is the all in the things that regard it and are regarded by it. By me this 8 can be understood by reason of an idea based on the fact that there is nothing in any viscus that does not refer itself to its en veloping sheath, nor any enveloping sheath that does not refer itself to the several things that are within. 4 This is the case with its least enveloping sheaths, and finally with the sheath enveloping the whole viscus. By this an idea can be derived as to what is meant by being encompassed with settings of gold; and the same can be applied to the things which this breastplate signifies and represents in other respects. This being the case, the same words are also repeated in verse 13. 4825. It must be observed that in this text, we have not fundi but fundae,5 the latter being little sheaths, as it were, wherewith things are encompassed, to wit, the things contained within, as told above [n. 4824]. For in this way things still more interior are contained, such as things truly spiritual and celestial which come from the soul into the intellectual mind, [being] from affec tion, that is to say, from charity which comes next after supra celestial love ; for it is obedience, and this is the immediate fruit of saving faith. 6 4826. [And thou shaZt put the two stones upon the sho~lders of the ephod, stones of memorial unto the sons of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before Jehovah upon his two shoulders for a
3 In the Latin edition, the words following " By me this" are erroneously printed as an indented paragraph, and we were thus led to include, in our Table of Contents, a summary of these words under the list of indented passages not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memombilia. It can be seen, however, that the personal note in this passage makes such an entry not inappropriate. See the chapter on the Peritoneum in the Author's Animal Kingdom, particularly n. 319 seq. See n. 48B3 note. These last words are emphasized by "N B" written in the margin.

130

III Ad. 1780-1787

EXODUS XXVIII:

1~

memorial], vs. 1~. It is here said that the stones shall be put upon the shoulders of the ephod or, as we read in Exodus 39[71, upon its " shoulderpieces." 1 The ephod, as covering the most eminent region of the body, being the central or pectoral region, signifies such things in man as are more eminent, for within this region lies the heart. This region is, therefore, the region of affection or love, this being ascribed to the heart because to the blood to which is attributed love, and this from causes spoken of elsewhere. 4827. The stones are here called stones of memorial, and in Exodus 39[71, "stones of memory," 8 this signifying the same thing, being so called that they may serve as memorials like the things which were placed upon the hand and the forehead [chap. 130 , 16, Deut. 6 8 , 11 18 ]. They are called stones of memorial, be cause of their signification, of which we have spoken above [no 4813], namely, that men might remember this signification when they beheld Aaron's breast, and also afterwards when they repre sented these things to themselves. This stone cannot be a stone of memory or a memorial save by reason of that which it signifies; it was not so by reason of the names engraved upon it, for these also are said to be for a memorial [vs. ~9]. What the stones signify has been told above [n. 4818], to wit, that, like the two tables in the ark,etc., etc., they signify the two covenants, the old and the new, etc., by their colors being signified the righteousness of God Messiah. It was these they were to remember; for to re member a stone amounts to nothing. So likewise with the names; they were to remember the things which those names signify in the more interior sense, as stated above [no 4819]. The stone and the name are a stone and name ot memorial or memory when men rep resent to themselves the things which they involve, and so at last remember God Messiah and his righteousness, which latter looks to love, just as this breastplate looked to the inmost breastplate, etc., etc. As to what is effected by the remembrance and representation of such things, much can be said, but it would be unduly prolix. 4828. The stones were upon the shoulders in order that they might be wholly in sight, and so before the internal sight and in the memory.
The Hebrew word which Schmidius translates" shoulders" in the present text is the same as that which he renders" shoulderpieces" in chapter 397. Mutatis mutandis, the preceding note applies also here.

III Ad. 1788-1796

131

4829-31]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4829. [And thou shalt make settings of gold], vs. 13. Con cerning the settings of gold, see above at verse 11. 4830. [And two chains of pure gold; placed at the ends shalt thou make them, with the work of a cord; and thou shalt put the chains of cords upon the settings], vs. 14. When it is understood what is signified by the two stones of the breastplate fastened in gold, then the understanding of the present words becomes also clear. That is to say, since gold signifies love and thus charity, etc. ; and since to this were fastened the stones by which are signi fied the two tables, and those names which the Law contains; it fol lows that they must certainly be conjoined by means of gold, that is, by means of love, there being nothing that is conjoined save by love. For this reason the rings and chains in the ark and the habitacle were everywhere made of gold. As to how they are joined together by chains of gold or by love, this can be sufficiently clear from the given facts, and so can be explained. The chain.y of gold, that is, of love, are many in number, for spiritual and celestial affections most certainly come from this source, these af fections being heavenly genii. The chains of pure gold are there fore truly heavenly genii or angels of God Messiah, who infuse the love of God Messiah into human minds. Thus all heavenly affec tions coming therefrom are chains of gold. 4831. That they should be made the work of a cord, means that they should be twisted like cords, and so should possess the strength to conjoin. A cord here signifies a powerful bond, and conse quently concord, etc., etc. The chains of cords were to be put upon the settings. Here they are called chains of cords from their concord, in that the many are one, as it were, the twisting of a cord being of this nature. In this way they may be joined with the two tables upon gold, that is, joined by means of love which Joins the tables together.
EXODUS

XXVIII

15 And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment, the work of a cunning workman; like the work of the ephod [thou shalt make] 9 it; of gold, of hyacinth, and of purple, and of scarlet double-dyed, and cotton inwoven, shalt thou make it.
Omitted by Schmidius.

132

III Ad. 1797-1806

EXODUS XXVIII: 13-14

16 Foursquare it shall be, being doubled; [a span the length thereof, and] 1 a span the breadth thereof. 17 And thou shalt fill therein fillings of stone, even four rows of stone: a row: a pyrope, a topaz, and an emerald, this is the first row. 18 And the second row, a chrysoprase, a sapphire, and a diamond. . 19 And the third row, a cyanus,2 an agate, and an amethyst. !ilO And the fourth row a green beryl, and a sardius, and a jasper: there shall be settings of gold in their fillings. !ill And the stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, according to their names; the engravings of each signet according to his name, shall be for the twelve tribes. !il!il And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains of the border: the work of a cord, of pure gold. !il3 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breast plate. 914 And thou shalt put the two cords of gold on the two rings at the ends of the breastplate. !il5 And the two ends of the two cords thou shalt put upon the [two] 3 settings, and shalt put them on the shoulders of the ephod over against the faces thereof. !il6 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastplate, upon the edge thereof, which is on the side of the ephod inward. !il7 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and shalt put them on the two shoulders of the ephod underneath, over against the faces thereof, next to the joining thereof, above the girdle of the ephod. !il8 And they shall connect the breastplate from the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod, by a hyacinthine band, that it may be above the girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate move not away from upon the ephod. !il9 And Aaron shall carry the names of the sons of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth into the holy place, for a memorial before Jehovah continually.
1 Omitted by Schmidius.
, A species of lazuli.
Omitted by Schmidius.

133

483~-34]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

30 And thou shalt put upon the breastplate of judgment the Drim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before J ehovah: that Aaron may carry the judg ment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah continu ally.
CONCERNING THE BREASTPLATE OF JUDGM:ENT AND THE

D RIM:

AND THUM:M:IM:

4832. Now follows a description of the inmost breastplate which was upon the middle region of the breast where is the heart, and for the sake of which the other breastplate existed. As touch ing the breastplate of judgment, this was a separate breastplate, that is, it was made separate by the Drim and Thummim which consisted of twelve jewels, as is evident from verse 30, [the out~r breastplate] being thus attached to it. 4833. What the Drim and Thummim properly signify in the Hebrew text can be evident from Deuteronomy 33 8 where Levi is treated of, and the words there from verse 8 to 11 inclusive may be looked up; also Numbers ~721, where are the words: "He shall enquire of him by the judgment of the Drim." The Drim and Thummim seem, therefore, to involve Judgment and Law, as is seen in Deuteronomy 33 10 , where we read of the Drim and Thum mim, that" they shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law." Hence this breastplate is called" the breastplate of judg ment" [vs. 30], and this from judgment and law. 4834. As to what Judgment is, see above, chapter ~11, and as to what the Law, see chapter ~o. It is these, then, that the Drim and Thummim involve. Thus they involve the words said to Moses on mount Sinai. Judgments in general involve things that are external, such as the works of the law and their judgments; but Law involves things internal. For the Law, two tables were made, but for the Law and the Judgments together, are now made two squares [vs. 16] on which were inscribed the names of the sons of Jacob; for the covenant had been entered into. This is evident, seeing that Moses wrote down the several words which Jehovah had spoken on mount Sinai, and this writing is called" the Book of the Covenant" (chapter ~44, 7); and the covenant had then been ratified by blood which is called "the blood of the covenant" (ibid. vs. 8). Concerning the covenant that was made, see ibid. 134 III Ad. 1807-1816

BREASTPLATE OF JUDGMENT

[4835-37

4835. From this it can now be evident what were the Urim and Thummim which were upon the breastplate, were carried by Aaron, and on which were inscribed the names of the sons of J acob, being so inscribed for the sake of the remembrance of the covenant. Therefore, Aaron carried it upon the center of his breast, that is, in front of his heart, which signifies the blood. 4836. As touching the names of Jacob's sons engraven on the jewels, it is evident from verse 10 above, that these names were in scribed" according to their generations," that is to say, according to the order in which they were born, as that order is given in Genesis, chapters ~9 and 30; but not according to the order given by Jacob in chapter 49, nor according to the order given by Moses in Deuteronomy 33[6-25] when judgments were pronounced concerning them, etc., etc. The order in Genesis ~9 and 30, is as follows: Reuben, Simeon, Levi; Judah, Dan, Naphtali; Gad, Asher, Issachar; Zebulun, J oseph, Benj amino In Genesis, chapter 49, it is: Reuben, Simeon, Levi; J udah, Zebulun, Issachar; Dan, Gad, Asher; Naphtali, Joseph, Benjamin, the order being such that all six who were born of Leah are put in the first place, their number being six; then those born of the handmaids, who were four in num bel'; and then those born of Rachel, who were two. In Deuter onomy, chapter 33, it is: Reuben, J udah, Levi ; Benj amin, J oseph, Zebulun; Issachar, Gad, Dan; Naphtali and Asher/-Simeon not being mentioned but excluded; thus, in the first place were all.the sons born of Leah and Rachel, except Simeon, and afterwards those born of the handmaids. 4837. Thus this breastplate with the Urim and Thummim in volves these two things, namely, JUSTICE G and HOLINESS. 6 In the supreme sense, therefore, it involves God Messiah alone, and it is clearly of Him that Moses speaks in Deuteronomy, chapter 33, verses 8-11 inclusive, when speaking of Levi and the Urim and Thummim. His words, which may be adduced, are so clear [that they plainly indicate] that by the Urim and Thummim in the su preIhesense is meant God Messiah alone,' and that He alone is
In all these lists, Swedenborg makes a horizontal line between each triplet of names. See n. 4795 note. This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin. This part of the paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written in the margin.

III Ad. 1817-18M

135

4838-39]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

Justice and Holiness. The same is also true of the words that follow concerning the rest of Jacob's sons, as in verses 18, 19, flO, fll, etc. And now, from what has been said concerning this breast plate, the remaining points can become evident. 4838. [And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment, the work of a cunning workman; like the work of the ephod (thou shalt make) 8 it; of gold, of hyacinth, and of purple, and of scarlet double-dyed, and cotton inwoven, shalt thou make it], vs. 15. First as touching the colors. We have indeed spoken of these above en. 4807] in a general way, but now we speak of them specifically as to what they signify, to wit: Gold signifies what is holy and thus divine; hyacinth or bright shining yellow with purple dots signifies grace; purple, which draws its redness from love, and its blue 9 from heaven, signifies mercy; scarlet, by reason of the covenant of blood, is merit, blood being red; cotton or white is integrity. The colors, therefore, cohere together as follows: Divine grace, mercy from love even unto death, hence justification or integrity. In respect to man, the sequence is as follows: Gold is that which corresponds to what is divine and holy, this being the inmost heaven wherein is the human soul; hyacinth to obedience which corresponds to grace; purple is thus faith which answers to mercy; scarlet is love, and in man charity; cotton or white is candor. These colors, therefore, involve the righteousness of God Messiah which is imputed to man by means of saving faith. 4839. As concerns colors in other respects, in spiritual temptation I have seen many colors. I have seen by what color universal grace was represented, namely, by a golden yellow verging to purple; furthermore, by what color mercy, love, etc., was represented, namely, by purple and blood red; what was represented by bright white, namely, integrity, truth, etc. Moreover, colors have many times been shown me with great variety, and discourse was held concerning them; but such experiences have happened to me so many times that they can hardly be numbered. Colors have been seen with the most beautiful variety, so that no one could help being moved to admiration of them. Cerulean, being a heavenly color, is espe
Omitted by Schmidius. Caeru16um, sky blue.

136

IH Ad. 18fl5-1830

EXODUS XXVIII: 15-16

[4840-43

cially lovely; but this also has its distinctions, being distinc tions in the matter of brightness, the brighter corresponding to truth, and the less bright verging to purple, to love, etc., etc. 1
4840. From what has now been said, the series can be learned, namely, the series in justice and in holiness. Here, however, we have the foundation which is called the breastplate and, indeed, by reason of the Urim and Thummim, the breastplate of judgment, being so called from Judgment and Law, as stated above En. 4833]. 4841. The work of a cunning workman signifies a new creature because a new creation in the human mind. Since this mind will be reformed, it is here likened to the work of a cunning workman. 4842. After the work of the ephod. Here it must be observed that this entire piece, namely, the ephod with the other breastplate and also the present one with the Urim and Thummim, signifies the reformation of the human mind; hence the various colors, as ob served above [n. 879 seq.] when treating of J acob's flock. But the ephod is the universal which contains all else, and which thus has in itself the power to which all else may be applied, the other breastplate being a less universal, and the present one being its singulars-entirely according to the degrees of reformation. 2 So also is it with things posterior and prime, both successively and simultaneously. Thus, in the intellectual mind, the nearer it approaches to saving faith, the nearer does it approach to imputa tive righteousness and to holiness. This is signified by the gen erals and the particulars. This is the inmost which is next to the heart; the heart being in the middle or center to which all other things direct their view; for it is the heart and blood wherein order or righteousness lies. 4843. [Foursquare it shall be, being doubled; (a span the length thereof, and) a a span the breadth thereof], vs. 16. Four square doubled signifies the same as the two tables on which was inscribed the Law. As to what the two tables signify, see above En. 4827]. Thus its length was double its breadth,4 for the sub
1 No. 4839 is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Color. See Table of Contents. 2 This paragraph is emphasized by "N B .. written twice in the margin. Omitted by Schmidius. This would be the case before it was doubled.

III Ad. 1831-1836

137

4844-45]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

ject treated of is a square, and this is called a square doubled. See what has been said above [n. 4681, 47~6, 4739, 4764 J, con cerning the dimensions of the ark, altar, etc., and what is there meant by square. 4844. [And thou shalt fill therein fillings of stone, even four rows of stone: a row: a pyrope, a topaz, and an emerald, this is the first 'row], vs. 17. The words, and thou shalt fill therein fillings of stone, are in accordance with chapter 3910, "they filled therein four rows of stone." The fillings of stone in the breastplate now described, signify that such will be the order 5 in the reformed man; for here a stone signifies what its colors signify, it being from this that the signification is taken, and not from the stone as in other cases. All the stones are called stone in the singular number, because together they signify nothing else than the righteousness of God Messiah wherein are four orders 6 and in each order three colors. It is with these then that the reformed mind must be filled, that mind namely, which is here signified by the inner breastplate, the inmost breastplate being the Urim and Thummim. Stone is twice mentioned in the singular, a fact which must be observed; for in itself the Righteousness of God Messiah is one, though distinguished into orders and [these] into classes. 4845. What the orders contain, and what the classes, is evident from the stones. The first is a pyrope or ruby, translated by others, though wrongly, a "sardius." The color of the pyrope is ruddy; thus in God Messiah it signifies mercy, to which, in man, corresponds faith, see above [n. 806J. Therefore it signifies the same as was signified above [n. 4670] by the red in purple and in scarlet double-dyed. The topaz is of a pale ot bright yellow calor. It signifies grace in God Messiah, and thus obedience in man, as above [n. 789]. The emerald is of an unlovely color; thus it signifies torments, and consequently the Messiah's passion. *The color green is an earthly color, being thus the calor of earthly and corporeal loves ; while cerulean is the color of heavenly loves. This follows both from the eyes [seeing them] and from a human representation [depicting them]. Whatever is putrescent becomes green. Blue
The Latin word ordo means both order and a row. The preceding part of this paragraph, except the first sentence, is marked " NB" written three times in the margin.

138

III Ad. 1837-1845

EXODUS XXVIII: 17-18

[4846

and green are not harmonious in a garment, even if the green turns to blue. There is a natural disharmony between green and blue. Hence this stone was for Levi.Hence then the first order/ being that of righteousness, in that, from mercy and grace, the Messiah, by his passion, merited righteousness which would be imputed to the human race by means of faith and obedience, as was the case in Abraham by the sacrifice of his son [Roms. 4 22 , Gal. 3 6 , Jas. 2 23 ]. 4846. [And the second row, a chrysoprase, a sapphire, and a diamond], vs. 18.. As touching the other stones and their colors, it can ind~ed be evident from the stones themselves what their color was; but since the Hebrew names do not well answer to these stones, seeing that the translators themselves vary,S therefore, what they
* The words between the asterisks are a later addition squeezed into available spaces. 1 ordo, meaning order or row. The wide variety in the translations is exhibited in the following table where we give the interpretations of Schmidius, Tremellius, CasteIlio, Pagnini, the Vulgate, the A.V., the old Swedish Bible, and Swedenborg in the Arcana
Ooelestia:
1
O;t( from a root meaning "to be red."

Pyrope. Schmidius, Tremellius. Sardonyx. CasteIlio. Sardi'U.!/ (Carnelian). The Vulgate, Pagnini, the A.V.,
the Swedish Bible.
9
i1,~e
T :

Ruby. Swedenborg. Topaz-all.


from a root meaning" to glitter, flash."

Emerald-all, except: Oarbuncle-The A.V. and Swedenborg.


Ql!!"ysqp'ras~s-Schmidius,Tremellius,

Swedenborg.

5 6 7

.,'eo

Oarbuncle-Castellio, The Vulgate, Pagnini. Emerald-The A.V. Ruby-The Swedish Bible. Sapphire-all. Diamond-all, except: Jasper-The Vulgate. Cyanus (a species of lazuli)-8chmidius, Tremellius, Swedenborg. Ligure-Castellio, The Vulgate, Pagnini, the A.V., the Swedish Bible. Agate-all, except: Agate or doubtful-Swedenborg.

oS-r i1'
O~?

8
9

Amethyst-all.

III Ad. 1846-1847

139

4847]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

signify can be told only by conjecture. Except for what was said above [no 4845], namely, in respect to what the colors signify, to wit, by what colors grace, mercy and love are signified; and also that the color of the sky is lovely, and green not so, I cannot as yet tell more, and this for causes which it is not permitted to publish. Most certain it is that colors contain the utmost arcana, and signify the righteousness of God Messiah and the holiness which shines through the stones like gold. Hence other colors also rise up before the sight of the people; for when the stone is transparent like the diamond, etc., it derives a color from its setting also. The colors, therefore, are according to the appearance ari~ing from their setting, that is, from holiness. Thus they cannot easily be told here, and this, moreover, because it is not yet very clear whether the stones were the same as those here designated in the Latin. To explain them, that is, to explain what the Urim and Thummim is, belongs to God Messiah alone. Its explanation is the finding of the Urim and Thummim; as also is the explanation of the law, etc., etc. I await the mercy of God Messiah, that these things may be explained. 4847. [And the stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, according to their names; the engravings of each signet according to his name, shall be for the twelve tribes], vs. ~1. From these words it can be evident that the stones, or the colors of the stones, signify the same thing as the names of the sons of Israel, that is, the names of the sons of Jacob considered in their inmost sense, and, with God Messiah, in their supreme sense. Thus the first row [vs. 17] is for the first born three sons, namely, Reuben and Simeon [and LeviJ. But in what way the emerald corresponds to Levi cannot as yet be clear, and this from the cause
10

1&'1&"l'1 Green Bm'yl-Schmidius, Tremellius.


Beryl-The A.V. The Vulgate, Pagnini. Turquoise-The Swedish Bible. Tha"shish (transliteration )-Swedenborg. D1J!:i Sardius-Schmidius, Tremellius. Onyx-Castellio, Pagnini, The Vulgate, the A.V., the Swedish Bible. Shoham (transliteration )-Swedenborg. i"1~~' Jasper-all, except: . . r Beryl-The Vulgate, Pagnini. Jasper or Beryl--Pagnini.
.9h~ysolge~Castellio,

12

140

IH Ad. 1848-1856

EXODUS XXVIII:

~1

[4848-49

of which we have spoken above [no 4846]. Still transparent green on a background of gold gives cerulean, the green not being seen; and cerulean is the love of heaven, for it signifies heaven, and thus conjunction and love. As touching the second row [vs. 18], the stone chrysoprase (according to others, the ruby 9 and so forth) is mentioned first. What the [word translated] chrysoprase means, is not yet very clear, but if it is a chrysoprase, this also verges to green; and so, being transparent, gold gives it a cerulean color. Thus like Judah it signifies the confession of faith, and this also by reason of many causes. As to the other names, such as Dan and Naphtali, it is not yet sufficiently clear what they signify in the inmost and su preme senses. But this also can perhaps be seen from the predic tion made by Jacob [Gen. 49 3- 27 ] , and from that made by Moses [Deut. 33 6- 25 ], for in some places these men looked also into in most things, that is to say, into the names in their inmost significa tions; and if these predictions be compared together, it will then be evident what each name signifies, and so what each stone signi fies in the present text; for we read here that the stones were ac cording to the twelve names of the sons of IsraeP 4848. Since answers were given by means of the Urim and Thummim, that is to say, judgments according to the law, it is clear that the colors were set in such order that the justice and holiness of God Messiah would be represented. This is evident from Numbers 27 21 It must also be observed what the order is from the first stone to the last in a descending series, that is to say, from the first stone of the first row to the first stone of the second row, and then to the first stone of the third tow and of the fourth. So, in like manner, in the second stones of each row, etc., etc. 4849. That the more interior and inmost church is represented in the more interior and inmost significations of the names of the sons of Jacob, as also in Aaron's garments, in his priesthood and in the whole of the worship, that is, the worship in the Jewish church, is a truth that is sufficiently evident. So also in the pres ent case. 2
This is the rendition in the Swedish Bible.
The latter half of this paragraph is marked "Ohs." written several times
in the margin. % This paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.
1

III Ad. 1857-1865

141

4850-53]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4850. The engravings of each signet according to his name, means that the signets on the breastplate of judgments were in scribed in accordance with what was contained in these names, etc., etc. 4851. [And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains of the border: the work of a cord, of pure gold], vs. ~~. Here the sub j ect is the connection of the breastplate [with the ephod], the breastplate consisting of a square doubled; thus the connection between those things which are signified by the breastplate and by the squares; that is to say, the connection between the Laws of the two tables and also between the judgments and the Law; and like wise between the two churches, and so between the two covenants. These connections are here compared to chains of gold, and to a cord, as was done above at verse 14, where the reader may see the explanation. Chains of the border here mean chains at the borders serving to make the breastplate sit firm on the ephod. 4852. [And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breast plate], vs. ~3. As yet I cannot well comprehend these words ex cept from a delineation, which was spoken of above [n. 4804]. This alone is clear, namely, that there was a colligation of this breastplate with that which was on the shoulders. Thus what is indicated is a connection of the one with the other, and conse quently, influx from things inmost to things more interior, as from the holy of holies to the holy place. These connections can be better understood from the connections of all the parts in the hu man body, both generally and specifically, in common and in particular. For there is nothing that is not a general, both by itself, and also together with its neighboring parts, and by these neighboring parts with all the parts in the entire body. 4853. So likewise in things spiritual; for when spiritual con nections are treated of, these connections are like their subjects, there being nothing in spiritual things that is not so connected, that it regards what is proximate to it, etc., and so, beyond this, the general. So there is nothing in the whole of nature that is not connected together in the same way; and from nature can be seen a slight image of spiritual connections. Therefore, the connec tions of spiritual things may be seen from the connections of things natural, especially in the body; as for instance, to give 14~ III Ad. 1866-1871

EXODUS XXVIII: 22-29

[4854-57

some idea of this, the connections in the breast, made by the mem branes, the pleura, and the pericardium; and thus the influx of the one into the other. So also is it in the organic substance of the mind, the connections being with things without and with things within, etc., etc. 8 4854. The following points must be observed: FIRST: The con nection of the stones with the inmost breastplate, that it is of the closest kind, the stones being inserted in the breastplate. SECOND: The connection of this breastplate with the other breastplate; THIRD, and at the same time with the ephod. FOURTH: Its con nection with the ephod by means of the other breastplate, etc., etc.-all according to rules. So likewise is it in things spiritual. In the same way there are connections of affections among them selves, of the inmost affections with the more interior, and so forth. Below, there was a connection with the girdle or belt [vs. 8] just as in the body, etc., etc. 4855. Here rings of gold are added on account of the excel lence of this breastplate even in its connection. In this way must be explained what is said in verses 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. 4856. See whether this is the place to explain spiritually what has been written concerning connection, and influx according to connection, and shown by some examples; that is to say, whether here some one thing, applicable to things spiritual and celestial, may be taken, and the series of a single connection be pursued, and from this the connection with the whole, that is, with the gen eral; THl!S THE CONNECTION OF THE lNTERIOR LAW WITH THE EX TERIOR. 4 4857. [And Aaron shall carry the names of the sons of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth into the holy place, for a memorial before J ehovah continually], vs. 29. What this breastplate with its stones signifies is seen here with the utmost clearness, to wit, in the supreme sense, God Messiah and his merit, justice, and holiness in respect to his human nature. He intercedes for the sons of Israel and is the Mediator. The repre sentation of him is set forth in Aaron when clothed with this breastplate.
I This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. This paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.

III Ad.

1872~1877

143

4858-61]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4858. In respect to the names on this breastplate, the latter is here called the breastplate of judgment; and it is also said that in it Aaron carries the names of the sons of Israel; and, in the fol lowing verse, carries" the judgment before Jehovah continually." From this it is evident that by the names of the sons of Israel are meant not names but the things which they signify, respecting which we have spoken above In. 4847] ; for we read of " carrying names," and likewise of " carrying judgment" [vs. 30] and of carrying" the breastplate of judgment." 4859. Since, therefore, Aaron carried the names of the sons of Israel; and since by these names are understood the things which they signify; it is clear that he carried those things which have been explained above [n. 4847], and thus that these sons were inscribed on the book of life. This is what is meant by carrying the names of the sons of Israel upon his heart before J ehovah, and also by "carrying the judgment" [vs. 30] ; for, as said above, judgment follows from the observance of the law, and, indeed, of the interior law. Hence the judgments are called laws; see above [n.4834]. 4860. Therefore, his carrying the names of the sons of J acob, who on account of the representation are here called sons of Israel, signified that he carried the iniquities of the whole world; for the names of these sons were exemplars of iniquities, seeing that, at the slightest occasion, they became idolaters and backsliders. What they were interiorly can thus be sufficiently evident, that is to say, what was the nature of the love and genius that led them; as, for instance, when shortly afterwards they adored a calf [chap. 3Q8J. Had not Aaron carried their names upon this breastplate, they would have been cut off from the human race, for in the near presence of God Messiah they could not have lived. 4861. Nothing is more common than to adopt names on ac count of their signification, and in the names to remember the things which they signify; otherwise the name is a dead letter. How much more so then in the case of the sons of Jacob to whom names were given from those things in the church which are in most; otherwise the names of the tribes would have had no effect, that Aaron should enter with them into the holy place, etc., etc.; nor would they have been for" a memorial to Jehovah" [vs. IQ], 144 III Ad. 1878-188Q

EXODUS XXVIII: 30

[486~-65

that is, for a remembrance, or, as stated elsewhere [chap. 39 7 ], for" a memory." 5 4862. The question arises, Who shall carry this breastplate into the holy place before J ehovah? could Aaron have done this, of whose character we read later? In his own person, Aaron was a profane man, for he abounded in iniquities. Therefore his carrying these names was a mere representation, being a repre sentation of Him who is Priest to the Most High, and is the Holy One, that is, is God Messiah who is called a Holy Man (Deut. 33 8 ). None is holy save One, and therefore none can enter into the holy place save One, being He who intercedes for sons of Israel and thus introduces them into the holy place and so to the sight of Jehovah, from whom they would have been separated to eternity had God Messiah not become Righteousness, and thus taken away damnation, that so they might be introduced. 5a 4863. For a memorial before Jehovah contiJnually, means per petual intercession through his merit, that is, through his right eousness. 4864. [And thou shalt put npon the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before Jehovah: that Aaron may carry the judg ment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah con tinually], vs. 30. That he should put upon the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim signifies that he should carry this also, for it was inserted in the gold, and so was ap pended to the breastplate of which we read in verse 15. As touch ing the Urim and the Thummim, by which are'signified the stones spoken of above on which were inscribed the names [vs. 17-~1], these words signify LIGHT and INTEGRITy.6 4865. What Light and Integrity are in inmost things and in the supreme, can be evident from the EVOLUTION OF SPIRITUAL
This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin. The last third of n. 486f.l is emphasized by "Obs. Obs." written in the margin. By Schmidius, .Tremellius, and the A.V. the words Urim. and Thummim are merely transliterated from the Hebrew. Pagnini retains the translitera tion, but adds the translation illuminations and perfections. Castellio merely translates them clarity and integrity, and the Vulgate, doctrine and truth. The Swedish version, however, gives the translation Ljua ock Fullkomlighet (light and completeness or integrity). The last statement in n. 4864 is emphasized by "Obs." written in the margin.

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THINGS FROM: NATURAL. In the proximate sense, light belongs to natural sight like the light of the eye; in the interior. sense, it is spiritual light together with natural; this merely resembles natural light when man is asleep and dreaming.

To me, on innumerable occasions when my eyes were closed, it appeared exactly like the light of day, with various objects seen as at midday.7 This is the light that makes quasi-visual representations, phanta sies/ and the like, and it is the light of the natural mind. As a fatuous light, it exists also in animals, as I think. But respecting this light various things can be said. Spiritual light, on the other hand, is that in which intelligence is presented, and the objects of this light are the objects of the intellect. Hence the intellect of this mind is itself called spiritual light. A light still higher, being the light of the soul, is the suprace1estia1 light which comes from celestial love. This is the light that sees ends in things, and from it, in the spiritual mind, comes the beholding of ends. Hence this light is called wisdom, and its objects are the objects of wisdom, these being ends. This light is the light of the soul, and is what makes man. Thus it is concerned with truths, and there is then a light truly spiritual descending from this supracelestial light. Thus it is also faith. In the supreme sense, light, that is to say, the Urim. speaking in a human manner, is wisdom, but divine wis dom; and when it is concerned with ends and with things to come, it is previdence and thus providence. 9 These then are the things which the Urim signify, namely, that all ends look to the last end, that is, to the kingdom of God Messiah-things which are most fully present in God Messiah. 4866. As touching the Thummim, it signifies integrity. As to what it signifies in the inmost sense and in the supreme, this also can be known by evolution. In the proximate sense, integrity is beauty, or an external form which is in agreement with the laws of order. In the interior sense, integrity is the harmony of spiritual things with natural, from which harmony descends true beauty;
1

This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora

bilia.

i.e., imaginative pictures. This treatment of light and its degrees is emphasized by "Obs." written three times in .the margin.

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[4867-69

it is also natural goodness, that is to say, the being morally good from inclination-something which exists also in certain kinds of animals. In the more interior sense, integrity, being human in tegrity proper, is a good disposition, that is to say, is spiritual goodness, whence comes charity from mercy or from love, etc., etc. In the inmost sense, integrity is righteousness imputed from faith; for that which is entire is righteous. Righteousness is not pos sible in man, but the righteousness of God Messiah is imputed to him; whence love and charity, etc., descend into his inteUeetual mind and will. In the supreme sense, integrity is the holiness ac quired in the Messiah, whence his merit; and that there might be merit, he was born of a virgin; hence came weaknesses, without which there would be no merit. 4867. Thus it is now evident what the Urim and Thummim are which Aaron carried upon the breastplate of judgment, namely, Light and Integrity, thus justice and holiness, and so God Messiah himself and his kingdom which is the end of ends, there being nothing that does not look to it; thus glory, etc. Hence the Urim and Thummim are called judgment, and the breastplate is called the breastplate of judgment,! etc., 'etc. And these are upon Aaron's heart. As to what heart signifies, this the reader may see above [n. 4816, 4835]. 4868. Thus Aaron carried the judgment of the sons of Israel before J ehovah. These words can now be understood from the things already said, when these have been reduced into order. Here they are touched on in a scattered way, and this because of certain causes; for what the Urim and Thummim, etc., etc., are,_2 4869. It must by all means be observed that Aaron, as high priest, represents the head, and the church the body of that head. Thus from Aaron's garments can be seen the nature of the church, just as, from the head, can be seen the nature of the body.s What will be the garments of the church of God Messiah, that is to say, its spiritual garments, can thus be evident, namely, that they will be of gold inwoven with purple, etc., etc. It being the church and her garments that are here signified, it follows that the faith
1 The preceding words are emphasized by "Ohs." written twice in the margin. These indented words are not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.

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which makes the church is signified, namely, that spiritual and celestial thing which is in the church. 3 From faith then come in order the remaining garments, which are to be explained. And since faith is the faith of the church, it necessarily follows that He is Priest to the Most High, who gives saving faith. These then are the arcana which lie concealed herein. Afterwards all the Israelites 4 constitute this same head, as a composite priest or man; 5 and in them we meet with the same things as thOSe which are to be applied to Aaron's garments.~ Hence Reuben, the firstborn, who represents the society of the Jewish church, was named from faith, and the remaining sons were afterwards named from the things which come from faith. ~ These then are the names which Aaron carried on his breast, and which he thus represented; to this, therefore, they may be applied. The ark, however, represents the kingdom of God Messiah, and thus also the church; but it does not therefore represent Aaron's clothing. 6 Let this be looked into. EXODUS XXVIII 31 And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of hyacinth. And the mouth of its head shall be in the centre thereof: there shall be a lip for its mouth round about, the work of the weaver; it shall be for it as the lip of a corselet, that it be not rent. 33 And upon the fringes of it thou shalt make pomegranates of hyacinth, and of purple, and of scarlet double-dyed, upon its fringes round about; and the bells of gold in the midst of them round about: ' 34 A bell of gold and a pomegranate, a bell of gold and a pomegranate, upon the fringes of the robe round about. 35 And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: that the sound thereof may be heard when he goeth into the holy place before J ehovah, and when he cometh out; that he die not.
3~
CONCERNING THE ROBE

4870. From Leviticus, chapter 8 7 ,8, it is evident that the checkered tunic [vs. 4] was next the body; then came the robe, and
This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin, also written at the head of n. 4869. The autograph has J 68uita6 which is apparently a slip, This sentence is marked " NB." This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin. "Obs." is

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over the robe the ephod with its shoulder pieces where were the onyx stones which in this way were joined to the ephod.. Lastly came the breastplate of judgment with the Urim and Thummim. It is also evident that there were two belts, one by which the checkered tunic was gathered in, and the other by which the ephod. Such was the order in Aaron's putting on of the garments. In this chapter, however, it is first commanded that there shall be the ephod with its shoulder pieces, a belt, and the Urim and Thummim; then the robe, and so the checkered tunic-thus in an order contrary to that of the putting on, or of the clothing as it was around Aaron. That such is the order, arises from the fact that in formation, as in the formation of man by his soul, that is, in the creation of man, commencement is made from inmosts, and then all things that follow flow on in order, that they may apply themselves to every end and every use, that in this way, causes and effects may arise from principles, and so, may wholly represent themselves in substances and forces, and in all things that concern substance and influx. Hence the formation commences from the ephod, then comes the robe, and then the checkered tunic which was next to the body, this tunic thus representing the body or outmost. But when Aaron was clothed, the order was reversed, as signifying the putting on of the human essence both in things spiritual and in things celestial, this being done in the reverse order, namely, from things exterior to things more interior, though not to things inmost. In this way, also, that which is inmost, to wit, the Urim and Thummim, becomes apparent before the eyes, so that all other things are seen from their principles. Thus they look from the prior to things posterior, as do angels; just as adult men who are reformed, being in natural things, look at these from things spiritual and celestial. Thus order is observed. 4871. Aaron's garments are distinguished into three divisiohs, being degrees, as it were, namely [1] The checkered tunic. This was next to the body, to which it was thus adherent, as it were, that is to say, which it covered; moreover, the body was to be washed before putting it on, as is evident from Leviticus 8 6 That it might be entirely distinct from the ephod, this tunic was girded with a belt. [2] The second distinct class was the ephod, under which was the robe, and upon which were the onyx stones, which belonged to the ephod. The robe served it as an under-garment or foundation, and the stones of the shoulders were above it. That III Ad. 1915-1920 149

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THE WORD EXPLAINED

it might be distinguished from the former garment, it also was girded about with a belt, as we read [in verse 8] ; for it is said of the robe that it was under the ephod, not that it was over the checkered tunic [Lev. 87 ]. [3] The third class was the breast plate of judgment with the Drim and Thummim above the belt. Before the eyes of the people, this was the outmost, but in itself it is the inmost because it was over the heart. Moreover, by near ness to the heart, are signified, at the same time, things that are inmost, for it was the Urim and Thummim that was over the heart, while all other things, such as capes and, in the last place, things that cover the whole body, are considered as distances from the heart. 4872. As touching gold and silver in general, I have learned from what has many times been represented to me in dreams, that gold signifies things celestial and so things supracelestial, and, consequently, celestial affections coming from the love of heaven or from divine love. Silver, on the other hand, signifies spiritual things even to those spiritual things that are supreme. Thus it signifies truths and intelligence, while gold signifies goodnesses and things pertaining to the will. 4873. From the description of the robe, it can now be evident what kind of under-garment it desig~ates, for it was under the ephod in place of a foundation. It is evident from the ephod, that the robe signifies all that which contributes to the sustenance and nourishment of saving faith, thus signifying the church; just as the ephod is a like source for the sustenance and nourishment of the inmost church or faith. This becomes more clear, however, when the connections are considered, and hence the relations of the faculties and the influx of the superior faculties into the inferior, that is to say, of the soul into the human mind, and of the latter through the natural mind, into the actions and sensations of the body. This, moreover, can be set forth before the eyes, so that an idea of this relation can be obtained.' 4874. [And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of hyacinth], vs. 31. The robe was to consist all of hyacinth. Hyacinthine is a cerulean color verging to a pale, being thus a heavenly and lovely color; yet there is something of red in it, and
T Nos. 4870-4873 are emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin.

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EXODUS XXVIII: 31-3fl

[4875-76

hence a certain yellowness. From its composition, and also from the fact that it served as the foundation of the ephod, it can be evident that the robe signifies charity. This is the foundation of all heavenly affections; for as all heavenly affections come from love, so charity comes immediately therefrom, charity being love toward the neighbor arising from pity of him whom one considers as oneself. Thus one transfers the love of oneself into another, as though into another self, and this ever more, according to vari ous circumstances, etc., etc. Charity, therefore, is the foundation of aU those things which the ephod signifies, for which reason that ephod was woven of so many colors ; but the robe was of one simple color, that is, of hyacinth, being heavenly blue verging to purple,s etc., etc. 4875. [And the mmtth of its head shall be in the centre thereof: there shall be a lip for its mouth round about, the work of the weaver; it shall be for it as the lip of a corselet, that it be not rent], vs. 3fl. This robe or tunic under the ephod was a con tinuous whole made of a single weave. It was not divided, in order that it might signify charity which must be continuous and must nowhere be rent; and likewise that it might be put on over the head and thus that the very putting on might signify that the charity descends from the head, which, by the putting on, it thus sur rounded. The head of charity is the love of God Messiah, thus is God Messiah himself. That the robe might remain an entire gar ment after being put on, its mouth was surrounded with a lip which was woven like the lip of a corselet, and this for the evident reason that it might not be rent, as said in the text itself. It is [as] the mouth of a corselet in order that like a corselet it might be kept from being rent. 9 4876. Hence then we read of the Messiah's tunic, that it was without seam, or was of a single Weave from top to bottom, and that, lest it be torn after his death, the soldiers cast lots for it, while the other garments they parted, as we read [in John] ; and this, because the other garments, which were parted, are the works of charity from faith, respecting which there are schisms, etc., etc.; Gonfer Psalm flfl19, John 19 23 , 24, and also the three other
Confer n. 4670. Nos. 4874--4875 are emphasized by "N B" written several times in the margin.
8

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THE WORD EXPLAINED

Gospels, for they all agree in this. Even the scribes and Pharisees agree that the foundation of all law is love toward the neighbor as toward oneself, and love toward God above oneself [Mark 19l32-34, Luke 10 27 ]. This no one denies, and therefore it is whole and con stant. But as regards the works that come from charity, dispute does arise concerning these, as it arose concerning the other gar ments which are parted by the soldiers or disputers. 1 4877. [And upon the fringes of it thou shalt make pomegran a,tes of hyacinth, and of purple, and of scarlet double-dyed, upon its fringes round about; and bells of gold in the midst of them round about], vs. 33. In the fringes were pomegranates woven of hyacinth, purple, and scarlet double-dyed. As touching the fringes, this robe or covering projected down to the feet, thus ex tending from the top or head beyond the loins to the feet. From this it is evident that these fringes signify the fruits of charity; wherefore also they were distinguished by various colors, namely, hyacinth, purple, and scarlet double-dyed, all which colors are varieties coming from love and thus from charity, and referring themselves to the passion of the Messiah. If the continuity of this robe be regarded, then the putting of it on over the head was the descent or act of charity from love; and its reaching down to the feet, and the fringes being thus adorned, signifies, as was said, the fruits of charity; for in this way they refer themselves to the checkered tunic next the body, this being of cotton [vs. 39], and thus making one with the cotton [of the ephod], this being the fourth color in the ephod, the belt round the ephod, etc. [vs. 6, 8]. 4878. Thus one thing is continued into another from head to foot. Hence, what is signified is a continuation and successive steps in each degree in the approach to generals whereby they conjoin themselves with the particulars of a lower degree. Here they are directed to superior and inferior degrees, just as are the distinct varieties of the garments, and to the successively following degrees in each; and this in order that, as they look to things superior, so they may refer themselves to things inferior. s 4879. As touching the feet, these signify things natural; that is to say [the extension of the robe indicates] the manner in which
1 This paragraph is emphasized by " Obs. bene" followed by " Obs." written four times in the margin. This paragraph is emphasized by " NB" written twice in the margin.

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[4880-81

spiritual things seem to communicate below with natural things, when yet there is no such conjunction but only a certain kind of approach. Feet signify natural things, while soles signify the lowest natural things, such as things corporeal. Hence it is evi dent whence come the fringes and also their variegations in colors, namely, by reason of the natural things wherein these appear; it is not the same in things spiritual, where varieties are far more nu merous and distinct, though they do not appear in the same way before the eyes. Consequently, they signify those things which refer themselves to the natural man when conj oined with the spir itual. Still aU these varieties refer themselves to white, that is, to truth which is signified by the cotton. 4880. Pomegranates were there woven in, to the end that apples might be signified, for in the life of integrity was the genuine apple. Here it is a pomegranate 4 on account of the purple color of its seeds, the division into many compartments, their multi tude, and their triple savor, being sweet, acid, and sourish-sweet, etc. Thus they refer themselves to the tree of knowledge and its fruit,5 being that of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and also, when [this knowledge] descends from the head and is thus born and produced, to the tree of life; for the tree of knowl edge was the offspring of the tree of life, and therefore both trees were in the midst of paradise [Gen. ~9] ; but to ascend from things natural to things spiritual or from loves of the world and self to celestial love is forbidden, as the reader may see above. 4881. [A bell of gold and a pomegranate, a bell of gold and a pomegranate, upon the fringes of the robe round about], vs. 34. This signifies the same thing, there being here a repetition. Con nection is such that circumferences or, what amounts to the same thing, bottoms refer themselves to things still lower. There are marvellous connections between spiritual things and natural, and also relations and influxes; and these might be comprehended from natural things if men were to give attention to the causes of
The word for pomegranate used by Schmidius is malogranatum, which Swedenborg here varies to pomegranatum. Malum and Pomum both mean any tree fruit having a soft flesh, such as apples, peaches, etc., and pomum also in cludes berries; see n. 1008 note. Pomegranatum thus means "fruit having grainS." Here, however, and in other passages, by pomum, Swedenborg un doubtedly meant " apple"; see n. 893 and 29~. Pomum.

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THE WORD EXPLAINED

things, and not merely to effects. But to tell just a little about them would be to confuse ideas that are in ignorance concerning these combinations. In Aaron's garments, however; they are rep resented to the least detail. Of the bells of gold in the middle of the pomegranates, we speak in the next verse. 6 4882. [And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: that the sound thereof may be heard when he goeth into the holy place before J ehovah, and when he corneth out; that he die not], vs. 35. In the proximate sense, the reason why a bell of gold was to hang between 7 each pomegranate, is that the people might hear it, and so might be aroused to holy thoughts; likewise, that when Aaron entered into the holy place, they might thus represent to themselves his garments; for sound has the effect of presenting to the internal sight the same things as sight itself does. As to what effect is produced among angels by holy thought in a human mind, together with a holy representation; and as to how the angels of God Messiah perceive the same things spiritually, and so are affected; this can be confirmed by many particulars. s By means of angels and of the human soul, it is so also with God Messiah himself, he being gladdened at the divine and supracelestial things thus presented in natural objects which represent his kingdom; for such representations are admitted, and they open heaven, while all others close it. So surely a people which is in concord in this respect, that heavenly things are represented in natural 9 -such a people, with pious and holy thought directed to God Messiah, puts on the sacerdotal kingdom, and is, as it were, a choir of angels whose representations continually center around such
The autograph has " in the next two verses," whereas the real reference is to verse 35. This is a consequence of an error that runs throughout this section. The previous section is headed" Exod. XXVIlI verso IS to 31 incl.," whereas the commentary covers only verses 15-30. So Swedenborg heads the next sec tion "Exod. XXVIII vs. 32-35 incl.," and he commences his commentary (n. 4874) with" vs. 32," though actually it covers verse 31. Again, in n. 4875, he commences with "vs. 33" which should be verse 39. In n. 4877 he repeats" vs. 33," and this time it is correct, but in n. 4881, he again repeats" verso 33" when it should be " verso 34." And in n. 4g8>! he has "vers. 34 and 35," which should be" verso 35." We know of no edition of the Bible where the division of verses differs from that given in the present translation. The autograph has " from." From this point on, n. 4889 is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin. [Crossed off:] and, indeed, by means of truths.

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[4883-85

things as concern the kingdom of God Messiah. It is especially so in the present case, from [the seeing of] Aaron's garments. Hence responses are given by the Urim and Thummim. Thus heaven is opened in man, and a passage from the earthly paradise to the heavenly; and in this way, responses are given from the heavenly. Not so when the people is perverse and profane. Then the face of God Messiah is turned away from that people, and the door of heaven is closed and is guarded by cherubs. 1 From this it can now be evident what saving faith effects, namely, that it opens heaven which must otherwise be closed; for in this way it is given man to taste of the tree of life, as we read in the Apocalypse [~7J. 4883. Since the sound [of the bells] produced such effects, therefore by " a bell of gold" [vs. 34], that is signified which puts forth this effect, the ultimate instrumental being generally as sumed for the principal. The bell produces a sound, and by the hearing the sound passes over into the sight, and so into a repre sentation of Aaron then entering into the holy place; and then at the same time comes holy thought. Hence then the bell was of gold by reason of the holiness, etc., etc. 4884. Pomegranates signify the fruits of faith, and thus the ultimate natural effects which are set forth to view by the Supreme by means of order from things celestial all the way to natural effects-like the apples 2 of the earthly paradise; see above [n. 4880]. It may be seen then that these [effects] designate a rep resentation of the earthly paradise. For as all the rites of the Jewish church were instituted in ultimate nature in order that they might signify things inmost, so all the present rites signify the earthly paradise whereby there is then a passage into the heavenly, etc., etc. 4885. But there is here another meaning concealed in the bell, the pomegranate, and in the words that the sound may be heard when he goeth into the holy place; that he die not, namely, that as priest he should teach the people concerning the true effects of charity, and so concerning the fruits of faith here signified by the pomegranates in the fringes. Wherefore it is said in the text that the sound should be heard whenever he went into the holy place.
t [Crossed off:] lest the profane thoughts from their representations come to God Messiah himself, as can be seen later on from many passages, [as] that He did not will to be present, etc., etc. poma. See n. 4880 note.

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For unless the priest announces to the people the doctrine of faith and such like things as are heavenly, their blood will be required of him, that is, he shall die; otherwise he will live; as is said to the prophet Jeremiah, if I mistake not. 8 These points may be further developed, for they entirely coincide with the interior sense.~ 4886. As further concerns representation from sound, I do not yet see all the concordance; wherefore it should be further looked into as to whether they do concord, and whether it is allowed to bring these points out in public. 6

EXODUS XXVIII
36 And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and shalt grave upon it the engravings of a signet, Holiness to J ehovah. 37 And thou shalt put it on a thread of hyacinth, that it may be upon the mitre; over against the faces of the mitre it shall be; 38 That it may be upon Aaron's forehead, and that Aaron may carry the iniquity of the holy things which the sons of Israel shall hallow in all the gifts of their holy things; and may be upon his forehead continually, for good pleasure for them before Jehovah. 39 And thou shalt checker the tunic of cotton, and thou shalt make a mitre of cotton; and thou shalt make a belt, the work of the embroiderer. 40 And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make tunics, and thou shalt make for them belts, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for honor and for splendor. 41 And thou shalt put them upon them; upon Aaron thy brother, and upon his sons with him; and thou shalt anoint them, and infill their hand, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. 4~ And make them breeches of linen to cover the flesh of nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall be: 43 And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they enter into the tent of assembly, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they carry not iniquity, and die. The statute of an age for him and for his seed after him.
The reference is to Ezekiel 331-1 6. See n. 4536. This last sentence is marked " N B." This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.

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CONCERNING THE MITRE AND THE TUNIC, etc.

[4887-88

4887. [And thou shalt rnake a plate of pure gold, and shalt grave upon it the engravings of a signet, Holiness to J ehovah], vs. 36. First, as touching the plate of pure gold, in Exodus 39 30 it is called" a crown of holiness," and in Leviticus 8 9 , " a layer 6 of gold," and in Exodus ~96, " a crownwork." 1 From what follows it is evident that the" crown of holiness" is none other than God Messiah, for in verse 38 we read that thus he "shall carry the iniquity of the holy things which the sons of Israel shall hallow," etc. He is called the " crown of holiness" in respect to J ehovah his Father, for he protects his holiness like a crown, approach to Jehovah the Father being by him alone, and all the command ments are transmitted through him as the Word. s In respect to God Messiah and thus to Jehovah the Father, the Holy Spirit is likewise a " crown of holiness" (as to the mitre [vs. ~] being the mark of a high priest signifying the head of the church, see below [n. 4896]), and thus also the church, the church in respect to God Messiah being called his crown. Hence also the wife is called the crown of the husband [1 Cor. U 3 , Ephes. 5 23 ] ; and hence crowns are given to brides when they are joined [in marriage], see Paul on this subject. 9 Hence 1 also a frontlet 2 was given to Rebekah when she was betrothed to Isaac (Genesis ~447), this frontlet being called "a frontlet of gold" upon her forehead, see the passage [vs. ~~]. 4888. Here it was a plate; that is to say, gold, signifying love and goodness, encircled like a crown that which was engraved,
The Hebrew word which Schmidius here translates lamina is the same as that which in the present text he translates brachtea (plate). Here Schmidius translates as coronamentum the same Hebrew word which in Exodus 3930 he translates corona; see n. 4684 note. The reference to Exodus 996 is an addition written above the line. S This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. This reference to Paul probably refers to the preceding sentence, for Paul does not speak of crowning brides. This, however, is a very ancient custom among heathens and was early adopted by the Christian church, though not without opposition by some of the church Fathers. 1 [Preceding this word, the following unnumbered paragraph is crossed off by the Author:] But here, in place of a crown it was represented by a plate of gold, this plate signifying love, goodness, charity, and hence holiness. Swedenborg first wrote" Hence also the like (that is to say, a plate)." The words in parentheses were then crossed off and were replaced by monile (frontlet) written above the line.

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namely, H oliJness to J ehovah, this engraving being called in Exodus 39 30 " the writing of writings." So also the divine essence of God Messiah is holiness encircled with gold as with a crown, which latter thus signifies his Human (the altar also is called" Holiness of holi nesses " [Exodus ~937]) ; 3 hence the words that follow in verse 38. [The engraving is called] "the writing of writings" because all divine writings are concerning him; hence the same is said to be engraved 'with the engravings of a signet. 4 4889. [And thou shalt put it on a thread of hyacinth, that it may be upon the mitre; over against the faces of the mitre it shall be], vs. 37. It is put on a thread of hyacinth, that it may signify the divine and also the supracelestial and the celestial; for this calor signifies the same thing here [as above, n. 4754, 4874], namely, divine Love. 4890. The subject now to be treated of is the mitre. That the plate was on the forehead or over against the faces, which means the same thing, signifies [that it was on] the supreme region of man, this being his forehead; for there is his face, aspect, eyes, and the many things which are within and which clearly establish that here is the supreme region of man being thus in the supreme place. It is said over against the faces, because all the internal faces shine forth from the countenance, and this in the order in which they are in the man. Thus this place of gold was put on all the regions of the man. The face is in front, moreover, for the sake of the aspect, that is to say, for the sake of the looking-of which matter, God Messiah granting, we speak elsewhere. 4891. [That it may be upon Aaron's forehead, and that Aaron may carry the iniquity of the holy things which the sons of Israel shall hallow in all the gifts of their holy things; and may be upon his forehead continually, for good pleasure for them before Je hovah], vs. 38. Here it is plainly said upon Aaron's forehead. Moreover, what this crown of holiness signifies, is indicated in the words, that thus he may carry the iniquity of the holy things, that is, of the gifts, and consequently of all the offerings spoken of above [no 4664 seq.]. These are not holy in themselves but they
The words which we have put in parentheses are a later addition to the text.

Soulptu1-is sigilli. This is the translation given by Tremellius and (in the margin) by Pagnini. Schmidius' words are soulpes soulplu1"as sigilli.

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are sanctified by means of God Messiah. Here, therefore, as is evident from what follows, holy things signify things that have been kept for God Messiah, being things which sons of Israel will sanctify, that is to say, will consecrate, by reason of the iniquities which Aaron thus carries off. But it is not said in the text that Aaron took them away, but that the crown of holiness did this; for without the crown of holiness, that is, without God Messiah, there was no redemption. Nor could the gold and the engraving take them away, this being the work of a cunning workman, but [only] He who was signified by the crown of holiness. This, therefore, was a representation. 4892. In all the gifts of their holy things, that is, the gifts consecrating and the gifts consecrated, these being many in number. That it is a representation, and thus a remembrance of God Messiah, is now evident from the words: and may be upon his forehead continually, for good pleasure for them before Jehovah, that is to say, that thus He may show grace and mercy, this being what is signified, in the supreme sense, by good pleasure. 4893. [And thou shalt checker the tunic of cotton, and thou shalt make a mitre of cotton; and thou shalt make a belt, the work of the embroiderer], vs. 39. Here, as specifically regards the mitre, this was of cotton, as also was the tunic which was next to the body; indeed, both were of cotton. The mitre together with the tunic signifies the church of God Messiah and thus saving faith. This church is described almost everywhere as clothed in a white garment, and it is so described because of the signification of the color white, that is, of purity, and cleanness from iniquities. But, inasmuch as there are classes of the church according to degrees, it is the inmost church that is here signified by the mitre, for that church which is the inmost is also the supreme, and on this therefore is placed the crown of holiness. As there are three principal regions in the human body, namely, first that of the head, second, the pectoral region, and third the region under the breast which is called the abdominaJ,5 so the church is now designated in accordance with these regions, to wit, the inmost church in the head, by the mitre; the next to it, by the upper part of the checkered tunic; and the lower, by the lower part of the tunic up to the loins. As to the remaining parts and their being covered by breeches lest
The autograph has thomc1ca.

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their nakedness be seen, see verse 4~. Whether the matter be ex pressed by the upper and lower regions in man, or by nearer and more remote distances from the heart, it amounts to the same thing, for in the former case the forehead is the center, and in the latter, the heart is the center. Hence both the mitre and the checkered tunic were of cotton. 6 4894. That the tunic is said to be checkered, means that it was woven and so was a single piece like the Messiah's tunic, spoken of by John the Evangelist [John 19 23 J and by David [Psalm ~~18], as stated above [n. 4876] ; that is to say, that so the church from its highest to its lowest would be made one, being thus joined to gether from love. To divide this church was not allowed them. That the checkered tunic was woven, is evident from chapter 39 27 where it is called" the work of the weaver." The '* fact that the tunic was a single piece, signifies integrity of life; and that it was 'of the color of cotton, signifies that it was without blots or in iquities; for, as we read [verses 36, 38], the crown of holiness takes away all iniquities. * The mitre also was woven entire, for we read of the tunic, the mitre, and the belt, that they were the work of the embroiderer or weaver. 4895. The belt signifies the conjoining bond, thus the conjugial love of God Messiah with the church, for the bride is clothed with a white tunic. But concerning this, see elsewhere, and also in the Apocalypse where, if I mistake not, there is frequent mention of a white garment for those who are in the church [Apoc. 3 5 , 44, 79 ,13 seq'J, or for her who is the bride [Apoc. 19]. 4896. [And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make tunics, and thou shalt make for them belts, and bonnets 7 shalt thou make for them, for honor and for splendor], vs. 40. As touching Aaron's sons, they were priests; and thus, together with the rest of the Levites, they afterwards constituted the kingdom of the priesthood, being the sacerdotal kingdom. They were thus like a body, while Aaron represented the head. Therefore Aaron had a mitre with the en graving, but his sons had only tiaras and tunics without any other garment, and therefore had only the insignia of the church, which, as the priesthood, they formed, see verse 41; and consequently, the
5

[Crossed off: I Cotton signifies truth. * The part between the asterisks is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin. See n. 4970 note.

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bond signified by the belt. The rest follows of itself, seeing that Aaron's sons, together with the Levites, represented a compound person like a society, while Aaron represented the Person Himself, as the reader may see frequently stated above. As to the words for honor and for splendor, see above at verse ~. 4897. [And thou shalt put them upon them; upon Aaron thy brother, and upon his sons with him; and thou shalt anoint them, and infill their hand, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office], vs. 41. The garments now repre sented the priesthood; thus the things in those garments, one and all, represent something in the church of God Messiah, and, be cause in the church, therefore in God Messiah who is his church and who, being the Head, is thus represented by Aaron's garments. As concerns the anointing, see Leviticus, chapter 8[1 2 1. See like wise Leviticus, chapter 8[27-8] 8 as to the infilling of hands. 4898. That they were to be sanctified, means that they were to be consecrated and initiated into the ministry, for Aaron and the Levites were not holy; they were merely represented as holy by their garments. That they may minister unto me in the priest's office; see below [Num. 3 12 ] as to how that the Levites were chosen for the priesthood in place of all the firstborn of the sons of Israel, etc., etc. That Aaron and his sons were not therefore holy, can be evident from many other passages, and also from what now fol lows in verse 43, to the effect that they had breeches lest they should carry iniquity and die; see the verse itself. Thus, it was the garments appearing before the eyes, that were represented as holy, like Elijah's tunic with its belt,9 which were left to Elisha [~ Kings ~13] ; and like Moses' rod, etc., etc. After the fall, all that is human is profane, the root of evil being inherent in it. Actualities do indeed add new roots, but these are radical iniquities for which man is excused. Therefore it is actual iniquities that are expiated. Hence infants, as not having actual iniquities, be long to God Messiah, etc., etc. 1
In the A.V., this reads: "And he put all upon Aaron's hand and upon his sons' hands . . . they were consecrations for a sweet savor"; but Schmidius renders the latter words more literally "these infillings were fol' an odor of rest." See n. 4901. The text here cited makes no mention of Elijah's belt, but this belt or girdle is spoken of in verse 8 of the preceding chapter. 1 The last half of this paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written four times in the margin.

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4899. As regards the first part of the text, he, that is, Moses, was to clothe them with the garments, because he was the executor of the commands of God Messiah. Thus it was as though God Messiah himself clothed them, for what is done by His delegate is as though done by himself. That it was Moses who clothed them, and carried out these commands, see Leviticus, chapter 8[6 seq.J. Thus he clothed them with the priesthood while clothing them merely with the garments of the priesthood. It was therefore an external form that was now regarded in this church, for they were of such a nature that they would do nothing more than represent internals by externals. But what is signified, is the garments that the internal or spiritual men would put on; see above [n. 4869]. 4900. As touching the anointing, this was done with oil. They were also sprinkled with the blood of the victim, respecting which see Leviticus 8[30J. The oil could not be holy, for it was oil from a tree; but being the juice of a tree wherein exists its heat and light, oil is here taken for the life of the tree. More expressly it is taken for a flame, for the lamps were lit with the holy oil; thus when there was a flame there was also fire and light, and these rep resent the same as does the blood in an animate creature, namely, both heat and life, or, spiritually, spiritual love and hence light. 4901. And mfill their hand, that is; as we read in Leviticus 8[27-281,2 infill it with the things that were to be sacrificed. Thus they would have in their hands the things belonging to their ex ternal worship, this consisting of sacrifices, etc. In these also were represented things internal, just as they were represented by the garments. See Leviticus, chapter 8; 4902. And sanctify them, that is, consecrate them, that so they might represent the priesthood, that is, the church of God Messiah, and thus God Messiah himseI! who is the soul of the church. 4903. [And make them breeches of linen to cover the flesh of nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall be], vs. 42. What it signifies, that they were to make breeches to cover nakedness, can be evident from Adam and Eve after the fall, that they were ashamed of their nakedness [Gen. 3 7 ]. Here nalcedness also signifies guilt, both hereditary guilt and the actual vices springing therefrom, that is to say, vices committed through the member of shame, by which member are evel'ywhere signified loves,
2

See n. 4897 note.

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and, after the fall, the loves of the world and of self, which form man's life prior to regeneration. This is the flesh of nakedness, for these vices arise from the flesh and from cupidity. Such loves are wholly repugnant to the conjugial love of God Messiah with the church, and therefore are never in harmony with the significa tion of the garments; nay, neither is the rest of Aaron;s body, for which reason Moses first washed it, doing this also because of the representation; see Leviticus, chapter 8[6]. 4904. This region, moreover, is the lowest region in man, and is entirely distinct from the two superior regions, as, for instance, from the thoracic; for thither, the intestines and so forth, cast off 3 the filthy matters which are separated from the blood and humors, etc. Thus the posterior part in man is likened to hell whither un clean things are rejected. This region, therefore, extends from the loins to the thighs. As regards the feet, these signify things natural, etc., etc. 4905. [And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they enter into the tent of assembly, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; 4 that they carry not in iquity, and die. The statute of an age for him and for his seed after him], vs. 43. That the things [spoken of above, n. 4903-4 ] are not in harmony with the holy place is here indicated in plain words; for they would then carry iniquity and die. From these words it is again evident that it was the garments alone that rep resented the holy church, etc.; for that which stood forth naked was profane; not so that which was clothed. So also was it in the tabernacle, by reason of the sight of the people, whereby repre sentations were made in the presence of a choir of angels, as stated above, n. 4882,* whose office it is perpetually to represent the king dom of God Messiah in divers ways. Thus from the representa tions of the garments through the eyes of the people, angels had a complete representation of the church and kingdom of God Mes siah, so that they were fuIIy concordant. And they were made glad by reason of a like representation with the people, because 5 thus angels in many ways had a better understanding of mysteries;
3 Reading rejiciunt for lej'iC'iuntul. See n. 5056 note. * The reference in the autograph is to n. 1951, being that part of n. 488~ which commences " By means of angels" and ends "while all others close it." Reading quia for qui.

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and these, with their varieties, they again represented, and in this way, the representations passed over, as it were, to God Messiah, etc., etc. 6 4906. As regards the last words of the text, to wit, that this shall be the statute of an age for him and for his seed afte1 him, in the proximate sense, this involves that the high priest must be thus girt with breeches when he approaches the altar, etc.; in the in terio'r sense, that their worship consisted in externals, to the end that their iniquities might not be seen; in the more interior sense, that when they come into the holy place and to the altar, that is, when they draw near to God Messiah, profane loves are to be put away, that is to say, are in this way to be removed from His eyes, for none can draw near to God Messiah with profane loves. But this statute was a statute for the people and its seed; consequently, it was also for those who are eaten up with profane loves; the statute namely, that they should draw near by means of external worship, they being unable at that time to do this by means of in ternal worship. Therefore, the more interior sense has no place in them, this sense being almost inseparable from the interior and ex ternal sense; for the latter is dominant in their mind, and also out side-of which matter a conception can be obtained from the or ganic substance of the more interior brain. Therefore we read that this shall be the statute of an age for him, that is, for the priests, and also for the people which desires to be " a kingdom of priests" according to Exodus 19 6 .* The putting on of the other garments was also the statute of an age, as is evident from the next chapter, ~99; in the same chapter, verse ~9, these are called" gar ments of holiness." EXODUS XXIX 1 And this is the word that thou shalt do [unto them] 7 to sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. Take one bullock, a son of the herd, and two rams entire. ~ And bread from things unleavened, and cakes from things unleavened mingled with oil, and wafers from things unleavened anointed with oil: of fine flour of wheat shalt thou make them.
The latter two-thirds of this paragraph are emphasized by "Obs. Obs." written four times in the margin. * This latter half of n. 4906 is emphasized by " Obs." written four times in the margin. 1 Omitted by Schmidius.

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3 And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them near in the basket; and also the bullock and the two rams. 4 And thou shalt cause Aaron and his sons to draw near unto the door of the tent of assembly, and shalt wash them with waters. 5 And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the tunic, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breast plate, and shalt gird him with the girdle of the ephod: 6 And thou shalt place the mitre upon his head, and put the crown of holiness upon the mitre. 7 Then shalt thou take the oil of anointing, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. 8 And thou shalt cause his sons to draw near, and shalt put tunics upon them. 9 And thou shalt gird them with a belt, Aaron and his sons; and shalt bind bonnets on them: that the priesthood may be theirs for the statute of an age. And thus 8 thou shalt infill the hand of Aaron and the hand of his sons. 10 And thou shalt cause a bullock to be brought before the tent of assembly: and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the buUock. 11 And thou shalt slay the bullock before J ehovah at the door of the tent of assembly. U And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and shalt put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger; and all the blood thou shalt pour out at the bottom of the altar. 13 Then thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the intestines, and the network that is above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and shalt burn them upon the altar. 14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp; sin shall it be. 15 And thou shalt take one ram; and when Aaron and his sons have laid their hands upon the head of the ram, 16 Thou shalt slay the ram; and thou shalt take his blood, and shalt sprinkle it upon the altar round about. 17 Then thou shalt cut the ram into his parts, and shalt wash his intestines and his legs, and shalt put them upon [his] 9 parts, and upon his head.
S Added by Schmidius. Omitted by Schmidills.

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18 And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar; it is a whole burnt offering unto Jehovah; an odor of rest, an offering made by fire unto J ehovah is this. 19 And thou shalt take the second ram; and when Aaron and his sons have laid their hands upon the head of the ram, 20 Thou shalt slay the ram; and thou shalt take of his blood, and put it upon the tip of the ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot; but thou shalt sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about. 21 And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the oil of anointing, and shalt sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons and the garments of his sons with him: and he shall be holy, he and his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him. 22 And thou shalt take from the ram, the fat and the tail, and the fat that covereth the intestines, and the network of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; for a ram of infillings is he. 23 And one loaf of bread, and one cake of bread of oil, and one wafer out of the basket of unleavened things that is before Jehovah. 24 And thou shalt put all upon the palms of Aaron, and upon the palms of his sons; and shalt wave them, a waving before Jehovah. 25 And thou shalt take them from their hands, and shalt burn them upon the altar over the whole burnt offering; for an odor of rest before Jehovah: an offering made by fire unto J ehovah is this. 26 And thou shalt take the breast of the ram of infillings which is for Aaron, and shalt wave it a waving before Jehovah, that it may be for a portion unto thee. 27 But the breast of the waving, and the shoulder of the heave offering (whereof the one was waved, and the other was heaved up, of the ram of infillings, even of that which is for Aaton, and of that which is for his sons), thou shalt sanctify, 28. That it may be tor Aaron aild for his sons by a statute of an age from-with the sons of Israel: for it is a Therumah; it shall be a Therumah, from-with the sons of Israel, of the sacrifices of their peace offerings, even their Therumah unto Jehovah. 166

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[4907

~9 And the garments of holiness which are for Aaron shall be for his sons after him, that in them they may anoint, and in them may infill their hand. 30 Seven days shall the priest put them on, that succeedeth him from among his sons; that shall enter into the tent of assembly to minister in the holy place. SI Then thou shalt take the ram of infillings, and shalt boil its flesh in a holy place. 1 3~ And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in the basket, at the door of the tent of assembly. 33 For they shall eat the things wherewith atonement was made, for the infilling of their hand to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not eat thereof, because they are that which is holy. 34 And if ought of the flesh of the infillings, or of the bread, remain until the next day, thou shalt burn the remainder with fire: it shall not be eaten, because it is holy. 35 And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, and to his sons, ac cording to all that I have commanded thee: seven days shalt thou infill their hand.
CONCERNING REPRESENTATIONS IN HEAVEN ARISING FROM THOSE 2 WHICH WERE INSTITUTED IN THE. JEWISH CHURCH.

4907. Now follows the ritual whereby Aaron and his sons were consecrated or inaugurated into the priesthood, and this to the end that he with his sons might thus appear as holy before God Messiah. They are arcana of heaven that it is here 'permitted to set forth. It was said above [no S039 seq., 4905] that by means of various kinds of representations, the angelic choirs of God Mes siah present to themselves the kingdom of God Messiah, and this by representations so marvellous that I could not describe them, for they are exceedingly numerous and are continued in a long series. Sometimes a single representation is continued for an hour or two hours, as I well know from ex perience, it having been granted me to follow these representa
See n. 5056 note. This heading is taken from the inside of the back cover of Codex 61, from which the present translation is made. There it is marked" Obs.," and the fol lowing is added as a marginal note: "This should perhaps be premised in its proper place."
1

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tions quite clearly by a like representation of the mind, and sometimes for so long a time that before it was finished it quite wearied my mind. 2 &
4908. In the Old Testament they represented to themselves the Advent of God Messiah into the world, but now they represent His kingdom, and this with such ardor that among themselves they represent to themselves nothing else. This is connate with them and is brought in by God Messiah. 4909. As touching the representations of evil angels, they do almost the same thing but from a contrary disposition. Hence come idolatries in imitation of the sacrifices in the Jewish church, such as the idolatry of human sacrifices to Molech, and of many other sacrifices; also the idolatry of the tower of Babel, on account of which the builders were scattered [Gen. U 3- 8 ]; but of these matters more will be said at the passages where they occur. As to the doing of this at the present day, except by means of men whom [the devil] is permitted to allure to the doing of it, I do not know whether it exists, unless the men be such that it is granted them to deceive men by phantasies, etc. 8 4910. Since, therefore, representations exist among good spirits and angels, which are celestial sports, as it were, to the end that the kingdom of God may be set forth as though present, it can now be known why the present representations were instituted for the sanctifying of Aaron and his sons, and also of their garments~ No orie ought to suppose that Aaron and his sons were holy on this account, for being holy can never come from external rites such as are here described, but from things internal in the man himself. It is from these that holiness comes. 4911. As said above [no 4891], all the gifts offered to God Messiah were said to be holy, as for instance, bullocks, rams, sheep. These could never themselves have been holy. lndeed, it was a ram that carried off the iniquities of the people, of which matter we speak later; 4 this ram, therefoi"e, could not have been holy, and
2. In the Author's Index to his Memombilia, this indented paragraph is re ferred to in connection with n. 4779, s.v. Regwum, Repraesontatio. 3 In the autograph, this paragraph is enclosed between two horizontal lines as though to segregate it. It was a goat, not a ram, that carried away the iniquities of the people; see Leviticus 1622. But see n. 853, 859, 4671 and 412 note.

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[491~-14

thus have sanctified men by its holiness. This everyone can see to be absurd, absurd namely, that a brute animal could do this; still less could it be done by an inanimate thing such as the cedar and gold in the ark, the bread and lamps in the habitacle, etc. 4912. The truth of the matter is as follows: There are in general three classes of angels. They who are of the third class are those who see external things through the eyes of men, being such things as are carried on upon the earth, and thus the things that Aaron and his sons were now doing. And being such that they were wholly representative of God Messiah, his Advent and his Passion, these representations were pleasing, seeing that in this way He would take away the sins of the world and establish the heavenly kingdom. Such representations are carried up to [angels of] the second class who perceive them spiritually, for in their representations there is nothing whatever that does not involve what is spiritual and celestial. These alone, and in their own way, do the choirs of angels of the second class comprehend. These spiritual and celestial things are then carried up to the inmost class, that is, to the third heaven, and there they are perceived in a holy and supracelestial manner. Thus they come to God Messiah." 4913. Thus every angel in whatsoever class enjoys his own delectation, this being in entire concord with his individual disposition. Thus those who are in the inferior class are not delighted by the same things as those by which they are delighted who are in the inmost class, and vice versa. This everyone can perceive from numerous examples on earth, a great many of which can be adduced. It is from this then that sanctity is predicated of Aaron, his sons, their garments, etc., etc. 4914. Now man is so created that with his internal faculties he can be among the choirs of the three classes; that is to say, by his soul properly so called, he can be in the inmost choir, by his intellectual mind and its celestial affections, in the second choir, and by the mind below this, in the third choir-provided these faculties are in order and the third faculty flows in order, from the inmost through the second. For when man lives in order, everything flows in this way, flowing from the inmost through the middle into the third, and being carried up from the third through the middle
This paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written four times in the margin.

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to the inmost. Hence the delights of the third class come from the first, and those of the first class from the third. 4915. Since man was created in this way, but still from very birth lives a different and contrary order of life, therefore, to the end that this order may be restored, he must be reborn or regen erated, that is, must be formed or created anew, that he may be come a new creature. For this reason God Messiah came into the world, that he might restore this order, both among the choirs of angels and among men while living. Thus no holiness can ever be predicated of man save after regeneration, and indeed as coming from God Messiah alone who directs all things in the regenerate man, both the most singular and the universal. Hence it is the imputation of the holiness of God Messiah that alone saves man. 4916. Saving faith coincides in its own way with the repre sentation of all things in God Messiah that have been revealed. But of faith we speak elsewhere.6 4917. But the nature of these representations, and how they appear, cannot be so described as to be clearly perceived, this being a matter of experience. They are of such a nature that the man sees these things interiorly, so that there is a supereminent sight and the things seen do not at all coincide with the thoughts when they stand forth [in ultimate form], but are seen wholly in teriorly. Thus I could follow these representations by a kind of sight which I can never describe, and this in a long series from beginning to end and even for an hour and for two hours until the several scenes were completed. Thus, if only it were allowed to make public a single one of them, to wit, the representation con cerning the pyramid which was so marvellously constructed and adorned,7 and this hot simultaneously while being formed, but suc cessively-if this should be described, it would fill many pages. 8 4918. As regards the inmost sight, this is not so well known to me. Still, it has once or twice been given me to enj oy this sight also, though most obscurely, etc., etc. ; but then they who were in any of the inferior classes, etc., etc., could not recog nize the representation. Similar also are the words which God
Nos. 4914-16 are emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. T See n. 4779. B This passage together with n. 4779, 4782, and 4907, is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Regnum and Repmesentatio. See Table of Con tents.

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[4919-20

Messiah says, that if they perceived not earthly things, how should they perceive heavenly things if He told them these [John 3 12 ]. Nay, if men do not perceive the interior repre sentations which are presented to a man when his eyes are closed, being presented as though in midday, how would they perceive more interior representations; and if they perceive not these, what then of inmost representations; and if not these, which have in themselves a kind of indefiniteness, how will they perceive Providence and Omniscience, etc., in J ehovah God, in whom are infinite things. And yet men wish to believe nothing that they do not perceive with their senses and so with their reason. 9
4919. Hence the order now observed, in that the words of the holy text are explained first in the proximate sense, then in the in terior sense, in the more interior, and so in the inmost; and how that thus in the supreme sense they have regard to God Messiah. 4920. Influx is from the inmost class into the more interior, as it is called, and from this into the interior. He who is not in order can never perceive things which are inmost, that is, as he says . . . divine.! But he who is held in order, perceives in the affections and persuasions the least things of assent and dissent, howsoever they may be formed by evil angels or by those who have evil in themselves, so that there is dissent in inmosts, although persuasion appears [in outmosts]. This has happened to me so frequently that the occasions cannot be numbered. Hence the influx of the celestial could be recog nized. But it is not allowed to speak more of these matters because of the length of the subject. As, for instance, today when, being persuaded by a man, in respect to a certain matter, I was led to believe that the matter was such, and yet inmostly I perceived, as it were, that there had been deceit, which was turned aside. June twenty-third, 1746, Old Style (it was con~ cerning a manservant). 2
Except for the last sentence (n. ?l054 in the MS.), this indented para graph is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Extm'na, Interio1"a. See Table of ConteIlts. 1 The dots are copied from the autograph. They do not seem to indicate any omission. , No. 4990 is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, S.v. Externa, Interiora, Ordo. See Table of Contents.

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4921. Utterly marvellous is the efficacy of the representa tions that are raised up from a man by God Messiah, when heaven is thus ordinated round about that man-otherwise they effect nothing, nor would visual representations effect any thing; or when they do have efficacy, this is providentially guarded against, by means of ordinations of angels-which is the same thing as the cherub or cherubs who guarded the way to the tree of life [Gen. 3 24 ]. Much might be said of these matters, but it is enough to speak of them generally.3 4922. [And this is the word that thou shalt do (unto them) 4 to sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. Take one bullock, a son of the herd, and two rams entire], vs. 1. From these words it is now seen how they were sanctified or appeared as though holy, when yet their sanctification was nothing more than an inauguration into the priestly office; for Aaron was still high priest after he had made the molten calf [chap. 3Yl4] , and perhaps also worshipped it with the people; therefore he was by no means holy. But he appeared holy in the way spoken of above [n. 491Yl]. Thus Aaron was not in the choir with the angels, but it was from him and from the people who were looking at him that the angels perceived these things, etc., etc. Hence the sanctifica tion. 4923. A word is used in the Divine Word to signify in the proximate sense, the letter and thus things external, that is to say, the bare historical relation. In the interior sense, it signifies con firmation; in the more interior 5 sense, truth which is of the under standing and thus intelligence; in the inmost sense, wisdom; and in the supreme sense, God Messiah himself from whom, as from their fount, came all and single the things that were said to :Moses. 'Thus in the present text the word signifies that all things refer themselves to God Messiah who is Priest to the Most High. 4924. As touching sacrifices in general, it is most clearly evi dent that they were representations; for a bullock and a ram could never have made atonement, or have redeemed man and thus
3 No. 49B1 is wtitten in the marginal space left vacant by the indenting of n. 4990. This paragraph is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Angelus, Ol'do, Spil'itu8. See T8ibte of Contents. Omitted by Schmidius.
, Reading intimiore for intima.

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sanctified him, and still less their blood. That a bullock and a ram made atonement by their slaughter and blood is so absurd that I wonder that any man who enjoys reason, can so persuade himself. In general, the sacrifices which were the rites whence came the representations spoken of above [n. 4907 seq.], signified in the interior sense atonement, in the more interior sense redemp tion, and thus in the inmost sense sanctification. This sanctifica tion comes solely from the Messiah, who san~tified man, redeemed him, and made atonement for him, by the sacrifice of Himself; for thus He took away sins from those whom he causes to draw near to Him by faith. These then are the essentials for the sake of which sacrifices were in use. From them follow many consequences, and thus all that is involved in sacrifices, being essentials which, though not directly signified by them, are yet the things which they have in view; as, for instance, supplications,6 etc., etc. 1 4925. As further concerns sacrifices, they were made from bullocks, from rams or kids, and from lambs. By these' animals
. then are signified the three classes to which they are applied, it
being the disposition and genius of animals from which must be
learned what further they signify. Each animal has its own dispo
sition and nature, for all natural affections have their form in the genera and species of animals, and from this it can be seen what they signify. 4926. As concerns a bullock, its disposition is a servile one, be cause later it is put under yoke. Thus it signifies servitude in general. Here it signifies the third class, to which this sacrifice 8 was more properly accommodated, as well as many other things of which we speak later; for this class ought to serve the middle class, as the middle the first or inmost, and the inmost God Messiah im mediately; just as, in the case of man, the natural mind ought to serve the intellectual mind, and this the soul for the sake of which those two minds exist. So is it in heaven which constitutes the grand celestial man. Nevertheless, each class supposes that it serves God Mes siah immediately. They ate held in this ignorance by reason of many causes, to wit, that they may suppose themselves also
[Crossed off:] purification, etc., etc.
, N o. 49~4 is emphasized by "Obs." written three times in the margin.
S i.e., the sacrifice of bullocks.

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to be in things inmost, and so, in their own degree, may experi ence delights without any cause of envy which might spring up were they to represent to themselves the eminence of others, etc., etc. 9 4927. As concerns rams, or kids, they signify those sacrifices which directly pertain to the second class. In disposition, rams or kids arenot so mild as lambs-but their signification can be seen from their nature. "Ve speak of these animals elsewhere. The fact that a ram entangled in a thicket was taken in place of Isaac, signifies the same thing; for as Abraham, to whom, by faith, was imputed the righteousness of the Messiah, signifies the inmost class, so Isaac signifies the second class, for which reaSon a ram was of fered in his place (confer Genesis ~~13). Consequently, Jacob signifies the third class signified by a bullock. 1 That a ram is the same thing as a kid can be seen from Genesis ~79, for Esau had been commanded to hunt venison from the field, that is, a ram [ibid. vs. 3] ; and Rebekah took in its place two kids with which she made delicacies for Isaac, when yet one would have sufficed. But the fact that two kids were taken involves the same thing. As other wise concerns the two rams or the kids of the she goats, that is, as concerns there being two, this can be evident from what follows; the one was the whole burnt offering [vs. 18], and the other was the ram of infillings [vs. ~~], etc. 4928. That the bullock was a son of the herd signifies that it had not yet suffered the yoke, that is to say, was not altogether servile as those are who have been put under the yoke, being the yoke of natural and earthly loves, thus, those who were under servitude but did not know it, etc., etc. In his own way, every individual is possessed of liberty; and so those who are not aware of their servitude suppose themselves to be free. Therefore it is said, a son of the herd. These words perhaps signify infants and those among that people who were endowed with an infantile genius. 4929. That the rams were to be entire, that is, without blemish or disease, clearly signifies that they were to be without those vices and unclean loves which produce all diseases and thus death. Re
This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia. 1 This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs. bene" (observe well) written twice in the margin.

174

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[4930-39l

speeting the integrity of animals, many particulars are mentioned below and in various places. 4930. [And bread from things unleavened, and cakes f?'om things unleavened mingled with oil, and wafers from things un leavened anointed with oil: of fine flour of wheat shalt thou make them], vs. 9l. Above, where the subject treated of was the passover when they were going out of Egypt, it was said of the panis azymus 2 that it was without leaven. What leaven signifies is clear enough, to wit, that which makes a frothing up, in like man ner as the loves of self and the world and divers natural con cupiscences do in the bloods, and so in the human mind. This then is leaven. Hence we learn what bread without leaven, or panis azymus signifies, for if you remove this leaven you have panis azymus. 4931. Here, however, the command is given to offer bread of three kinds and thereby to sanetify the priests, etc. This, in like manner as the sacrifices, signifies 3 such things as are spiritual and celestial. 4 What spiritual bread is, is known well enough, bread being assumed for all the food of the body, as when [the sons of Jacob] were invited to eat bread [Gen. 43 25 ]; and after the fall, Adam [was told] that he should labor for his bread [Gen. 3 19 ], etc. In a superior sense, therefore, bread is all spiritual food; for as ordinary bread nourishes the body, so spiritual bread nourishes the mind. Hence then the manna fallen from heaven; hence then it is, that bread is the symbol of the new covenant-and as to what it signifies there, this is well known. In the supreme sense, God Messiah is the bread which nourishes human souls and minds. Nourishment comes from the passion of the Messiah. From Him then is nutrition, for without the passion of the Messiah, no mortal could have been saved, and consequently, the minds of men could never have been spiritually nourished. 4932. And now as touching the three kinds [of bread]. As to the fact that the first kind is called bread from things unleavened and was without oil, this cannot be comprehended save from a knowledge of what has preceded, a knowledge, namely, of what is signified by the sacrifices of the bullock, the ram, and the lamb.
2

Unleavened bread; see n. 3859 note.


[Crossed off: I those three classes.
[Crossed off: I and look to the three classes.
S

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THE WORD EXPLAINED

For as those sacrifices were for the old or Jewish church, so the present sacrifice, being the mincha/ was instituted that it might signify the like thing in the church truly Christian when repre sentations by sacrifices had departed. Thus priestly things were introduced into both covenants, and looked to both and thus to both churches, these in themselves being one. Nevertheless, when types cease, the effigy comes to view. 4933. There were three kinds of bread. By the first kind is thus meant the same as by the sacrifice of the bullock; for this kind was without oil and so without that flame and light which oil signifies; see above [n. 4716]. In the entire globe are nations all of whom are called, and for whom also the Messiah suffered death -men who now live in ignorance, such as those do who are com pletely ignorant of the arcana of God Messiah, and who, never theless, are innocences, infants, and pious men; such men cannot for this reason be said to be devoted to damnation, seeing how stupendous are the mercies of God Messiah toward the human race, as toward infants, and those who are like infants and who thusac knowledge one God the Creator of the universe, and His goodness, mercy, and grace; men, moreover, in whom it is then divinely in spired to know what in general must be thought in respect to righteousness, etc., etc. Such also were many at that time among Jacob's descendants, etc., etc. These then are referred to the third class. 4934. As to the fact that such infants are afterwards instructed III heaven when they are among those who are truly Christian, I might here say something; for frequently there were infants who were being instructed, and this in a manner most utterly innocent, to whom this instruction was most highly delightful. But wholly different is it with those who have lived in the light of knowledges and have not been infants and innocences - - . (But see that nothing be inserted which may distract the minds of certain persons by reason of the common canon that with out knowledge and faith no one can ever be saved.)6
See n. 304. note. To this indented paragraph the Author adds the marginal note: "See whether it is permitted to tell anything concerning infants." The indented paragraph itself is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Infans. After it, come two unnumbered paragraphs, crossed off by the Author, as follows: "As touching the cakes mingled lpith oil, these also the reader may see

176

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[4935-37

4935. As FURTHER CONCERNS BREAD. Bread, in the supreme sense; is God Messiah; it is the heavenly manna, being the bread of spiritual men whose minds are thus nourished, as it were, with heavenly food, while thinking continually concerning God Messiah, and representing Him to themselves as the sole One who is Justice, the sole One who has merit, besides representing many other things which pertain to the doctrine of true faith. It is such things that are bread in regenerated minds; and for this reason bread was in stituted as [their] symbol, as is well known. From this it is now seen what bread signifies in the other senses, that is to say, when the bread descends into the human soul from the Supreme Being, and so opens the door, as it were, into the human mind and fills that mind with knowledges of true faith and with 10ve. 1 4936. In the present text, bread of a threefold kind is men tioned. The first is called bread from things unleavened, the second cakes from things unleavened mingled with oil, and the third wafers from things unleavened anointed with oil. These are three kinds, the one more excellent than the other according to the de grees or classes in heaven, and likewise in the regenerate man, the order being such that the superior flows into the inferior, and thus produces a state of inferior life, etc., etc. 8 4937. Bread from things unleavened is the general class. Such bread is prepared with water, and so we learn that it signifies the nourishment of the third class. Then, in its own way, this class is nourished by heavenly bread by means of influx according to de grees, being so nourished when the bread is unleavened, that is to say, when the loves of self and the world which produce a frothing up of human bloods or lives are removed. With these removed, which is the work of God Messiah alone, then, according to degrees, and thus according to the capacity of the subjects of this class, the heavenly bread flows in, that is to say, the doctrine of faith in God Messiah whom they necessarily acknowledge as the Savior of
treated of above [no 4702). First, however, it must be known what oil signifies, namely, as above [no 4<933) in the proximate sense, a flame together with light; in the superior sense, love with heavenly light. But see what further has been said concerning oil and concerning anointing [no 4<6741. " Since, therefore, oil signifies love with heavenly light -." 7 No. 4935 is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin. 8 The latter half of this paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.

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4938]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the world, that they may be able to enter the heavenly kingdom. They who from unconquerable ignorance, as it is called, do not know this in the life of the body; as is the case with infants and with all others who are infancies and in nocences, and thus with the myriads who are not born in Chris tendom, and who can never be condemned on this account; are instructed in the other life, and, being innocences, they em brace the doctrine readily and with joy, and so are imbued. I might bring forward many particulars concerning this matter, as to how infants are instructed, and also all others who, from the mercy of God Messiah, have lived an unleavened life. It is wholly different, however, with those who have been born in the midst of the doctrine of faith, and have been instructed here in the world. Their minds are [formed] quite differently, for they do not thus embrace the doctrine of faith, inasmuch as the state of their minds has already been averted and thus fer mented, etc., etc. So also was it in the representative church among the Jews of old who were ignorant of the merit and justice of God Messiah as represented by types. But it is dif ferent with those who cannot be ignorant of this justice, and who entirely reject it, and in their heart continually crucify the Messiah. In this life, such men can again repent. From among them again are exempted those who live in blind ignor ance, being made thus blind by their leaders, and who, never theless, groan, and give themselves up to the One God, Jehovah the Father, acknowledging his goodness in spiritual things, and trusting themselves to him without hatred against God Messiah, the Savior of the world. 9 This then is the bread from things unleavened which is given to those who are the subjects of the present discourse; for this must be held as fundamental, namely, that no one can enter the kingdom of God Messiah without a knowledge of faith in God Messiah him self, and without being imbued therewith, God Messiah being the Door and the Way [John 107 , 14 6 J. 4938. The second kind of bread is also unleavened, but it is mingled with oil, and so is more excellent. Consequently, it is spiritual and heavenly food concerning the merit and justice of
This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia.

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[4939-41

God Messiah, with a certain application. This food is suitable to the second class, and, in us, to the intellectual mind and its will. 4939. But it must then be known what oil signifies. In the Word of God Messiah, oil signifies many things, and it is not possible to derive its [specific] signification save from the things to which it is applied; for we have the oil of the lamp, the oil of anointing, the oil of bread, the oil of gladness, etc., etc. The present oil mingled in the bread signifies love together with spiritual light, for it is from this oil that the bread tastes sweet, and the oil is, as it were, the vehicle of this sweetness in place of water, as above [no 4184].1 Therefore, when those unleavened things are removed, of which we spoke above [n. 4930, 4937], that is to say, when the bread of the first kind has nourished the man, then comes the present bread which is solid food, as it is called; for when man is imbued with the doctrine of faith concerning God Messiah, he is next fed with more solid food, being fed with love; for LOVE OF THE HEAVENLY LIFE which is the present food or the bread of this kind, cannot enter unless the loves of self and the world are removed; then is felt a species of felicity in this life, and a species of aversion for the worldly life. Such then is the life of those who are in the second class. 4940. As concerns the third kind, to wit, unleavened wafers anointed with oil, this is still more excellent, wafers being a more delicious food, of which we shall speak elsewhere when the occasion offers. Translators also give the name wafers to those pastries which are the delicacies of bread, being baked with milk and honey, etc., etc., but these are not described here. By this bread is meant saving faith itself, which nourishes the minds of those who are in the inmost heaven, this being saving faith. It was to be anointed with oil, this expression being taken from the oil of anointing which was used for anointing kings and priests; therefore, those [who are in the inmost heaven] are called sons of the King, princes, nay, and secondary kings; also priests, of whom principally consists the priestly kingdom. 4941. Because with this people was now instituted a priesthood which would form a single body, as it were, and so would represent heaven, being, as it were, a single man, celestial and spiritual; and because in this body there must be those who are in the first place,
1

This sentence is emphasized by " Ohs." written in the margin.

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THE WORD EXPLAINED

those who are in the second, and those who are in the third, all nevertheless being priests; therefore, there are here three kinds of bread. In the present case, these are first represented by Aaron and his sons, that is, by Aaron's house, but afterwards they were represented by the whole tribe of Levi; and that they might be represented by the whole people, the Levites were taken in place of the firstborn of the people [Numbers 3 12 ,4].2 4942. The bread was made of the fine flour of wheat because of the excellence of this grain; also because of its whiteness; white bread, moreover, signifies candor 3 arising from life, etc., etc. 4943. [And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them near in the basket; and also the bullock and the two rams], vs. 3. That he should put them together into one basket signifies many things, the basket being a containant which contained all these kinds in a general [form]. Thus order is likened [to a basket], the order namely, that obtains in heaven, in man, and in the universe; and this because it contains all those things which afterwards were separated and applied. In man the basket is that which surrounds the whole man; so likewise in heaven. But I am unable to explain these words any further because I am confused by spirits. What a baslcet is, however, is clear enough of itself, when the other things which are contained therein are clear. The basket which contains them, and this simultaneously, etc., etc., that they may afterwards be applied, can be sufficiently understood from man, from the universe, and from the single things which, in order, are simultaneous, and mutually follow the one after the other, these being many in number. Therefore, it is said in the text, one basket, and that thou shalt bring them near in this way. 4944. Many mystical things lie concealed in this text, and they might be told in a most general way, if this would serve any use. As touching the bullock and the rams, these were distinct [from the bread] on account of the sacrifices and also on account of the signification of those sacrifices, these having regard more properly to the old or representative church, while the bread had regard to the new or symbolic church. 4 As to there being two rams, this the reader may see below. But as regards the sacrifice of lambs, these
No. 4941 is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. The word candor means both white and truthfulness. This reference to the sacrifices is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.
2

180

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[4945-46

animals signify the inmost class; for the Messiah is called the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world [John 1 29 ]. Such sacrifices, moreover, are mentioned later, namely, in verse 38 seq., where the inauguration of the altar is spoken of, being the place where God Messiah would meet them, etc., etc. (verses 4~, 43). 4945. [And thou shalt cause Aaron and his sons to draw near unto the door of the tent of the assembly, and shalt wash them with waters], vs. 4. Thus Moses was to cause Aaron to draw near to the door of the tent of assembiy, and this, as the reader may see above [no 4760], represents heaven, for the choirs of angels were there, in a flame and a cloud [chap. 33 9 ]. Therefore, Aaron and his sons were in front of the door because they were being inaugurated; and then, having been inaugurated, they were to enter, and, indeed, into the place where was the altar-of which latter we speak below. They could not enter into the communion until they had completed their whole burnt offerings, and until they had offered the mincha. But the several particulars which are contained in the words of this text, and on which depends a knowledge of these matters, will be treated of in the sequel. 4946. As concerns the washing, much can be said. That the washing of the body and of the feet and soles has no effect except before human eyes, is evident enough. Can anyone, therefore, be of the opinion that by washing, man becomes clean before God who sees things inmost and wills a more interior cleanness? Thus what is clearly understood is, that here washing is a representation of an interior washing, being a washing from those filths which are foul cupidities, etc., etc. For howsoever washed a man may be, he is yet filthy even before the eyes of keen~sighted men; nay, so filthy that if you were to see him with opened eyes, he would then be nothing more than is his every pore, crammed as it is with filth. Do you then think him pure because washed? except, indeed, by way of representation, which, as said above [n. 491~], was a rep resentation before human eyes, and so, through human eyes, before the proximate angels who also make judgment from the eyes, as, for instance, concerning the forms of things, their beauty, etc., etc. Spiritual angels, however, have a different sensation. Before them is not the external form but the internal which corresponds to the external thus seen in appearance, etc., etc. III Ad. ~109-9n16 181

4947-49]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4947. In this text, therefore, washing signifies cleansing from spiritual filths which arise solely from the loves of self and the world, even as the filthy things of the body arise from heat and the resultant exhalation. 5 These filthy things are exhalations ex pelled by vital heat; thus they are rejections to the end that the man may be purified. So also the filths arising from the loves of self and the world are rejections, being expelled by a heat truly vital or spiritual, etc. 4948. The washing was done by waters. What waters signify may be seen above,6 it being water that cleanses. So likewise is it in things spiritual and celestial. Thus in the supreme sense it is the blood of the Messiah alone that is here signified by water; see below. Hence also was instituted baptism by water, and the wash ing by God Messiah when he was with his disciples,? after or before the paschal supper [John 135 - 1 ], and the symbol of that supper, etc., etc. 4949. Furthermore, the washing of feet was also introduced by God Messiah, and I wonder that it is not in use among Chris tians, and this to the end that thereby they may remember the washing away of sins and the cleansing by the passion of the Mes siah, which also it preceded. I might say a great many things concerning the washing of feet in its most general aspects; which washing was also en joined upon me when I was in that state; but perhaps men will not comprehend the mysteries [involved], as neither did Peter when he refused to be washed; to whom God Messiah answered that they did not know the arcana of heaven, and that unless they were washed, they could not enter into the kingdom of God Messiah [Jolm 13 5- 1 ]. But I do not here speak of absolute necessity as regards those with whom this washing has been abolished; yet they can be persuaded that they should carry out and believe all that was instituted by God Messiah, even though they do not know the arcana of heaven; and how that in this way they are represented as clean before the angels who carry these representations to things interior, etc., etc.
[Crossed off:] To use a comparison, when these filths are exhalations from an unclean heart Confer n. 4946.
1 [Crossed off:] After the paschal supper.

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[4950

If by the mercy of God Messiah, it be allowed in its own time, this practise must be better examined into, as to whether it is a necessity, and a thing now enjoined like the Holy Sup per; and so, whether it is useful; for it was not explained what it was that they should then remember. 8

4950. What the external is, and what the interior, the more in terior, and the inmost, can be evident merely from a single example, to wit: THE EXTERNAL is when objects appear before the eyes and are seen without any reflection, just as they appear before the eyes, together with their harmony and their natural beauty. The IN TERIOR is when these same objects which appeared before the sight and which then rest in the memory, and also the objects which have been perceived by the ears, are called forth and disposed into an other order, being an order enabling them to look to some use. This indeed obtains in animals also, but animals are unable to re flect upon the use or intellectually to dispose the objects to that use, but are borne along naturally. This is because they lack a rational mind, in place of this, being their soul which does all those things that are the analogues of human reason, just as in celestial things, the human soul acts upon the rational mind-from which it can be evident what the soul of animals does. The MORE INTERIOR consists in again disposing these uses and many others, and indeed, in disposing them to ends, the ends being various according to the order and state of the man, and thus according to the disposition which he has. To direct one's thoughts to ends by means of uses, that is, by means of intermediate ends, is a human characteristic. This more interior is the more perfect in the degree that its direc tion is to more universal ends, that is to say, to ends of greater goodness, so that they tend to the Best, that is, to God Messiah; hence come tranquillity andpeace-respeeting which see below. THE INl\IOST consists in disposing these universal ends of the mind, and directing them to the Best, that is, to God Messiah, by means of saving faith; this is not the work of a human mind. From the above it can be evident how progress is made from the one to the other. There is a like progress in all other things. 9
These indented paragraphs are cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bUia, s.v. Lavare and Pes. See Table of Contents. No. 4950 is emphasized by " NB" written several times in the margin.

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4951-54]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

4951. CONCERNING THE WASHING OF THE HANDS AND FEET, moreover, see chapter 30 18- 21 As to how baptism and its institu tion, and thus the sign of the new covenant is likewise signified in the present text, this also can be seen later, and so can be seen what further the text involves. 4952. [And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the tunic, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breast plate, and shalt gird him with the girdle of the ephod] , vs. 5. 1n mostly in these words is now set forth in representative form, the progression of man's regeneration, the idea of this regeneration advancing in order to the very inmost, as said above 1 [n. 4950J. Thus Aaron and his sons were first washed from their filth, this being signified by the washing of the body [vs. 4]. Then Aaron was clothed with a white tunic; for only after he was washed from filth was that tunic put on which was white and which lay next to the cleansed body, it being in this way that whiteness first comes. This then is the first degree of man's regeneration, that is, of ,his reformation into a new man. He is then clothed with the robe of the ephod in which were inwoven various things with their colors. Thus then comes charity toward the neighbor, and so forth, ac cording to the signification of all those things which were in the robe. 2 Later comes also the ephod, and this that all things may come from 3 love. Finally comes the breastplate which signifies love. It is in this way that man is reformed. But a still further application may be seen from the preceding description of the garments. 4953. These garments likewise signify the three classes, the third class being signified by the white tunic next to Aaron's body, the second by the robe and the ephod, and the third by the ephod and the breastplate. 4 'Because all these classes are one, and are so conjoined as to constitute one interior man according with the perfect man, therefore next comeS the girdle of the ephod, which, being placed outside, gathered all the garments together. 4954. This, moreover, is the reason why there are now so many metaphorical expressions, both in writings and everywhere else,
This sentence is emphasized "Obs." written in the margin. This sentence is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin. 3 [Crossed otT:] charity. This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by " Ohs." written twice in the margin.
1

184

EXODUS XXIX: 5-7

[4955-56

which are borrowed from garments; such, for instance, as the ex pressions, that men are clothed with a white garment, with a tunic of truths, a robe of love, etc. These expressions, when drawn from the garments of Aaron, wholly coincide with the essence of things, especially when they are those essentials of which we spoke above [n. 477~], being, in the inmost sense, saving faith in God Messiah, and so forth. . 4955. [And thou. shalt place the mitre upon his head, and put the crouJn of holiness upon the mitre], vs. 6. Now comes the su preme region which is the head, wherefrom comes every blessing. This region was now covered with the mitre, and this with the crown of holiness. Whatsoever pertains to the covering of the head pertains to the supreme. Everything in the crown of gold comes from Jehovah the Father by means of the" Holiness to Je hovah " inscribed in its centre [chap. ~836]. The crown is the Son of Jehovah, from whom now proceeds the Holy Spirit represented by the hyacinthine thread [chap. ~837]. Thus it is attached to the mitre which represents candor, that is, integrity. Hence the Trinity also is signified. The mitre signifies the supreme head, that namely, which shall be the head of the church, the containant being thus taken for the content, as is very frequently the case; see also below at verse 9, concerning the tiaras. 5 For as the de grees follow each other to the inmost in the man who is to be re generated, that is, to the breastplate, so now the mitre is super imposed, and on the mitre the crown of holiness which represents God Messiah in whom is the fullness of the Godhead [Col. ~9]. 4956. [Then shalt thou take the oil of anointing, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him], vs. 7. As regards oil, this is taken in various Sehses, as stated above [no 4774], by application to the things of which it is predicated. Thus, when it is predicated of lamps, inasmuch as it gives forth and feeds a flame, and this a light, it is taken in a spiritual sense for love and life, etc. From its mildness and its taste is predicated all the sweetness and gentle ness of life, as in the anointing of a wounded person witli oil, etc., etc. From its aromatic odor, etc., for it produces odors and
, In the autograph, this last paragraph is substituted in the margin for the following which is crossed off: " But. that which is over the head, such as the mitre and the crown, involves more things than man can ever comprehend, being most profoundly arcane; for they are all taken from the supreme throne which is what is here signified."

III Ad.

~134-n4~

185

4957-59]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

fragrancies, is predicated all that which is likened thereto in spiritual things. 4957. That oil was used for the anointing of men to be kings and priests, comes from the fact that oil is the essential juice and life of the tree, being pressed out from its fruits, as in the case of olives, from the seeds of its fruits, and from other seeds, as their very essence; for when the oil has been pressed out, all that re mains is valueless, and fit only for rejection. Therefore, when used in anointing, oil is taken as being the essential juice and life of the tree. And, being taken as the essence of the tree, it signi fies that primary thing which is in the garden, in the vineyard, in the other gardens, and at the same time in paradise. For it is evident enough that a man, and human societies, and thus king doms, are likened to a grove, a garden, and woods, in the same way as are families, a kingdom being like a house, wherein the father of the family represents the head of families and thus the king. From this then it is, that in the Word of God Messiah chiefs and kings are so frequently likened to trees which are high and will be brought low, etc., etc. In a word, when used for anointing, the oil is taken for the tree, being the life of the tree. Thus it stands for that tree from which come all other trees. So likewise in the church-for priests were likewise anointed-the high priests who were the heads, must represent the tree of life in paradise. 4958. If now we ascend by degrees to things spiritual and celestial, then a king signifies that which is the principal and essen tial thing, on which, as on its head, depends the whole body, like as the earthly paradise depends on the tree of life, and as the tree depends on its oil, which is its essential juice and life. 6 Since, therefore, God Messiah, as being heaven, is not only the whole of the celestial paradise, but is the tree of life in paradise, he is also the life of the tree, being, I1s it were, its oil. Therefore, priests were now inaugurated by oil on account of the representation of those things that have now been told, and, furthermore, of those that are yet to be told, God Messiah granting. 4959. The mode in which representations ascend from things natural to things spiritual and celestial is marvellous; for when
[The following unnumbered paragraph is here crossed off by the Author:] just as it is predicated of the blood of animals that their life consists in the blood, which latter is therefore holy.

186

III Ad.

~143-:~15~

EXODUS XXIX: 8

[4960-69l

the persons at hand represent to themselves oil, such as the oil pressed from the olive, etc., then those who are in the second class represent to themselves spiritual oil as applied to the subject; and those of the next class represent to themselves things still more in terior, and indeed God Messiah as the life of the new man and the creato~ of the new paradise, thus as the King of kings, and as Priest to the Most High. To the end that this may be further signified, it was the head that was anointed, that this might signify that He was the head, and that all receive their life from the head, as the church from its high priest, and the kingdom from its king. Therefore, the Messiah is called Christ, that is, the Anointed, etc., etc. 7 4960. [And thou shalt cause his sons to draw near, and shalt put tunics upon them], vs. 8. Aaron's sons were not anointed be cause they now represented the priesthood [as] afterwards the Levites represented the priestly kingdom. Only one high priest was anointed, and in this way all the others were anointed, etc., etc. For life is one; the tree of life is one, the tree being a tree from its life or oil; paradise is one, the whole of paradise being from the tree of life. Thus there is one King, one Priest, because One is the anointed, that is, Christ, the Head of the church, the Head of the celestial kingdom, etc., etc. 4961. As concerns Aaron's sons, these represented the priest hood or the priestly kingdom in lesser effigy, as afterwards did the Levites in larger effigy; just as a single house represents a king dom, etc. These sons were clothed with no other garments save tunics, bonnets, and belts [vs. 8, 9], the other garments not being suitable to them, inasmuch as these were the insignia of the king dom of priests which ought not to be on any save one. Thus when one was invested with these insignia, all were invested, as said above [n. 4960]. 4962. The king as representing in himself the whole society, carries on his person the tokens of all its dignities, while the indi vidual in the society carries only a general token. It is a general token that all, both the principal chiefs and those of a lower order, are servants of the king. It is also a general token that justice is imputed to all, and that One only is justice. It is a general token
1 n. 4959 is emphasized by " Obs." and" NB," written several times in the margin.

lIr

Ad. 9l153--9l162

187

4963-66]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

that all are cleansed by the blood of the Messiah, and so are justi fied and sanctified. It is a general token that all are loved, the degrees of love resting only with the King, who distinguishes them. Since, in the present text, it is only generals that are signi fied, therefore all Aaron's sons were invested in the same way, namely, with a tunic, a bonnet, and a belt [vs. 8, 9], but not with the robe and ephod, etc. 4963. Since, therefore, it is a general token that all will be justified and thus sanctified by the Messiah alone, Priest to the Most High, it follows that all will be clothed with tunics, because with white garments; for they who are justified by blood are dis tinguished by white robes and tunics, like those in the Apocalypse [chap. 4 4 ], who stood about the throne. They are distinguished in different ways, because the dignities derived from the King are so distinguished, of which dignities we shall perhaps speak else where; for they who are princes and are called princes of the King are equally his servants and servitors, as are their own servants; moreover, they so style themselves. It rests with the king to dis tinguish between them. So also is it with respect to justification. The more humble men are, and the more they are servants as it were, the greater they are. Hence the custom has prevailed that men in the highest places call themselves servants of servants be cause they minister to many. 4964. Every individual in heaven serves One only, that is, God Messiah; indeed, he does not know that this is done mediately. Thus each one is the servant of none other than God Messiah alone who is Lord of all. That they are ignorant of any mediations, and thus of any superiors save the one God Messiah-of this I have also spoken with them. s 4965. Tunics were the general coverings, and represent the body, and thus the whole of that which comprehends in itself things prior in order, as in the case of those bodies which hold prior things together in one complex. Thus tunics signify society. 4966. [And thou shalt gird them with a belt, Aaron and his sons; and shalt bind bonnets on them: that the priesthood may be theirs for the statlde of an age. And thus 9 thou shalt infill the
8 This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his MemQ-ra bilia. Added by Schmidius.

188

III Ad.

~163-~173

EXODUS XXIX: 9

[4967-68

hand of Aaron and the hand of his sons], vs. 9. That he girded them with a belt is stated in Leviticus 8[13l, There we read that he girded Aaron's sons with a belt, but here, that he girded both Aaron and his sons. Furthermore it is said above [chap. ~839], that the belt was made with" the work of the embroiderer," and below (chapter 3929 ), that it was woven of cotton, hyacinth, purple and scarlet double-dyed. It is also worthy of note that here it is said that Aaron also was to be girded with a belt, this belt going around the tunic which was next to the body. Afterwards Moses put the other garments upon him and put the girdle of the ephod around him. 4967. As to what a belt is, this the reader may see above [no 4810-1~, 4896], a belt being that which is the bond of the inmost things of society. The bond of heavenly society is love or charity, within which are those things that were inserted in the belt by the weaver. As to what belts signify, and how many are the things stored up within them, see above {no 4810-1~l Therefore the word belt is in very frequent use in things spiritual. In the present case it is the common bond of the whole of society, that is to say, of that heavenly body which is signified by the tunics of cotton. But the gil'dle of the ephod [vs. 5] is the love of God Messiah toward the human race, a love which comes from God Messiah alone. Hence comes charity, this appearing as though it belonged to man because it is the immediate fruit of saving faith. l 4968. We first read concerning the belt in chapter ~840, namely, that for Aaron's sons Moses was to make belts and also tunics and bonnets. Of the girdle of the ephod we read in the same chapter, verse 8, that it was "of gold, hyacinth, and purple, and scarlet double-dyed and cotton inwoven." Such is the girdle of the ephod, of which it is said 2 that Aaron was girded with it. In the present chapter (verse 9) we read that Moses was to gird Aaron and his sons with a belt. In chapter 39 5 , we read concerning the girdle of the ephod, [that they made it] as had been commanded; and, in the same chapter, verse ~9, concerning the belt, that it was of cotton inwoven, hyacinth, purple and scarlet double-dyed. Thus in that place there is no mention of gold; moreover, the order is different, the place of the cotton being changed. ln Leviticus 8 7
1 The last third of this paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. 2 Reading dictum for actum.

III Ad.

~174-~178

189

4969-7~]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

it is stated that after putting the tunic on Aaron, Moses girded him with a belt and then with the girdle of the ephod; and in verse 13, that he girded Aaron's sons with" a belt." 4969. Hence it is now evident that Moses girded Aaron with the belt of the tunic before girding him with the belt of the ephod; and that he girded Aaron's sons with belts, although the text says a belt. The reason why it is so stated, namely, that he girded both Aaron and his sons, as though they were together, and also why it is said with a belt and not" with belts," is because it is love that unites and makes a one out of many. Hence Aaron and his sons are not separated, and it is not said" belts" in the plural, because it is spiritual things that are signified, that is to say, love, and this makes what is inseparable, there being not many [belts] but one. This is the mystical sense of these words, words which in themselves are not dissentient when the spiritual sense is looked at. s Thus Aaron and his sons together represented one priest, just as they represented the priesthood, that is, many priests taken together, who together will represent God Messiah, as a society its King. 4970. As touching the bonnets, these were the insignia of the priesthood, and as such they were also received in general use among idolaters, both in ancient times and also at the present day. But bonnets 4 signify heads, the container being taken for the con tent, as is very frequently the case; so likewise the mitre, but this signifies the supreme head. Thus they were in this way to be the heads of their church, and so were also to represent the supreme head of the church in the universe and in the kingdom of God Messiah, etc., etc. 4971. Hence it now follows that thus the priesthood was to be theirs, and this, from the bonnets as its insignia and also from the signification of the belt and likewise from the signification of the tunics; for all these represent the church, that is, the kingdom of priests. 4972. As to his infilling their hand, see concerning this in what follows; thus they had in their hand those things which in one sum
This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written three times in the margin. The Hebrew word which Schmidius (and also Swedenborg in the Arcana Ooele8tia) translates tiara and which we render bonnet, is derived from a root meaning a hill. Like the Latin tiara, it means a turban, and probably a cone shaped turban resembling a hill.

190

III Ad.

~179-~186

EXODUS XXIX: 10-11

[4973-74

signified the whole of divine worship; for these must be in their hands if they were to be inaugurated, that is to say, if they were to labor solely in matters which pertain to divine worship, etc., etc. 4973. [And thou shalt cause a bullock to be brought before the tent of assembly: and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the bullock (vs. 10).] And now, as touching the sacrifice which marked the inauguration of Aaron and his sons into the priesthood, this with the whole of its ritual, was a representa tion which, as said above en. 4912] was taken up by angels, and so was seen by them and was carried up to interior angels, that is, to the interior heaven; and these carried it to the inmost heaven where all and single things are received in a celestial way. The third class takes up the bare ceremonies, but still with a knowledge and persuasion that they pertain to God Messiah and represent Him. If they did not have such knowledge in this life, they re ceive it after this life, and are persuaded concerning it. This knowledge then is within the representations, even though ob scurely. But the second class knows how to unfold the repre sentations both generally and specifically. Thus they perceive the matter spiritually, and hence perceive the doctrine of faith. The inmost class, however, perceives all and single things in a celestial way, and in the details of the representation, one and all, they behold nought save God Messiah, together with an indefinitude of things which are ineffable. To this class God Messiah is like the Sun of Wisdom. Still the representations are present with all the classes, but present in representations that are more perfect and more complete in [ascending] order; for a single part of the rep resentation involves things indefinite in number. Hence their speech is inexpressible to man while he is living. It is God Mes siah alone who is the life of all representations. Thus in them selves representations are instrumental to those infinite things which belong to J ehovah God, etc., etc. The first representation by a sacrifice was the sacrifice of a bullock, respecting which, as to what it signifies, see above [n. 4928]. 4974. [And thou shalt sla,y the bullock before Jehovah at the door of the tent of assembly (vs. 11).] [The subject here is] the slaying of a bullock before Jehovah at the door of the tent of as~ sembly. The bullock was slain before Jehovah, to the end that this III Ad. 2187-2195 191

4975-77]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

sacrifice might come to God Messiah according to order, and that the representation or type might thus become as the effigy; that is to say, that it might signify the Messiah and his justification to gether with the things, indefinite in number, which are contained within it. In this way Jehovah the Father, by means of the Son, looks upon the human race, beholding righteousness in the Messiah and thus the Messiah's righteousness in man. This is what is meant by sacrificing before Jehovah. 6 In their inmost senses, these words involve things indefinite in number; but what they involve in J ehovah God is infinite. 4975. The fact that the sacrifices were made before the tent of assembly signifies that men cannot enter heaven, that is, the king dom of God Messiah save by an atonement of this kind, and thus by satisfaction. The door of the tent of assembly was the first approach to the holy place and the holy of holies, and thus to heaven. Hence it also signifies man's life in the body while stand ing before the door prior to being introduced. Hence also God Messiah is alone the door and the way, that is, the introduction, etc., etc. 4976. That for the third class, being the class that is nearest at hand, that is to say, for the first introduction and thus for the first degree, a bullocl. signifies a sacrifice, can be evident from what was said above [n. 4973], and also, as regards the present text, from what follows. Moreover, all who are in this degree must put on garments of holiness in accordance with the degree, and so, in their own way, must be imitations of the Messiah-on which matter much might be said but the present is not the place; for all who are in the kingdom of God Messiah must be types of Him, though in due application to their own state~but this is an extensive sub ject. They will never be sacrificial victims, since they merit nothing, not even the least thing. Still they will put to death in another way such things as are repugnant, this being done in vari ous ways, etc., etc. 6 4977. [And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and shalt put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger; and all the
This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written four times in the margin. The last two-thirds of this paragraph are emphasized by "Obs." written three times in the margin.

19Q

III Ad. Q196-QQ03

EXODUS XXIX:

1~-13

[4978-81

blood thou shalt pour out at the bottom of the altar], vs. 1~. That this signifies the third class and the state of its religion, can be perceived from the ritual itself, to wit, that he put the blood upon the horns with his finger, meaning that they must be tinged, though slightly, with the blood, that is, the justice, of God Messiah, and with knowledge concerning God Messiah and his justification by blood. It will be but little, because they are not capable of more inasmuch as they are such that they cannot be admitted to things more interior. Therefore, he put blood merely upon the horns with his finger. It was not as in the case of those who are in the second class who are to be compared to the ram, the blood of the latter being sprinkled around the whole altar (verse 16). 4978. As stated above, 7 the horns were those parts which signi fied the universe, for God Messiah gathers his church from all quar ters of the world. Moreover, they were horns, in order that they might signify that they reached even to the Supreme, so reaching by means of sacrifices, supplications, etc.; for as they looked to all quarters of the world, so also they rose upward that they might look to God Messiah directly, as it were, as said above. The altar is God Messiah, just as He is the Stone and the Temple, as stated above [n. 5~5 seq.]. 4979. Because this class is the base, as it were, and heaven is built upon it as on a pedestal whereon it rests, therefore the blood was poured at the bottom. Thus they were sanctified by much blood, for here abundant righteousness looks to them. Much more can be said as to the pouring out of the blood, and thus as to the application of the Messiah's righteousness to those who are in the lowest regions, and so at the bottom of the altar; and as to how their prayers are elevated, etc., etc. 4980. Upon the horns, meant also upon the head, for the high est parts of the altar signify that which is highest in man, and the lowest part of the altar that which is lowest in man, such as the things signified by the feet and soles, which have so often been spoken of. 4981. [Then thou shalt take all the fat that co'Vereth the in testines, and the network that ,is above the liver, and the two kid neys, and the fat that is upon them, and shalt burn them upon the altar], vs. 13. As regards things natural, this class, like the
Confer n. 4687, 4691.

193

498~-83J

THE WORD EXPLAINED

lower minds in man which are, as it were, the gateways whereby there is ascent into heaven, and, as it were, descent from heaven, has natural things suitably mingled with spiritual, as can be evi dent from the representations received through human eyes. These natural things, thus suitably mingled, to the end that they may be concordant, are signified by the fat covering the intestines, fat being the corporeal part of the blood. The intestines are un clean. Thus the fat separated from the intestines means, that when thus mingled with the spiritual, that which is natural is clean. 4982. So likewise the network that is above the liver. The liver 8 and the gall bladder attached thereto are the organs that draw the unclean parts away from the blood, these organs being the collectors of the uncleanness of the blood. These unclean parts are then rejected into the intestines, as is well known. Hence the like is signified [in the present text J. This can be more clearly evident from an anatomical inquiry in regard to the liver, and also in regard to fat,9 whereby many particulars may be deduced. There the fat 9 is collected and serves for the regeneration of the blood, etc., etc. . 4983. As concerns the kidneys, these also are cleansers of the blood, for they draw off its foul parts, doing this in another way. Here may be adduced what has been written by me concerning the kidneys/ and a comparison may be instituted; also the reasons why the reins are said to be searched,2 and how they signify these things in their different senses,s etc., etc., for the several points coincide. Here also some description of them may be given in a series, and also, if this be allowed here, a description of regeneration as to how it is learned from things natural. If it be allowed, I may then also relate the things that happened when I was thus setting forth the whole series of regeneration by means C!f thought and by representation in the liver; [namely], that all and single things had then been taken up and understood spir itually in the inmost heaven. This, indeed, I did not perceive
8 jecur sou hepar (liver or hepar). Jecur is the Latin word for liver, and hepar the Greek word. The Latin word previously translated fat in this series is adeps; but here Swedenborg uses the word pinguodo. See n. 4596 note. 1 See the Author's Animal Kingdom n. 984 seq., particUlarly nos. 988, 994. 2 Psalms 79, 962; Jer. H20, 1710, 9012; Apoc. 92S. 8 See Animal Kingdom n. 993 note u.

194

III Ad.

~~14-~~~1

EXODUS XXIX: 14

[4984-87

save as to what was then indicated to me in a wonderful manner, etc., etc! 4984. And shalt burn them upon the altar. This altar was then sanctified, for its flame was a holy flame, signifying heavenly love and life. Hence it can be evident that it was then cleansed by a rite which [looked] to the man who is first to be regenerated, and also to those among men and in heaven who are to be counted as belonging to the third class. To these, by means of the repre sentations of the old church and of like representations in the new church, when these are done in a pious way, comes the delectation of justification by God Messiah; for the whole Word of God Mes siah consists of representations in their own order. 4985. [But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp; sin shall it be], vs. 14. From this it can be evident that these are representations. As to what flesh contains and signifies, this is clear from the Word of God Messiah, for from the flesh come an lusts, etc., etc., and hence sins. Although the flesh contains blood, since it contains vessels and fibres, still when it is taken as flesh it signifies sins, etc., etc.; for which reason these are called lusts of the flesh. 4986. So likewise with the skin, for by the skin, the unclean things both of the bloods and of the humors are rejected. If it shall be allowed, those things may here be adduced concerning the skin which bear on this matter." See [Genesis 3 21 ] concerning Adam's coat [of skin]. The skin signifies the outmost and thus that which is to be rejected. Still more does dung signify this. Thus the text proceeds in order to the most unclean things of all. Therefore, the seat of the devil in man is represented by the posteriors where are the feces or where filths are cast out. Such . representations are familiar to the evil spirits themselves when they are being cast out, when they are in pride, etc., etc. 6 4987. That they were to be burned with fire without the camp, means outside heaven, which this people noW represented. Fire without the camp is profane fire, signifying profane loves, such as
This indented passage is cited in the Author's Index to his Memombilia., See Table of Contents. Cf. Inh'oduction, p. 29. Confer Animal Kingdom n. 4.93. This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora bilia.
S.v. Natura and Spiritualia.

195

4988-91]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the loves of self and the world. This fire also signifies tortures, without the camp signifying hell. That this signifies sin is stated in plain words, to wit, sin shall it be. The devil is evil and sin, and every evil and sin in man comes from evil and sin, that is, from the devil. 4988. [And Thou shalt take one ram; and when Aaron and his sons have laid their hands upon the head of the ram], vs. 15. In itself the laying on of hands effects nothing. Still it is significa tive and has efficacy when done by command of God Messiah; and it was very frequently in use from the time of the primitive church. It is one thing to lay the hand upon the head, and another to lay it upon the thigh, as we read respecting Abraham's servant, etc. [Gen. 9l4 2 J. As to what a hand signifies, this the reader may see above [n. 4765], to wit, that hands signify power; for the will is exercised by means of the hands. Acts belong to the hands [but] power comes from that which is more interior, that is to say, from the will. Hence the laying on of hands means the communication of the power given to oneself by God Messiah. The laying on of hands is therefore the communication of power. 4989. Here the hands were put upon the ram, and, indeed, upon the head of the ram. This signifies that power was thus given to Aaron to sanctify the people by sacrifices; and that in this way these sacrifices duly reached even to God Messiah; conse quently, that Aaron was given power to make atonement for the people by sacrifices. There are likewise many other particulars concerning the laying on of hands which perhaps may follow, but the only subject here treated of is the inauguration of Aaron into the priesthood, and of this the sacrifices were true types. Since Aaron was thus sanctified, as it appears, by the laying of his hand upon the sacrificial victim, hence power was given him as a priest to sanctify the people by victims. 4990. As to what a ram signifies, see above [h. 499l7J. In that the hands were laid upon its head, it follows that they were laid upon the whole victim; for the head, being the primary thing, em braces the whole body, it being thence that the body is ruled as by a king, etc., etc. It was therefore the ram that sanctified Aaron before Aaron could sanctify the people. 4991. Here the victims were not lambs, these signifying the in most-lambs, however, are spoken of later [vs. 38 seq.] ; for this 196 III Ad. 9l9l34-9l247

EXODUS XXIX: 15-16

[499fl-95

church was a representative church, and men were not so well ad mitted to the signification of inmost things as they were by God Messiah himself when the veil between the holy place and the most holy was rent [Matt. fl7 51 , Mark 1538 , Lukefl3 45 ].7 4992. From what follows it is evident how the sanctification progressed from God Messiah alone, to wit: It was a lamb that sanctified the altar, while the altar sanctified the victim, and the victim the priest, namely, Aaron and his sons, by whom are meant and represented all priests. Thus the sanctification came from God Messiah alone, who is called the Lamb of God [ John 1 29 ]. Hence the altar was holy, as also is clearly stated in verse 37; but that God Messiah is sanctified by his glory, that is, by himself [is stated in] verse 43. 4993. That Aaron and his sons laid their hand upon the head of the ram and not upon the head of the bullock, is because the ram is prior and thus is the head, as it were, by which is signified all that follows; for when Aaron laid his hand upon the head of the ram, he also laid it upon the bullock, just as, when he was anointed, his sons also may be said to have been anointed. 4994. [Thou shalt slay the ram; and thou shalt take his blood, and shalt sprinlcle it upon the altar round about], vs. 16. As to the slaying of the ram, see above En. 49fl7], for it suffered death in order that it might become a type. As to the blood, see above [n. 3769, 4595], to the effect that the blood contains all the lives of man simultaneously, and so contains perfect order. This order, and thus justice, was restored, order and justice being in every way coincident. Concerning order, the reader may see elsewhere. s 4995. As to the fact that Moses sprinkled the blood round about, and did not put it upon the horns [of the altar] with his finger and pour the rest at the bottom [of the altar (vs. 1fl)], as in the case of the blood of the bullock, this can be perceived from the sanctification of the Iamb upon the altar-it being a Iamb only that was then sacrificed-together with the other things which thel'e follow from verse 36 on, which the reader may co?sult. And since blood signifies imputative righteousness, the sprinkling of blood signifies sanctification, justification, atonement, while the altar signifies in general that which is the instrumental of the worship of God Messiah, and thus the human mind wherein is
1

This paragraph is emphasized bY' " Obs." written twice in the margin. This paragraph is marked" Obs." written three times in the margin.

III Ad. flfl48-flfl53

197

4996-97]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

worship and so the things signified by the altar. Hence comes the understanding of these words. 4996. It is the same when by the altar is signified the second class of the church and kingdom of God Messiah, as also of the human mind with its intellect and will, that is, with its spiritual light, this being present when truths and goodnesses and thus ends appear as in light, and when goodnesses, etc., are perceived which are from love, etc., etc. From the above, innumerable things can now be adduced. The essential things are those stated both here and just above. In respect to man, the essential of the worship of God Messiah is faith in him; and this is effectuated upon the altar. 9 4997. [Then thou shalt cut the ram into his parts, and shalt wash his intestines and his legs, and shalt put them upon (his) 1 parts, and upon his head], vs. 17. This ritual is more fully de scribed in Leviticus 8 18- 21 where the ram is called" the ram of the whole burnt offering." Moses then slew it and "sprinkled its blood upon the altar round about. And he cut the ram into his pieces; and Moses burnt the head and the pieces and the dung. 2 And the inwards 3 and the legs he washed with waters; then Moses burnt the whole ram upon the altar." From this ritual, as de scribed in Leviticus, chapter 8, it can be evident what these par ticulars designate, to wit, that he burnt the head, the legs, and the dung. It is not said, however, that he burnt them either upon the altar or outside the camp. Therefore, there was another fire not far from the altar in which he burnt them; for of the ram we read that after it had been washed, he burnt it whole upon the altar [ibid. vs. ~1].4 By the head, therefore, is meant the intelligence
No. 4996 and the latter half of n. 4995 are emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. 1 Omitted by Schmidius. This is the translation of Schmidius' word fimum, but the latter is plainly an error, being probably a misprint for sebum or sevum (fat). exta. According to classical usage. this word signifies one of the more noble internal organs, such as the heart, lungs, liver, etc., but Swedenborg here understands it as meaning the intestines. [The following unnumbered paragraphs are here crossed off:] By the head, therefore, is meant the intelligence of the human mind; by the legs its ( [doubly crossed 1 love) will or the affections arising from its intelligence-that legs are the affections that arouse the will, see above concerning the dislocation of Jacob's thigh or leg before he became Israel [Gen. 3225 ]; and by the dung all those acts that flow from such will and intelligence. These then are burned in the first place, being burnt by fire and by tempta tions, here signified by fire. After this was done, the intestines and legs were washed.

198

III Ad.

~~54-~~59

EXODUS XXIX: 17

[4997

and science of the human mind. Adam fell by eating of the fruit 5 of the tree of knowledge 6 [Gen. 3 6 ], and therefore this the old man, with his science and the concupiscence arising therefrom, is to be burned, that is, to be abolished; and so also the dung,7 this being all that actually follows therefrom. Thus all his cupidities are to be crucified, that is, to be abolished by temptations. Moses then washed the inwards and the legs with waters, being those parts which contained the dung and the loves. The inwards are vile and are sin, as stated above [n. 4985]. The legs signify profane loves, as can be evident from the dislocation of J acob's thigh by his wrestling with the angel [Gen. 3~25J and from other passages where the leg is treated of, etc. 'Vhen these are washed, the man is sanctified. Hence the whole ram, and he who is signified by the ram, is sanctified upon the altar; for the fire of the altar signifies purification, and the abolition of things that are foul, such as things corporeal and natural, the things remaining being those that are purified-but by the righteousness of God Messiah. The fire of the altar, that is, the purification, is likewise imputative. Therefore, although man is unclean, still, when washed, he becomes imputatively clean; and since righteousness is imputed, that to which it is imputed is clean and just. Thus man is in no way clean by himself, like Aaron's body which was washed, etc., etc. When the mind is thus purified, which is meant by the ram in this passage and also in our text, then the whole man is purified, man being a man from his mind and its intellect and will; therefore, as the mind is, such is the man. Hence the whole ram was burnt upon the altar. The parts or pieces 8 also involve many things, for, as there are members in man, so the mind has its members, being its understanding and its will. The members or parts thus signified are spiritual; here they are represented. Much more can be said concerning the members of the human mind, but it suffices to know that in general its members are twain, being the understanding and
Pomum. See n. 4880 note. or science. The fact that Swedenborg gives the signification of dung, when, according to the Hebrew the word should be fat (see note \l above), indicates that he did not here consult the other translators, for they all give fat, except Tremellius who has intestina, Schmidius who has fimum (See note \l above), and the Swedish Bible (ed. of 1764) which omits the word. 8 Segmenta seu f1ustra. Schmidius uses the 'first word in Exodus \l911 and the second in Leviticus 820 as the translation of the one Hebrew word. Tremellius translates it members, meaning the outer members of the body.

III Ad.

~~60-~~65

199

4998-5000]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the will ;. also that the specific members or parts of the understand ing and also of the will are many in number, and regard each other entirely in a series, as do the members in man which are aroused by that mind and which act conformably with it. This, then, is the interior man to which, when the man is spiritual, the exterior man or third faculty ~nd thus the third class entirely corresponds, etc. 4998. [And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar; it is a whole burnt offering unto J ehovah; an odor of rest, an offering made by fire unto J ehovah is this], vs. 18. As to the whole ram being burnt, this, as the reader may see, is now explained [n. 4994]. In Leviticus, chapter 8[18] this first ram is called" the ram of the whole burnt offering," but here it is called a whole burnt offering unto J ehovah, being called a whole burnt offering because it was consumed by the holy fire of the altar. Fires were of three kinds. The ultimate or infernal kind was" without the camp" [vs. 14J. The second, which also signifies torments and temptations, but spiritual, was within the camp in another place, and there the head and the dung, etc., were burned [Lev. 820]. But the holy fire was the fire of the altar, signifying love and light which gently con sume the animals that become victims. This is now called an offer ing made by fire unto J ehovah; for to pass through the fire is to be purified, inasmuch as things corporeal and terrestrial are driven off and things spiritual and celestial remain. 4999. What then remains is called an odor of rest. With re spect to odor, it cannot be predicated of Jehovah that he smells; and yet it is stated elsewhere that he smelled an odor of sweetness. Odor, however, signifies what is grateful and well pleasing, and, in the supreme sense, it signifies grace. An odor of rest means that in this way J ehovah is at rest and no longer condemns man; for his mercy is touched, this being a grief that flows from love; and so, by reason of the condemnation of man, there is some emotion, as it were. Hence now, when man is thus expiated and, as it were, cleansed by fite, there is an odor of rest. 5000. This kind of whole burnt offering is more especially called an offering made by fire, for, inasmuch as what is signified is the science or intelligence that drives man into so many loves and filths, therefore, in order that these may be consumed by fire, and that the filthy things arising therefrom may thus be driven 9100 III Ad. 9l9l66-~~79

EXODUS XXIX:

18-~W

[5001-04

away, this must be done according to the ritual here described, that is, according to the understanding of this ritual. The more there is of science and intelligence, the more difficult is the ap proach to the holy place, just as the more riches there are, the greater the difficulty of entering heaven [Matt. 19 23 ] ; for human intelligence closes the gates to heaven and fastens them from with out, and to break through them is then more difficult than it is with those who are not intelligent. 9 But of this matter, God Messiah granting, we shall speak elsewhere; and also of what should be the nature of intelligence. 5001. An odor of rest has regard to the kingdom of God Mes siah, which is rest because it is heavenly peace. 5002. [And thou shalt talce the second ram; and tohen Aaron and his sons have laid their hands upon the head of the ram, thou shalt slay the ram; and thou shalt take of his blood, q,nd put it upon the tip of the ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot; but thou shalt sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about], vss. 19, 20. As touching the second ram which is called" the ram of infillings" [vs. 26], this is what is now treated of. Concerning the laying on of hands, see above [no 4988] ; and concerning the slaying of the ram and the sprink ling of its blood [see n. 4995] to the effect, that in this way it was shown that nothing could be sanctified or justified save by the blood of the sacrificial victim. 5003. But as to the words that occur in the present text con cerning the blood upon the right ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot of Aaron and his sons, these are arcana of heaven which none can ever know in the absence of revelation. For the things that here stand forth are representa tions which enclose within them an infinitude of heavenly things, respecting which representations, see above [n. 4907 seq.]. These actions were performed, in order that they [might serve] one and all for a full representation of mysteries concerning God Mes siah, his advent and his kingdom. In them, therefore, are in volved arcana. 5004. As to what is here signified by the tip of the ear, the thumb of the hand, and the great toe of the right foot, this [can
9

[Crossed off:] Therefore, the elect are rather those who are not intelli-

III Ad. 2280-2287

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5005-08]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

be evident] from certain things which happened to me. At the time there were many marvellous representations which I would never dare to recite, nor am I able. I did learn this, namely, that the right side of man is held to be more holy than the left, and, in deed, so much so that it is never allowed that the right side shall be touched save by the holy ones,! while the left can be touched by others. If I should bring forth my experience in these matters, besides being abundant, it would also be in credible. 2 From this is derived the reason why in conjugiallove and marriage the right represents the husband and the left t~e wife; thus, in the supreme sense, it represents the kingdom of God Messiah and his marriage with the church. 5005. In this verse, the tip of the ear signifies obedience, as previously did " hearing" in the name Simeon. Thus it signifies faith in act, to which, in the supreme sense, answers the grace of God Messiah. 5006. The thumb of the right hand signifies confession of faith and thus its confirmation. For covenants and the like are dic tated, pointed to, and written down, by the thumb; so also it is the right hand that works. The great toe of the right foot, however, like the foot itself, here signifies humiliation. To this also, testi mony might be rendered by much experience, but here as yet there is no need for this. 3 5007. Thus, then, these rites were representations of things divine in order that those might be signified who are justified by the blood of the Messiah; that is to say, who enjoy faith in act or obedience, and, what amounts to the same thing, who confirm their faith by action and works and also by oral confession; and, fur thermore, who humble themselves. To' these is now imputed the righteousness of God Messiah, which is here represented in this way that none may be able to know it without revelation. 5008. Since the things told in the Word of God Messiah are of such a nature, there being not a single jot which does not involve
'a sanctis, which might equally well be translated "by holy things," in which case" others" (occurring later in the sentence) would be "other things." 2 This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his llIemoj'a bilia. 3 This indented line is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia.

III Ad.

~~88-~~96

EXODUS XXIX:

[5009-11

an infinitude of things; and since none can unfold it without revela tion; who then would wish to appeal to intelligence for the obtain ing of faith? Intelligence cannot even comprehend this [that has been written] although it has been revealed to me by much experi ence. And even though it should be here affirmed, who will have faith in it? Will not one still doubt that these [rites] are significative, because intelligence does not compre hend them? Such is the nature of celestial things, that were they revealed, no one would believe it, who trusts to the in tellect. 4 5009. The reason why Moses was to pour the rest of the blood upon the altar, was that he might sanctify the altar, and that so it might signify the worship of God Messiah, and, in the supreme sense, God Messiah himself. Then, from the altar thus sanctified, all the rest was afterwards sanctified, that is to say, the worship of God Messiah, which in this church consisted more especially in sacrificial victims. 5010. Aaron and his garments were sanctified later, for it be hooved that the sanctification of the worship itself come first, see ing that Aaron was to be inaugurated. Therefore the blood was now sprinkled upon the altar, as was done with the blood of the bullock [Lev. 1 5 ] and, afterwards, with the blood of the lamb [Lev. 3 8 ]. 5011. [And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altm', and of the oil of anointing, and shalt sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons and the garments of his sons with him: and he shall be holy, he and his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him], vs. n. From the blood which was upon the altar, the priesthood also was then sanctified, as waS the worship which is meant by the altar. Not Aaron was sanctified-this could not be-but the priesthood, it being Aaron, his sons and their garments that were sanctified, and all these signified the priesthood; and so, in the supreme sense, they repre sented God Messiah. If then this be the meaning in the supreme sense, and if, in place of blood we take justice, and in place of the altar, in like manner as in place of the temple, God Messiah, it fol lows that it was the justice of God Messiah that sanctified the priesthood, the office of which, Aaron and his sons then performed.
This indented paragraph is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.

III Ad. 2297-2303

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5019l-13]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

It must therefore be nicely observed that it was the priesthood that was sanctified and not Aaron and his sons; for these, though they were men, were no more holy than their garments, and these gar ments, though holy, yet cannot be said to have been without any dirt clinging to them from the weaver and from Aaron himself. 5 Hence it is now said he shall be holy, he and his garments, etc., meaning the priest. 5012. [And thou shalt take from the ram, the fat and the tail. and the fat that covereth the intestines. and the network of the liver, and the two kidney.Y, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; for a ram of infillings is he], vs. 9l9l. Of these matters we have treated above [n. 4596] in respect to what is signified by fat. As to what is signified by the fat of the tail, which latter was very fatty, what by the fat of the intestines, the network of the liver, the kidneys and their fat, and also the shoulder, this can be told at length, there being not the least word that does not signify things innumerable and ineffable. As to the signification of the shoulder, in the sacrifice, this designated the most excellent portion of the sacrifice. Thus it signifies that which was most excellent and noble, this being the priesthood which was then bestowed upon Aaron and his sons. Thus the shoulder, and at the same time the fat 6 also, signifies that which was the most excellent in things spiritual. As to the excellency of the priest hood, this will be seen later, God Messiah granting.

That a shoulder signifies that which is most excellent in spiritual things joined with celestial-this has been revealed to me (in a dream, when, by reason of supplication, it was allowed m~ to enter into the more interior church). 7 5013. Fat likewise signifies that which is excellent; but the ex cellence is according to the parts which the fat covered, and in the present text, is relative to the parts that are mentioned; to wit, the kidneys. As to what these signify, this may be seen above [n. 4983], and also from the passages which teach that God Mes siah searches the heart and the reins. 8 Thus the kidneys signify
Up to this point, n. 5011 is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin. Adeps seu pinguedo. See n. 4989 note. T This indented paragraph is cited in the Author's Index to his Memorabilia, S.v. Armus. See Table of Contents. Ps. 79 , 962; J er. H20, 1710, 9012; Apoc. !t2Z.

9104

III Ad. 9l304-9l310

EXODUS XXIX:

~~-~3

[5014-17

things which are celestial and things which are spiritual. Much can be brought forward from a description of the kidneys and their use,9 especially since HERE AND ELSEWHERE THE KIDNEYS ARE SUB STITUTED FOR THE TESTES which they did not wish to mention, just as the shoulder is substituted for the thigh, and so forth. 1 As re gards the liver,2 what is signified is the searching herein 3 into things more interior; for in the liver those parts are searched into which are more interior, while the testes search into those which are inmost, and the intestines, of which we have previously spoken [n. 4904], into those which are inferior or exterior. All these members are separatories of evil from good. Therefore they sig nify the like process in things spiritual, and, by application, the way in which man is purified. Thus they signify purification and purging in the three degrees. 4 5014. As regards the tail, however, this is that last part which is separate from the body and yet adheres to it. The tail adheres to the medulla of the spine, and this to the upper medulla and by this to the cerebrum and cerebellum, etc. From this it can be com prehended what is signified by the tail, namely, those who are the last and as such are adjoined to the body. 5015. The fat of all these members signifies that which is excel lent and which, being separated by them, is delivered to the power of the priesthood, respecting which see below [n. 5018]. It also signifies that which is grateful and delicious. 5016. The ram is here called a ram of infillings, which signifies consecration, or the ascription of the priesthood to Aaron and his house. As to the manner in which this ascription was effected, to wit, by the infilling of their hands, etc., this is told in what follows, from which it can be seen why infilling is spoken of, and here a ram of infillings. 5017. [And one Zoaf of bread, and one cake of bread of oil, and one wafer out of the basket of unleavened things that is before Jehovah], vs. ~3. As touching these breads, see above [no 4935
Confer Animal Kmgdom n. ~84 seq.
1 The words in small capitals are emphasized by "Obs." written in the
margin. l hepar sou jocurj see n. 498~ note. 3 Reading eo for iis (in these). Swedenborg used the plural probably be cause he had used two words for" liver." The last three sentences are emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.
~05

5018-20]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

seq.]. In the supreme sense, breads signify the Messiah. Conse quently, in the corresponding sense in respect to the church, they signify saving faith, or the church itself which was thus trans ferred to Aaron and his sons that they might be its heads, that is, its priests, that is to say, might minister in the priest's office. That these breads might have this signification, it is added that they are before Jehovah, that is, are to be understood in the truly spiritual and celestial sense, this being the meaning of before Je hovah, that is, before God Messiah.~ 5018. [And thou shalt put all upon the palms of Aaron, and upon the palms of his sons; and shalt wave them, a waving before J ehovah], vs. 24. Here the infilling is now described. It was done by means of the application of all those things [mentioned in verse 23] to Aaron and his sons. To put them upon their palms or hands means to adj oin to them the power of administering and exercising the things, one and all, that pertained to the priest hood; for here as elsewhere" hands" and" arms" mean power. Hence the infilling is the consecration of that person to whom the above things were applied, and, consequently, the application of all that they signified, for in these consisted the essentials of the whole church, and, consequently, of the priesthood, etc., etc. 5019. That they should wave them a waving before Jehovah signifies the actual exercise, for what was given them was the right to exercise those things, that is to say, to perform the office, and this is not done without activity; confer Leviticus, chapter 8[271. This waving also signifies continuation and thus perpetuity, namely, in the present case, perpetuity in the house of Aaron; thus, that the office should succeed from father to son, etc., etc. Concerning this matter see also below, after this consecration has been performed. 5020. In respect to these representations in general, as already stated, the good angels who first take them up, comprehend that which is represented, but only by a species of grateful affection, etc., for only thus do they know inmost things, that is to say, the causes of all representations. 6 This, moreover, can be confirmed by reference to many men in the human race, in that they are gratefully affected by things concerning which they are ignorant,
This last sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin. [Marginal note by the Author:] This is spiritual instinct.

206

III Ad. 2320-2328

EXODUS XXIX:

~4-~5

and, when in a spiritual state, by things with which the inmost angels are delighted. In this way that which is grateful comes to Jehovah God. But since these representations can never be ex hausted by words, for to explain a single one of them would take many sheets; and since with the inmost angels, the representation is a representation of things indefinite in number; therefore this was effected by means of representations such as are taken from man, and also from things which were in paradise, such as its trees, as stated here and there above; and, after the fall of man, from things which are in the earth, such as seeds, etc., which yet involve the same thing, seeds involving fruits and trees, and trees man, etc., etc. 7 5021. [And thou shalt take them from their hands, and shalt burn them upon the altar over the whole burnt offering; for an odor of rest before Jehovah: an offering made by fire unto Je hovah is this], vs. ~5. As yet it was not allowed Aaron to put this offering upon the altar inasmuch as he was to be inaugurated or consecrated by the complete ritual. This ritual continued even to the things which signified the holy of holies or the" holiness of holinesses," that is to say, to the altar which is thus called in verse 37, as stated above [n. 4988 seq. J. The preceding sacrifice of the ram was the acquired justice whereby the altar was sanctified, that is, the Messiah as to his human essence. Thus the altar signifies the human essence of the Messiah sanctified by the sacrifice of itself as victim, etc., etc. ; these words refer to justice. The whole burnt offering, therefore, signifies the sacrifice carried out in the way described above. Thus it includes those things which were done in connection with the sacrifice. In order then that these might be continued, a~d thus that Aaron and his sons might be consecrated, the breads are now taken from the palms of Aaron and his sons and put upon the altar and upon the whole burnt offering. From this can be comprehended the series of his inauguration, and then,
ACCORDIN(; TO THE SERIES, THESE THINGS CAN BE EXPLAINED IN RESPECT TO ESSENTIALS.

5022. As touching an odor of rest, see above [no 4999]; for when these things were burned upon the altar, and thus upon the whole burnt offering, there was an odor of rest; that is, it spread
The second part of this paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written four times in the margin.

IH Ad.

~3~9-~335

~07

50~3-~5]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

over 8 the whole man like an odor, when the odor spreads through the lungs, and thus refreshes the blood of the heart in the course of its passage through the lungs, and so brings health to the whole man. This can be evident enough from [the phenomena of] odor. These, therefore, may be adduced. 9 This is the meaning in the external sense. 1 So likewise when these several things now come to the third class, and then to the second, and so to the first. Thus they are to be understood spiritually in the order which obtains in man's faculties when these are in order. Therefore it is finally said that it is an odor of rest to Jehovah, in that it is accepted, etc., etc., and moves his grace, clemency, mercy. 5023. As to the words an offering made by fire unto Jehovah, see above [n. 5000 J. [It is so called] because it passes through fire, the fire being of various kinds. In the supreme sense, it signi fies justice and love, etc., etc. 5024. [And thou shalt take the breast of the ram of infillings which is for Aaron, and shalt wave it a waving before J ehovah, that it may be for a portion unto thee], vs. ~6. The whole ram was a ram of infillings, except the right shoulder, the fats, and the blood, as above [vs. 19, ~~J. The other parts went to Aaron, and the breast to Moses, as is more fully stated in Leviticus, chap ter 8 29 , where we read that Moses waved the breast, and that this then went to him as his portion. 5025. As touching the first point, namely, the waving, what this represents can be gathered only from animal life. There are two things which constitute this life, namely, the blood, and the motion or waving of the blood; for the heart continually beats and thus [the blood] is waved. 2 So also is all that which is within the
8 delineb~t. In the autograph, this word commences a new line, and op posite it, Swedenborg wrote in the margin "Obs." It would seem that in his subsequent numbering of the paragraphs he took this " Obs." to mark the be ginning of a new paragraph which he numbered !'2336; confer n. 4646 note. The Latin text is not clear. It reads quod ab odOl'e satis constare potest, sic ea adducantur. We interpret the last words as an indication that Sweden borg had in mind to adduce here what he had written concerning the sense of smell less than two years previously, in his draft concerning the Five Senses; see the published translation n. 68; see also the Animal Kingdom (published a few months later by Swedenborg himself) n. 406. 1 This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin. 2 The autograph has agitur (is acted upon), but the context strongly indi cates that this is a slip for agitat1tr as translated.

~08

EXODUS XXIX: 26

[5026-27

breast, such as the lungs, which latter may perhaps be described as to how they continue the life of the body by means of the respiratory wave. s The fetus in the womb, however, has only the waving of the blood. Thus waving is that which signifies life and its continuation. Therefore, by the waving of the breast, and' thus by " the breast of the waving" [vs. 27], is meant life itself. More~ver, life is attributed to respiration and to the wave of the heart, by common sense. 4 5026. That" the breast of the waving" [vs. 27] now went to Moses signifies that in this way it shall be God Messiah's, for life pertains solely to God Messiah. That angels and men are merely organic, and thus are organs of life, this the reader may see confirmed above [n. 4124 J. Life is one only, but it is conditioned entirely according to form, thus according to the organic form of angels and men. So in exactly the same way the light of the sun is conditioned in objects according to their form, whence comes so great a variety of colors, etc. In the same way also is sight conditioned in the eye, which latter sees according to its form. So the ear hears according to its form. So the natural mind with the memory is conditioned according to its form, both natural and acquired; so the intellectual mind and the will according to its form; so every disposition according to its form. Hence we read that the Holy Spirit is one, but yet a One which attributes to human subjects so great a variety of gifts; see Paul, and cite the passage here, etc., etc. 5 And since life is one only, and life itself is love and thus the life of love, it most clearly follows that God Messiah who is love and life, wills to save all in the entire globe and in heaven, etc., etc. 6 5027. As further concerns life, as signified by the waving, I can bear witness that a like waving of spirits has sometimes come to my sensation. Thus a like waving is common among spirits. This waving was felt by me as an undulation, and it was also given me to
'This is demonstrated in detail in the Animal Kingdom n. 395-99. This last sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. The passage referred to is Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians 44,1,11: "There is one body and one Spirit . . . but grace is given to each of us according to the measure of the gift of Christ . . . And he gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers." In the autograph the teaching in n. 50\!6 concerning life being one only, is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin.

III Ad. 2344-2351

209

THE WORD EXPLAINED

reflect on what it involves, namely, that it is the general life, that is to say, the life of many spirits who were in such concord and who so conspired together to a single thought, etc., etc., that it came to the superior classes as a gentle waving, and in this way the mysteries contained in the representations were more fully drawn out, and the" odor of rest" [vs. ~5], more fully comprehended, etc., etc. 7 The breast of the waving went to Moses because he was the legate, as the saying is, of God Messiah; consequently, it went to God Messiah, for life belongs to God Messiah alone, and to him alone belongs love, etc., etc. 8 5028. [But the breast of the waving, and the shoulder of the heave offering 9 (whereof the one was waved, and the other was heaved up, of the ram of infillings, even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons), thou shalt sanctify], vs. ~7. As touching the shoulder of the heave offering, this went to Aaron and his sons, who ate it, as is evident from what is said below [vs. 39l]. Thus they applied it interiorly to themselves. It is called" the ram of infillings " [vs. 9l9l] as being that which was applied to their hands. Application was made to the hands, however, in order that it might be eontinued progressively an the way to the holy of holies, as said above [n. 509l1]. Therefore, that which had been applied to the hands was put upon the altar [vs. ~5J. But it is principally from the internal application that this ram is called the ram of the heave offering and also of infilling. Therefore, what is signified, is that these things are to be applied more in teriorly, thus to the interior man, being the man who is truly spiritual and celestial, as stated below. This is still more evident from verse 33 where these matters come out more clearly. Thus what was signified is spiritual eating. 5029. Moses sanctified the breast and the shoulder because these went to Moses and Aaron, to Moses the breast, and to Aaron the shoulder, namely, that which corresponded to the right shoulder. How the sanctification was effected is not told. Sanctification, however, is described previously [vs. ~l] and later [vs. 43], as
7 This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the lndex to his Memorabilia, S.v. Agitatio and Respimtio. See Table 'of Contents. The indented passage and what followS in n. 50:27, is emphasized by " Obs." written four times in the margin. Therwmah; See n. 4664 note.

~lO

III Ad.

~359l-9l359

EXODUS XXIX: 9l7-9l8

[5030-31

being effected in two ways, by blood, and by that which was put upon the altar. 5030. As further concerns the waving which I said was felt by me as a pleasant 1 undulation in the brain [n. 509l7] , I also clearly witnessed that it has its degrees. The most general sort, I might be able to de scribe, for it has been felt in various ways. One was in the brain itself, and of this I have spoken with spirits, to the effect that it was like an undulatory creeping of the cortical sub stances in the brain. In this connection occurred marvels, in that myriads of spirits together formed that undulation; but in my brain it was a correspondence to their waving. At an other time it was felt in another way with exceeding great delectation; also in still other ways. The pleasantness of this undulation, which must needs be inexpressible and which in this way effigies 2 the general life of concordant spirits, or a general harmonic form-it is this that is signified by the odor of rest after the offering made by fire [vs. 9l5], etc., etc.; for the waving is a general waving designating the single waving of each individual, and thus the most single waving within each individual; thus designating a concordance arising from things most individuaV 5031. [That it may be for Aaron and for his sons by a statute of an age from-with the sons of Israel: for it is a Therumah; it shall be a Therumah, from-with the sons of Israel, of the sacrifices of their peace offerings, even their Therumah unto Jehovah], vs. 9l8. This is said of the shoulder of the heave offering [vs. 9l7]. The ram which was now given to Moses, and afterwards to Aaron, was called" the ram of infillings," as above [vs. 9l7]. As touch ing the heave offering/ it was so called because Moses, Aaron, their sons, and the people which Was expiated took it away. They
amoeni01em. The Author had first intended to write amoenissimam. The autograph has "effigies, signifies" but we have omitted the latter word because the context suggests that the following words "is what is signi fied" were intended as a substitute for it. 3 This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Oerebrum and Inftuxus. The end of the paragraph, after " etc., etc.," is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin, and is cited s.v. Agitatio and Respiratio. See Table of Contents. i.e., the Therumah. Schmidius' translation reads: .. for it is a 'rherumah (sublatio) "-an uplifting, a heave offering.
.1
2

III Ad. 9l360-9l364

9111

5039l-33]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

then ate it, and thus celebrated in a mystical manner the feast and nuptials of God Messiah with the church. This was a spiritual eating, such as was also carried out 5 of old in the first Christian church, but only by bread and wine; for when the Messiah himself became a Sacrifice, types and sacrifices ceased; and then came bread or spiritual nutrition, etc., etc. 5032. This heave offering which was the therumah, signifies the priesthood which was given to Aaron; for in this representa tive church it was thus that the priesthood was separated, as it were, and transferred to Aaron. It is said to be "heaved up" [vs. 9l7] and not" given" because the church was such that a worse was not possible. Therefore this WAS PERMITTED, NOT GIVEN,6 it being bare external representations that produced the effect that the things seen externally were thus carried over in order, when yet nothing of the order in Aaron and the people con tributed to this. For after the pattern of the order in heaven, the spiritual man has a like order in himself; and when this order was lacking in man, there came representations which commenced ' merely from externals and thus from the natural man, and which thus were without a correspondence in the man himself. There fore there could be no influx from inmosts through things more interior to things exterior. Thus the mercy and grace of God Messiah could not penetrate to these exterior things through the inmosts of the man, etc., etc. 7 With the exception of its institu tion by God Messiah, we meet with nothing here save the mere representation, etc., etc. 5033. That it was lifted up, or was an uplifting, is also signi fied by Leah, in that she was substituted in place of Rachel [Gen. 9l9 25 ] , Leah being the Jewish church and Rachel the church truly Christian. The reason for the uplifting has been given above [n. 591], namely, that it was for the sake of Abraham, his faith and sacrificial victim [Gen. 9l9l9~12J. These also were representa
From this point on, this paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin. The first "Obs." is opposite the line commencing olim (of old), and in his subsequent numbering of the paragraphs, Swedenborg mistook this line as the commencement of a new paragraph which he marked "2365." See n. 5022 note. This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. 7 [The following new paragraph is here crossed off by the Author:] From order it can be concluded what was the nature of this church, that is to say, that the order was not what it ought to be.

IlIAd. 9l365-9l368

EXODUS XXIX:

~8

[5034

tions; that is to say, Abraham signifies faith and obedience. Wherefore all are called" Abraham " from their faith and obedi ence; but because Abraham was the parent of the Messiah, they are called" sons of Abraham" [ Job 8 39 ]. Thus faith and obedi ence is Abraham. In the supreme sense, saving faith is God Mes siah, whose sons are called sons of Abraham, etc., etc. Greater than Abraham in the representation of God Messiah was Mel chisedek. 8 5034. As touching the Therumah, it also signifies a gift which they offered, as in chapter 35 5 and also previously, chapter ~52 (which passages may be examined in the Hebrew text, etc., as to whether it is therumah, or, as in chapter ~52, thrumah). If, there fore, it signifies an offering and not a heave offering, then it does not fit in with what was said of Leah, that this was a heave offering. (Wherefore this should be looked into more deeply.) The words, however, differ; in Exodus, chapter ~52, we read" thruma," (a collection, thus an offering) ; but in chapter 35 5 it is "therumah" (a heave offering),9 when yet the subject treated of is the same, being, in the former passage the command of God Messiah to Moses, and in the latter, that of Moses to the people. The ques tion is whether 1 there is a difference, that is, whether it is "an offering" or "a heave offering," and thus, in the present case, whether the shoulder and the other parts which came from this ram, except the blood and fat, were given to Aaron as an offering, or whether it was permitted that they should take it away.2 But first those passages should be looked up which treat of the therumah of the sacrifice of peace offerings; namely, Leviticus, chapter 3, where the sacrifices of the peace offerings are treated of; sand also Leviticus 711- 3 4, where also the sacrifices of the peace offer ings are treated of, especially verses 31-34.'"
The last two sentences are a later addition to the text and are marked "Obs." These are the translations given by Schmidius. The Hebrew is the same in both cases; see n. 4664 note. From what follows it appearS that Swedenborg was unaware of this; see n. 5036. 1 Reading num for dum (while). 2 The first part of n. 5034 is emphasized by " NB" written several times in the margin. S The word therumah does not occur in Leviticus 3. * [Note by the Author written in a blank space at the very bottom of the page:] Se what follows concerning theruma; turn over. [The next page of the Autograph commences with our D. 5035.]

III Ad.

~369-~370

~13

5035-37]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

CONCERNING THE THERUMAH

THE FOLLOWING :MUST BE OBSERVED BECAUSE MEMORABLE THINGS HAPPENED HERE.

5035. That these words involve things utterly arcane can be evident enough from the repetition of the word therumah which oc curs three times in this verse; and also from the fact that it shall be for Aaron and his sons from-with the sons of Israel by a statute of an age. Therefore, what the words involve cannot well be seen until other passages concerning the therumah are also consulted. 5036. As regards the "collection," 4 which is called thruma in Exodus ~52, being so called and commanded, by Jehovah, it is here called therumah ([and also in] chapter 35 5 ). Thus some might be of the opinion that theruma does not signify a heave offering unless the same be also the case with the word thruma, that is, " a collection." In the passage, chapter 355, it means a free gift,5 because they offered it spontaneously, as is there stated. As to why the thrumah commanded by Jehovah is afterwards called by Moses therumah, two reasons occur, namely, [1] Because Moses together with the priests and people wished the therumah in this passage to signify a collection, that is, a free gift; just as they wished to be called sons of Israel, which was also permitted them but because of the representation, of which matter we have so often spoken above. [~] The second reason is because the change from thrumah to therumah is so easy that it depends on a single vowel, thus on a single little point below 6 the word, the vowels being ex pressed by points. (See further the Hebrew text, etc.) Thus this passage does not yet clear the matter and declare it, the matter namely, as to whether therumah is a gift or an offering which was given spontaneously. That therumah signifies a heave offering is evident enough. As touching the therumah of the sacrifices of peace offerings, we read concerning this in Leviticus, chapter

731- 34
5037. In verse 31 of that chapter, we read for the first time that after the inauguration the breast of the sacrifices of peace offerings was given to Aaron and his sons, whereas the breast of
'This is Schmidius' added translation of th"uma in Exodus 252. 4664 note. In this passage Schmidius has" Therumah (sublatio)." The autograph has above. See n.

III Ad.

~371-~379

CONCERNING THE THERUMAH

[5038-39

the sacrifice of inauguration went to Moses, being called "the breast of the waving" [vs. 26-27], that is, the breast of motion. This was done for the reason spoken of above [no 5026], namely, because the breast of the waving signifies life which comes solely from God Messiah; and, as stated above [n. 5027] this is first transferred, as it were, to Moses because he was the legate of God Messiah. Now, however, after Moses had performed this office and the priesthood was instituted, Aaron and his sons were considered as the vicars of God Messiah. Therefore it was then given to them. It must be observed that in the sacrifices of peace offerings, as in the other sacrifices, God Messiah willed to have for himself only the blood and the fat that was left over. Thus, he did not give this to the priest, for, in the supreme sense, the blood is life and the fat is the felicity of life; the meaning being that it is God Messiah alone who gives life and the felicity of life, that is, who gives his kingdom. 5038. As regards the right shoulder, we read in chapter 29 22- 25 , that in the sacrifice of the inauguration it was sacrificed upon the whole burnt offering, together with the breads. But after the in auguration, the right shoulder also was given to the priest, as stated in Leviticus 7 32 ,33, where we read that the right shoulder shall go to the priest, being his, among the sons of Aaron, who offered the blood and the fat. In the supreme sense, this, that is to say, the giving of the right shoulder to him who offered the blood and the fat, signified the Messiah; for the right shoulder was Jehovah's, nor was it given to another, save to Him who offered blood, and so became justice. Thus he who offered blood was he who represented the Messiah. As to what is meant by the right shoulder, this also can be evident from what has been said, namely, that it was the choicest portion, and so means those things which are in inmostI'. Thus the right shoulder signifies the inmost, or the inmost church, being at the right of the breast, that is, at the right side of God Messiah, because at the right side of the heart. The left shoulder then is that which will be at the left side. 5039. The therumah, therefore, involves the question of who it is that shall sit at the right and left hand of God Messiah in his kingdom [Matt. 20 20 - 23 , Mark 1037-40]. This the Jews now claim for themselves, on the oasis of the words adduced [above, n. 5031], and also on the basis of the present passage in Exodus, where III Ad. 2380~2383 215

5040-4fl]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

therumah is thrice repeated, and of Leviticus 7[34], where it is said that Jehovah gave them" unto Aaron the priest, and unto his sons by a statute of eternity from-with the sons of Israel" ; and further more, on the basis of the present words, namely, Exodus fl9 28 : that it may' be for Aaron and for his sons by a statute of an age from with the sons of Israel: for it i.y a therumah. 5040. As further concerns the right shoulder, this was put upon the whole burnt offering; for we read that it also was put upon the palms of Aaron, and so was sacrificed together with the unleavened things, as may be seen from Exodus fl9 22- 25 Immediately after wards, however, in verse fl7, it is said that the breast of the waving and the shoulder of the heave offering should be sanctified. In Leviticus, chapter 8, where these rites are carried out by Moses, nothing is said of the shoulder but only of the breast, to wit, that it was given to Aaron and his sons; see in that chapter, verses fl5 fl9. In the sacrifices of the peace offerings, on the other hand, it is said that the right shoulder and also the shoulder of the heave offering which was given to Aaron the priest, went to him who offered the blood (Leviticus 732 ,34) ; of the left shoulder, nothing is said. From this it can now be evident that the right shoulder is that which is called" the shoulder of the heave offering" [vs. fl7], and this because it was taken up from the whole burnt offering and given to the priest. Hence this shoulder is called" the shoulder of the heave offering." This is clearly evident from the words in Leviticus 7 34 . That this shoulder is called the shoulder of the heave offering arises, as already said, from the fact that it was put among the sacrifices of the peace offerings to Jehovah, and was [then] lifted up, as also we read [vs. fl7]. 5041. The dispute, therefore, turns on the question as to what is the therumah, and the heave offering, being the heave offer ing from the whole burnt offering and from the altar; also as to what is signified by its being given to Aaron the priest, or to that son of his who offered the blood, and so the fat, for an odor of rest or quietude to J ehovah. It is J ehovah himself who is signified. f 5042. That it was given to Aaron clearly signifies that it was given to the Priest, and this, the verse adds, by a statute of eter nity; for, that it did not go to Aaron and his sons by a statute of eternity is clear, but [it is so stated] because Aaron repre
1

No. 5041 is marked by' " NB" written twice in the margin.

fl16

III Ad. fl384-fl388

EXODUS XXIX:

~9

[5043-45

sented the Priest to the Most High, the priesthood, like the whole Jewish church, being a representative institution, as stated above [n. 4991 J. Hence what is signified is that the shoulder, in the supreme sense, was given to the Messiah, and that from this it comes about that the shoulder is given by Him to those who are in inmosts and who thus will sit at his right hand. 5043. That it will go to those who will sit at his right hand, these being the inmost, and being those true sons of Israel, who also are represented here, as stated above [no 5036, 5039], can be further evident from what follows, in that they instituted a feast and ate the shoulder. Thus they are those who celebrated the nuptials [Matt. ~~10], see verses 31, 3~, 33.* 5044.
THESE POINTS MUST BE OBSERVED BECAUSE MEMORA BLE THINGS HAPPENED TO ME IN CONNECTION WITH THEM,S AND I COULD PERCEIVE THAT IT IS THE PREROGATIVE IN THE KING DOM OF GOD MESSIAH 9 THAT IS TREATED OF, THE PREROGATIVE NAMELY, AS BETWEEN THE OLD CHURCH 1 AND THE NEW. 1746, June ~8, Old Style. Gifts were sent me, such as a bundle of letters, a basket with apples and citrons, which basket was not admitted; delights. 2

5045. [And the garments of holiness which are for Aaron shall be for his sons after him, that in them they may anoint, and in them may infill their hand], vs. ~9. The statement that the gar ments of holiness shall be for Aaron's sons refers to what was said above [vs. ~8], that it shall be " for Aaron and for his sons by the statute of an age" or " of eternity"; consequently, it refers to the therumah. That the garments of holiness shall be for his sons is due to the fact that the kingdom of priests was not to recede
* [Marginal note by the Author:] As to what a therumah is, see below n. 51233. 8 Confer n. 5789. Judging from the handwriting, Swedenborg originally ended this para graph here. Then, leaving the balance of the line blank, he wrote underneath "1746, June 28 Old Style" [which was a SaturdaYl. Later he continued the paragraph by filling in the blank space and writing around the date already entered. 1 Swedenborg originally wrote "between the churches"; this he altered to read" between the Jewish church and" which he again altered to read as in the translation. This indented paragraph is, cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, S.v. Videre. See Table of Contents.

fl17

5046-48]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

from this one house; for a single house represents the kingdom, just as a kingdom represents an entire society which constitutes the kingdom of God Messiah, all the members of which will be of the same house, namely, of the seed of the Messiah, which is faith. Thus there will be a heavenly paradise from one tree of life, or the tree of life from one root, or the tree of life with its root from one sap-and that this is love, may be seen above [n. 4958].3 Hence then the succession from Aaron to his sons. 5046. Of the garments of holiness, however, it is said in the text that they shall be for his sons in whom the priesthood shall be continued. The garments could not have been said to be garments of holiness except by representation-as to what they represent and signify, see above. Hence it is a common usage in speech to say that men are to be clothed with garments of holiness that they may be admitted to the feast, that is, to the kingdom of God Mes siah. Thus by Aaron is now meant one who is a priest or who is one in the kingdom of priests, and so those who will be clothed with garments of holiness according to their classes. Therefore, in the supreme sense, it is God Messiah alone who is clothed with gar ments of holiness, for, in the supreme sense, all the garments of holiness, of which we have spoken above, represent Him. Save for the garments, Aaron had no holiness, as is evident from what is said later. Thus this was a representation, as stated above. 5047. That in them they may anoint, that is to say, may conse crate others that these may be kings and priests [Apoc. 1 6, 510] ; but they must anoint them in the garments of holiness. These words then fit in with those which were said to Peter, that to him are given the keys of the kingdom of the heavens [to bind and to loose (Matt. 1619 )]. He could never have done this by any judg ment; but when he was clothed with the garments of holiness, then none other was admitted through him save he whom God Messiah himself admitted. But of these matters, God Messiah granting, we shall speak elsewhere. 5048. That in them they may infill their hand, that is, to the end that they may perform the office of the priesthood and ad minister the worship of God Messiah. In other words, that thus they shall infill their hands, that is, shall touch the holy things,
This paragraph, except for the first sentence, is emphasized by "Obs." written four times in the margin.

fl18

III Ad. fl393-MOfl

EXODUS XXIX: 30

[5049--50

shall apply them to others, and shall administer the things that pertain to the church, in the garments of holiness; for unless clothed with these garments, and unless the garments be holy, they could not admin!ster in this place. 4 5049. As to how those can administer holy things who are not clothed with the garments of holiness, this we learn from Aaron, with whom there were holy garments, though he himself was not holy, etc., etc. In the new church, types have no place, but still there are the symbols which followed in their stead. Thus bread became a symbol. In the old church, this was the bread of things unleavened, prepared in various ways and baked upon the whole burnt offerings, etc., etc. What in these symbols corresponds to the garments of holiness, I do not yet know. 5 5050. [Seven days shall the priest put the1n on, that succeedeth him from among his sons; that shall enter into the tent of assembly to minister in the holy place], vs. 30. As to what seven days represents, this has been frequently stated above, namely, that it represents the week which consisted of seven days. When an entire week is mentioned, what is then signified is the first or second of the three weeks treated of in the story of Jacob. Moreover, the seventh day signifies the holy day whence the six preceding days are sanctified, and this is fitting to a priest and to priests, etc., etc. That Aaron also observed these seven days, together with his sons, see Leviticus 8 33 at the end of the chapter, where the rites which are here to be explained are more clearly set forth. 6 Indeed, they sat outside the door of the tent of assembly for seven days before they were inaugurated,T which signifies that a week of time was to be fulfilled before God Messiah was to come, this week being for the representative church. On the first day of the third week, God Messiah comes. Therefore, we now read that they are then to
The last two-thirds of this paragraph are emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin. This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. This sentence is emphasized by "Obs." written in the margin. In the A.V. Lev. 838 is translated: " And ye shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle . . . in seven days." This gives the impression that they were to remain within the tabernacle, which is in contradiction of verse 35: "Therefore shall ye abide at the door . . . seven days." Literally translated, the Hebrew of verse 33 reads: " And from the door of the tent . . . ye shall not go out seven days."

III Ad. 9l403-9l407

9119

5051-53]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

enter into the tent of assembly [to minister in the holy place], that is, are to enter into heaven, the holy place being heaven, as said above [n. 4734-5], that they may minister there.
CONCERNING THE MILLENNIUM

5051. It is now brought before me to see that they areJirll..io minister in hea.!en. This is the seventh day and thus the millen nium. But this is not the time when they enter into the holy of holies; consequently, the day [for this] is not counted; it is eter nity, etc., etc. 8 5052. [Then thou shalt take the ram of infillings, and shalt boil its flesh in a holy place], vs. 31. The subject now treated of is the second part [of the inauguration], being the part in which there was no sacrifice. There was one ram that was sacrificed, and an other that was not, the latter going to Aaron and his sons, to gether with that portion of the bread which remained in the basket. The first ram, the whole of which was sacrificed [vs. 18], signifies the Messiah, as also does that bread in the basket which was burned in like manner [vs. 9l3, 9l5] being in place of the second ram. The latter is called the ram of infillings, that is, the ram of the inaugu ration or consecration of Aaron and his sons into the priesthood. Therefore the ram of infillings, that is, the second ram, signifies the mode whereby the first ram, by which is signified the Messiah and thus the righteousness thence acquired, is now applied to the priest or man. 9 The infilling of the hand [vs. 9l4] is therefore the APPLICATION, this being effected by touch both external and in ternal, and thus by eating [vs. 39lJ. This is the subject now treated of. 5053. Since this ram of infillings signifies the application to man of the Messiah's righteousness-the reader may consult Leviticus (if I mistake not) concerning infilling in other sacrifices 1 ~it is this that is the imputation to man of the Messiah's righteous ness, and thus the appeasing of the wrath of Jehovah God, and
No. 5051 is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin. In the autograph, the words "or man" commence a new line, opposite which Swedenborg wrote in the margin "Obs. Obs." When later he numbered the paragraphs, he took this" Obs. Obs." to mark the beginning of a new para graph which he numbered" 9414." See n. 5031 note. 1 In the whole Bible the word infilling is used in connection with sacrifices only in the present chapter and in Leviticus 731 and 821, 28, 29, in all which pas sages the A.V. translates the word consecration. It is used of the sacrifice of peace offerings only in Lev. 731:

III Ad. 9l408-MI5

EXODUS XXIX: 31

[5054-55

deliverance from damnation. That this is the meaning is most clearly evident from Leviticus 7 18 ; for when there was no applica tion, that is to say, when the sacrifice does not go to man for righteousness, then, as we read, " he that offereth shall not be ac cepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him; but it shall be an abomination." 2 The application, therefore, was effected [first] by external contact, and now by internal, and this to the end that what is holy may pass over into the whole of man's blood. This is here represented by eating. Hence the things which were now taken in, were holy, as we read of the shoulder that was heaved up, and also, elsewhere, in the case of the sacrifices of the peace offer ings (if I mistake not). That the shoulder which went to Aaron, etc., etc., was sanctified, see above, verse fJl7. 5054. Here the preparation of the ram is set forth. To the end that representatively there might be nothing save what was holy, the fire [for this preparation] was taken from the altar which also was holy (as I think will be evident later on). And, in con trast with the other ram which was burned by fire, the present ram was boiled. This amounts to the same thing, seeing that the ram was given for food after this boiling had been done by holy fire. s As to what the holy fire of the altar is, this can be seen later. The fire on the altar continued perpetually; and since the altar, and also the sacrifice, represented the Messiah, therefore, so also did the fire which consumed the sacrifices. By this fire is signified tempta tion which consumes things corporeal, that is to say, which takes away iniquities and sins, it being in this way that man is cleansed. Hence sacrifices were made by fire. 5055. The present preparation was also made by fire, but the flesh was boiled in order that it might be used for food. So like wise man is prepared by fire, that is to say, his spiritual mind, it being this that is here more properly meant by the ram; for the second part of the [inauguration] sacrifice is to be applied to the second fa,culty in man and in the church. That the righteousness of God Messiah may be imputed, man is prepared in a holy way. The man is this second ram, and the purpose of this ram was that the righteousness of the Messiah might be applied to him.
2 The first part of n. 5053 is emphasized by "Obs." written four times in the margin. From this point on, the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin.

III Ad.

MI6-M~fJl

5056-60]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5056. In a holy place! that is to say, not far from the altar. As regards a holy place, what is also meant is the place wherein preparation is made when these things are taken in through the human mind, as said above [n. 5055]. The place, however, is [not] holy of itself but is sanctified by the blood, by the sacrifices, nay, by the altar, as stated below [vs. 37]. 5057. And now for what purpose are these rituals, each and everyone of them, save that things spiritual may thereby be signi fied? Does boiling effect anything? or fire? or eating, etc.?-un less, indeed, these refer themselves, one and all, to the internal or spiritual man. 5058. [And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in the basket, at the door of the tent of as sembly] , vs. 39l. Here it is most certainly the Eucharist or a spiritual eating that is described, the sole difference being, that with the ceasing of sacrifices when the Messiah himself became the sacrifice, then in place of sacrifices was that bread and wine which are so abundantly treated of elsewhere. 5 Bread signifies all heavenly food, and thus all that which is imputed by the sacrifice of the Messiah, thus righteousness itself, this being what spiritually nourishes man. Aaron and his sons ate the flesh because theirs was a representative priesthood or a type, etc., etc. But here more is concealed than can as yet be set forth. 5059. At the door of the tent, namely, before they entered into the holy place, that is, into heaven. The door of the tent was near the altar. 5060. What further these words signify I am unable as yet to know, but something I can suspect. Things which are repre'senta tive, such as the types of the Old Testament, ceased when God Mes siah came; and things which are significative, such as the symbols ,[of the New Testament], will also cease when man is introduced into the kingdom of God Messiah. The types of the Old Testa ment were REPRESENTATIVE, while the symbols of the New Testa ment were SlGNIFlCATIVE, these being then applied to man, that is,
, In the Hebrew a distinction is made between eijPi! (the holy place, mean ing the tabernacle), and ~p OPr.l (a place holy, meaning the court of the
T T

tabernacle; see Leviticus 616, 26; Ecclesiastes 810 ). This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.

III Ad.

249l3-9l431

EXODUS XXIX:

3~-33

[5061-64

to the spiritual man, more interiorly and inmostly. Afterwards they also will cease, in consequence of the coming of the effigy whose image they are, etc., etc. 6 5061. The tent of assembly represents heaven consisting of three classes, as above [n. 491~]. Now, while being inaugurated, they were before the door. The universal church was an inaugu ration to the new church, and the new to the kingdom of God Messiah. 7 5062. [For they shall eat the things wherewith atonement was made, for the infilling of their hand to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not eat thereof, because they are that which is holy], vs. 33. Here the purpose of the institution is clearly pronounced,
and when this is understood the arcanum of the Eucharist is also
understood; the purpose namely, that the eating should be done by
those for whom atonement had been made, that is, who had been
prepared, etc., and to whom, therefore, the righteousness of the
. Messiah is imputed by faith; for to make atonement means to be
justified; that is, it means this for those from whom sins have been
taken away so that they do not appear. That this is done by
imputation is clearly evident, for it is said for the infilling of their
hand, and that this means imputation, the reader may see stated
just above [no 5053]. 5063. Moreover, by the actual eating of the flesh and blood, application was effected. Thus in this way it was a confirmation. Imputation is free, for, as we read, that which is given to J ehovah has been bestowed on man as a gift [Num. 18 12 ]. Hence the atonement which precedes. Unless Aaron had made atonement, he could not have eaten, for, as the text reads [the things then eaten] are that which is holy. This eating, therefore, like the Eucharist, is a confirmation as by a seal. Without confirmation, thus with out the leave which is given by means of confirmation, it is not al lowed man to enter into the kingdom of God Messiah. It was for this reason also that the present rite preceded before Aaron and his sons were admitted. Herein then consist the arcana. 8 5064. As to the sanctification by blood, etc., etc., see above [n. 500~]. The purpose of what is said in the present text is that this sanctification may now be completed by confirmation.
No. 5060 is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. This last sentence is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin. No. 5063 is emphasized by "Obs." written four times in the margin.

III Ad.

~43~-~439

5065-69]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5065. That a stranger should not eat thereof signifies that at the time no others should eat thereof save Aaron and his sons. Afterwards it was allowed those to eat for whom atonement had been made. The stranger signified one who has not made atone ment; also one who was not of the true faith, or who was unclean, that is, in the inmost sense, who was uncircumcised in heart. Here, then, the stranger, being one who was uncircumcised, could not be in the Jewish church, this being a representat.ive church; conse quently, could not eat of the sacrifices, and so could not, in like manner, represent, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 5066. That the unclean were not to eat thereof, and that if they ate they were to be cut off from the society-as to this, confer Leviticus 7 18- 21 from which verses it is most clearly evident that this was a mere representation; for why should there be unclean ness from the touch of what is dead or unclean unless these repre sent spiritual uncleanness, that is, iniquity? which uncleanness or iniquity comes to view in plain words in verse 18, where we read: "The soul that eateth thereof (on the third day) shall bear his iniquity." Moreover, the sacrifice was a sacrifice for sin, and sin is a spiritual thing not a natural, etc., etc. 5067. That if an unclean man eat thereof he would be cut off, signifies representatively exactly the same thing as the statement that he who does not rightly eat and drink [the bread and wine of the Holy Supper] eats and drinks for himself death not life; for heavenly things and worldly can never be commingled, but must be distinct, and the worldly must serve the heavenly as an underling. If they be commingled, the re sult is death. In man they follow each other and may not be commingled. Therefore it is, that such provident caution is taken against their mingling. Of these arcana, God Messiah granting, we speak elsewhere.'" 5068. Because they are that which is holy. The use of the singular signifies that ONE IS HOLY, and that all the things con cerned with the sacrifice, the fire, etc., represent the one holy thing; therefore, the expression they are that which is holy. 5069. [And if ought of the flesh of the infillings, or of the bread, remain until the next day, thou shalt burn the remainder with fire: it shall not be eaten, becatMe it is holy], vs. 34. As to
* This indented part of 11. 5067 is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.

III Ad.

~440-~445

EXODUS XXIX: 34

[5070-7~

what this represents, the injunction namely, that the remainder was to be burnt, and was not to be eaten on the next day, this also can be evident from other passages, as from Leviticus 715 , where we read that nothing should be left of it " until the dawn." As to what the evening is, and what the dawn or morning, this the reader may see frequently explained above. Evening was the period of these rites or representations, they being the shadows of things that were to come. This whole church was an evening. There fore it is said that nothing of these sacrifices should be left until the dawn, meaning that then types would be entirely abolished; for they were abolished when God Messiah came. 5070. Because it is holy. For if sacrifices were then to take place, these being holy by the representation of the Messiah, then, as is clearly stated in Leviticus 7 18 , "he that offereth shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him; it shall be an abomination, and he shall bear his iniquity." For if they should then eat, they would profane these rites, just as if they were of an alien heart; and if they persisted in the rites without any behold ing of God Messiah who had then been made known to them, it would he an abomination and they would bear their iniquity. 5071. It was for this reason also that on the second day about dawn, Jerusalem was overturned, and the temple with the altar laid waste [Matt. ~751], lest, being holy, it be profaned. Thus sacri fices ceased of themselves. Therefore also, it was forbidden to make sacrifices outside Jerusalem, when yet in former times they had been made in various places; and this solely from Providence, lest abomination be among them, etc., etc. 9 5072. In votive and voluntary sacrifices, however, as is evident from Leviticus 716 , permission was given to eat these on the next day also, differently than was the case in the sacrifices of confes sion 1 (ibid., verse 15). This permission involves that if from some vow, and thus from a scrupulous conscience, etc., etc., one wished to retain some of the rites on the second day, that is, after the advent of God Messiah, this was allowed him, as was done dur ing the time of the Apostles in the case of circumcision [Acts 15 1- 29 ], and later in other cases also, as for instance, in regard to
This paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin. 1 That is, confession of God. In the A.V., these sacrifices are called " Sacrifices of thanksgh'ing." The Hebrew word means confession, p"aise, and so thanksgil/!ing.

III Ad.

~446-M53

5073-75]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the abstaining from eating blood or things that had been sacrificed to idols (Acts 15 2 8-29). This was also the case among Christians later on, in that they made use of priestly garments, of temples after the effigy of the Jerusalem temple, and of many things re tained from the representative ritual of the Jews. Therefore, in votive and voluntary sacrifices which are the opposite of sacrifices of confession of the true faith, it was allowable to eat them on the next day. 5073. That these words have so wide an extension follows from the fact that sacrifices involve the whole ritual of that church, and therefore involve all the other rites, sacrifices being their essential. These essentials were indeed abolished, but certain formalities re mained, and this because of scrupulous consciences which cling to form, and consider formalities as essentials. Such is wont to be the case with every ignorant man of the common people who has no deeper penetration; for formalities are more apparent before the eyes than are essentials. 5074. It must be observed that there were many kinds of sacri fices, namely, sacrifices" for sin, for trespass, for infillings, and the sacrifice of peace offerings" (Lev. 737 ) ; but all conspired to the one end that men might be cleansed from their sins, that is, might be justified by means of the sacrifice, and that righteousness might be imputed to them. 2 5075. [And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, and to his sons, ac cording to all that I have commanded thee: seven days shalt thmt infill their hand], vs. 35. It was not allowed Moses to change the least thing of what had been commanded, for in the ritual of the sacrifices, in the garments, the tent, etc., there was not the minutest detail that did not represent some distinct thing, and thus refer itself to something in the doctrine of faith, that is, in the doctrine of justification by faith. For every single part of the ritual in~ volves an infinitude of things, just as does every single idea, as I am able to affirm from much experience. S Therefore there was nothing in these rites that did not involve within itself something of the doctrine of faith in God Messiah, this doctrine being thus distiO:ctly perceived in inmosts. When, there2 Nos. 5073-74 are emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. S This indented sentence is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.

III Ad.

M54-~460

EXODUS XXIX: 35

[5076-77

fore, men draw near to God Messiah by means of true faith, a way is opened, and this way is the way of truth. Otherwise the man is led astray, it being God Messiah who gives faith and who imputes his righteousness, and this entirely according to that essence which the doctrine of faith should embrace, and, in the present case, according to all that He commanded Moses. 5076. Seven days shalt thou infill their hand, that is, inaugurate and sanctify them; for what is now described is the infilling of the hand, to wit, by the ram of infillings [vs. 31]. It is said " infill ings " in the plural, because the rites of their consecration were many in number. As touching the seven days, see Leviticus 8 33 ,34, where are these words: 4 " Outside the door [of the tent] ~ of as sembly ye shalt not go forth seven days, until the day when the days of your infillings shall be fulfilled; for seven days shall Je hovah infill your hand; as he hath done at this day, as Jehovah hath commanded to do, to make atonement for you." Thus the days of infillings were days of atonement, and so of justification or sanctification. These days refer themselves both to the days of that week in which they were, the seventh being the holy day on which God Messiah came; and also to the universal time of re formation, when the seventh day is the day in which God Messiah will come into his glory, and so when his kingdom will commence, being thus an eternal kingdom. Furthermore, it was commanded that they should abide at the door of the tent of assembly day and night seven days, and should keep the charge of Jehovah lest they die [Lev. 8 35 ]. These then were the rites of infilling the hand, that is, of inauguration into a perpetual priesthood. 5077. All that is here described signifies what is perpetual in things inmost, because perpetual in the Supreme. For these rites signify the kingdom of God Messiah, and thus the mode whereby the kingdom of priests is to be inaugurated before being intro duced as a bride to the bridegroom. Seven days, therefore, signify the seven ages of reformation and also the seven lesser ages or times of each day, and, in the present case, the time of this week up to the advent of God Messiah; until then the representa tive church would endure.
See n. 5050 note. Omitted by Schmidius.

III Ad. 2461-2467

5078-81]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5078. As to how they abode day and night seven days, and kept the charge of J ehovah [Lev. 8 35 ], as is here represented, this is sufficiently evident from their history. Thus it is sufficiently evident what, in general, was the character of the representers, being the representers of those things which are signified. There fore, whether they went against that law, God Messiah alone knows - [and this] lest they die. 5079. Since, therefore, this rite signifies what is eternal, as also was said previously in the words, that this shall be for Aaron a statute of eternity [vs, fl8, Lev. 7 36 ], the question arises why such a rite should signify eternity, when yet it was not an eternal statute that Aaron and his sons should constitute the priesthood, or that the high priests should be descended from Aaron's sons. Certain it is that this was not the case. The same is true of the promise to David, that some one of his descendants should sit on the throne of David to eternity [fl Sam. 7 13 ,16; Ps. 89 4 ,29,36], when, never theless, this throne came to an end. Do not these words, then, refer one and all to Him who is eternally Priest and eternally King, etc., etc.? 6 5080. It is said that seven days signifies eternity, because this seven days signifies the instauration of a priesthood that is to en dure to eternity. But what was represented by Aaron and his sons, is that which was signified by the rites. 7 Thus not he who represents is eternal, but He who is signified; consequently, not the priesthood which Aaron represented was eternal, but the priest hood which was signified; for the closer the approach to outmost representations, the less there is of durability. Thus the body which also is a representation, being a representation of the soul, is not enduring, while that which approaches to the inmost is en during and becomes eternal,-but by means of Him who is Eternal. 5081. Nature perishes, first grosser nature, then that which follows. Nature is in the natural mind. Thus the natural wiII perish, and when this perishes, that mind no longer remains. That which is in the intellectual mind, being that which it has drawn from the natural mind, will also perish, but after a longer period of time. What wilI then remain is spiritual, so that the intellectual mind is in entire correspondence with the soul, a human soul not
No. 5079 is emphasized by "Obs." written three times in the margin. From this point on, the paragraph is emphasized by " Ohs." written 'four times in the margin.
1

III Ad. fl468-fl471

EXODUS XXIX: 85

[508~

being possible apart from intellectual JI,lind. This then is what is signified by the statement that the world and the earth win pass away but not the least thing of the Word of God Messiah [Matt. 5 18 ]. Moreover, it is represented in many ways, as, in man, by the death of the body which is the ultimate natural, as stated above. Within the body, moreover, is that which is spiritual, being the life of its senses, etc., but 8 when the ultimate natural perishes, the life adherent to it does not perish but remains in the superior mind as a disposition. 9 Therefore, after life, genii think themselves to be furnished with a body, nor do they persuade themselves otherwise; n~y, to be furnished with members; when yet those members of which they persuade themselves, such as all the members of the human body, are of no use to them. But of what form they are, is entirely unknown to them; it depends on the representation, so that they seem to put on such form as is induced on them by representation. 1 5082. The same thing is confirmed in the case of members of the vegetable kingdom, for there the things which are ultimate p'erish, in order that there may be fruit. First is dissolved their outer covering, then the inner parts successively, and finally there remains the seed which lies concealed within. This seed also is dissolved, and so at last that emerges which is the truly prolific and which represents eternity, and this gives birth to both the tree and its fruit. So it is from the beginning of the world to the end, etc., etc. This new creation commences after the death of the body; yet it is represented in the new creation of the man while living in the body; for he must reject all that comes from the natural man, and put on the new man, etc., etc. 2 In this way men are finally presented to the sight of Jehovah the Father, as also is openly declared by Paul, who says that God Messiah will deliver heaven to Jehovah the Father. s (Is there another meaning? if it is of use that it be known, it shall be told,4 God Messiah granting.)
[Crossed off: 1 this life perishes, The same thought is expressed in n. 76 of the Author's Harmony between Soul and Body written some four or five years earlier. See Psychological Transactions, p, 61; also The Soul, n. 494, 591. 1 This indented sentence is not cited by the Author in the Index to his M emombUia. 2 The whole of n. 5081 and this first part of n, 5089 is emphasized by " Obs. Obs." written many times in the margin. 3 Confer Hebrews 924. Reading dicetul' for dicitU1'.

III Ad.

M7~-~47 5

5083-84]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5083. The representations of such arcana, respecting which see above [n. 4907, 4917-18, 5004], exist continually among heavenly spirits and angels, in a continuous series and with end less variety, and yet they are entirely ignorant as to what they signify (if you except those among the inmost to whom this is revealed by God Messiah and the Holy Spirit). Such representa tions were those which were mentioned [no 4779, 478~, 4907] as having been seen by me in many series and for quite a long space of time. ~ 5084. And, nevertheless, those angels or spirits who represent them in man, know nothing as to what they signify, but are car ried along to the efJigying of them by their own essence, as it were. Thus, if it be allowed to use a comparison, it is like as when birds which are carried along by instinct, represent the arca.na of mar riage by the things which they do, in that they build nests, lay eggs, hatch them out, feed their young, and all this in the most marvellous way, when yet they are carried along to such things by nature. So, in superior degree, do those represent such arcana with infinite variety who enjoy spiritual life, as do spirits and angels. That such representations existed primitively in the first man, cannot be doubted, for speech cannot be cultivated and in vented save from objects. Thus the first man spoke by means of like representations. Moreover, that men are able to speak by means of representations, has also been made known to me; for it was allowed me also to speak by certain repre sentations, the significations of which were known to few save those who were the inmost. One representation may involve an infinitude of things. Such is the speech of those who are in inmosts, for they see at a single glance more than can ever be expressed in many sheets. Nay, in this way the.whole life of a man, with its every variety, its affection, together with the words and the most minute particulars in each word, can be presented, as it were, in a single representation and nothing whatever be lacking of that which has thus been inscribed. 6

This indented sentence is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia. This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Repraesentatio. See Table of Contents.
~30

III Ad.

~476-fl479

EXODUS XXIX: 36-37

[5085-87

5085. The whole of first creation is merely a representation of Jehovah God, and this by means of God Messiah and the Holy Spirit. Hence all and single things look to the kingdom of God Messiah. Such representations must needs exist in the effect, be cause they come from Him who Is, and who alone Lives, and from whom and in whom are all things. 7 Hence then the first creation, which involves the second creation and thus the new heaven and the new earth. s As to what eating and drinking with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is [Matt. 8 11 ], see what follows at the sign 0 En. 5088].

EXODUS XXIX 36 And thou shalt prepare a bullock of sin for the day, upon the atonements, that thou mayest make atonement for the altar, when thou shalt make atonement upon it; and thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it. 37 Seven days thou shalt make an atonement upon the altar; and sanctify it; that the altar may be holiness of holinesses; who soever toucheth the altar shall sanctify himself.
5086. The subject now treated of is the sanctification of the altar, etc. Here the first question that arises is, How can an altar be sanctified when yet it is stone? I know that no other answer can be proffered than that it is because it was anointed with holy oil and therefore is sanctified. If then it is asked, How can oil be sanctified, which is inanimate-for oil, being inanimate, can never be holy-to this you will undoubtedly answer that these are divine mysteries, namely, as to how an altar and oil can be sanctified. If then these are divine mysteries, and if these mysteries are opened up, will you not then believe that this was a mystery only because it had a representation? 5087. In respect to how animal blood could be sanctified, must not this be a divine arcanum of which you are ignorant? But when this arcanum is revealed to you, you do not believe it, per haps because you do not comprehend it, seeing that such things are divine. Yet they are so revealed-as was done by God Mes siah-that no one can ever deny them. Why.then do you not beNo. 5085 is emphasized by " Obs. Obs." written many times in the margin. This indented sentence is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.
T

In

Ad. 9l480-9l483

9131

5088-90]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

lieve ? You may say, if you wish, that these things and much else in the Prophets, etc., have regard to a Messiah whom you ac knowledge as about to come. Must they not then all be types representing Him? Him, the Messiah, for whom you look? can this be other than He who, becoming Righteousness by the sacrifice of Himself as victim ~ atoJ1ement3Q.r the whole human race, and-bore their sins? In the absence of such a representation, could a bullock, a ram, or a Iamb ever take away sins? Think for yourselves, and reflect whether there can be any refutation of these points. 9
<::) WHAT IS MEANT BY EATING WITH ABRAHAM, ISAAC, AND JACOB

5088. As to how this eating now signifies a heavenly eating, this may perhaps be seen above; also that afterwards, when sacri fices ceased, then in place of this eating the Eucharist was insti tuted, which was observed with bread and wine. This, moreover, had been foreshadowed by the mincha which was put upon [the altar] where was not only bread but also wine, as shown later in verse 40, etc., below. ' 5089. It is this spiritual eating that is called eating and drink ing with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of the heavens [Matt. 8 11 ] ; for just as Abraham represents the first, Isaac the second, and Jacob the third class of the blessed in the kingdom of the heavens, so is it understood what eating with Abraham, Isaac, and J acob signifies. 5090. And it is understood according as this spiritual eating ascends according to degrees. That is to say, they who are in in mosts love all who are in the entire world, on account of their faith in God Messiah, by whose love they are affected. Thus, they do not see them as to their native affection, being the love of self or of those belonging to them, save as seeing a love beneath them selves which they thus lay aside. These are called sons of Abra ham [John 8 39 ]. He who does not perceive this characteristic within himself, but is tinged with the love of those belonging to himself, which arises from the love of self, is not in inmosts. Re specting this matter, it has also been granted me to speak with those who
Confer n. 5141.

III Ad.

~484-~487

EATING WITH ABRAHAM, ETC.

[5091-94

were in inmosts, or supposed themselves to be in inmosts; and this that they might themselves perceive whether they were in inmosts as they believed. But as to whether they are there, this they might know from the above characteristic. For until he is instructed, one knows no other than that he is in the inmost,t in which matter he is indeed deceived. Still he is held in this opinion, for what is unknown to him cannot penetrate, as also is the case among men. 2 5091. As to the nature of those who are said to eat with Isaac, this as yet I do not well know, but I pray to be instructed, God Messiah granting. Perhaps it is as follows: That they do indeed know that love toward God Messiah must be above every other love, and they also desire this, but not with affection; for affec tion toward those belonging to themselves and toward their own race above the entire human race, still reigns. In its bosom this affection carries with it the love of self, since as far as one loves himself, so far he loves those whom he naturally perceives to be his other selves, as it were, etc., etc. When they perceive this, they can know that they are not in inmosts. 5092. Those who eat with Jacob, however, are those who do not make much use of the understanding but are carried along almost by affection alone, and yet are carried to such things as are good, being things that refer themselves to the Best, that is, to God Mes siah. Otherwise a thing is not good. 5093. From the description of these classes, it can be evident what that heavenly food is which is upon the table at which they recline who are said to eat with Abraham, Isaac, and J acob in the kingdom of the heavens [Matt. 8 11 ] ; namely, that it is affection or love. This food nourishes minds and produces the result that there is nothing that does not look thither. This, therefore, is a food of which many things can then be said but they are innumer able, nay, ineffable. 5094. Moreover, this day it has been granted me to speak with those in heaven who are around me concerning the dispo sition of those who are there, namely, that they derive that disposition from no other source than their life in the boay
Reading quod [in] intimo sit for quod intime est (which is inmostly). This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memolubiliu, s.v. interioru. See Table of Contents.
1

III Ad.

~488-Q49~

5095-96]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

wherein it is fo~ed; for they then ~l accordingly, that is, are affected accordingly. And when this is the case they are worse than animals,-as, for instance, bees, etc., which form so cieties and act from laws inscl'ibed upon- th~elves. But if men were to act from the disposition thus acquired, no society could ever be formed in heaven; society w_o~ld at once go to ruin; each one would bring mischief on the other, nay, and wolild thrust him out. Therefore, the consequence was-a consequence confirmed by these and many other considera tions-that unless God Messiah, who is Love, ruled all men from supreme and absolute power, heaven would go to !uin; and, consequently, human societies, these being ruled by God Messiah by means of angels and spirits; and likewise every man in particular. This conclusion could not but be affi~e cause it was granted them to see the truth; how that th'!..-!!.!!!.!e erfect are in a superior degree, and to know whence is the affe~tion of those in a lower degree, which affection they thus rule, a heavenly society, like a man, being ruled as by superior faculties, etc., etc. 2a Therefore, he who cannot r~tle his q'l!!.n a ection, bemg the inferior affection within himself;-cannot rule the affection of another who might be beneath him. For m heaven it is the disposition that is ruled; the dispos'ition arises from the affection, and {rom the affection arises the understand i!!i[. As to how the case is in this life in those who are to-be re generated, this I do not yet know. s

5095. [And thou shalt prepare a bullock of sm for the day, upon the atonements, that thOtt mayest make atonement for the altar, when thou shalt make atonement upon it; and thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it], vs. 36. Here the sacrifice of a bullock for sin, is called a bullock of sin, and elsewhere" sin" [vs. 14, Lev. 4 21 ,24, etc.], signifying a sacrifice for sin, there being many kinds of sacrifices, respecting which see Leviticus 737 Thou shalt do this for the day, means every day. 5096. As touching atonements, these signify that all imputa tions of the justice of the Messiah were effected by blood and, in
This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin. This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Domi'WU8 and Natul'a. See Table of Contents. The words in italics are written in the wide margin left by the indentation.
2.

III Ad.

~493-M96

EXODUS XXIX: 36

[.'5097-98

deed, by the blood of sacrifice, it being thence that they were justi fied. That it was in this way that the golden altar or altar of incense was cleansed, see below, chapter 3010 To make atonement for the altar means to cleanse the altar, for the altar itself, as con sisting of stone, could never have been holy, though yet it was holy when blood was sprinkled upon it. But to make atonement upon the altar, means to make sacrifices. Thus atonements also signify sacrifices. Hence the meaning of these words is now clear. 5097. And now, as touching these significations, it can beevi dent, especially from what has been said above [no 5087], that God Messiah justified himself by the voluntary sacrifice of himself, that so he might justify men. Therefore, the things here represented were one and all to be sanctified, to the end that they might repre sent; that is to say, that the representations might be holy before their eyes and senses, and this for the reason mentioned abov.e [n. 488fl, 491fl]. Therefore, they were to be sanctified, and indeed by such things as represented the Messiah, as, for instance, by sacrifice, by blood, by the mincha, by the drink offering, and also by oil. In the supreme sense, each and every statement made con cerning the ark, the lamp, the sacrifice, the oil, signifies God Mes siah, and so, in a lower inmost sense, the heaven of the blessed, and also the inmost church, and likewise the inmost of man. Where fore, in Genesis fl8 22 , the Stone is called by Jacob "the house of God," and, consequently, it was set up for a pillar, and anointed [vs. 18]. For this reason also, man, that is, his inmost, is like wise called a temple, an altar, and an ark, etc., and so likewise, by reason of the correspondence, his more interior part, etc., etc., thus, in the spiritual man, his interior part also. Thus the house of God, the temple, the altar, signifies heaven in a complex and thus the church in a complex, and the spiritual man in a complex. Atonement for these then is made by means of blood; and by means of oil, they are sanctified by the Messiah himself who justified or sanctified himself. Here, in the supreme sense, is represented how the Messiah sanctified himself, and thus sanctified the church and heaven; for he became a sacrifice for the angels of heaven also. 5098. Moses prepared a bullock of sin, that is, made sacrifice of a bullock, because the sacrifice of the bullock included the former sacrifices, being those of the ram and the lamb; 4 for that
If " the former sacrifices" refers to the present chapter, this should read " the bullock and the rams." See verse 1.

III Ad. fl497-fl507

5099-5102]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

which is third in order, in a word, that which is last, comprises in itself all that is prior, just as blood comprises all man's lives. So is it in all other cases, in that the complex of all that precedes, is that which comes last, and this in all and single things in the world and in nature, as can be demonstrated by innumerable examples. 5099. As regards the oil, see above [n. 4774, 4956]. The oil of the lamp signifies a flame, and a flame, love. Thus the oil itself signifies love, that is, God Messiah. It is the oil of the lamp, how ever, that has this signification, respecting which see above [n. 4674]. But the oil wherewith priests and kings were anointed, likewise signifies God Messiah, though with a distinction as com pared with the oil of the lamp; for oil is the essence of a tree, and consequently of the tree's life. Thus it stands for the tree of life, and so for the Messiah himself. s And since it signifies God Mes siah who is the Anointed of Jehovah, we thus understand what is said here, namely: Thou shalt anoint the altar to sanctify it; and also the statement that J acob anointed the pillar (Genesis 28 18 and 81 13 ) 5100. It must further be observed that the altar, temple, etc., signifies the body of God Messiah or the Messiah himself; for he said that he would destroy the temple and would raise it up in three days; but look up the words in the Gospel [John 2 19 ]. Thus it is his body that is called the house of God, etc., etc., Genesis 28[221. 5101. [Seven days thou shalt make an atonement upon the altar, and sanctify it; that the altar 7nay be holiness of holinesses; whosoever toucheth the altaT shall sanctify himself], vs. 37. Con cerning the seven days, see above [n. 5076], and in many places elsewhere. To make atonement upon the altar means to sacrifice or offer sacrifices, this being making an atonement upon the altar. Hereby the altar is atoned for or purified, as stated just above [n.5096J. 5102. The altar was sanctified by the sacrifice, thus by blood, and also by oil, because it represented God Messiah. But the de grees of sanctification follow each other, and this ultimately to rep resentative things which in themselves are dead. So, in man they follow from inmosts eV'en to the ultimate, this being the body, which latter will die because it is merely a representation of those things
[The following paragraph is here crossed off:] Much is said later con cerning oil; for since it signifies the tree of life, it signifies also a paradise from the tree of life, etc., etc.

III Ad. 2508-2515

EXODUS XXIX: 37

[5103-05

which pertain to things more interior and inmost. So also with the sacrifices and the altar-and that these, like the body, were abolished, is clearly evident. 5103. Therefore they are related to each other in the following order. The altar was sanctified by the sacrifice, and the sacrifice by the worship of God Messiah. According to order the worship of God Messiah consists in righteousness which is imputed by faith in God Messiah. And since they are so related to each other, altars were sanctified in the primitive church, as when 6 Abraham built an altar and made a sacrifice, not by the present ritual but by reason of his faith in God Messiah who furnished the sacrifice [Gen. !'l!'l9-13]. It is different in the present case, because it was a representative church that was instituted. 5104. That the altar, etc., was by no means sanctified by the oil, or by the sacrificial victim but by the Messiah, is most clearly evident from verses 43 and 44. And since the altar represented what was ultimate, and comprehended in one complex the things that followed in order, therefore it is called holiness of holinesses; for all that is God Messiah's is called holiness; see Leviticus !'l7 30 32 . And because the altar comprehended in itself the things that pre cede in order by successive representation, it is called holiness of holinesses, this holiness being entirely separate from the altar, as is every representation. 7 5105. The fact that thus the altar sanctified everything with which it came into contact, contains arcana and, indeed, more than can be set forth briefly, even in the most general way. To speak in a few words only, the altar was the ultimate. This was first sanctified by the sacrifice. Then the altar sanctified everything that it touched, and thus the sacrificial victim and the mincha. In exactly the same way, the blood is an ultimate, and this sanctifIed everything and every person that it touched, as, for instance, Aaron, the people, the ark, the tent, the garments, etc. So like wise the oil. This was first sanctified and theh, being most holy, it itself sanctified. This comes from the fact that the ultimate comprehends in a simultaneous series all that has been successive; thus, being simultaneous, it then represents all that which pre ceded, just as, in the present case, the altar represented every
T

[Crossed off:] Abraham, Abel, Noah.


No. 5104 is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin.

III Ad. !'l516-!'l5!'l7

~37

5106]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

sacrifice and, consequently, the whole of the representative wor ship. And since the altar represented all things simultaneously, therefore, the things placed upon it were not fully sanctified until they had touched that altar. This follows from a knowledge of order, for perfect order, that is to say, order when in its complex, signifies God Messiah. s Thus the altar itself now sanctified. But, God Messiah granting, these matters must be further treated of, if this be well pleasing; for then it will also be seen in what order the several things follow, not only in the sacrifices, but also in the ark and the tent and likewise in the garments-an order which was laid down by command, both in the present series, and later, in chapter 39 and in Leviticus [chapter 8] where the same matters are treated of. 9 5106. It must be well observed that representations are entirely separate from divine worship; for Jehovah God could never have been worshipped by sacrifices, unless made by a man who wor shipped Him; and if He is worshipped by the man, it will not be a representative worship, in that the life of the worship comes from God Messiah. In this worship, when God Messiah is the Actuator, there is indeed a correspondence as between agent and patient; but as to whether the patient can ever correspond, seeing that the wor ship is still a representation, inasmuch as justice and holiness are imputative, this it is not yet granted me to know. Man is never perfected, for radical evil is inherent in him, and so long as this is inherent he cannot correspond. As to whether he comes to this correspondence in the kingdom of God Messiah, this is an utter arcanum ~ for correspondence between the infinite and the finite is not possible save by the mediation of the Messiah,! in that He be~ came man, so that in Him the Divine is conjoined with His Human. Hence there is no correspondence so long as man is in radical guilt. Whether there is a drawing near in the kingdom of God Messiah when order has been instituted and all are created anew, I do not yet know; nor whether the drawing near will be effected succes sively, etc., etc. Meanwhile, man is no other than a representative man, in that he is a patient, or,2 in that the justice of the agent IS imputed to him. Still he remains a representative man. The
This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin. This last sentence is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin. S The same thought is expressed by the Author in his work on The In{i!nite, chap. XIV. 2 Reading 8e'U for Bed.

288

III Ad. 2528-2532

THE CONTINUAL SACRIFICE

[5107

representative of the Jewish church, however, was separate from the man, it being the altar, the garments, the tent, that were sanctified. Thus the representation of the man such as obtains in the new church is different from the representation of those things which are outside man, such as obtained in the old church. 2a
EXODUS

XXIX

38 Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two lambs, sons of a year, day by day continually. 39 The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer between the evenings. 40 And a tenth part of fine flour mingled with pounded oil, the fourth of a hin, and a drink offering of the fourth of a hin of wine, for the first lamb. 41 And the second lamb thou shalt offer between the evenings; thou shalt offer it like the morning mincha, and according to the drink offering thereof; for an odor of rest, an offering made by fire unto J ehovah. 4~ It shall be a continual whole burnt offering throughout your generations at the door of the tent of assembly before Jehovah: where I will meet you, to speak with thee there. 43 And there I will meet the sons of Israel, and I shall be sanctified S by my glory. 44 And I will sanctify the tent [of assembly],4 and the altar: and Aaron and his sons will I sanctify to minister to me in the priest's office. 45 And I will dwell in the midst of the sons of Israel, and will be their God. 46 That they may know that I am Jehovah their God, that brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell in their midst: I am J ehovah their God.
CONCERNING THE CONTINUAL SACRIFICE

5107. The subject now treated of is the continual sacrifice, being the sacrifice which was continued twice every day, and this that the altar might remain the" holiness of holinesses" [vs. 37],
la No. 5106 is emphasized by " N. B." written several times in the margin. See n. 5144 note. Omitted by Schmidius.

III Ad.

~533-~534

~39

5108-09]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

that is, might remain as it had been inaugurated; that what had been effected by the calf [vs. 36], namely, the utmost holiness, might also be continued. ':Vithout continuation, nothing holy would remain, for as the inauguration was instituted to the end that the altar might be holy, so it must be continued. It is the same with man's life-unless he remain in the faith, and remain in it continually and practise it, he is not justified. Life must be a perpetual commencement of life. Thus the commencement must be a continual commencement, and the man thus made new, must be made new perpetually; that is to say, as he exists, so he must per petually subsist. Hence then the continual sacrifices, that is, a sacrifice every day. This may be confirmed by many passages from the Word of God Messiah. 5 5108. Moreover, man must become such without interruption. In man is a continuum which is distinguished into moments; for evil issues forth from its root continually, and hence there is a con tinual punctuation. But this contiguum 5a is thus continually in terrupted that so it may emulate the continuum or perpetual which exists solely in Jehovah God, being infinite in Him. Hence then this continuation. But that it may be analogous, man's con tinuum must be a contiguum. This can be confirmed by many considerations. 6 5109. In nature is nothing save what is discontinuous; and so likewise in things spiritual and celestial with angels and with spir itual men. This discontinuum causes the existence of the sensa tion of pleasantness, etc., in that one thing is sensated from an other. It is in this, therefore, that man's life consists, namely, in the perceiving of one thing from another-but in harmony. Hence come spiritual forms wherein are discontinuities such as are imperceptible to men, but which are So perceptible to God Messiah that nothing is more perceptible, etc., etc. Discontinuities are variously circumstanced in each degree, from things most par ticular to things more and more general by degrees. This is the case in anyone degree. Between degrees are other discontinuities, respecting which we speak elsewhere.
[Crossed off:] and from the life of man.
Swedenborg first wrote conti1'/lUum.
This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. As to the subject matter of the paragraph, confer The Fibre, n. 159, where the Author speaks in the same way, respecting the animations in the brain and the body.

MO

III Ad. 9l535-9l539

EXODUS XXIX: 88

[5110-14

5110. That the altar was now to be sanctified every day, and thus that every day the worship of God Messiah was to exist anew, can also be known from rules adapted to reason and thus recog nized, the rule, namely, that least things refer to things greatest as parts to their generals, and this in every case; for hence comes a general harmony resulting from the harmony of the parts, etc., etc. 7 So likewise is it in respect to times, as shown above [no 5076]. Wherefore the seven days spoken of in verse 87 refer to the seven days of one day, and in the most universal sense, to the whole time of reformation. 8 Moreover, this morning and these evenings [vs. 39] refer likewise to all time, from the first time of reformation to the advent of God Messiah. Thus each day brought back a remembrance of the whole time. Hence then the continual sacrifice. 5111. Moreover, it follows from this, that each day had its own benediction, in accordance with the precept of God Messiah; for in this way they put on the image of the kingdom of God Messiah, or the state of the blessed angels in heaven-a matter which will be treated of elsewhere, God Messiah granting. 9 5112. [Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two lambs, sons of a year, day by day continually, vs. 88.] Two lambs were sacrificed, to the end that all time might be signified; for the morning and the evening signify the day of creation, that is, an entire day, and this both in particular and in general. But this time is spoken of in what follows at verse 39. 5113. It must be observed in general that this sacrifice con sisted of the inmost sacrifice, for, as stated above [n. 4944], the sacrifice of a lamb was the inmost sacrifice. The more exterior sacrifices, considered in their order, were a ram and a calf, as stated above [n. 49fl6-fl7]. 5114. It must likewise be observed in general that this sacrifice consisted of the essentials of all sacrifices, in that it was lambs that were sacrificed, that there was a mincha of bread, and that there was a drink offering of wine [vs. 40]. Thus they were the very essentials of the sacrifices, and so from inmosts, had regard to all
1 Up to this point, n. SIlO is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin. 8 What follows to the end of the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." writ ten three times in the margin. No. SIll is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin.

HI Ad. fl540-fl546

5115-18]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

sacrifices made from other things, and, consequently, had regard a priori to all representative worship. The second sacrifice [vs. 41] involved all the other sacrifice~ a posteriori, as one says. But these regards, (a priori and a posteriori), cannot be understood save from order and the state induced by means of order. In ac cordance with the signification of the altar, inauguration of that altar was effected by a bullock, as stated above [n. 4984, 5009]. But when once inaugurated, it was afterwards sanctified every day by God Messiah who is the Lamb of God [John 1 29 ] and who is more nearly represented, as it were, by this sacrifice than by the others. 5115. That in man, He is more nearly approached, can be evi dent; for He is more nearly approached through things which are of the soul than through those which are of the human mind, and more nearly through the human mind in man than through the animal mind. These approaches, however, can have no place in respect to the Infinite or the Divine itself, but only in respect to man, and thus to the application of the Messiah's justice, that is to say, of His divine essence by His human. Hence also is the union of the two essences. 1 5116. Since, therefore, a blessing came daily from God Mes siah, and thus from the Supreme, that so the altar [might be sancti fied], which is in lasts, that is, in the last order of all, it clearly follows that it is none other who sanctifies it. This is plainly stated in verses 43 and 44. 5117. From a knowledge of order, God Messiah granting, many things can be drawn forth spiritually and confirmed from the Word of G:od Messiah, so that it may be known why lambs were now taken daily, and why sacrifices consisting of all the esseh tials were thus instituted. 5118. The other sacrifices that follow are also essential in their own degree; but all essentials are relative in their own degrees, and this in various ways. The essentials of a lower degree refer themselves to the essentials of a higher, it being from these that they exist. Thus they are not essential in themselves, for nothing in man is essential save his inmost. But this essential is not [in itself] essential, the essential being infinite. Jehovah God alone IS, and consequently, alone is Essence, and so alone is the Essential. When the Infinite is named, all else is nothing, there being no reI

No. 5115 is emphasized by "ObS." written many times in the margin.

III Ad.

~547-~554

EXODUS XXIX: 38

[5119-!H

lation of the finite to the Infinite. Nor is there any relation of the Infinite to the finite, save by the mediation of God Messiah, and by the union of his divine Essence with his human Essence, as stated above [n. 5106].2 Man is not anything, but he becomes some thing by imputation. As to whether this is effected by applica tion, see above, n. 5106. 5119. The lambs are called sons of a year because of their signifying this same time; 8 for whether it is said day or month or year or century, it amounts to the same thing. Therefore, in order that this whole time might be signified, even to the day of the advent of God Messiah, the lamb must be the son of a year. Moreover, it thus refers itself to the times previously. spoken of, and to later times. On every occasion when times are spoken of, their number is taken from among numbers which designate the most notable times; thus. from the numbers one, three, seven, etc., etc. So also in the present text, the number being taken for the sake of the remembrance of the times of reformation from N oah to the advent of God Messiah into the world, and also to his advent into glory. Thus, these NUMBERS WERE HOLY NUMBERS, and therefore, are in universal use when holy matters are treated of. 4 5120. What is now said of the altar, that thus it was to be sanctified every day, was true also of Aaron, his garments, the tent and the ark, as can be seen later, in that Aaron and his sons and garments were to be sprinkled with blood, and sacrifice was to be made for them. For the ark, [the daily sanctifying] was the in cense upon the golden altar, and also the continuous light. 5121. Moreover, in that there must be a continuity and thus perpetuity [in the sacrifices] in order that they might represent the Infinite, as st.ated above En. 5108], there was also a continual fire upon the altar, respecting which we read elsewhere [namely, in Leviticus 612- 13 ]. In this way, we have the continuum which is in nature, and the perpetual which is in time. These sacrifices, how ever, merely appear to be continual and perpetual, and this be cause of their representing the Infinite, as stated above [no 5108]. Therefore, in the text we read continually; and this sacrifice is called a sacrifice continually, that is, a continuous sacrifice-
Up to this point, n. 5118 is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin. i.e., the whole time of reformation; see n. 5110. This last sentence is emphasized by "Obs. Obs." written in the margin.

III Ad. 2555-~562

243

THE WORD EXPLAINED

though it was not continuous-because it was made every day or daily. 5122. [The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer between the evenings], vs. 39. There were thus two lambs, one for the morning and the other for the evening. Here the first sacrifice of a lamb was instituted in the morning, and the second between the evenings. And yet every day of creation commences from evening and is finished in the morning. The first reason for this is because morning here signi fies a perpetual morning, being the advent of God Messiah into the world, and afterwards into glory. 'Vhen this is held in view, then the whole time of reformation is the morning, being the resurrec tion from the dead, and thus from sins; and in spiritual things this resurrection is perpetual. Perpetual resurrection is set forth in the fact that man continually rises up from evil to good; thus the resurrection itself signifies morning. Then evil is not re garded as evil inasmuch as it rises up to good; and good then be comes good in relation to evil; for without relation there cannot be any good. 5 Since the kingdom of God Messiah, which is an eternal morning, is then called to remembrance, therefore; in heaven there is then gladness, and a most gladsome representation. Hence then, the first sacrifice which took place in the morning; for what is done in the morning continues throughout the whole day. Hence also, what is signified, is that in men the morning must be perpetual, etc., etc. 5123. As concerns the second sacrifice, between the evenings, this took place in the evening; but the expression between the eve nings is a divine expression, to avoid saying" in the evening"; for angels are not gladdened by the word evening, and so there is no representation of a gladness that may be carried up for the gladdening of the more interior and inmost heaven. Thus, be tween the evenings also signifies the same thing as morning, and so a perpetual morning; and, indeed, a morning between the eve nings, there being two evenings, one immediately after the fall of man and extending to the flood, and the other among those who are not reformed; thus between the first fall when was dark evening, and the last day which will also be dark evening according to the prediction of God Messiah [Matt. ~429, Mark 13 24 ]. Between these evenings there must be a morning. Thus a morning emerges
This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.
~44

III Ad.

~563-~574

EXODUS XXIX: 39-40

from them also, for without a relation to evening, that is, to sad ness, no morning, that is, no gladness is possible. Moreover, a lamb between the two evenings signifies the same as the paschal lamb which also was eaten between two evenings [chap. 1~6]. The reader may consult [Leviticus ~34-8], concerning the paschal sacrifices instituted later. (But look up in their own passages as to how these matters are circumstanced.) See, also, Numbers ~8[l6-25] wherefrom some further particulars can be added, such as that they offered sacrifice in the early morning [vs. ~3], etc., etc. 5124. This sacrifice pertained specifically to the inmost class, and for this reason all the essentials were then offered, as stated above [n. 5114]. Thus, those in the second and third class. were gladdened by those who were in inmosts, just as the first class was gladdened by the third when the altar was being inaugurated and before it was yet holy.6 Moreover, the order may be looked into, and hence what that order is in heaven when the latter is conjoined with men. 5125. Between two evenings there is also a morning, for morn ing lies between two evenings. Therefore the morning also is signified, although the sacrifice took place in the evening. It was also between two evenings that God Messiah came into the world, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 7 5126. [And a tenth part of fine floor mingled with pounded oil, the fourth of a hin, and a drink offering of the fourth of a hin of wine, for the first lamb], vs. 40. This was the mincha or offering which accompanied the whole burnt offerings, the two being laid upon the altar together. It can be evident, therefore, that the bread and wine must be thought of no differently than the whole burnt offering; and that they thus represented the same thing. As touching bread, it was a constant custom among primitive peoples when they ate together, to take bread, meaning all food, including also flesh. Therefore, men were invited "to eat bread," 8 even though it was a calf that was set before them, as in the case of Joseph [Gen. 43 16 ,25]. So also wine was taken as meaning all drink. As touching the whole burnt offering, consisting of ani
The preceding part of the paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written three times in the margin. T This paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin, S The autograph has cibum (food), which is clearly a slip,

In Ad,

~57 5-~584

M5

THE WORD EXPLAINED


mals, this was a representation, and indeed very evidently so, but a representation taken from the animal kingdom. In the present case, bread and wine was also a representation, but taken from the vegetable kingdom. Both kingdoms are equally drawn upon for the representing of things spiritual and celestial, as is well known. Thus it was bread and wine that signified all spiritual and celestial nourishment, as stated above [n. 5088 seq.] when speaking of the spiritual eating with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 9 5127. Therefore, in the New Testament, bread and wine fol lowed as a symbol inasmuch as sacrifices ceased after the Messiah himself became a sacrifice. It was exactly the same in the Old Testament, for there was a sacred supper, this being the eating to gether at the door of the tent of assembly near the altar; for there was bread and wine-a fact which is specifically mentioned-and there was eating together. Thus, what was instituted [in the New Testament] was nothing new. The bread and wine were.placed upon the whole burnt offering, and this upon the altar. But, as already stated, the former represented, while the latter reflects. 1 5128. Bread, therefore, reflects 2 the body of the Messiah, and wine his brood. Thus they reflect the whole passion. Conse quently, as reflecting the passion, they also reflect all and single things that His passion involves and produces, and thus that he became Righteousness. And that this Righteousness, or he him self, might be imputed to man, and thus, as it were, applied, bread and wine was given which signify all spiritual and celestial nour ishment. When righteousness is imputed to man, there is given him all that is spiritual and celestial. This then comprehends the whole renewal of man's life, a renewal which is thus confirmed, as may be seen above [n. 5107]. From this it now follows what [bread and wine] then reflects. 2 5129. That the Messiah's passion is likewise represented by bread and wine, can be evident, in that it is here said not" bread"
[The following unnumbered paragraph is here crossed off by the Author:] The imputation of the Messiah's Justice is thus signified by the sacrifice of a lamb. 1 Illlud repraesentabat, hoc autem retert. The word retero means to b1-ing back, thus to repl'esent anew. The distinction made in the text suggests the distinction previously made between a representation and a symbol (n. 5060, 5106), namely, that while the former presents merely an external image of in ternals, the latter reflects internals, or brings them down to be presented in ex ternals actually; see n. 5132, 5'796. 1 retert; see preceding note.
~46

III Ad.

~585-~596

EXODUS XXIX: 40

[51S0-Sfl

but fine flour, and that this was to be mingled with oil and, indeed, with pounded oil; the bread being made in this way; the fine flour being the spiritual, and the bread the celestial, that is, affection. As touching fine flour, it is wheat pounded into flour. The oil like wise was pounded, being pressed out in no other way. This pound ing signifies torture; otherwise, the text would not read pounded oil. As touching the wine, this likewise is pressed out by torture. s Therefore it is said in the Prophet, that he bore the torture alone, etc., etc. [Isa. 53]. Hence then the heavenly manna [John 658 ]. Therefore, in the supreme sense, the Messiah is both the heavenly manna and the oil and wine, and for this reason He is called the Sower, and also the Planter of the olive and the Planter of the vine, etc., etc. Thus He is the oil and the wine, as stated above [no 5099]. 5130. Hence it can be evident that the old church and the new church differ in no respect except that in the old the Messiah was represented by sacrifices and also by bread and wine, which to gether constituted a sacrifice, and an offering made by fire, the residue of which was eaten beside the altar at the door of the tent. 5131. As to the further signification of bread and wine, this can be evident from what has been said; for when the righteousness of the Messiah has been thus imputed and confirmed, then all else follows in a series, even to the kingdom of God :Messiah. A feast in that kingdom is presented in effigy, being what is thus presented in the inmost sense. The bread then signifies everything spiritual and celestial, just as, in the church, it signifies His kingdom in man by means of faith; and the wine then signifies all gladness, etc., etc., these things one and all resulting solely from the imputa tion of the Messiah's righteousness by faith. All this follows from that proximate cause of which we have spoken above [n. 51fl7] , etc., etc. 5132. That in the Old Testament bread and wine was not a rep resentation, can be evident from many considerations; for men were little solicitous for the inner man, which was to be repre sented, and this by reason of the cause of which we spoke above [n. 5097], but were solicitous only for the outer man. But in the New Testament it was the new man of whom they were solicitous, being solicitous concerning faith in God Messiah and His justice.
That is, by twisting as by the Screw ofa wine press. means both twisting and to1"ture. The word tortura
~47

III Ad. fl597-fl605

5133-34]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

Men then cared nothing for externals, and the law thus shadowed in externals, must be an internal law. Man is a man internally; externally he is dead and is nothing, not even an animate thing. It was the latter which represented, but it is the internal man who reflects/ it being in this way that he becomes the Messiah's image and His son. "'Vhat is the external man without the internal? The external man himself is merely a representation of the in ternal; and, seeing that the external man is a representation of the internal, and that it is the internal man that is represented, what is the result, when to the external man succeeds the internal to whom alone is imputed the Messiah's justice, save an application by imputation? for God Messiah enacts good in the internal man, and this good is imputed to him as though his own, although it is not his. What good can be imputed to a cleansed body? or what to garments? etc.s 5133. As touching the tenth part of fine flour and the fourth of a hin, see Numbers ~811-14 treating of the paschal sacrifices. 6 The tenth part is taken as a single part, this amounting to the same thing. So the fourth part is taken as a single part. In the sacri fices of a ram and bullock, there is a double and triple ratio, and this for various reasons, including the reason that there are few in inmosts, and many in the [classes] that follow in order. The idea can perhaps be comprehended from society where there must be many who shall serve; also from the inmosts of man, where the unanimous, is like a unit and consequently, a simple, while in the human mind there are two things, intellect and wiII, and in the natural mind still more, etc., etc. See whether an idea can be formed from center and periphery, in which latter are many things, etc., etc. 5134. [And the second lamb thou shalt offer between the eve nings; thou shalt offer it like the morning minchah, and according to the drink offering thereof; for an odor of rest, an offering made by fire unto JehovahJ, vs. 41. The like is now evident in respect to the second ram, for the same ritual was instituted. As to the meaning of between the evenings, see above [no 51~3]. The same
See n. 5127 note. No. 5132 is emphasized by " Ohs." written several times in the margin. Verses 11-14 treat of the monthly sacrifice, the sacrifice of the passover being treated of in verses 16-25.
~48

III Ad.

~606-~6U

EXODUS XXIX:

41-4~

[5135-38

expression between the evenings is used also of this lamb; therefore what it signifies, if this be well pleasing to God Messiah [may be seen J elsewhere. 7 5135. As to the meaning of for an odor of rest, and an offering made by fire unto Jehovah, see above [no 50~~-~3J. There is an odor of rest when J ehovah God comes to rest. There is rest from anger against the human race when He is again appeased by the merit of the Messiah. A state of rest is also the kingdom of God Messiah. This is likewise represented in the seventh and holy day, in which, as we read, Jehovah God rested from his works [Gen. ~2]. Thus the kingdom of God Messiah is Rest. Love is not at rest until it sees that men condemned to death are saved, this being the nature of love. 5136. That is called an offering made by fire 1L1J,to Jehovah which passes through the ffre and, like gold, is thus purified. From this we learn what is signified by the whole burnt offering. The offering made by fire unto Jehovah is described in Leviticus 9 2 4, namely, that a fire went out from Jehovah and consumed upon the altar the whole burnt offering and the fat. The coming down of fire from J ehovah is grace, for in this way J ehovah God showed his favor. 5137. [It shall be a continual whole burnt offermg throughout your generations at the door of the tent of assembly before J ehovah: where I will meet you, to speak with thee there], vs. 4~. It is called a continual whole burnt offering because it was to be continued every day. To this sacrifice which was continual, all the others referred themselves, and they were made in addition to it, as we read in sundry later passages. Thus the thing that was universal was that they made sacrifices; and from their sacrifices they made conclusion concerning their worship and in this way saw God Messiah by faith. Thus each day was to be sanctified, that is to say, they were to be sanctified and cleansed from the uncleanness of their sins, every day; compare what is said concerning sacrifices in Leviticus 16 16 - 19 5138. The sacrifice was made before the door [of the tent] of assembly where also waS the altar of whole burnt offering, the altar of incense being within the tent. That the sacrifice was outside the
1 The word elsewhere is crossed off; but though this requires a change in the preceding words, no such change is made.

In Ad.

~613-~6~6

~49

5139-41]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

door signifies that it was outside them; for the tent with the holy place and the holy of holies signifies man, as also heaven, that is, the man in whom dwells God Messiah who is the Law. Therefore the sacrifice was outside the door of the tent because their worship consisted in externals, and the church was a representative church, their worship appearing only before the eyes and ears, which are senses outside man. 5139. Therefore, God Messiah appeared to them in a cloud and flame [chap. 13 21 ], that is to say, he appeared before their senses, this being the characteristic of a representative church. Therefore, being a representative church, they heard a voice in mount Sinai. Yet, with the exception of Moses, etc., and the Prophets, they did not hear it afterwards; for hearing gives notification of an inner meaning, and where hearing extends to gether with this inner meaning, there is then no ocular representa tion; nor, in hearing, is there anything spiritual-unless it be comes spiritual through the man's mind. Otherwise, it is mere hearing, etc., etc. Therefore, such open miracles were done before them, this being the characteristic of a representative church; that is to say, they are done before those who are in such a state. 5140. Therefore, it is here said at the door of the tent, and also throughout your generations, for they still wish to remain in their sleep, in the same church and the same shade. 5141. A wonderful thing happened to me today, to the end that confirmation might be given before those who were around me, being.2f th~ws who died of old; for they are the same after death as during life when left to themselves. I had a dream, and indeed a dream of the kind that appeared as though seen in wakefulness, as is usually the case. They were then so persuaded that I was awake, that they answered me as though I were awake. And then, becoming suddenly aroused, I noticed that I had been dreaming, and that they had spoken with me while I was asleep, and, indeed, had believed me to be awake. At this they were then greatly embarrassed. One was indignant, another was amazed, a third loved it, because I then said that from this it can be evident how that they are living in a sleep and that their life was a sleep, and that they think themselves to see, hear, nay, and to live, when yet they deceive themselves, seeing that they do not live from ~50 III Ad. 9l69l7-9l639l

EXODUS XXIX:

4~

[514~-48

themselves; and yet they think this also. I then wrote out the contents of the present verse. It was thus granted me to give them confirmation that they were still passin~theirJife in sleep. Thus they could say nothing. Sometimes, however, it hap pened that they knew the man was asleep. In the present case, 'however, it was different, and this for the sake of confirming both the spirits from among the Jews andalso men whoare _ still living, as to the shade and falla-cy in which they live. For the continuation, see below at the sign ee [no 5150].8 .5142. Because this church was a representative church, the text now adds that God Messiah would meet them outside the door of [ the tent] of assembly, to speak with thee; and thus with Aaron also who then became the head of that church; see Leviticus 9. The reason for this was, that they might be led from external things to things inmost. 9 For, since they were then living in the utmost darkness, as they are also at the present day, they were to be led to the interior man in this way, to the end that they might perceive something of the things that were then laid before their sight; that is to say, that they might become like their fathers, being those who lived at the end of the primitive church when men referred all that they saw to the heavenly kingdom; and that after this they might be led to more interior things, that is to say, that in the worship of sacrifices they might see, in the more interior sense, the Messiah; that so God Messiah might come, and they might see Him with their own eyes, and thus be introduced into his kingdom and become a kingdom of priests. 5143. But because they remained fast in externals-and not even in these, for they receded from this church also-therefore the kingdom of God was brought to the gentiles, etc., etc. For when the sacrifice fell away, whether from neglect [or from per version], they no longer sacrificed to J ehovah but sacrificed to other gods. And now when sacrifices have entirely ceased, tell me, how can they now be sanctified 1 and cleansed? Do they not. thus
No. 5141 is cited by the Author in the Index; to his Memorabilia, s.v. Judaei and Somnium. See Table of Contents. From this point on, the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin. 1 In the autograph. the word aanctificari commences a new line. and the rest of the paragraph. including this line. is emphasized by "Obs." written four

III Ad.

~633-~638

~51

5144-45]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

live and die III their uncleanness and their sins? There is no longer for them a sacrifice for sin; thus Jehovah cannot dwell among them. Utterly clear are the words in Leviticus, chapter 1616 , where we read: " [Thus he shall purge the holy place from the uncleannesses of the sons of Israel.] And he shall do the like for the tent of assembly, that abideth with them in the midst of their uncleannesses." 2 And now, when. the tent of assembly wherein Jehovah dwelt, has departed, what of the sons of Jacob who call themselves sons of Israel? 5144. [And there I will meet the sons of Israel, and I shall be sanctified 3 by my glory], vs. 43. Hence it now follows that J e hovah could never have been sanctified by their worship but only by his own glory. The glory of Jehovah the Father is God Mes siah, J ehovah being sanctified by means of him alone. And there he will meet the sons of Israel. He alone it is whom J ehovah the Father beholds, and so, through him, the sons of Israel, that is to say, his own sons by faith. From this it can also be seen that all holiness or justice is imputed to man by means of God Messiah. " To be sanctified" means also to be worshipped in a holy way, and this cannot be done by any son of Israel, such son being evil from infancy and nothing but radical evil. Thus it can be done solely by means of the Son. Hence then comes mediation, inter cession, propitiation, atonement, imputation; see Leviticus, chap ter 7 18 5145. [And I will sanctify the tent (of assembly),4 and the altar: and Aaron and his sons will I sanctify to minister to me in the priest's office], vs. 44. That it is God J ehovah who now sancti fies the tent and the altar and Aaron and his garments, etc., is here
times in the margin. In his subsequent numbering of the paragraphs, the Author evidently mistook the line commencing sanctificari with Obs. written beside it in the margin, as the commencement of a new paragraph which he ac cordingly numbered "2636." See n. 1767 note. In his copy of Schmidius' translation of the Bible, Swedenborg has under scored this passage. Thus Schmidius, and with him agrees also the Swedish version. Accord ing to the Hebrew text, however, the translation should be: " it shall be sancti fied," which the A.V., and Castellio interpret as meaning" the tabernacle shall be sanctified"; and the Vulgate as meaning" the altar shall be sanctified." Tremellius has" my glory shall be sanctified," but this is clearly contrary to the Hebrew. In the Arcana Coe/estia, Swedenborg has the literal translation" it shall be sanctified in my glory." Omitted by Schmidius.

III Ad. fl639-fl645

EXODUS XXIX: 43-46

[5146-49

most clearly evident; therefore, it is not the sacrifice of that church, nor the blood of its sacrificial victim, neither is it the oil, nor the fire, and still less the altar, etc., but God Messiah alone, or, if you will, Jehovah the Father by the Son, that is, by His Glory, being He who appeared in glory; see Leviticus 9 6 seq., and elsewhere, and also here and there above, to the effect that the glory of J e hovah appeared to the people. 5146. The glory of Jehovah was what appeared above the tent before the eyes of the people [Lev. 9 23 , Num. 16 42 ], because heaven was there, and in the midst thereof God Messiah himself; and in this heaven, being in the midst thereof, He is the All in all. Man's life is one only, being the life of his soul, wherefrom comes the life of his other faculties, these being circumstanced according to their form and derivation, etc. Thus, that which is in the midst or inmost of man, which is his soul, the man's supreme re gion, that same is the man's all in all. As the soul is the all in all of man, so also in this heaven of angels God Messiah was in their midst, that is, was their All in all.~ In this way, then, is the tent sanctified, and unless it were daily cleansed from the uncleanness of those sons of Israel, He could never have dwelt among them, and so have sanctified them, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 5147. As regards the priesthood, that He willed to institute from among them a kingdom of priests, see above in sundry passages. 5148. [And I will dwell in the midst of the sons of Israel, and will be their God], vs. 45. That He would dwell in their midst, means that He would be their All in all, as already stated [n. 5146], to the effect that dwelling in the midst is being the all in all. But that it was different later on, this we read time and time again; as, for instance, immediately afterwards when Moses tarried on the mountain forty days [chap. 34 28 ]. 5149. [That they may know that I am Jehovah their God, that brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell in their midst: I am Jehovah their God], vs. 46. These words have been explained above many times. 'They are now repeated that they may be more strongly confirmed.

This paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written four times in the margin.

III Ad.

~646-fl65~

fl53

5150-51]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5150. ee It is a marvel that man places his life in the external sense and in the pleasures of the body, when yet the life of the external sepses, and so of the body is mere shade, and thus is sleep as compared with the life of the interior sense, that is to say, with the life of the natural mind where are phantasy and imaginat~on and cupidi ties. Some again place their sole life in these latter, when yet such life is only sleep as compared with the life of the more in terior faculty, which must be human life proper. Yet, in man, this is nothing but sleep, as it were, as compared with his in most life, being the life of his soul. And this is nothing but a sleep as compared with life itself, being the life of God Mes siah who is Life. Thus all and single things in man are nought but shade and sleep. That man's life is a sleep is well known. Therefore, there are degrees of sleep, as there are also degrees of angels and spirits in heaven. But one can marvel that men place life in the grossest sleep, as in the senses and pleasures of the body where is mere darkness. Therefore, they do not know that the life which they think to be life, flows in order from more interior lives; and that the life that flows into the inmost degree, and so from this into all man's faculties, comes solely from God Messiah. 5151. That the life of one faculty flows in order into the life of another, and so the life of the soul into the intellectual mind, can be seen plainly enough by everyone if only he gives attention to innumerable phenomena extant in the intellectual mind, namely, as to whence it is that men are able to think, judge, conclude, choose-and this analytically according to inmost laws, and, indeed, laws that are beyond the field of search; and that they can do this even in first childhood. Of these laws some have been searched out, and these are set forth in psychological doctrines, but they are few indeed, and are merely most general laws such as might be drawn forth solely from an attentive consideration of one's own mind. These laws could never exist did they not flow in from a superior faculty, that is to say, from the soul which is properly human, and which is so far above the ideas of the intellectual mind that
~54

III Ad.

~653-~655

EXODUS XXX: 1-10


it composes those ideas and analytically distributes them into order, and so composes the thoughts of the mind and their in tellectual forms. The like occurs in respect to affections which rule the will. 6 EXODUS XXX 1 And thou shalt make an altar for the burning of incense: of shittim wood shalt thou make it. ~ A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be: and two cubits shall be the height thereof: from it shall be the horns thereof. 3 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make [for it] 7 a crown of gold round about. 4 And thou shalt make for it two rings of gold under its crown, upon the two sides thereof; thou shalt make it upon the two sides thereof; that they may be for receptacles for the staves to carry it therewith. 5 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold. 6 And thou shalt put it before the veil that is over the ark of the testimony, before the propitiatory that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee. 7 That Aaron may burn thereon incense of spices, in the morn ing and in the morning: when he hath dressed the lamps, he shall burn it. 8 And when Aaron maketh the lights to go up between the eve nings, he shall burn it: a continual incense before J ehovah through out your generations. 9 Ye shall not make strange incense to go up thereon, nor whole burnt sacrifice, nor mincha ; neither shall ye pour drink offer ing thereon. 10 And Aaron shall make an atonement upon the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin of atonements: once in the year shall he make atonement upon it throughout your genera tions: it is holy of holies unto J ehovah.
These two indented paragraphs are not cited by the Author in the Index to his MemorabiHa, except so far as their citation is involved in their being the continuation of n. 5141. 7 Omitted by Schmidius.
~55

515~-53]

THE WORD EXPLAINED


CONCERNING THE ALTAR OF INCENSE

5152. There were two altars, one in front of the door of the tent of assembly on which were the whole burnt offerings, and the present altar within the door of the tent of assembly before the veil, on which were the incense offerings. The reason why there were two altars can be seen from the signification of the things that were burnt upon them. Of the whole burnt offering, it is said that it was an odor of rest [chap. ~941], but of the present offering, nothing has been said as yet. As to what it involves, this can be evident from the signification of an odor arising from aromatic incense. In the proximate sense it means tha.t which the odor carries with it, namely, sweetness. In the interior sense it thus signifies that which is grateful, consequently, pleasantness and de light; in the more interior sense, that which soothes the intellectual mind and its will, being that which comes from the affection of good and the affection of truth and is what is called grateful, glad some, and hence happy. In the inmost sense, nothing answers to this save the felicity which corresponds to happiness. In the supreme sense, however, no affection is possible; therefore, words are used that are not applicable but which yet are intelligible ac cording to our capacity, such as, that it is acceptable. This then is what is signified by an odor of sweetness, to wit, that it is ac ceptable to God Messiah; hence grace. 5153. From this it can be evident why there were two altars. The whole burnt offering is called an odor of rest [chap. ~941], in that God Messiah rests when IJehovah his Parent is appeased. Hence then the present altar, to the end, namely, that grace might be represented, in that they were admitted into heaven. Therefore, the one altar was outside the door of the tent of assembly, while the present altar was within the door, where was the table with its bread and the lamp with its perpetual flame; that is to say, it was in heaven, where is heavenly food and love. 8 Therefore, the one altar was an altar of rest, by reason of the whole burnt offering, while the present altar was an altar of grace by reason of the in cense. Thus, when Jehovah God has been appeased, then first are men admitted into the kingdom of grace. 9
8 This statement as to the position of the two altars is emphasized by " Ohs." written twice in the margin. This last sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin.

~56

III Ad.

~656-~668

EXODUS XXX: 1

[5154-55

5154. It is said that it is acceptable to J ehovah God [n. 5159l], not that he is affected by it, for he possesses all things in himself and is the giver not the receiver, the active not the passive; but be cause in Jehovah God is love and goodness, and so mercy and grace. Hence when He is appeased in respect to the human race, order is restored, and things which had been imperfect again be come perfect-imputatively. Then love, goodness, mercy, and grace are communicated to the human race. This then is what is meant by becoming acceptable 'to Jehovah God. But this being acceptable is due solely to the Son of J ehovah the Parent, and is by means of the Son, all that-is well pleasing being in Him alone and not in the human race, since this is impure. Hence the im putation of justice and holiness. 1 5155. [And thou shalt make an altar for the burning of in cense: of shittim wood shalt thou make it], vs. 1. The subject treated of is incense and the burning of incense, this being the specific subject of the verses that follow. The present altar, like the other altar and also the ark, with their staves and poles, was also made of wood; yet previously it had been commanded that altars should be of stone [chap. 9l0 25 J. They were to be of stone, stones being from a mountain, that they might signify the rock respecting the signification of which we speak elsewhere. It comes to the same thing when the altar is made of wood, for a like repre sentation is effected by wood as by stones, wood having regard to the tree of life in paradise, and thus to the Messiah himself, and stones to a mountain and thus to the Messiah himself. This wood was cedar of the finest quality coming usually from Lebanon, but in the present case from mount Sinai. This tree, moreover, was of great height; thus, in like manner as a mountain, it also represents the Most High. Therefore the temple of Jerusalem was built of stone and also of cedar of Lebanon. The representation being the same, cedar is used in the present case because they were in the wilderness and the altar must be portable~therefore the staves that so it might represent sojournings, that is to say, man's life, etc., etc. 2
No. 5154 is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. In the autograph, this last statement is emphasized by " NB" written in the margin.
1
2

In Ad. 9l669-9l678

9157

5156-58]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5156. Since odors signify that which is acceptable, it now fol lows that the incense ingredients which were burned and which were fragrant-respecting which see verses 34 and 35-signified jus tice; for which reason they were burned upon the altar. In men, however, they' signify faith and all that comes from saving faith, such as piety, charity, the works of charity-popularly, the works of the law,-and so forth, and, at the same time, supplications; in a word, all that which rises up to God Messiah and prepares a way . for itself by saving faith. This is what, in the supreme sense, is spoken of as incense, wherein is an odor of sweetness. s 5157. In olden times men carried their tents with them and pitched them, as did these men now with the tent of assembly. Moreover, in the primitive church, tents represented the worship of God Messiah, as observed above [n. 1~90]. These tents also, I think, consisted of hangings from pillars. Sojourners thus carried their tents with them and in these they carried on their life, for which reason journeying signifies life. Hence life is called a con tinual journey. This then was the reason why the ark was con structed of cedar, and the habitac1e and the tent, of curtains; like wise why the altars were constructed of cedar, and why staves were fitted to them that they might be portable, and thus might accompany the sojourners. The ark showed them the way in the wilderness, but as they themselves went astray, so also they were led round about, just as man is led in his own life, etc., etc. 4 5158. From the description of these altars and from many other considerations, it can be evident that the two altars signify two churches, and so, two covenants or testaments, and consequently, the external man and the internal, the altar outside the tent repre senting the Jewish church with all its ritual, and the inner altar, the truly Christian church with its internal worship. For by an altar is meant the worship of God Messiah in general, or in the complex; thus, by the altar outside the door is meant the repre sentative and external worship of God Messiah, and by the altar within the door, the true and thus internal worship of God Mes
3 No. 5156 is emphasized by "Obs." written three times in the margin. No. 5157 is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. It is followed by the following which is crossed off by the Author: "g684. In other respects, the altar in the supreme sense signifies the body of God Mes siah." After deleting this, Swedenborg altered the number of the following paragraph (our n. 5158) "g685" to "S?684."

~58

III Ad.

~679-~686

EXODUS XXX: 2

[5159-60

siah. Hence, the incense ingredients now signify all the things that were mentioned above [no 5156] as coming from saving faith, such as charity and the works of charity, while by the whole burnt offering are signified the things that come from justice, and are called the works of the law. These works fuse together in this way, namely, that for the external man, who yet of himself must be nothing, they are called works of the law which condemn man when he wishes to be justified by them; and for the internal man they are called works of charity which do not condemn, inasmuch as righteousness is then imputed. 5 5159. [A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be: and two cubits shall be the height thereof: from it shall be the horns thereof], vs. 2. As touching these dimensions, they were determined on according to the use, for it matters not whether they be large or small. Thus the altar of whole burnt offering was five cubits square and three cubits high [chap. 27 1 ] , " five cubits" being thus taken merely as one of the measurements and not so much for the number five. This altar was larger because on it was the whole burnt offerings, and thus because of its use. The present altar was smaller because of its use; for on it, incense was burned, and it was within the tent. 5160. As touching the difference in height, to wit, that in height the altar of whole burnt offering was almost half the measure of its breadth, while the height of the altar of incense was double the measure of its breadth 6-herein lies another reason. Furthermore, as touching the fact that the sides of both altars were foursquare as was the ark,7 the reason for this must be inquired into. Meanwhile, the altar of the whole burnt offering was lower [as compared with its length and breadth], and on its longer side it looked to the horizon. Thus it looked not upward but to . things of the earth which were round about. But the altar of incense was higher [as compared with its length and breadth], and on its longer side it looked to heaven and thus upward, every height
No. 5158 is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin. It is further emphasized by the words: "These points are to be observed." The top of the altar of whole burnt offering was 5 x 5 cubits, and its height was 3 cubits (chap. 27 1 ). The top of the altar of incense was I x I cubit, and its height 2 cubits. 7 The top of the ark was 2% x 2% cubits, and its height 1% cubits. See n. 5163. .

III Ad. 2687-2697

259

5161-64J

THE WORD EXPLAINED

referring itself to heaven and so to God Messiah; for which reason mountains and cedars represent God Messiah who is in the highest. So likewise in man; the external man with his works of the law wherein he places righteousness, looks only to the earth because to himself. But the internal man, like his faith, his charity, and his works of charity, and thus his piety, looks upward, it being in this way that man is elevated from the external. Thus the external man in himself becomes nothing, but the man becomes spiritual from faith, and celestial from love. 8 5161. As otherwise regards the figure foursquare, this also was for the sake of use. From what was said above [n. 4741], how ever, it can be evident that this figure in its complex comprehends things that are superior by degrees; for what is ultimate in order is foursquare. But since, in the absence of a knowledge of de grees, etc., these matters are mystical, it may be permitted for the present merely to mention them. The saline, being foursquare or cubical, is likewise the ultimate in order. That it is the ultimate in nature, can be evident to those who rightly consider such matters. It is also the ultimate natural or earthly thing which is in the blood, etc., etc. Moreover, it was for this reason that the incense was to be salted; see below, verse 35. Among earthly figures, this is the most perfect of all. 5162. Things which represent, consist for the most part of the ultimates of nature, for thus they enclose those things which are superior, etc. Hence then the ark and the altars were of a square or oblong figure; indeed, they were oblong on account of their aspect, respecting which we have spoken above [n. 5160]. 5163. The ark was lower, being one and a half cubits high, one and a half cubits broad, and two and a half cubits long [chap. 9l5 10 ], and this because it was the lowest part and, as it were, a footstool or bench for the propitiatory and the cherubs, and, taken together, for they formed a coherent whole, these were ex tended on high, etc., etc. 5164. So likewise the tables on which was inscribed the law. These were two in humber, and when separated resembled an ob long, and when conj oined, a square. Hence the reason for the square and the oblong can now be seen, that which is square being
8 In the autograph, these observations regarding the internal man are emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin.

9160

In

Ad. 9l698-9l703

EXODUS XXX:

[5165-67

most perfect. Thus, in the spiritual sense, the internal man con jointly with the external is A SQ.UARE MAN, as it is said. Observe, that in common speech lie more mystical expressions than man is aware of-expressions which have regard to the origins of things. If a man knew the cause and origin of expressions, he would not wonder at this. 9 5165. The horns, respecting which see above [no 4765, 4978], extended from the altar itself, being thus continuous with it.. Horns are treated of in many places in the 'Vord of God Messiah. Indeed, they were frequently mentioned by the ancients, in their mystical rites. For horns signified such things as were exceeding strong, being things which acquire their strength from the fact that they go upward, that is, are raised upward. Hence we have "the horn of salvation" [~ Sam. ~~3, Ps. 18 2 , Luke 1 69 ], by which is signified God Messiah. Horns have other significations also, but the signification must be sought from their height, and in rams and bullocks from their strength. Hence then follows t.he explanation of t.he mystery that lies in the present horns. 1 What has been said can be still further extended, namely, as to the reason why these horns were continuous with the altar; for inasmuch as the altar signifies a man, a worshipper of God Messiah, so these horns wherein is strength, are to be continued from him and are to make a continuity with those things which are on high, that is to say, which are in the inmost, etc., etc. 5166. In the supreme sense, the altar is God :Messiah himself, to whom, as being he who is regarded by worship from faith, all and single things must look; with whom they must be continuous, in asmuch as he is Life, being that life of love which is continued from man's inmosts, that is to say, is continued from his interiors upward toward his inmosts, etc., etc. It is faith that penetrates to him, and not the man as man. Faith is thus continued because it comes from him; so likewise justice, since this is his and is imputed. 2 5167. [And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the s'ides thereof round about, and the horns thereof;
Nos. 5161-64 are emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. 1 The above statements about the signification of horns, etc., are all empha sized by "Obs." written four times in the margin. 2 No. 5166 is emphasized by " Obs." written four times in the margin.

In Ad.

~704-~710

~61

5168-70]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

and thou shalt make (for it) 8 a crown of gold round about], vs. 3. By gold is signified good. 4 Thus charity and all that comes therefrom (see something concerning gold [in n. 487~, 4888] above) ; consequently, that which is most precious. Gold signi fiesthat which pertains to the affections, and silver that which per tains to the understanding; thus gold is good and silver is truth. 5168. All was to be overlaid with gold, to the end that all things might consist of love and charity. So with this altar of gold; for which reason it is called elsewhere the golden altar [chap. 40 5 ,26]. It was built of cedar that it might be portable. The top was overlaid with gold, and also the sides round about, and the horns, to the end that there might be nothing that was not of gold, etc., etc., that is, of love, thus, in the supreme sense, of God Messiah who is the gold. He is also compared to a Sun from which come all rays of goodness, these being from love as from a Sun, etc., etc. ; for which reason, love is signified by a flame. The horns are faith, etc.; and since this is nothing without love, love being its essence, therefore, the horns also were overlaid with gold. Altars, moreover, are represented as a man, the lowest part of the altar or its feet answering to the outmost part of man, and its uppermost part to his head which looks upward. This also has been observed above [no 4980]. 5169. As touching the crown which was of pure gold and was lifted on high, this represents the sphere which is round about God Messiah. This sphere is a sphere of holiness and love. It is above all spheres and is infinite. There is a sphere around every single thing that is active, the sphere being formed according to its ac~ tivity and the nature thereof; this is just as true of things celestial and spiritual as it is of things worldly and natural. The spheres of natural things can be demonstrated, and with everyone who at tends to the facts of experience, they stand forth before the eye and the reason. 5170. Therefore, there are spheres in man; spheres of his soul, spheres of his intellectual mind and its affections, spheres of his natural mind, etc. As the minds are, such are the spheres. Ac cording to the faculty,5 those things are admitted within the
Omitted by Schmidius. The autograph has aurum (gold), but this is clearly a slip. The text reads secundum sphaera facultatcm which is ungrammatical. The Latin Editor, therefore corrects it to secundum sphaerae facultatem (ac
3

~69l

III Ad.

~711-~7~5

EXODUS XXX: g

[5171-7fl

sphere which are in entire harmony with its affections, etc. Thus genii and spirits are admitted who live in the sphere of such affec tions, being thus admitted according to the state of the man. But the inmost sphere acts upon the next following, and so on succes sively; and the inmost sphere operates solely from God Messiah by means of the Holy Spirit. Hence no other genii are admitted into the sphere of the mind save those to whom leave is granted or per mission given. 5171. To tell how spheres are circumstanced, and how every single thing, both in its general and in its part, has its own sphere, and how one sphere acts upon another, etc., etc., is a vast under taking, these being matters which I do not yet grasp save in the most general way. But even the above particulars would be con cealed from human minds that are ignorant concerning spheres, especially concerning spiritual and celestial spheres. For the rest, every spirit and angel has his own sphere, whereby rays thus come forth from a kind of fire. So also a sphere proceeds from every single thing according to the state of that thing into which it is borne by God Messiah alone. 5172. To resume: It is this sphere that is signified by the crown. Being of pure gold, it signifies, in the supreme sense, the sphere of love and holiness; in the inmosts of man, the sphere of saving faith; in the more interior parts of man, the sphere of charity; for what ever comes from charity, namely, from the charity that comes from saving faith, comes from the love of the Supreme. Hence the influx of the sphere in the regenerated man or the man justified by faith. Concerning these spheres, moreover, I once had speech with certain spirits. 6 The sphere of holiness and love is that which is called the throne and seat of Jehovah God, and which is in the supreme. Moreover, every celestial and spiritual form is a sphere; so also the most uni versal form which is heaven; likewise the kingdom of God Messiah.
cording to the faculty of the sphere) which, while grammatical, is yet obscure. Our translation is based Oh the assumption that Swedenborg first intended to write secund'um sp!lno1'am; then, in place of sp/wora he substituted (ncultatom, but omitted to cross off the word sphaora. The faculties here referred to are the soul, the mind, the animns, and the body. This indented sentence is not cited by the Author in the Index to his "J{ emombilia.

In

Ad.

fl7~6-fl736

5173-76]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

Furthermore, there is a sphere within man, within a spirit, within heaven; there is also a sphere outside them which comes from them, being an extension of their sphere. Hence it is evident why there 'was a crown upon this altar of incense, and also elsewhere. 5173. The other altar was overlaid with brass 7 [chap. ~72], because by brass are signified things natural mingled with things spiritual, as stated above [n. 476~]. For by the altar of burnt offering is signified the external representative man, in that the Jewish church consisted solely of types or representations, and thus, in respect to things heavenly, the men of that church lived in their uncleanness, as we read in Leviticus 16 16 , etc. 5174. General spheres contain within themselves particular spheres, and the particular spheres are images of the general. So likewise universal spheres contain within themselves singular spheres, but what are then meant, are spheres which fonow each other according to degrees, general spheres being in a single de gree and universal spheres including many degrees. s 5175. [And thou shalt make for it two rings of gold under its crown, upon the two sides thereof; thou shalt make it upon the two sides thereof; that they may be for receptacles for the staves to carry it therewith], vs. 4. By staves are meant all ministering things that give carriage; thus those also that execute commands. In the supreme sense, they are angels who carry the commands of God Messiah to all countries of the globe and to every quarter, and who thus convey them. Whatsoever, therefore, executes com mands and thus ministers, is a stave; and since the commands were commands of God Messiah, these staves were of gold, or, what is the same thing, were overlaid with gold [vs. 5]. 5176. Staves are here assumed for those who did the carrying, which office was given to the Levites who were thus arranged into classes and orders to the end that they might represent heavenly ministrations. The instrumental is thus taken for the principal in its own degree, as frequently stated above. Much can be said con cerning the carrying of the ark through the wilderness, but of this, God Messiah granting, we shall speak elsewhere. Hence the staves were below the crown.
1

See n. 4669 note. This last sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin.

1'164

In Ad.

~737-!2749

EXODUS XXX: 4

[5177-80

5177. Moreover, in the spiritual man, all those faculties in gen eral that are inferior, and, more specifically, the properties of each faculty, are also staves, since they are the ministers of things superior, as can be confirmed by many considerations. Thus the external man is the staff or servant of the internal man. There fore, the staff was below the crown. 5178. The rings are the parts to which these staves were ap plied when the altar was to be carried. They are small spheres under the crown. All spheres, being finite, are limited; but the sphere of God Messiah, that is to say, the crown, being infinite, is unlimited. 9 This crown, being from the sphere of holiness, or of the Love of God Messiah, was of gold; for all is golden that comes from the love of God Messiah, such as charity from saving faith, etc., etc., gold representing every affection that comes from the love of God Messiah, etc., etc. Spheres that do not extend to the ultimate in order, are represented by rings or circular forms; but those that extend from inmosts to the ultimate in order, are repre sented by the square, as stated above [no 5161-62], it being in this way that forms ascend. 5179. In general, order itself is represented by a ring, but it is then considered in this sense, namely, that as order arises from the inmost and descends to the ultimate, so it ascends from the ulti mate, the descent and ascent being thus effected by a circle. Not so, however, in the present case. 5180. Angels do not reach to the ultimate in order, save only in man and thus by means of man; but man reaches from inmosts to the ultimate. In man the order of the whole of creation is complete. In Adam when he was in the state of integrity it was perfect; and then the sphere of angels al'ound him was perfect. That thing is most perfect which in its own degree is perfect in every particular of order and when they are in such harmony that there is nothing that is not obedient to love, that is, to God Messiah. Not so when they are not in harmony; then the angels of God Messiah can be said to be more perfect, even though they do not reach to the ultimate of
{Crossed off:] for it looked upward, and so was not doSed ih its direction to things superior.

III Ad. 2750-2759

265

5181-85]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

order. For imperfections increase according to degrees, and they are greatest in the ultimates of order. 1 5181. It is twice said upon the two sides because of the signifi cation of being at the right side and at the left. As to what is meant by the right and left side of God Messiah, it can be seen elsewhere that it is power that is thus represented. Wherefore, the angels are called powers, being powers that are at the side or sides, which is the same as being at the right hand and the left. 5182. The reader may see many particulars concerning the procession of the Levites when carrying the ark and the altar, in which procession these particulars are represented more specifi cally. Here only the ultimate instrumentals are set forth, being in place of those who are the ministering principals, etc., etc. That they may be for receptacles, that is to say, may be instru ments, that is, ministers, this being what is meant by a receptacle. By rings are also signified choirs of angels. Thus those who were then in the pillar perceived themselves represented in the rings. 5183. The above statements are indeed so mystical that the natural man can hardly credit them. Yet it can be confirmed by many passages from the Word of God Messiah that a representa tion of such things was contained in these words. But they in volve still more, for essentials have many formals, and the latter, together with their essentials, are then set forth in like manner. Essentials are represented directly, but formals indirectly, and this according to the condition of the form. 5184. [And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold], vs. 5. That the staves were of wood overlaid with gold is due to a like cause as in the case of the altar and ark, namely, for the sake of the use. The signification, how ever, is the same, for in this way they all appeared like gold, and it is the external appearance that gives the representation. So in the case of the external rites, and of the externals .in connection with Aaron, etc., etc. 5185. That the general activities of angels are effected by volutions which are perpetually circular, as it were, and which are reciprocated; and that thus they also speak in
1 This indented paragraph is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.

~66

III Ad.

~760-~767

EXODUS XXX: 5-6

[5186-89

volutions as though by means of volutions, and in this way carry the words, that is, the commands of God Messiah-this I have many times sensibly observed. Therefore, choirs of angels with their activities are represented no otherwise than by rings [vs. 4].2 5186; The rings of the altar of burnt offering, on the other hand, were of brass, because the network was of brass [chap. ~74]. That the staves were overlaid with brass, see chapter 38 6 ; but in chapter ~76 we read" with gold." 8 5187. [And thou shalt put it before the veil that is over the ark of the testimony, before the propitiatory that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee], vs. 6. The altar of incense was placed before the veil that was over the ark of the testimony-but first certain things must be told which can serve as an introduction into the knowledge of these mysteries. 5188. There were three habitacles: One was called the court, the other was the habitacle where was the holy place, and the third was the ark or holy of holies where was the Law which is called the Testimony-for the Law and the Prophets testify concerning God Messiah. These three represent the three faculties in the spiritual man, consequently, the three degrees in the church, and thus the three classes in heaven which yet constitute a one. The court is the natural mind, the habitacle the human mind proper, and the ark or holy of holies the soul. From this comes an understanding of the degrees and classes in the composite person or grand man, that is to say, in the church and in heaven, thus in the kingdom of God Messiah. 5189. There were two veils; one before the door of the tent, from which was the entrance into the holy place or habitacle; and the other over the ark, through which was the opening into the holy of holies. Confer what was said above, in chapter ~632-34 and in 40 2 1, where the latter veil is called" the veil of the covering, that it may be a covering over the ark." That it may be clear what these veils are, where was the entrance from the one habitacle to the other, being, as it were, gates or doors, this can indeed be evi dent to some extent in man, but only to those who know how to
2 No. 5185 is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, Am/IUlus, Forma, and Gyrus. See Table of Contents. 3 This, however, was a misprint in Schmidius; see n. 4769 note.

S.\'.

III Ad.

~768-~775

~67

5190-91]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

distinguish between the natural mind, the human mind proper, and the soul. Between these there are veils; nor is there any entering from the one to the other save as through veils or doors which stand open. But perhaps this can be comprehended more dis tinctly from the things that are proper to every individual in gen eral, and from those that are in the truly spiritual man, being the man who is in inmosts. 5190. Saving faith pertains to the inmost, that is, to the holy of holies, and, consequently, to the soul. The way into this is open to none save J ehovah God, for which reason it is called the holy of holies. Saving faith is to believe what is said and commanded by God Messiah, even though one does not understand it, because it is so said and commanded; to acknowledge it as the truth and, at the same time, to be affected by the love which is poured in by God Messiah through the Holy Spirit. 4 Charity, or love toward the neighbor, which comes from saving faith, pertains properly to the human mind and its will, in that one loves the neighbor as oneself, and indeed is affected [by this love]. Thence come the fruits of faith which are the works of that charity wherein true piety consists. The fruits of faith or of charity pertain to the lower mind, but properly speaking, in the sense that men exercise these fruits, if not from affection, still from obedience, because it is so com manded by God Messiah. And since there is thus obedience, they believe they are saved because of their observance of the com mandments. The faculty of penetrating further into these mys teries is not granted them; they simply believe and so obey, etc., etc. Such is the case when the properties of each mind are observed separately, not so, however, when they are conjoined together. (But here there are many points which need further castigation.) 5191. In the Jewish church the veil to the habitacle was open; for in the habitacle were placed the table, the candlestick, and the altar of incense. But the veil to the holy of holies was not open until the Messiah had suffered. Then the veil was opened and the elltrance to the holy of holies was clear [Matt. ~75\ Mark 1538 , Luke ~345]. This then is the reason why the present altar was
This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written four times and rein forced by obs. bene (observe well) in the margin.

9168

III Ad. 9l776-9l783

EXODUS XXX: 6

[519~-95

placed before the veil which was over the ark of the testimony, and, indeed, before the propitiatory which was over the testimony. Propitiation was made when the Messiah suffered, and therefore the veil was then opened. But here we still meet with much that is obscure. 5192. Heavenly light could not enter until this veil had been so opened that the way to the heavenly paradise was clear. 5 This veil to the holy of holies could not be opened until the Effigy itself appeared. Then the types and representations which constituted this veil ceased. The light cannot appear so long as it is evening and shade, but only when the morning comes, that is to say, when God Messiah came into the world. 5193. All things that are about to come are in shadows, and although predicted, they are yet predicted as in shadows and by means of representations. Such are all predictions of things that are to come, predictions of things to come being clear only with J ehovah God but not with man. But when the predictions come to pass, then there is light. 5194. In the Jewish church, it was indeed possible to see God Messiah but in shade, not in light. Therefore it was allowed Moses (and perhaps Aaron) to look into the holy of holies; concerning which entrance, we read elsewhere, namely (if I mistake not), that this was allowed to the high priest once a year [Lev.

1614- 16 ,34] . 5195. Where I will meet with thee, namely, above the propitiatory between the cherubs; see above, chapter ~522. This involves more than can be set forth in a few words; that is to say, it involves that Jehovah the Father could not meet with Aaron as representing the head of that church, save by means of God Messiah; also that God Messiah could not meet with Aaron except between the cherubs; and this, moreover, in the holy of holies, that is, in the place whel'e is the human soul; and, in this church, not even so, save through the veil which was interposed, and thus after Aaron had put incense upon the altar [Lev. 1612- 13 ], etc., etc. Furthermore, He could not meet with the priests and the people at the altar of whole burnt offering save when the altar had been atoned and
[The following paragraph is here crossed off:] ~786. The truth itself could not appear until the effigy [had manifested] itself.

III Ad.

~784-~797

~69

5196-99]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

sanctified [Lev. 1618- 19 ], and then indeed through the second veil; for theirs was an external worship, etc., etc. 5196. [That Aaron may burn thereon incense of spices, in the morning and in the morning: when he hath dressed the lamps, he shall burn it], vs. 7. By incense is meant everything grateful and acceptable that comes to God Messiah by saving faith, and moves his mercy. But God Messiah shows mercy to him to whom He wills to show mercy, for He gives faith to whomsoever He wills; for His is the kingdom, etc., etc. This incense was made from the spices mentioned in verses 34 and 35 below. 5197. In the morning and in the morning, that is, every morn ing: when he hath dressed the lamps. There it was lamps that furnished the light and flame, this being a type. Prior to the Effigy, there was not as yet the true light and true flame; and therefore it devolved upon Aaron to dress the lamps every morn ing. As touching the fact that morning is mentioned, and im mediately afterwards " evening," see the next verse. 5198. [And when Aaron maketh the lights to go up between the evenings, he shall burn it: a continual incense before J ehovah throughout your generations], vs. 8. Here then, for the con tinual incense, in like manner as for the continual whole burnt offering (chap. 2939 se q .) the evening follows and the morning pre cedes. Now, however, it was morning for this people, for now the Law had been given in mount Sinai, the ark built, the priesthood with the church instituted, and in the ark was the presence of God Messiah. Thus it was morning not evening. The day of this church is, therefore, from morning to evening; for about the time of the advent of God Messiah the evening with them was such that it was dark night. So from the time of the advent of God Mes siah to the present time the day passes from morning to evening, that is, from much faith to almost none. For the regenerating man, the day passes from evening to morning, but for those who are becoming more wicked, from morning to evening. Meanwhile, when continually is represented, it is from morning to evening, and so includes an entire day. In order, however, that continually may be represented, it is here said not evening but between the eve nings; but confer what was said above at chapter 2939 seq . 5199. Let it suffice to say that it waS now the morning of the Jewish church, and it became evening. This day, therefore, like 270 III Ad. 2798-2811

EXODUS XXX: 7-8

[5~OO-03

the days of men of similar character, commences from morning but ends in evening. Not so with those whose day commences from evening and progresses to morning, as is the case with the regener ate. With the former, good is turned into evil, with the latter, evil into good. With the latter, that is, with the regenerate, this is continually the case, both in general and in particular. Here the general is presented, and every particular is understood. 6 Hence the perpetual morning, here represented by the lights and also by the continual whole burnt offering [chap. ~942J and by the continual incense. 5200. A continual incense to J ehovah throughout your gen erations. Thus it extended to the representative church, and, in deed, to this people which is still in shade and still remains in rep resentative worship. 5201. The works of the Law whereby they wish to be justified are also representations. Wherefore God Messiah willed that they should remain steadfast in their worship to the least detail; for the works of the Law are external acts which represent internal, just as the external man represents the internal. All that is done in this way, without influx from the internal man i~ like a luime who represents the internal man when yet the internal man is not pres ent, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 7 5202. Mimes, actors, and impersonators also give pleasure when they act their parts aright and according to rule. So in the present case before the angels in their order as stated above [n. 491~, 4959, 4973, 50~~J ; that is to say, the actors give pleasure to those who refer the produced acts to things more interior, and who derive delight therefrom. But if the players act badly, then they are disdained and are dismissed from the theatre. 5203. A type is a kind of delineation or picturing of some ex isting thing which represents it as though it were truly the thing itself, when yet it is not~such a delineation being ordinarily ef fected visually or artificially. So likewise, in the present case, with the representations before angels who were close at hand. When such angels take these represented images as being living, the idea of the thing itself then rises up to things more interior and so to things inmost, as can be sufficiently well demonstrated
This last sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin. T No. 55101 is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin.

III Ad.

~8lQ-~817

59W4-06]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

from art. Thus the present representation was no different than a picture, etc., etc. ; the wiser of the men who see this picture, look not at the picture but at that which it involves. 5204. These rites, together with the garments, etc., which out wardly appear like a picture, as said above [no 5~03], are in wardly in so harmonious a form that when they penetrate to the more interior and inmost angels they exhibit a heavenly form of the utmost beauty. So is it in every word of God Messiah. Words which outwardly have no other appearance than as of something discontinuous and, as it were, unconnected, in their in mosts where are the spiritual and celestial forms derived from them, are presented in so comely a form, series, and connection, that nothing can be more beautiful; nor can it be otherwise, since it is God Messiah who spoke the words. s 5205. [Ye shall not make strange incense to go up thereon, nor whole burnt sacrifice, nor mincha; neither shall ye pour drink of fering thereon], vs. 9. Strange incense is that which does not come from true faith in God Messiah, and which, consequently, is not holy; for nothing is holy save that which comes from faith in God Messiah, it being He who infuses faith. 9 It is like something introduced into faith that is alien thereto; as, for instance, when the faith exists, whether directly or indirectly, for some cause other than the ultimate end, to wit, His kingdom. All that is for some other end which does not look to His kingdom is alien. Especially is this the case with faith in others whom men think to be gods, or whom they make gods, whether these be men or idols, external . things or internal, etc. All these are sh'ange incense. The truer the faith, the more holy the incense. Hence, to the end that the incense might be holy, it was forbidden them to make any other incense of this kind (vs. 37), nor were they to make a like incense for any other use (vs. 38). 5206. There was to be no whole burnt offering, minc'ha, or drinlc offering, on the altar of incense, because for these was pro vided the altar called the altar of the whole burnt offering. This altar, outside the door of the tent, was of brass, or was overlaid with brass, whereas the present altar within the habitacle was of gold or was overlaid with gold [vs. 3, 6]. There were two altars,
No. 5!il04 is emphasized by " Obs." written several times in the margin. This first part of n. 5!il05 is emphasized by "Obs." written three times in the margin.

III Ad.

~818-~9~9

EXODUS XXX: 9-10

[5~07-09

the former of which, being of brass, represented the Jewish church, while the latter represented the truly Christian church, as stated above [n. 5158]. Thus the former represented the external man, and the latter the internal. Hence it follows that the altar of the whole burnt offering which was outside the door of the tent, signi fied a worship consisting of mere types, that is to say, the worship of a representative church; but the altar of incense signified the worship of the internal man, or of the true Christian church. These two churches are indeed conjoined with each other, but still they are distinct, just as are the external man and the internal, that is, the natural mind and the human mind. These are indeed conjoined, inasmuch as the one serves the other, but yet they are distinct. For this reason, moreover, there was a veil in front of the habitacle or holy place, and a veil in front of the holy of holies. 5207. That these minds are not to be mingled, but that still the one must serve the other, can be seen from many considerations, provided attention be given to the operations proper to each mind. So likewise in the church; so likewise in heaven; and so likewise in the kingdom of God Messiah, etc., etc. 5208. Many applications can be made of these words. Thus they can be applied to the works of the law, how that these are dis tinct works, and yet are conjoined with the fruits of faith; for when works are the fruits of faith, they are not works of the law inasmuch as they do not flow from the man but from faith, and consequently, from God Messiah who gives the faith. Thus they return to the Giver with usury [Matt. ~514-30], etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc.! 5209. [And Aaron shall make an atonement upon the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin of atonements: once in the year shall he make atonement upon it throughout your genera tions: it is holy of holies unto J ehovah], vs. 10. That nothing can be atoned, that is, can be justified and sanctified, save by blood, has been frequently stated above; for the blood of the Messiah signifies the justice and holiness that makes atonement and recon ciliation, and it is the way to J ehovah the Father. The reason why the atonement for this altar should be made once in a year, is that it might be represented that it must be done once. Here as elsewhere, a year signifies the whole time of reformation. There
1

No. 5908 is emphasized by " Ohs." written several times in the margin.

III Ad.

~930-~936

~73

5nO-U]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

fore, on account of the representation of the altar, lest this should pass away from the memory, it was required that it be done once. 2 5210. With respect to the altar of whole burnt offerings, blood was upon it daily by reason of the sacrificial victim. Thus it was continually sanctified by blood, and this that the people might be cleansed every day or more frequently, to the end that righteous ness might be imputed to man. The altar of incense was also sanctified continually, but by the continual incense and by the flame of the lamps [vs. 7, 8] -and that this flame signifies love, may be seen above [no 4716]. 5211. The blood being upon the homs, means that it is upon the head,3 as stated above [no 4980] ; for when the head is sancti fied all the other parts are sanctified, these being from the head. When the fountain is sanctified, the waters in its streams are also sanctified; when the flame, also its rays; when the principles, also the effects, effects being principles continued, etc., etc. 4 The horns were the parts which stretched upward, and which thus signified the vertex, and therefore, :in man, the human mind. As the mind is, such is every action and such the life. If the mind is reformed and thus justified, that is, if the justice of the Messiah is imputed to it, all its actions are of the same quality, these being born from the mind like fruits. 5212. Still, there are continual assaults by the external or natural man whence evils flow forth as from their root. These evils make assault on the mind, and strive to infect and profane it. Hence come combats. But in the regenerate man, such evils are continually turned into goods. Hence the evil is not imputed, this being the operation of God Messiah who sees the good end, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc." Thus in men there is continual justifica tion or sanctification,and this by blood, that is to say, by the justice of God Messiah which comes from that same atonement which has "once" been effected, as stated above [no 5~09]. Hence, as we read, in those who are in God Messiah there is no condemnation [Roms. 8 1 ].
No. Sf.109 is emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. [Crossed off:] as upon the head of Aaron and of a king. This first part of n. Sgll is emphasized by "' Obs." written twice in the margin. The remarks concerning the assaillt made by evils are emphasized by " Ohs." written three times in the margin.
2

~74

III Ad.

~937-~943

EXODUS XXX: 11-16

[59l13-15

5213. In the present case, the blood was taken from the sacri fice for sin, a sacrifice which is called the sin of atonements. Hence it clearly follows that the atonement is the atonement of man for his sins, and thus his justification from sins, etc., etc. 5214. By generations is signified the same as was signified above by " to an age" and" to eternity" [chap. 15 18 ], namely, that the atonement thus once made, will be an atonement making satisfac tion for the human race to eternity. 5215. It is holy of holies unto Jehovah. This is understood from chapter 919 37 where we read that atonement was to be made for the other altar seven days, that it might be "holiness of holi nesses." It is holy of holies when it pertains to God Messiah, and so, in the supreme sense, represents Him. This is holy of holies because holiness itself is then represented. Hence the things upon the altar become holy, as do those which are represented by the whole burnt offerings and the incense. 6 The seven days [of the atonement] upon the altar outside the tent [chap. 9l9 37 ] also signify the whole time of reformation. Concerning the sanctifica tion of altars, many particulars may be seen. That in the former case it continued for seven days, was to the end that the altar might be inaugurated, etc.

EXODUS XXX 11 Furthermore, J ehovah spake unto Moses, saying, 12 When thou takest the sum of the sons of Israel, as to those of them that are numbered, they shall give unto Jehovah, every man an atonement for his soul, when they shall number them; that there be no plague among them, after they have numbered them. 13 This they shall give, everyone that passeth by among them that are numbered, half a shekel in the shekel of holiness; twenty obols is a shekel; a half shekel shall be a therumah 7 to Jehovah. 14 Everyone that passeth by among them that are numbered, from a son of twenty years and over, shall give a therumah to Jehovah. 15 He that is rich shall not give more, nor he that is poor less than half a shekel, in giving a therumah unto Jehovah, to make atonement upon your souls.
What is said concerning the holy of holies is emphasized hy .. Ohs." writ ten three times in the margin. 1 See n. 4664 note.

III Ad. 2944-9l949

9175

5~I6-19]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

16 And thou shalt take the silver of atonements from-with the sons of Israel, and shalt give it for the work of the tent of as sembly; and it shall be unto the sons of Israel for a memorial before Jehovah, to make atonement upon your souls.
CONCERNING THE SHEKEL OF HOLINESS

5216. It must be observed in general, that by the shekel of holi ness which they were to give to the work of the tent of assembly, as a therumah 8 are meant all works of charity which are con tributed to the building of the house of God Messiah; consequently, to all that is meant by the house of God Messiah in every sense; and so, to such things as look to the emendation of the neighbor, of society small and large, and especially of the church; that so they may look to the kingdom of God Messiah as the ultimate end, that is, to God Messiah himself; that is to say, that all may con center in Him. Moreover, like what has preceded, the shekel of holiness, as it is called [vs. 13], was an external representation. 5217. It must be held in general, that the external man is brought into the sight of God Messiah by means of external rep resentations, and this even though he is unclean, as we read in Leviticus 1616 ; but the interior man, by means of interior repre sentations, and so forth. It is the internal man, however, to whom righteousness is imputed, and thus holiness, and this by means of true faith and thus of the fruits of faith. These are the works of charity, not the works of the law; for the former save, while the latter condemn. 9 .5218. That the works of the law condemn, has been told many times, as, for instance, that God Messiah appeared" like devour ing fire on the top of the mountain before [the eyes of] the sons of Israel"; and that "Moses entered into the midst of the cloud" (above, chap. ~417-18) ; and so frequently elsewhere. 1 5219. The whole of nature is a representation of the betrothals and nuptials of the Messiah with the church; that is to say, a rep resentation of his kingdom, and, consequently, also of generation de novo, that is, of regeneration. It is because of this that there are such marvels in the vegetable kingdom, such marvels in the
8 See n. 4664 note. No. 5Z17 is .emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. 1 No. 5918 is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin.

~76

III Ad.

~950-~956

EXODUS XXX: H-12

lower animal kingdom, such superlative marvels in man, and marvels without number in each of his faculties. Hence comes the subsistence of all things, their conservation or consistence, etc., etc. Therefore Paul says that men are without excuse, seeing that the whole of nature bears witness [Roms. 1 19 ,2] ; thus everything is intelligible if only the human intellect suffers itself to be led. Therefore also Paul's words elsewhere, to the effect that creatures groan [for the revelation of the sons of God (ibid. 8 19 )] ; 2 and especially the words said by God Messiah: "If the disciples S (those who were preaching the kingdom of God 4) should hold their peace, the stones would speak," [Luke 1940], etc., etc. 5 5220. [Furthermore, Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, lVhen thou talcest the sum of the sons of Israel, as to those of them that are numbered, they shall give unto J ehovah, every man an atone ment for his soul, when they shall number them; tha,t there be no plague among them, after they have numbered them], vs. H, 1~. That these words are now distinguished from the preceding, it being said Furthermore, Jehovah spake unto Moses; that is to say, that the shekel of holiness, as it is called [vs. 13]', involves the same thing as the incense upon the golden altar [vs. 1, 8] ; can be evi dent from what follows. To burn incense, however, was allowed only to the high priest who entered into the holy place, but not to the people; while to give the shekel was enj oined on everyone, and this to the end that each individual may thus be atoned for, as we read in verses 1~ and 15. 5221. As, in the case of the whole burnt offerings, it was per mitted to everyone to give them, but only to the priest to offer them, so likewise here, each individual gave, but it was Moses who gave it for" the [work of] the tent of assembly," as we read in verse 16, and then it was" for a memorial," etc., etc. 5222. As stated above [n. 5~16], the shekel of the sanctuary~ which was half a shekel, as we read [in verse 13]-that is to say, the therumah, means the works of charity, being that which is given for the building of the house of God Messiah. Consequently, in the inmost sense, this shekel signifies saving faith. In the supreme
The words in brackets are substituted for" etc." in the autograph. The autograph has infantIJs; but see Matt. 9115. [Crossed off:] and his advent. In the autograph, n. 5919 is emphasized by "N B" and" Obs." repeated many times in the margin.
2

III Ad.

~957-~964

5~~3-~5]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

sense, it signifies God Messiah, consequently, in the more interior sense, charity, and in the interior sense, the work of charity; These significations follow each other in order. In man, in the first or inmost place is faith in God Messiah, that is, saving faith. 6 The principal fruit of saving faith is love toward the neighbor, that is, charity. The fruits of faith, however, are many in num ber but they all refer themselves to charity. Hence then come the works of charity, these being charity in effect, just as obedience is faith in effect. 5223. That no plague might exist among the people after they have numbered them, follows as a consequence; for it was forbid den them to number the people, as is clearly evident from the num bering by David, and the plague that resulted therefrom [~ Sam. ~410]. It was also forbidden them to display their treasures, the result being punishment, as we read of the king of Judah [~ Kings ~013 se q .], etc., etc.; but as to what is meant by numbering, see below, n. 5~41. The reason is because the natural man, who places all salvation and holiness in the works of the law, refers everything to himself, to wit, the ability to justify himself, there being nothing in him which does not spring from love of self and love of the world, and consequently, which he does not refer to those loves and so to the love of self, that is, to himself and his own power. Thus when David numbered the people, he referred this to himself, that thus he was a potentate; and he had confidence in his own powers; so likewise when the king of Judah referred everything to his treasures, this being a criminal act. So now with the numbering of the people. From this, moreover, the phantasy of power could have arisen, and they might place power in themselves because in numbers. This Was forbidden lest it should come to be an example. 5224. To place power in oneself is the same as placing right eousness in oneself, for when one does the latter, he confides in his own powers. This is a damnable thing, inasmuch as it is no part of true faith; for it is not the truth but a falsity, and whatever is false is no part of true faith. The way of truth is faith, and there~ fore God Messiah is called" the way" [John 14 6 ]. 5225. Therefore, the shekel which was here given is called also a therumah or uplifting 7 [vs. 13], being that which pertains to
This sentence is emphasb>;ed by " Obs." written in the margin. 8ublatio. This is Schmidius' parenthetical translation of the transcribed word therwmahj see n. 4664 note.
1

9178

III Ad. 9l965-9l974

EXODUS XXX: 13-14


God Messiah and which is here claimed for self, namely, the uplifting, as can be seen from the use of the word therumah. 5226. Lest the plague should exist among those who were natural men and who placed justice in the works of the external man, that is, in the works of the law, therefore the works of charity and thus the fruits of faith were represented by a half of that shekel which was called" the shekel of holiness" [vs. 13], concerning which the reader may see elsewhere. It seems to me that it received this name only from the therumah, and thus from the representation of things which were holy, being the works of charity, the fruits of faith, saving faith, and so God Messiah himself. s 5227. Half of this shekel could never have made atonement for a soul, as stated in the text, in the words: he shall give an atonement for his soul, unless those things were represented which were spoken of above [n. 5~16, 5~~6] ; as neither could the altars which were called holinesses of holinesses [vs. 10], nor the sacrifices of animals, nor the incense, nor the garments, etc., etc. Thus it is exactly the same in the case of the shekel as in the case of those things which have now been mentioned, for the one equally as the other is called an atonement, a sanctification, and, elsewhere, also redemption,etc., etc. 5228. What can be so absurd as to believe that the giving of a little piece of silver, of twenty obols, could make atonement for man and save him! and this when men gave it from fear and necessity, knowing that otherwise the plague would come among them, or that they would die! Therefore, their giving cannot be called obedience, which latter comes freely from faith. 5229. [This they shall give, everyone that passeth by among them that a1'e numbered, half a shekel in the shekel of holiness; twenty obols is a shekel; a half shekel shall be a therumah to Jehovah. Everyone that passeth by among them that are numbered, from a son of twenty years ana over, shall give a therumah to Jehovah] , vs. 13,14. Here, as touching the first point, namely, that they should give [half a] shekel who were twenty years and over, as stated in verse 14, thus males and females, the reason is because what is meant is charity which is the fruit of saving faith, There are no true works of charity without an understanding rightly informed; for what is first required is a knowledge of the
No. 5996 is emphasized by " Obs." written three times in the margin.

HI Ad.

~97 5-~980

~79

5~30-3~]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

things that are to be believed, and these must be believed because God Messiah has so said. For this, an understanding is requisite; especially is it requisite that men look to the heavenly kingdom and to God Messiah, and this is not possible without intellectual intu ition. ',,"orks of charity, when exercised apart from those things that are to be believed, do indeed seem like works of charity, as already stated, but still they are not such; for they have then no truly human characteristic, it being from the understanding that man derives the fact that he is a man. But as to how these matters are circumstanced in regard to the things that are to be believed, this is another matter, for it can be evident to none save only to those to whom God Messiah reveals it. Human reason, or the man who confides in himself, drags aU things into what is perverse, and thus leads himself more and more into errors. 5230. There is wont to exist a love toward the neighbor varied in its kind which emulates truly Christian charity. But a love that is without any regard to God Messiah and his ki.Qgd.Qm is ~t ~char~ty, for a like love exists In societies where.God Messiah is un known; nay, from various causes it exists also among the wicked, and especially with those who justify themselves; there is even a natural love which is patterned after love toward the neighbor, as in the case of certain brute animals. But such love is not charity because it is without faith in God Messiah. 9 5231. As regards infants, these have saving faith but do not as yet have charity; for they lack understanding, it being in later years that this comes to birth and increases. Saving faith is of the human soul proper, and so is above the intellectual sphere; and, being of the soul, it is infused by God Messiah, as can be evident from many cases, especially from the love of parents to their off spring, which is caned storge, and, on the other hand, from the love of an infant toward its nurse. 5232. Hence it now follows that t!J!ly Christi~Jl chll:!:.ity is not possible save in those who are above the years of discretion. This is the reason why the age is set at twenty years. As to the nature ~oL~he_understanding PQ~es~~J:~Lb~s,-I!.ay, and by ypuths, with respect to things that are to be believed, this can be evident enough. Furthermore, charity is predicated entirely according to each

Nos. margin.
~80

5~iJ9-30

are emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the

III Ad.

~981-~984

EXODUS XXX: 13-14

[5~33-35

man's confession of faith. Hence, then, it is, that the therumah was given by all who were over twenty years, whatsoever their age. 5233. The reason why it is called a therumah, which signifies a heave offering, is because it signified that that should be rendered to God Messiah which was uplifted to him. For in the representa tive church men placed righteousness in the works of the law, and thus took righteousness away from God Messiah. Hence all that which is given for a holy use, and thus every offering to God Mes siah, being His own gift, etc., is called a therumah, as stated above [n. 4664, 5034 seq. J, and in the passages cited in the margin in Schmidius. 1 This was called holy; see chapter ~927, 28, 35 5 seq.; Ezekiel, 45 passim. 2 5234. Half a shekel was to be given because the shekel of holi ness, the half of which it was their duty to give, represented, in the inmost sense, saving faith, and thus the church; in the supreme sense, the kingdom of God Messiah, and thus the Messiah himself; and so the betrothals and nuptials. Hence the half. For it is given and received; thus there is an active force and a passive, etc. Hence it was a half. For it is a constant truth that here as else where in the Word of God Messiah lie concealed arcane causes, and that all have regard to the kingdom of God Messiah. 5235. The shekel of the sanctuary consisted of twenty obols or gerahs 3 because twenty was a holy number. Therefore, in later passages, whenever the shekel of holiness is mentioned, mention is also made of twenty gerahs,4 as in Leviticus ~725, Numbers 3 47 ,
1 These passages, cited in Schmidius' margin, are as follows: To verse 12: Num. 1 3 , 23 as to numbering the sons of Israel of twenty years and over. To verse 13: Lev. 27 25 , Num. 3 47 , Ezek. 4512 as to the shekel of holiness consisting of twenty obols. None of these passages mentions the word therurnah. 2 That is, Exodus 355,21,24, and Ezekiel 45 1 ,6,7,13,16, in all which verses Schmidius has" therumah," "therumah (sublatio)," or "sublatio." In the A.V., the translation is "offering" or " oblation." 3 While Schmidius, and also Castellio, Tremellius, Pagnini, and The Vulgate, here translate the Hebrew i1;~ as obolus, yet in all the passages noted in

Schmidius' margin at verse 13, he has gerah, being a transliteration of the Hebrew. The A.V. and the Swedish version use gerah only. The obolus was a small Greek coin equal in value to about 3 or 4 cents. This is not strictly correct. The word gerah occurs five times in the Bible, namely, the present text, the passages here cited. and Numbers 1816 ; and in these places, except Ezek. 451 2, it is used in connection with the shekel of holi ness. On the other hand, "shekel of holiness" occurs in a great many other passages, being used always as a standard of measure or quality, as in chap ter 3024. It would be correct to say that wherever gerah is mentioned, it is said that the shekel is twenty gemhs.

In

Ad.

~985-~988

~81

5~36-37]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

Ezekiel 45 12 The reason why the number is a holy one is because it comes from two holy numbers, to wit, three and seven which multiplied together make twenty-one. As to the reason why twenty is taken here, and not twenty-one, this can be evident from what the latter number signifies, namely, the three weeks from the first day of reformation to the last, which last will be a holy day because then will come the kingdom of God Messiah. Hence also it came that J acob, who represented the Messiah, served with Laban twenty years, as we read in Genesis 31 41 . The weeks are numbered as follows: The first, from N oah to the giving of the law in mount Sinai when God Messiah appeared to the Israelitish congregation; the second, from this first revelation to his advent in the flesh; t.he third week is from his resurrection to his coming into glory. The day of this advent is the seventh day of the third week. 5236. [He that is rich shall not give more, nor he that is poor less than half a shekel, in giving a therumah unto J ehovah, to make atonement upon your souls], vs. 15. The same is confirmed by the fact that the rich and the poor were to give an equal therumah; for each individual, and so the whole people, was to represent the same thing, there being no respect of persons with God :Messiah. Moreover, in representations it came to the same thing, whosoever the person or whatsoever his character, etc., etc. 5 To make atone ment upon your souls; see above, at verse 1~, as to what is here meant by atonement. 5237. [And thou shalt take the silver of the atonements from with the sons of Israel, and shalt give it for the work of the tent of assembly; and it shall be unto the sons of Israel for a memorial be fore Jehovah, to make atonement upon your souls], vs. 16. In this text it is now seen what is meant by atonement or justifica tion, and why it is here said, the silver of the atonements, namely, because it was expended on the work of the tent of assembly, that is, on the building of the house of God Messiah. Respecting this house and the building thereof, much can be said; but it is an evi dent truth that it is not built save by God Messiah himself, and this by means of his church, and consequently, by means of faith, charity, and the works of charity; and that by the works of the law, understood as explained above [no 5~17~18], it is destroyed. 6
This sentence is emphasized by " Ohs." written in the margin. No. 5~37 is emphasized by " Ohs." written three times in the ~argin.

III Ad.

~989-~991

EXODUS XXX:" 15-16

[5~38-41

5238. The statement that this shall be for a memorial to make atonement upon their souls, means that it win be for a testification lest the plague should come amongst them when they numbered them. From this plague they were freed by atonement. 5239. This atonement, however, was made for them by the rep resentation of sons of Israel in the entire globe who then came be fore God Messiah in memory and representation; but not of sons of J acob except for those of them who were among the number of the sons of the true Israel. 5240. Representation carries this with it, namely, that it is not the persons who represent that are then seen, but those who are represented, as can be known to all men in every representation; for a representation signifies others and therefore attention is paid not to the representers but to those who are represented. It was in this way that atonement was made upon their souls, lest the plague should come upon their souls. 5241. And this when they had numbered them [vs. l~]. As to what is meant by numbering, see above En. 5~~3]. Here, in the more interior sense, to number means to acquire knowledge of; in the inmost sense, to explore their faith and thus their charity; and since charity existed with but few of those who were over twenty years, this could harmonize [with what was said] ; see above [n. 5~39] and Leviticus 16 16 Hence it was necessary that they should be saved by the representation of sons of the true Israel throughout the entire globe from the first day of reformation to the last. These, one and all, are presented simultaneously, and they then came before God Messiah. Thus it was not this people that was s~en but in their place entirely diffel'ent peoples. Tllis can be clearly evident from many considerations, as, for instance, that no attention is paid to words when the meaning of the words is drawn forth, etc., etc.
EXODUS

XXx.

17 And J ehovah spake unto Moses, saying, 18 Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and its base [of brass], 7 to wash withal, which thou shalt put between the tent of assembly and the altar; that thou mayest put water therein.
7

Omitted by Scbmidius.

III Ad.

~99~-~995

~83

5~4~-45]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

19 For Aaron and his sons shall wash therefrom their hands and their feet. ~o When they go into the tent of assembly, they shall wash themselves with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn incense, an offering made by fire unto J ehovah. ~1 They shall wash [I say] 8 their hands and their feet, that they die not: and it shall be to them a statute of an age; to him and to his seed throughout their generations.
CONCERNING THE LAVER

5242. Just as the therumah, being the shekel of holiness, signi fies faith, the fruit of faith, and thus the works of charity, so the laver with its basin signifies nothing else than a cleansing from the lusts that spring from the two loves, the love of self and the love of the world, and which are natural lusts and appetites. 5243. God Messiah can never be worshipped from faith, and thus charity can never come from faith, unless these loves are wiped away; for they are such, that faith can never be one with them seeing that they are hatreds against the Love of Heaven, and so are not loves. Thus the natural man is deceived by fallacies. 5244. It is these loves that enter in a marvellous manner into man's will and understanding, and infill and enkindle the whole sphere of his mind, and thus arouse and persuade him, and this against the loves of heaven and so against all that is of saving faith. Hence comes shade and darkness of mind; for spiritual light consists in the intuition of truths, and thus in persuasion con . cerning the things that are of faith in God' Messiah. Therefore, these so-called loves, or rather. these hatreds, must be entirely driven away before the intellectual mind can be possessed by the loves of heaven, that is to say, by affections truly spiritual and celestial which come from God Messiah their fount. 5245. As to how affections induce persuasions, so that, in natural things, the mind believes that to be true and utterly true by which it is affected; and, as to how, in things truly spiritual and celestial, knowledges and thus persuasions pre pare the mind for the reception of heavenly affections; this can
Added by Schmidius.
~84

In

Ad.

~996-~999

EXODUS XXX: 17-9H

[5246-47

be demonstrated in many ways, and also from daily experience including that which was unobserved at the time and also that which was observed. But every individual can bear witness to this from common sense, nay, and also from experience within himself. Man, however, rarely attends to such experience in asmuch as he is fully occupied with natural affections, and un less these are removed, heavenly affections never appear in light. When they are acknowledged from things that are spoken, they appear in shade, but this appearance does not e~ercise such persuasion as to induce these heavenly affections. Therefore, to the end that those hatreds, that is to say, the loves of self and the world, may first be dispersed, God Mes siah uses other means, especially misfortunes, afflictions, temptations, etc., etc. 9 5246. Being cleansed from these loves is here represented by the washing of the hands and feet. That this washing was a rep resentation can be clearly evident from the fact that the feet of the Apostles were washed [John 135- 1 ] ; concerning these washings, see above [n. 4949]. 5247. That the representation of all the things that affected man's senses, being taken up by near-by spirits, was conveyed to angels who were more interior, and also to the inmost angels, and thus to God Messiah in the midst of the pillar, see above [n. 491~, 4973, 50~O, 50~~]. So likewise with the washing now treated of, and which was represented by Aaron and his sons before entering upon their ministration. Thus to the near-by spirits Aaron ap peared clean; consequently, to the more interior angels, he ap peared spiritually pure; and so, to the inmost angels, as though righteous,when yet he was anything but this, as can be evident. The case was such, that all the senSes were affected gratefully. Thus the representation came from the externals in man, thus from the sight, the smell, the taste, the hearing. This then is the ex ternal Jewish church. As to how the external church is entirely different from the internal, this can be explained in many ways, even to the point of perception, but in general what has been said will be evident.
Nos. 5fJ44-45 are emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. The indented paragraph is not cited by the Author in tbe Index to his Memorabilia.

III Ad.

3000-300~

~85

5~48-50]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5248. Common sense is able to dictate that the washing of hands and feet can contribute nothing whatever to man's justifica tion, for, being entirely divergent the two are as far apart as shade and light. 5249. The rites of the Jewish church had the effect that they passed over from externals to internals. This, however, is the characteristic of the natural man. The church of God Messiah, on the other hand, that is to say, the true Christian church, passes over from internals to externals and in this way God Messiah leads all and single things to himsel.l 5250. [And J ehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and its base (of brass), 2 to wash withal, which thou shalt put between the tent of assembly and the altar; that thou mayest put water therein. For Aaron and his sons shall wash therefrom their hands and their feet], vs. 17-19. Here, the washing of the hands and feet represented cleansing and purifica tion from lusts, and thus from the loves of self and the world, these being the spiritual uncleannesses and filths that arise from the natural. The washing of the hands signifies cleansing from the loves of self, in that one attributes to self all power and strength, and thus righteousness. This is the washing of the hands. These lusts pertain especially to the natural mind, which thus infects the spiritual mind and persuades it, as stated above [n. 5~44-45]. The washing of the feet signifies cleansing from worldly filth, such as avarice and the love of the world; thus cleansing from those things which are of the love of the world. For the feet are the lowest parts in the body, and therefore it is the lowest kinds of filth that are signified. Water is that spiritual water which cleanses and purifies, namely, the righteousness of God Messiah. Thus the laver and its base is the Messiah himself.
1 [The continuation consists of the following indented passage, crossed off by the Author and not cited in the Index to his Memorabilia:] BlIt this can the better be seen from the doctrine of order, to ,"it, that without the choirs of angels by whom these representations were led by God Messiah to Himself, the Jewish church would have been an abomination. Hence it can be evident of what nature their worship would have been, or how abominable, unless by the Providence of God Messiah [these repre sentations] had been rightly led onwards; thus [how abominable] are those of them who place holiness in these representations alone without any faith in God Messiah, when they know that the Messiah, is signified by all their rites. 2 Omitted by Schmidius.

~86

III Ad. 3003-3009

EXODUS XXX:

17-~1

[5~51-5~

5251. [When they go into the tent of assembly, they shall wash themselves with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn incense, an offering made by fire unto J ehovah] , vs. ~O. This also foIlows as a consequence, for if they be not purified with spiritual water, it is certain death, as also is here declared. Their natural death or the death of the body represented the death of the soul, for they who did not rightly perform their external worship were slain, as was the case with the two sons of Aaron [Lev. 101 - 2 ], with the many who adored the calf [chap. 3~25-8], and also with those who brought in strange fire and desired therewith to perform the priest's office [Num. 161 - 35 ], etc., etc. 5252. [They shall wash (I say) 3 their hands and their feet, that they d'ie not: and it shall be to them a statute of an age; to him and to his seed throughout their generations], vs. ~l. This was to be to them a statute, that is, to the Jews who placed right eousness in their own righteousness, namely, in the words of the law which condemn man, as said above [no 5~17-18J. Therefore, lest they be condemned, this grace was shown them; and had they rightly observed the statutes, they might have been led onward to the interior man.
EXODUS XXX
And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Take thou also unto thee principal spices, noble myrrh five hundred, and fragrant cinnamon the half thereof, even fifty and two hundred, and sweet calamus fifty and two hundred. ~4 And cassia five hundred shekels, in the shekel of holiness; and of oil of the olive an hin. ~5 And thou shalt make it an oil of anointing of holiness, an ointment of ointment, the work of the perfumer: an oil of anoint ing of holiness shall it be. ~6 And thou shalt anoint therewith the tent of assembly, and the ark of the testimony: ~7 And the table and all the vessels thereof, and the candle stick and [all] 4 the vessels thereof, and the altar of incense: 918 And the altar of the whole burnt offering and all the vessels thereof, and the laver and its base.
~3
S Added by Schrnidius. Added by Schrnidius.

~9l

See n.

~895,

3497.

III Ad.

3010-301~

9187

5253-54]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

29 So shalt thou sanctify them, that they may be holy of holies; whosoever toucheth them shall make himself holy.s 30 And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and shalt sanc tify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. 31 And thou shalt speak unto the sons of Israel, saying, An oil of anointing of holiness shall this be unto me throughout your generations. 32 Upon the flesh of man shall he not pour it; and in the qual ity thereof ye shall not make any like it: it is holy; holy shall it be unto you. 33 The man who prepareth any like it, or putteth any of it upon a stranger, shall be cut off from his peoples.
CONCERNING THE OIL OF ANOINTING

5253. Concerning the oil of anointing, see above [n. 4900, 5099], to the effect that it is the essence of a tree. Hence, being the essence, it is thus the life of the tree; and being from the vege table kingdom, its signification is thus taken from paradise. Thence are taken all essentials in their own degrees; so likewise in things spiritual and celestial. Since all essentials are understood in this way, therefore, in the superior sense it is God Messiah who is meant by the oil; hence its holiness and the reason why it is called an oil of holiness. Therefore, the priests were anointed with it; for none can create priests save the Priest to the Most High, and he who carried out the offices of the most high priest which are treated of in all that is said concerning Aaron. There fore, kings also were anointed with it, for none can make kings save the King of kings. Kings, therefore, are called anointed and their dignity is a holy dignity, as is evident from many considera tions. It is from this then that all that was holy, such as the tent, the ark, the table, etc. [which was anointed with this oil], see verses 25 to 30 inclusive. 5254. The oil was aromatic and consisted of four different in gredients, these being added to it that its odor might be aromatic, that is, grateful and pleasing, to the end that it might signify in general the same as is signified by an odor of rest and of sweet ness; respecting which we have spoken frequently above. These
'sanctificab-it se. Thus Schmidius; but according to the Hebrew, it should be shall be made holy.

288

III Ad. 3013-3019

EXODUS XXX:

~~-33

[5~55

four ingredients are the things of saving faith which are poured in, or which existed in the Messiah, to wit, charity, piety, tolerance, and righteousness. These existed in God Messiah. Therefore, they are also in saving faith, for faith is a gift, and therefore, so also is charity, piety, tolerance, and righteousness; and being a gift and imputed, it is predicated as though it were man's own. Therefore, that men might be just and entire, they are commanded to live a life of integrity, that is, to observe order, this being commanded them. The reader may see the subject of righteousness, and its imputation by faith, treated of above [n. 4997, 506~, 5075, 5096, 513~], and also the subject of charity [no 5~16, 5~~6, 5~~9 seq. J. It is the same thing with piety, for unless there is faith, there can be no piety and no tolerance, these existing only from faith, etc., etc. . 5255. All the other particulars now follow and are explained from the above, for they follow in order. As, for instance, the words that he who putteth any of it upon a stranger shall be cut off from his people, in that the stranger is not holy. What is here represented is spiritual death, as stated above [n. 5~51], for here natural death represents spiritual. Thus he shall be cut off from the kingdom of God Messiah.
EXODUS

XXX

34 And J ehovah said unto Moses, Take unto thee aromatic spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; aromatic spices and pure frankincense: one alone with one alone shall it be: 35 And thou shalt make of them incense, an ointment, the work of the maker of ointments,6 salted, pure, holy: 36 And thou shalt pound of it very small, and shalt put of it before the testimony in the tent of assembly, where I win meet with thee: holy of holies shall it be unto you; 87 And the incense which thou shalt make in its quality, ye shall not make for yourselves: it shall be unto thee holy for Jehovah. 38 The man who maketh the like unto it, to make an odor thel'ewith, shall be cut off from his peoples.
The Hebrew word which Schmidius here translates pigrnentm'i1ls (a maker of paints or ointments) is the same as that which, in verse '35, he translates ungenlari,us (perfumer).

III Ad.

30~0-30~3

~89

5~56-57]

THE WORD EXPLAINED


[CONCERNING THE INCENSE]

5256. As touching the incense, see above [n. 515~], to the effect that it produces a pleasant odor in the spiritual sense; thus in the supreme sense, an odor of sweetness. That by incense is meant faith and also the fruit of faith, the works of charity and the works of the law, this the reader may see above [no 5156] ; more over, it should be well observed in what way these are distinct from each other. 1 The fruit of faith is charity. The works of this charity are here five in number and are called aromatic spices, these being enumerated; for the aromatic spices spoken of in the second place in verse 34 are also a species of aromatics and, therefore, by another interpreter they are called leaves of the spilcenard; other wise, from the meaning of the words, it is the same thing repeated; for pure frankincense when this must stand alone, cannot be said to be aromatic spices, seeing that the latter has been previously mentioned. s 5257. It must first be observed that the incense must be salted, pure and holy. Salted has regard to that which is natural and, more properly, to the Law, this being in ultimates. 'Wherefore it is said to be salted, and this from many causes; for salt is that es sential thing in the earth which composes everything earthy. Pure
7

This sentence is emphasized by "Obs." written in the margin.


The word 'C't.:l~. (aromatics or aromatic spices) occurs twice in verse 34,

and Schmidius gives it the same rendering in each case, as also does Pagnini and the A.V., the latter adding the word these, to explain the repeated word: "Take . . . these aromatic spices with pure frankincense." Castellio and the VUlgate translate the second b'~~ as an adjective, Castellio's version reading: "Take ye odors, stacte, crocus, sweet smelHng galbanum and pure frankin cense "; and the Vulgate: " Take unto thee al'omatic spices, stacte, and onycha, galbanum of good odor, and the choicest fralikincense." The Swedish Version, on the other hand, omits it; and reads: " Take unto thee spices, balsam, stacte, galban and pure frankincense." According to the above versions, the holy in cense was compounded of only four ingredients. Swedenborg, however, was led to suppose it contained five, by the fact that Tremellius, who is the" other interpreter" spoken of in the text, quite gratuitously translates the second C'~~ as though it described a separate ingredient, his translation ,being: "Take to thee a/'omatic spices, stacte and onycha and galbanum, leaves of the spikenard and pure franckincense." It is evident that Swedenborg did not look up the Hebrew text, and it would seem that Tremellius' translation led him to conclude that the second aromatic spices in Schmidius' version represented a different word in the Hebrew text. Confer n. 5186 note. The translation in the A rcana is " fragrant spices. . things fragrant and pure frankincense."
~90

III Ad.

30~4-30~7

EXODUS XXX: 34-38

[5~58-59

refers to things spirituaJ,9 it being of these that the word pure is properly predicated. Charity is pure when it comes from faith in God Messiah. Hence the works of charity are pure, nor are they then to be called works of the law, see above [no 5~08, 5~17J. Holiness lies in the inmost sense, this being called holy; thus it is faith and so the fruits of faith, respecting which we. speak else where. From their holy BEGINNING, as from a SOUL from which is born a body, all the other things become holy even to the Law, etc., etc. The holiness, however, is predicated from the Most Holy, or from Holiness itself, that is to say, from God Messiah. Hence, then, the incense must be salted, pure, holy. 5258. It shall likewise be one alone with one alone, that is, shall not be mingled, inasmuch as the one must flow distinctly from the other according to the DOCTRINE OF ORDER. 5259. As touching the five aromatic spices which are named, these signify the five affections which come from charity and which thus [constitute] charity, charity being the incense. The five af fections which are thus grateful and pleasing because they come from charity, are mercy, patience, concord, etc., etc. These affec tions are grateful or pleasing because they come originally from conjugiallove, and thus look to the kingdom of God Messiah, and consequently to God Messiah himself. They are the cardinal [ virtues] of the church, respecting which, God Messiah granting, we shall speak elsewhere. When these five are within one's prayers, then the prayers themselves are taken for incense, for then they are pleasing. See Apocalypse 58, 8 3 . EXODUS XXXI 1 And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, ~. See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah: 3 And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in intelligence, and in science, and in all manner of work, 4 To discover new things, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass;
After the word spiritual, Swedenborg commenced a new paragraph with the word Per. This, however, he crossed off and then continued the preceding paragraph. In his subsequent numbering of the paragraphs, he mistook this crossed off Per as marking a new paragraph which he accordingly numbered 3MB.

III Ad.

30~8-3036

~91

5fl60-61]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5 And in the cutting of stone for infilling, and the carving of wood for construction, in all manner of work. 6 And I, behold, I have given with him Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan: and to the heart of everyone that is wise hearted I have given wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee; 7 The tent of assembly, and the ark of the testimony, and the propitiatory that is upon it, and all the vessels of the tent; 8 And the table and its vessels, and the pure candlestick and all the vessels thereof, and the altar .of incense; 9 And the altar of the whole burnt offering and all the ves sels thereof; and the laver and its base; 10 And the garments of ministry, and the garments of holi ness for Aaron the priest; and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office; 11 And the oil of anointing, and the incense for the holy place: according to all that I have commanded thee shall they do.
5260. [And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in intelligence, and in science,l and in all manner of work (vs. 3).] Here it must be well observed that in this verse is de scribed the whole order that obtains in man. His supreme is the Spirit of God, that is, the Holy Spirit by means of which is infused all wisdom. The Spirit of God is here separate from man, and, consequently, from the wisdom, etc., which is infused; for the su preme is entirely divided off from man's faculties. Thus in man, the inmost is wisdom which properly pertains to his soul; for wis dom is to see clearly and to foresee the best ends, and to infuse them into the intellectual mind, etc., etc. Intelligence is proper to the intellectual mind, as is well known, intelligence not being pos sible without an intuition of ends, and thus without an intuition of good and truth. The faculty of intuition is communicated to man by the Spirit of God through the soul. Science is properly predi cated of the natural mind where is the memory, for the memory pertains to that faculty, and it is this that directly produces sci ence; but the faculty comes from the intellectual mind. 5261. In all manner of work. This is the execution and is proper to the body, the body putting into operation that which
1

or knowledge.
~9fl

III Ad. 3037-304fl

EXODUS XXXI: 3-6

[5262-63

science, intelligence, and wisdom dictates, that is to say, which the Spirit of God dictates, according to the order of life in man. 5262. [To discover new things, to work in gold, and in silver, and in bra,ss; and in the cutting of stone for infilling, and the carv ing of wood for construction, in all manner of work (vs. 4, 5).] So in verse 4, as regards the words to discover new things. This is a faculty which lies within every man, especially within his in tellectual mind, and which, as said above [n. 5260], he obtains through the soul from the Spirit of God; for every work of wis dom is the work of the Spirit of God. And now the works also follow in order, which otherwise would not have been set forth. For gold represents wisdom, inasmuch as it represents the faculty of discovering ends and so of beholding the best end, and, conse quently, of beholding what is good and useful. Silver represents intelligence, inasmuch as it represents truth. And brass 2 repre sents science which is a natural endowment. In the cutting of stone pertains to the faculty of the body; therefore it is said for infilling, etc. So likewise in the carving of wood-but this refers to a still lower faculty of the body; for the body has a twofold faculty, seeing that there are degrees, there being degrees of the senses, of appetites, of pleasures, etc. From these we learn con cerning the degrees of the faculties of the body, and thus what is meant by the cutting of stone the stone being a precious stone, and what by the carving of wQod. For construction in all manner of work-in this way is expressed the act. 5263. [And I, behold, I have given with him Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan.: and to the heart of everyone that is wise hearted I have given 7iJisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee], vs. 6. Wise hearted is an aU-embracing expression, the heart or blood being the complex of all thIngs that live in order, as stated above [n. 4639]. The making of all that J ehovah commanded, would not require that the man be filled with wisdom, or with intelligence, or with science, this being the busi ness of the workman who acts solely according to the plan laid before him. But these words are said in order that thus interiors also may be represented; that is to say, that the things which now follow from verses 7 to 11 inclusive, to wit, the tent, the ark of the testimony, etc., might represent in order all those things of which
2

See n. 4669 note.

III Ad. 3043-3047

293

5~64]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

we have spoken above. For these, wisdom is required, seeing that it is the ultimate that is to be made, and this includes all things prior. Wherefore, the works of charity or the fruits of faith are mentioned by God Messiah in this way, namely, as being the com plex of all things from firsts. 3 Thus, in the spiritual man, all things are brought forward in order, by means of the Holy Spirit. 5264. Observation must also be made of the order of the things that follow, as to how they are circumstanced in respect to order. For in the inmost sense, this order also contains myster~es, and if these mysteries be unfolded, the order of justification by means of the Messiah would shine forth. Concerning this order and this unfolding, we shall speak later, God Messiah granting. 4 EXODUS XXXI
1~ Finally, Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, 13 Thou shalt speak further unto the sons of Israel, saying, Surely, ye shall keep my sabbaths: for this is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am J ehovah thatdoth sanctify you. 14 Therefore ye shall keep the sabbath; for it is holy unto you: he that profaneth it, dying he shall die: for everyone that doeth work therein, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of his people. 15 Six days shall work be done; but on the seventh day shall be the sabbath of the sabbath, * holy to J ehovah: everyone that doeth work on the day of the sabbath, dying, he shall die. 16 Therefore the sons of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to cele brate the sabbath throughout their generations; the covenant of an age. 17 This is a sign for ever between me and the sons of Israel: for in six days Jehovah made the heavens and the earth; but on the seventh day he rested, and took breath.

3 See Matthew gg40. Nos. Sg63-64 are emphasized by "Obs." written several times in the margin. *lin~~ n~~. In the A.V. this is usually translated a sabbath of rest, the

root meaning of the Hebrew word n~~ being rest.

lin~~,

however, means the

sabbath as a feast day, the ending li=being an intensive form of the word and involving the meaning" the sabbath." See Acton, An Introd. to the Study of the Hebrew W m'd, n. 283.
~94

In

Ad. 3048

EXODUS XXXI: 12-17


[CONCERNING THE SEVENTH AND HOLY DAY]

[5~65-69

5265. The seventh and holy day has been frequently treated of above. The reason why God Messiah has here spoken so much concerning the seventh and holy day is because the end of all ends is the kingdom of God Messiah. It is to this kingdom that all creation looks, and to it look all things that are created, there being nothing in the universe, in heaven and on earth, that does not look thitherward. Thus all and single things are completely full of the kingdom of God and represent it. 5266. Take whatsoever you will in the kingdoms of the earth, the terrestrial, the vegetable, and the animal; take whatsoever you will in man; and, considering them rightly, you will be contemplat ing the kingdom of God Messiah. I confess that I have considered them in great number and have not, as yet, been able to meet with a single one that does not look to the kingdom of God Messiah, and to that conjugial love which exists between the Messiah and the church. "Tithout this beginning and end of an things, nothing can ever subsist. 5 5267. This, then, is the reason why the seventh day was to be held so holy, and why that man would die who did not hold this day as holy. For it is the end of all ends, and to it do all rites have regard, and the whole of worship. Therefore, after all the com mandments have been given, so much is now said concerning the seventh day and the necessity in the representative church of ob serving it in so holy a manner. 5268. Afterwards, however, when types have ceased, the king dom of God will be perpetual, in that it will exist in human minds. Thus every day will be the seventh day and a perpetual feast. Hence then the words said by God Messiah concerning this day; 6 for they who shall rightly represent the kingdom of God Messiah, that is to say, the internal or heavenly 7 man, will represent it con stantly; not so the natural man. 5269. Since then all and single things look to the kingdom of God Messiah, and since man lives a perverted life, and looks to the kingdom of the devil, therefore, nothing can then succeed with him. But with those who look to the kingdom of God Messiah, all things
[Crossed off: I This I can sacredly swear. Confer .Mark 227.
T or celestial.

III Ad. 3049-3057

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5270-71]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

succeed because they are then led to the end itself-of which mat ters, more may be said, God Messiah granting. It cannot be otherwise than that all things succeed with such men, for they are in the end itself, etc., etc. Hence the prayer of God Messiah [Matthew 6 9- 13 ; Luke 11 2 - 4 ] looks solely to His kingdom, as will be seen if this prayer is explained. s From the above then follows the explanation of all that is said in this text respecting the seventh day. EXODUS XXXI

18 And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of speaking with him in mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God.
CONCERNING THE Two TABLES

5270. Here finally, according to the words of the text, the sub ject treated of is the tables of the Law. These tables were two in number because in the supreme sense they signify God Messiah, that is to say, his divine Essence and his Human: For God Mes siah is the Law, this being inscribed on Him; for there is nothing whatever in the Law that does not represent and signify God Mes siah himself. Therefore, the tables were of stone, since God Mes siah is the Stone, as we read many times, and it is on Him that the Law is now written with the finger of God. Respecting the tables of the Testimony, being the tables of the Covenant, confer Deuter onomy 9 10- 15 and below, Exodus 3215 ,16, Therefore, the tables were preserved in the ark, seeing that in the midst of the ark was God Messiah; see above [n. 4689, 4696-98J. That God :Messiah is represented by mount Sinai, by the Testimony or Law, by the Stone, by the Finger of God, can be demonstrated by many pas sages. That the tables were again renewed, see below, chapter 34 1 ,4,28. What is written by the finger of God must be divine, thus supreme; and it signifies holiness and thus God Messiah. Such, then, is the meaning in the supreme sense. 5271. In the inmost sense, that is, in the sense that is with man, the words of the text signify that the tables of the Testimony, that is to say, the Law, is inscribed on human souls. This is what is called being inscribed on man's heart, that is, being deeply Ills See A Philosophe"'8 Note Book, pp. 4.66-67.

296

III Ad. 3058-3068

EXODUS XXXI: 18

(5~7~-75

scribed; for, as the reader may see immediately above [no 5~66 seq.], there is nothing that does not look to the kingdom of God Messiah, and thus to the Messiah himself. Hence, then, the tables are called tables of the testimony, tables of the covenant, tables of stone, they being indelible and their words written with the finger of God. Thus the two tables then signify 'God Messiah and the church, and thus marriage or conjugial love. 5272. In the more interior sense also, being the sense in rela tion to the human mind, the tables are written with the finger of God, but only in the internal or heavenly man. Not so in the natural man; for the law must be learned, and man is born with out the divine Law inscribed on his mind, but it is inscribed by God Messiah. This is the reason why these tables were broken when the people so greatly transgressed; but the new tables are treated of in chapter 34. 5273. In the interior sense, being the sense in relation to the natural mind, this law is inscribed on the entire animal family, and so also, in the natural sense, on every vegetable, as stated above [no 5~66]. 5274. All these things are the tables of the testimony, the tables of stone, and thus the law written with the finger of God because it was so made and created. Thus the whole of creation is the law, the testimony, the tables, etc.; etc. 5275. There were two tables because they testify concerning two things, as stated above [n. 5~71]. That they signify two churches and thus the two Testaments, this I am not able to see at present, inasmuch as the law is one only, namely, the internal law, it being this that saves, while the external law condemns. So there is one church, for the external church ought not to be separated from the internal, or the representative church from the things which are represented. This, it seems, can be confirmed by many considerations, for were it separated, that which represents be comes nothing. Just as the body becomes nothing if separated from its soul, so the representative church, if separated from the Christian. If rites are separated from the .beholding of God Mes siah by faith, the result is a dead thing and a corpse. Thus, in spiritual matters that thing is hell which is separated from God Messiah, being separated from his heavenly kingdom, etc., etc.'"
* No. 5975 is emphasized by " Obs." written many times in the margin.

In Ad. $069-3077

~97

THE WORD EXPLAINED EXODUS XXXII 1 And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Arise, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him. 9l And Aaron said unto them, Tear off the earrings of gold, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me. S Therefore aU the people tore off the earrings of gold which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. 4 And he took from their hand, and fashioned it with a grav ing tool, and made it a molten calf. And they said, These are thy gods, 0 Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. 5 And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and said, To morrow is a feast to Jehovah. 6 Therefore, on the next day, they rose up in the morning, and offered whole burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and when the people had sat down to eat and to drink, they rose up to play. 7 And J ehovah said unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people, which thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt, hath corrupted itself. 8 They have turned back suddenly from the way which I com manded them: they have made them a molten calf, and have adored it, and have sacrificed unto it, and said, These are thy gods, 0 Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. 9 And J ehovah said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people: 10 Now, therefore, permit me, that mine anger may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: for I will make thee into a great nation. 11 But Moses entreated the faces of Jehovah his God, and said, Wherefore, 0 J ehovah, doth thine anger wax hot against thy people which thou hast led forth out of the land of Egypt with great strength, and with a mighty hand? 19l Wherefore should the Egyptians say, saying, Into evil did he lead them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume 9198

EXODUS XXXII: 1-35


them from upon the faces of the earth? Turn back from the wrath of thine anger, and be moved with repentance over the evil for thy people. 13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou swarest by thine own self, and spakest unto them, I will multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, that they may inherit it for ever. 14 Wherefore, 3ehovah was moved with repentance over the evil which he had spoken to do unto his people. 15 So Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written from their two sides; from this side and from that were they written. 16 And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables. 17 And when 30shua heard the voice of the people in their shouting, he said unto Moses, The voice of war is in the camp. 18 But Moses 9 said, The voice of the clamor is not victory; neither is the voice of the clamor a lost cause: the voice of a song do I hear. 19 And when he came nigh unto the camp, and saw the calf, and the dances: it came to pass that lVIoses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hand, and brake them beneath the mount. 910 And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it with fire, and ground it till it became fine powder; and he strewed it upon the faces of the waters, and made the sons of Israel to drink. 911 Then Moses said unto Aarbn, vVnat did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought upon it great sin? ~9l And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my lord wax hot: thou knowest the people, that it is in evil. 913 Therefore it said unto me, Make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him. 914 Then I said to them, Who hath gold? tear it off from you. And they gave it me. Therefore I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.
See n. 5409 note.

9199

5~76]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

~5 And when Moses saw the people that it was loose, in that Aaron had made it loose unto shame among their enemies: ~6 Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is for J ehovah? to me! 1 Therefore, all the sons of Levi gathered them selves together unto him. ~7 And he said unto them, Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel, Put every man his sword upon his thigh; pass through, and return from gate to gate in the camp, and slay a man his brother, and a man his companion, and a man his neighbor. ~8 And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men. ~9 For Moses had said, Infill your hand this day to Jehovah, while a man is against his son, and against his brother; for it is for the bestowing of a blessing upon you this day. 30 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up unto Jehovah; peradventure I shall make atonement for your sin. 31 So Moses returned unto Jehovah, and said, Oh, this people hath indeed sinned a great sin, for they have made them gods of gold. 3~ Yet, if thou wilt forgive their sin-; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy book which thou hast written. 33 But Jehovah said unto Moses, He that hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book. 34 But go, lead this people into- of which I spake unto thee. Behold, mine Angel shall go before thee: but in the day of my visitation I will visit their sin upon them. 35 And J ehovah smote the people, because they had made the calf, which Aaron made.

But as to what these words represent in general in the supreme and inmost sense, see below, n. 5544 seq.2

5276. The narrative that follows is unspeakably dreadful; and, at the same time, it is well-nigh incredible that the people was of such a character, and especially Aaron, his sons, and the elders, for here none is excepted.
See n. 54-61 note. This sentence is squeezed in between the heading " Exod. XXXII verso 1 to 35 " and n. 5976, and is emphasized by the words " Obs. Obs. bene" (observe, observe well).
1

300

III Ad. 3078

EXODUS XXXII: 1-35

[51}l77-84

5277. It can testify concerning this whole people, that it was so stiff-necked that no nation in the entire globe could have been more stiff-necked or worse in character. 5278. It can testify that the interior, that is to say, the in terior man, in this people was wholly profane, and, indeed, was still worse than the Egyptians; for had such miracles been wrought in Sodom and Gomorrah they would have repented [Matt. 11 23 ], as [the men of Nineve repented, at] the single preaching of Jonah [Luke 11 32 ]. 5279. It can testify that within them was nothing sound but only what was profane and idolatrous; for to adore a calf when they were in such great light, is an unspeakable abomination. If they did this in the light, what would they not have done in shade? 3 5280. It can testify that their divine worship was no worship at all, but that they worshipped any god whatsoever who favored their loves; thus that the devil held their hearts and led them. 5281. It can testify that, being driven into so slight a tempta tion, driven namely, by their leader's delay for forty days, they succumbed to so unspeakable a crime that they bore witness to their own utterly depraved disposition. 5282. It can also testify that, when men are of such a char acter, miracles have no effect whatsoever, and do not lead into the way of truth. How many were not the miracles of Egypt! how many were not those on the way! how many were they not every day! Dread was daily sent down from heaven; the pillar of cloud and of fire went before them, etc. And that miracles have no effect on other men, being men who have faith, [is because] such men do not desire miracles. True faith gives no admission to miracles, for a faith arising from miracles does not save, since the man is then driven to it, etc., etc. 5283. It can testify that this church was merely representa tive; that is to say, that interiorly the people was utterly unclean; and yet J ehovah God willed to dwell in the midst of their unclean ness, confer Leviticus 1616 . With that whole people, therefore, there was no worship save what was profane. 5284. Consequently, it can testify that there was an entirely different reason why God Messiah favored this people-respecting
3 With the Latin editor, we have transposed the words light and shade, as this seems to be required by the sense.

III Ad. 3079-3086

301

5~85-86]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

which, see above [no 748, 380~]-namely, because of Abraham's faith, and thus because of Abraham; see above. See also above [n. 764 VIII], fo the effect that it was because of Himself, in that He was to be born of the stem of J udah. But had He not known that He would thus be tempted by the devil and led to death, an other people might have been chosen. 5285. That such was the character of J acob, such the character of his sons, and such the character of that entire posterity, can be evident enough; and that they were of the same character during the whole time up to the advent of the Messiah, is too well known. For how many times did they not go into idolatry! 4 times which may be enumerated from their historical books. Consequently, it clearly follows that, such being their disposition and mind, their worship in accordance with prescribed order was also wholly abominable, being abominable as regards the people; but that the representation thereof by means of angels, as stated above [n. 4907 seq.], so wrought that it was not abominable. Moreover, it seems also that God Messiah willed in this way to hide from the celestial angels the fact that this people was so diabolical. As touching Moses, something concerning him will be seen in chapter 33[12 seq.l. As touching their posterity at the present day, who in their heart are continually crucifying the Messiah, would they be any better if they were led by like miracles or even by more? and if they were to receive their expected Messiah such as they de scribe Him? 5286. That man can never be led to the kingdom of God save by temptati~ns and thus by combats and victories, this the reader may see stated many times; and also how it is with temptations. Temptations are so many proofs of love, it being by them that man is led into the way of truth. Therefore it was, that this people were so often tempted, and this as lightly as could possibly be (the temptations may be recounted, for so also are they called in what has preceded 5), and yet they succumbed. Hence it can be
In the autograph, this word commences a new line, opposite which Sweden borg wrote in the margin "Obs. Obs." In his subsequent numbering of the MS., he mistook this" Obs. Obs." as marking the beginning of a new paragraph which he accordingly numbered "3088." See chapters 15 25 , 16 4 , 2020. (The words "try" and "prove" used in these passages represent the Hebrew word elsewhere translated" tempt.")

III Ad. 3087-309~

EXODUS XXXII: 1

[5!il87-90

evident that there was no hope of saving them; confer Psalm 106 from beginning to end. 5287. That Aaron was of such a character, in that he was their leader, is evident enough from what is so often repeated concern ing him, such as the statements in verses 9l, 4, 5, !ill, 35, etc. Yet it was Aaron with whom J ehovah had spoken and by whose hand and staff he had wrought so many miracles, and who, therefore, might have instructed the people. And when the head was such, what then the elders! Nevertheless, after the deed here described was done, Aaron was yet made high priest. Was not this church entirely representative? a representative being that which repre sents, whatsoever the character of the person, even if he is unclean; no otherwise than as with garments, and animals, etc. 5288. [And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Arise, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him], vs. 1. What they did is first told in summary form. This God Messiah well knew, in that they were of such a character. But they were now led into this temptation that they might not be able to bring forward any excuse or pretense. Previously, they had been tempted because they did not have bread, and because they did not have water [chap. 16 2 se q ., 17 1 se q .] ; hence they made the pretext that, being in want, it was natural for them to murmur though in itself this was no excuse inasmuch as they had seen so many miracles. 5289. Now, however, there was no lack of bread, new bread being given them daily from heaven. Nor was there lack of water. Neither could they have been lacking a leader, this being here a mere pretense; for at the least pretext a disposition breaks out which cannot break out when held in bonds. Hence, lest there be any excuse, this temptation which was of so light a nature now came upon them. From this it can be evident who it was that ruled them, to wit, the Egyptian devil. Moreover, this can be sufficiently evident from their murmurings, in that they So often wished to re turn to Egypt. (These passages also may be adduced.) 5290. From the above it is sufficiently evident that while in Egypt they had worshipped no other god; for if they acted in this III Ad. 3093-3100 303

5~91-93]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

way now, what then of their action when they were in Egypt! This is a conclusion that can never be denied, the conclusion namely, that in Egypt they had been nothing but idolaters. The same is further confirmed in the following verses, in that they also offered whole burnt offerings to the Egyptian gods; see verses 5 and 6. 5291. Wherefore a prediction was made concerning their prog eny which lived after the time of the Messiah, and this by Abra ham himself (look up the passage 6) in his answer to the rich man who, when in hell, saw Lazarus and asked that he might wet his finger with a drop of water and slake his thirst; but Abraham an swered, If they hear not Moses and the Prophets, neither will they give ear to miracles. The" rich man" is th~ p~terit of Jacob, i while" Lazarus " is the gentiles,to whom they will not give even) crumbs of read. Therefore, Abraham pronounced sentence upon them.
5292. These wor~s are written in the presence of many Jews who are around me; nor do I doubt but that Abraham , 'also is present. . For the Jews are nowJntent ~~he same thing J J J as_they were durinO' life;8.s I can confirm by many testifica tions, words, and representations. But this is superfluous; th!!y will still tur!U!:ll things into han~ies. Yet it is not in the least degree phantasy but a continuous speech, as of one man with another, etc., etc., and this now fQrJifteeR mgnths. 7 That it is no phantasy can be clearly known by those in Swe den, etc., with whom I have conversed in the meantime. It can also be evident from an historical account of my life, if op { portunity be afforded for describing tlus. 5293. Because a man in the body is pel'n1itted to speak with heavenly beings, with angels, with the dead, he is not there~ fore holy; just as J acob was not holy, nor Aaron, nor others, because J ehovah spoke with them; for we read that J ~ah spoke with Adam after the faU [Gen. 3 9 se q .], with Cain [Gen. 49 seq.], IlIry, with the serpent [Gen. 314 ]. It can by no means be concluded from this that they are holy above others. Nothing holy results from the fact that it has been granted me to speak with angels, both good and evil, and I' cannot
6
1

Luke 1619 6eq. As to the time when this passage was written,

--- --

-- ---

s~044

and 5314.

304

III Ad. 3101-3103

EXODUS XXXII: 1

[5~94-97

claim the least thing to myself on this account. But of these matters we shall speak elsewhere, God Messiah granting. s

5294. What the text signifies in the most interior and inmost sense can be evident in general from the signification of this people [drawn] from that Egyptian captivity, which was spoken of above. For the Egyptian captivity signifies-but here it repre sents-the spiritual captivity of the church. Thus the introduc tion into the land of Canaan is the introduction of the sons of the church into the kingdom of God Messiah. Moses, therefore, rep resents the Messiah who both leads his sons out of spiritual cap tivity, and will so lead them. Hence Moses' delay in mount Sinai represents the delay prior to the coming of God Messiah to judg ment. 5295'1 So now this people, being of such a character, represents ~hat-:wm ha pen ab?ut the time of thi a~~ent; that is to say, that, awaiting in vain the Messiah whom in mind they- antici ate, they will choose anothe;-;h-;; sh;ifj;troduc; them-:-being those who~ they call Messiah; for in the last time, many Christs will come, as ( is foretold [in Matthew M24J. As to what kind of a Messia~is then chosen by them, this also is indicated by the Egyptian calf; -.) anatnarthiS-ist~~il,they cannot d~ny. Th~hjs devil will ~s~ do IE.ir~c:les can be evident from the miracles of the < gyptian magicians, whom they now worshipped because they had done miracles at that time. / 5296. Thus the forty years [of their wand~ring] signify the whole time; and the present incident comes to pass on the last da , six weeks making forty-two days. In this way is foreannounced what will take place on the last or fortieth day; for after this will come the holy week. But this representation continues in what follows even to their entrance into the land of Canaan. The last day is what is called" the day of visitation" (verse 34). 5297. Thus then are these words understood, namely, that they will say to Aaron, that is, to the priests, Make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of hi'm; see also verse ~3. Others also will speak in like manner who turn their mind to the day of the last judgment and await it so long
Nos. 5299-93 are cited by the Author in the Index to his Memombilia, S.v. Judaei. See Table of Contents.

III Ad. 3104-3114

305

5~98-5301]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

that they think their waiting to be vain. Therefore the fly in this way to Egyptian ods, that is, to thej;k.vil, that he may intro duce them, introduce them namely, to such things s the 10..YEL! self. and~ the world ersuade them to, these being the gglden [ c~s which are adored by those who think they have waife III vain for the day of judgment or the day of visitation. 5298. [And Aaron said unto thern, Tear off the earrings of gold, which are in the ears of your wives, of your son.Y, and of your daughters, and bring thern unto rne. Therefore all the people tore off the earrings of gold which were in their ears, and brought thern unto Aaron] , vs. ~, 3. From these words it is evident enough that Aaron could offer no pretext save a lie, as though he had not been the author of the crime. This is evident from verse ~4, and still more from verse ~5, where we read that Aaron had made the people loose, etc. 5299. That each one of them worshipped earrings as gods, so that they carried in their ears the gods whom t~adored, can be evident from Genesis 35\ where we read that Jacob buried under an oak" all the gods of the stranger [which were in their hands], and the earrings which were in their ears"; see the passage and the notes there. So each one now worshipped the Egyptian god, and obeyed him, the ear signifying obedience. Thus each one was an idolater, even outwardly as he was in heart, for he carried his idol in his ear. Therefore, from their individual idols it was now permitted them to make one single idol; for as their nature was, such also was it permitted them to be, the general being like the parts. There was merely a reduction of the parts into a general, or of the religion of each individual into a common religion. Un der the leadership of Aaron, the confession of all [was centered] in the calf, because such was the confession of each individual. Therefore, in verse 4, THE CALF IS CALLED NOT GOD BUT THEIR
GODS.

5300. That their sons also carried [these earrings], is likewise evident. 5301. It is said, Tear off, because they did not wish to give them up. Whether the heads of families also gave theirs up is not stated. If not, then they kept them. In any case, they were the leaders,9 it being they who tore them off. Thus they urged to this
[Crossed off:] for their sons and daughters, etc., were innocent.

306

III Ad. 3115-3Ul

EXODUS XXXII:

~-4

[530~-04

rr

unspeakable crime even those who were innocent. Hence it was the leaders whose was the shame, and not the children and those who were below the years of discretion or judgment. Therefore it is said in the text: Tear off, and by another interpreter'! Rush ing in, take off. Thus is described the violence of the priest who gave these orders, and of the fathers who carried them out. '"'5302. From this, now comes an understanding of what will come to pass o~h~ last day; for the earrings signify not earrings but the obed~ce of thei!..love~, beinO" loves of the world, gold here signifying those wicked loves which they _set on lucre, on gold. Thus, in the~ltimate sense, earri~gs signify the obedi~n-c-;;; wJikh they ive to the devil who is their leader; for, as he was the insti ga or then, so a so is he now, it being by' means of the J~ws es e ciall that he attem ts to destro the king om of od Messiah. ~s to how he makes this attempt by' means of the Jews, and how by means of t~~ad the Roman Sc 00 and also by means of others, this, God Messiah granting, could be more fully described \ Vif the resent were the lace for this. 5303. [And he took from their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, and made it a molten calf. And they said, These are thy gods, 0 Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt], vs. 4. That Aaron fashioned this calf, and thus, that he told a lie in saying that the calf had come out such from the fire (verse ~4), can here be evident; for we read that he fashioned it with a graving tool; thus he carved it. He must needs first cast it into the fire, inasmuch as it consisted of earrings. 5304. Respecting their unspeakable crimes and idolatries, see the whole of Psalm 106 to the ;nd. -There the calf of the present text is called by David "an ox that eateth grass" (Ps. 106 2 ). This was the Egyptian god. 3 Elsewhere an ox, because of the yoke that is placed upon it, si nines servitude. This involves many) \ m stical things, to wit, the reason why the Egyptians worshIpped J an ox, and why this people also were now eager to w-.9rshi it. The explanation is clearly evident, to ~vit, becauseJ:h~ so often desired

---

Namely, Tremellius.

The Hebrew

p~~

involves the idea of force or

violence. 2 Palaestra. , From this point on, the paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.

III Ad.

3U~-31~7

307

5305-07]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

to }"eturn to the Egyptian servitude, as shown above [chap. 163 1, So likewise now, in declaring themselves to be justified by the works of HI the law, tl~yJove the servitllde which...!.h ~l sets before th:m in JJ I effigy, as freedom. Who believes himselLto-.heJTIoreEeetha~~es ~ the natural man who worships himself and the ~~ld? and who"" deems-himselfto be morea servant than does the free man? and yet --::> that ~xaet 0RRosite is lh~e, can be evident from many con siderations, and can be confirmed from the Word of God Messiah. That in the passage cited, David calls this calf" an ox that eateth grass," is because i~s head 1s_ alway:s directed downward; thus it looks to the earth and satiates itself with things earthy. This is also explained in Gen~is, cha ter 3, where.. i~ i~_said to th~ serpent that it should eat dust (verse 14), and to Adam, that he should eat the herb 4 of the field [verse 18], this being said after Adam had been condemned. Hence it follows that grass signifi~ ~Id!.se. 5305. The calf is called a molten calf because it passed through the fire. Thus what are likewise signified are the loves from which this calf comes forth. This is further declared in verse 9l4, to wit, that the calf came from the fire. 5306. [And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and. said, To morrow is a feast to J e hovah. Therefore, on the next day, they rose up in the morning, and offered whole burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and when the people had sat down to eat and to drink, they rose up to play], vs. 5, 6. Here the shameful deeds of this nation are dis covered, namely, that in every form they worshipped the devil whom they thought to have done the miracles in Egypt. 5307. It is well known from chapter 9l0, that in the first pre cept of the Decalogue it is stated that there shall be no other God before the faces of J ehovah (verse 3) ; that they should not make a graven image, or any figure, etc. (verse 4) ; "thou shalt not bow down to them, and thou shalt not worship them; for I J ehovah thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons," etc. (verse 5) ; "thou shalt not take the name of J e hovah thy God in vain," etc. (verse 7) ; "ye shall not make gods of silver or gods of gold" (verse 913 "') .
~ etc., and because they were servants and did ,!!o~v~ree..doJl1'

I}

Herba (herb, grass). This is the same word as we have previously trans lated "grass." * The autograph has" verse 20 "; see n. 4349 note.

30R

III Ad. 3U8-3131

EXODUS XXXII: 5-6

[5308-11

5308. It is also well known that the covenant was entered into by blood, and that the people said, " All that J ehovah hath spoken we will do and hear" (chapter 24 6 7 ) ; and that the covenant was sealed by blood, in that it was a covenant most holy (-ibid., verses 6 and 8), etc., etc. 5309. Yet they now acted against all these precepts. Did they not thus entirely break the covenant so recently entered into? For in chapter 20 we read that there shall not be any other god before the faces of Jehovah (verse 3)-and now there was a calf or ox; that they should not make a graven image or any figure (verse 4) -and now they made a calf with a graving tool, to the end that it might be shown that it was a graven image, and so was entirely contrary to the law of the covenant; they were not to bow down to them and were not to worship them, because J ehovah God is a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons (verse 5)-and now they adored a calf, for which reason the visitation is spoken of in verse 34. They were not to take the name of Jehovah God in vain (verse 7)-and now they called the calf also Jehovah, for Aaron made proclamation, and said, To morrow is a feast to Jehovah. They were not to make gods of silver and gods of gold (verse 23) -and yet they acted directly contrary to this precept which was repeated in this form after the giving of the law. 5310. How then can it ever be denied that they criminally broke a most holy covenant? Did they not then worship the devil? and did not Aaron also, their primate? as may be confirmed by many statements in the present chapter. And yet so high do they lift their heads that they proclaim themselves alone to be the elect. 5311. As to what is merited by the breaking of a most holy covenant, this cannot be unknown to them. Nations which indulged in similar deeds had not entered into any sacred covenant, nor did they have any knowledge of Jehovah. They were in the midst of darkness, while this people was in the midst of light, as can be attested by many facts. And yet the latter condemn gentiles to the infernal regions, and themselves they lift up above the throne of God Messiah. Let them answer for themselves, if they be those who were present," for now there is silence. They
Confer n. 5292.

III Ad. 3132-3143

309

53U-15] gave me

THE WORD EXPLAINED

no other answer than" VVe cannot." Who they were who were around me I know not, but I suppose they were many in num ber. 6

5312. Aaron himself, who later became the high priest, now exercised this function for the first time-but for the devil whom he worshipped. Was he not then utterly unclean even though high priest? and that J ehovah God dwelt in the midst of their unclean ness, is shown in Leviticus 1616 .* Could not, then, that which was utterly unclean represent that which is most holy? and so, could not a representative church exist among those who could never have been the elect? thus, by no means because of themselves but because of the representation of the sons of the true Israel, etc., etc. 7
They wished to weaken this assertion, but to the passage in Leviticus 1616 they could answer nothing. s

5313. J ehovah himself pronounced the sentence, doing this in verses 33 and 34, where are these words: " But J ehovah said unto Moses, He that hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book. Yet go, lead this people into-of which I spake unto thee (he does not say "the land," but what this signifies I do not know). Behold, mine Angel shall go before thee: but in the day of my visitation I will visit their sin upon them" (verses 33, 34). 5314. This was written on July 8th 1746, Old Style, on which day also I spoke with Abraham, who then enjoined me, among other things, that I should write, that in heaven nothing whatever is done save through God Messiah whom they adore.* 5315. From passages in the Word of God Messiah that have here been adduced, it can be evident that altars, whole burnt offer
This indented passage is not cited by the Author in the Index to 1Ilemorabilia. " In Swedenborg's copy of Schmidius' Bible, this verse is underscored. 1 The second half of n. 531fJ is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in margin. S This indented paragraph is not cited by the Author in the Index to Memorabilia. "This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to Memorabilia, s.v. Abrahamus, and Domiwus. See Table of Contents. his the his his

310

rn

Ad. 3144-3150

EXODUS XXXII: 5-6

[5816-18

ings, peace offerings, feasts, eating together and so forth, had been matters of observance in Egypt also, and were likewise in use among the Egyptians. Thus the institution of them as described above was nothing else than an emendation of errors that had crept in; for, that Abel had built altars, and also Noah and Abra ham and J acob, is well known. Hence it can be clearly evident that in primitive worship, even from the beginning of the world, nothing else was signified by worship truly divine than God Mes siah and his kingdom; and that He wouId be the All in all; and that He is justice, etc., etc. But, and this indeed is evident, the devil continually lays claim to the kingdom and thinks himself to be lord of heaven. Hence true religion is now adulterated. Hence also idolatries, etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc., etc. 5316. Moreover, it is well known to everyone that in addition to the sacrifices, of which we read in the Divine \V ord, there had also been altars, temples, perpetual fires, incense or frankincense, etc., among the Greeks and Romans, each and all of which in the primitive church, when this church was still an infant and virgin, had looked to God Messiah and to none other. This, moreover, must needs be implanted in human minds that are not so perverted as they are when religion has fallen into decay; for that some image of Him, and, consequently, of heaven, exists in every single object of the universe, is a most evident truth. Wherefore, they who seek the kingdom of God Messiah are in the very order of the old creation and of the new. 9 5317. But when evil or sin arose, then man began to look down ward and to himself, and wished to derive to himself the kingdom of God Messiah; for, as shown elsewhere, everyone who is led by the love of self lays claim to heaven, and if only the bridle to his cupidity be loosened, he wishes to be supreme, etc., etc. This is latent in the least spark of pride; for if opportunity is given, then from a little spark arises a great conflagration. Hence, then, it is, that power in heaven and on earth belongs to God Messiah who rules and governs the universe from love, etc., etc. 5318. [And Jehovah said unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people, which thou b1'oughtest out of the land of Egypt, hath
[The following unnumbered paragraph is here crossed off by the Author:] But when evil or sin arose, all things were perverted, and instead of men look ing to the Kingdom of God, they look

III Ad. 3151-3158

311

THE WORD EXPLAINED

corrupted itself], vs. 7. Here it must first be observed that God Messiah now called the people Moses' people, for he says, thy people; and [that he says] that Moses had led it forth out of Egypt, when yet elsewhere it is said that J ehovah himself led it forth out of Egypt. When making his entreaty, however, Moses calls the people Jehovah's people, and says that Jehovah led it forth 1 (vs. 11). 5319. In regard to the people corrupting itself, it must first be observed that this people was not at all in accord with the harmony existing in the heavenly choir, which latter carried these repre sentations to God Messiah, in accordance with perfect order, as the reader may see above [n. 4907 seq.]. For in the beginning of creation man was made such that his faculties were in entire correspondence with heaven. Thus he was made a heaven and a kingdom of God Messiah in little effigy. After the fall, God Mes siah continually labored to restore this order in man, as is clearly evident from chapter 19 4 - 6 , and thus to restore the image of God which consists in such order, that so the people might be in entire correspondence with the choir of angels, that is to say; that its faculties might correspond with their classes, etc., etc. There fore, as the body is the representation of the things existing in the natural mind, and the natural mind of the things existing in the intellectual mind, and so forth; so now the purpose was that man from being external and natural might become internal or heavenly. 5320. But since this is effected by combats and victories, and thus by temptations, therefore they were frequently led into temp tations, and, in the present case, into a temptation of the lightest kind. Seeing, however, that the people did not bear temptation, because inwardly it was utterly corrupt, and because in these temp tations it worshipped the devil, there now appeared to be slight hope that it could be rendered into a priestly kingdom [chap. 19 6 ], that is to say, that order could be restored in this people. For now they worshipped the devil, not by murmurings as before, but actually. From this actual effect, the order [within them] must needs be manifested and [the people] be the more destroyed. Therefore God Messiah was then separated from this people, al
l [The following unnumbered paragraph is here crossed off by the Author:] In regard to the people corrupting itself, it must be observed that God 1\1essiah continually labored that He might perfect this people, that is to say, that the more interior of them might correspond to, and be like [the heavenly choir).

III Ad.

3159-316~

EXODUS XXXII: 7
most without hope. This then is wl~at he says: The people hath corrupted itself. 5321. But because God Messiah never withdraws his mercy and grace so long as man [lives], and so long as any hope whatsoever can remain, and even if he foresees that no hope does remain, he still sustains the man and continually brings aid, so that the man can never excuse himself; 2 seeing that he did not will to cast the people off, and this for the reason just spoken of, and be cause of Abraham, as stated above [n. 5~84]; therefore, he did not will to give to the devil this people now separated from him self, that so it would be without any hope. This is confirmed later on, in that while he indeed willed entirely to remove this people, yet he did not will this. Therefore, he infused Moses with such affection, that the latter made entreaty, as is plainly evident from what follows, from verse 10 on. 5322. Lest this should come to pass and the people perish when God Messiah separated himself from it, therefore he set Moses over it, as a head over a body; and although the body was corrupt, yet, lest it should therefore come to entire ruin, he sus tained this head, that is to say, Moses. This is the reason why such grace was now shown to :Moses. But of Moses, yet more will be seen later. 5323. From the above now flows in a continuous series, all that follows; and, in the present verse, the fact that God Messiah calls this people Moses' people and says that Moses had led it forth out of Egypt. From this then, it is evident that Moses is now taken as the head, that is to say, as the leader who led them forth from the external captivity in which they had been in Egypt; and thus that the people is called his people. \lVhen, however, it is spiritual captivity that is meant and represented, then the people is not called Moses' people but the people of J ehovah God, and also the true Israel. Therefore, it was by this consideration also that Moses moved God Messiah to mercy (verse 11). 5324. [They have turned back suddenly from the way which I commanded them: they have made them a molten calf, and 'have adored it, and have sacrificed unto it, and said, These are thy gods,
2 Written lengthwise in the margin of the autograph, from the middle of n. 5319 up to this point, is the following note: "These points must be well ob served, for on them depends what follows."

III Ad. 3163-3171

313

53~5-~6]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt], vs. 8. They turned back suddenly from the Tvay. That they did this suddenly is evident, fo~ the covenant had been ratified, etc., before Moses had gone up the mountain for the second time. Moreover, they did it from so slight a cause that it broke out spontaneously, and it was as though they had been held by a bridle when held to the worship of God Messiah.

o Israel,

5325. But I was asked by those who are around me-and that they were Jews,3 this I was able to know from many cir cumstances, besides the fact that they themselves confessed it; I was asked why-since it was foreseen by God Messiah that they would faH, and since it was seen that they were of such a nature--why they were admitted into temptation. I answered: To the end that from being natural men they might be rendered spiritual, and that no other means is possible if man is to be reformed or regenerated; that such [a struggle] is continually going on in the man whom God Messiah wills to draw to heaven; and that they should see that they were of such a char acter, and so were inexcusable! Asked why it was permitted that they should actually fall, and so should be separated, I answered: Because the worship of God Messiah could not have been commingled with the worship of the devil; which would have been the case, since they retained these things in their mind; for which reason, those things existed which are spoken of in Leviticus 16 16 , namely, that the tent dwelt in the midst of their uncleanness. It is now added that in this way they could represent the true Israel or the internal man, whatsoever their own nature. 5
5326. From the way which 1 commanded them. The way is every means to salvation, that is, to God Messiah. Therefore the way was the Law laid down in mount Sinai. The way is order itself from which they had now turned back, respecting which matter, see above [n. 5307 seq.]. In the supreme sense, the way is God Messiah. Consequently, it was from his kingdom that they turned
3 Confer n. 5292. This sentence is written in the margin with a sign shuwing its place of insertion. This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his 1I'Iemol'ubilia, s.v. .Judaei, Peccatum, Tentatio. See Table of Contents.

314

III Ad.

$17~-3176

EXODUS XXXII: 8-9

[53~7-30

back. Those turn back from the way who do not look to God Messiah in all things, and do not refer all things to the kingdom of God Messiah, such as every celestial, spiritual, and natural thing, as stated above [no 5316]; for the true way of the human mind is continually to suffer itself to be led by God Messiah, and so to be led to his kingdom, etc., etc. 5327. The way from which they turned back is now described, to wit, that they made them a molten calf, which was against the first precept of the Decalogue; that they adored it and sacrificed unto it, contrary to the second precept; that they proclaimed it, this being the last act and the fulfiIIment of their evils. 5328. Their saying Israel, and meaning themselves, was an evil thing, for they were anything but Israel, that is to say, anything but wrestlers. Thus the name of Israel was blasphemed, as had been the name of J ehovah (verse 5). 5329. [And Jehovah said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stitfnecked people], vs. 9. The above is now confirmed, for we read, I have seen this people. In Jehovah God, " to see" is to foresee, and, indeed, to have in His presence from eternity to eternity. Thus, He saw their inmosts, that in their heart they adored the devil. Therefore, lest the two worships be commingled, as stated above [n. 53~5], it was permitted the devil to seduce them. For now, in mount Sinai, sacrifices also had been rightly instituted, and He foresaw that thus the worships would be commingled; therefore, as said above [n. 53~O], He willed that they should be separated by actuality. That sacrifices had been instituted in mount Sinai, at the very time when the people were thinking of the Egyptian calf, can be evident; and as soon as the law was inscribed on the tables, they were actually adoring this calf. Had the two worships been commingled, the people would have been lukewarm, and so would have been spewed out [Apoc. 3 16 ]. It was better, therefore, that they be altogether cold, as is evident from other sayings of God Messiah. 5330. And, behold, it is a stitfnccked people. To be stitf necked is to be so contumacious that one does not suffer onself to be restrained. In respect to those who are natural or rather ani mal men, they must first be put under the yoke, being like an ox when put under the yoke before it becomes accustomed to the plough. Such men set liberty in license. They think that to be III Ad. 3177-3186 315

5331-33]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

liberty which is slavery, nor in such state do they perceive other wise. Therefore, a people with this false and imaginary liberty, which is servitude, must be put under yoke. This the heathen also knew, and they taught it with the utmost clearness. 5331. This, then, was foreseen, namely, that they could not have borne the yoke of the law. Still less could they have borne the internal law, it being impossible for this to come until the ex ternal man with his concupiscences has first been subjugated. Hence the people is now called stiffnecked, meaning that they could never be subjugated and so come to true faith. 5332. When the loves of self and the world have been subju gated, then for the first time can men have the sensation of liberty; for, being then affected by heavenly love, they regard the loves of self and the world no otherwise than as vile things of service, be cause they regard them as damnations. Nor do they more freely shun anything than such loves, which they then for the first time consider as hatreds. That it is affection which gives that which is called freedom, can be evident from an indefinite number of con siderations. For what we love, that we are' drawn to, freely and spontaneously, etc., etc. Affection rules the will. Therefore will and affection are one and the same thing, as it were. Affection is love continued. Hence, what the will is, or what the affection, that is to say, what the love is, can be seen from its actuality. Act or actuality has the effect that the love is impressed and becomes second nature, as it is called, a nature which is born from habit. Hence is formed the disposition, and this passes over to the off spring under the name of inclination. Thus it passes over into the seed and so into the posterity. The latter must be emended, and this is done with the greater difficulty in proportion as there has been the more of actuality with the parents. Yet this is variously tempered during the state of conception and gestation with the mother, etc., etc. 5333. [ Now, therefore, permit me, that mine anger may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: for I will malce thee into a great nation], vs. 10. Who will not marvel that Je hovah says to Moses permit me, as though it rested with Moses to permit; and also that he says, that mine anger may wax hot, when yet there is never any anger in J ehovah God, nor any affection, he being justice and love; and, furthermore, that he willed, as it

316

III Ad. 3187-3191

EXODUS XXXII: 10

[5334-35

were, to allure Moses to consent by promising him that he would make him into a great nation. Indeed, God Messiah does not con sume anyone, this being something that cannot be predicated of God Messiah; for he is pure and holy love, and in love is con tained justice. It is from justice that he punishes; but he then looks' to the end which is the salvation of him whom he punishes. Thus in the justice, that is to say, in the punishment, is love, etc., etc.; for evil is turned into good. 6 Thus the evil is not evil, but, in respect to the end, it is good. This can be evident from many considerations, and can be illustrated by examples. Some men affect evil and desire it for a good end, etc., etc. What is meant here, however, is the justice of the law, not the justice 7 whereby man is justified or sanctified. Thus, nothing that is said in this verse is applicable to Jehovah God. 5334. It is clear, therefore, that the words are thus expressed in the external sense in order that the human understanding may comprehend them; otherwise it would never comprehend them. But in the supreme sense, these same words are not at all of this character, for they are then separated from the idea which man forms concerning things that he does not comprehend. Things purely spiritual and celestial are inexpressible, there being no words whereby they can be expressed. What then shall we say of things divine or infinite, etc., etc. 5335. If there is to be speech concerning J ehovah God, it is necessary that things be expressed, as it were, according to human understanding which, though they are not in J ehovah God, still exist in man-when the man is such that Jehovah God can have mercy upon him. Such things are very commonly expressed by "the faces of Jehovah," to wit, that he looks upon men or turns his faces to them. On the other hand, when the man is such that he cannot have mercy upon him except universally, he is said to turn his faces away. This is seen in the Benediction [Num. 6 25 ], etc., etc. Thus, when God Messiah turns his face away, then tollows all that is stated in the text, in that his anger is said to wax hot and to consume them, etc. Such consequences neces sarily follow when he turns himself away, that is, when he does
What is here said concerning love, justice, and punishment, is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin. 7 or righteousness; see n. 4795 note.

III Ad.

319~-3198

317

5336-37]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

not continually guard man; for were he to loosen the reins in the slightest degree, the devil would at once tear man asunder, as the reader may see stated above [no 4033, 4353]. It is the same with these expressions as with the predication concerning God Messiah, that he slew man, as, for instance, the sons of Judah [Gen. 38 7 , lO J, and the Egyptians [Exod. U 29 ], etc., though it was the de stroyer who did this [ibid. vs. fl3]. 5336. Pure love, however, can never do ought else than will to save the entire human race and to guard it from the assault of the devil. This necessarily flows from pure love in accordance with a proposition made this day to certain angels who were not good, and who, nevertheless, were forced to answer from the truth; see below at the sign )(.8 Thus in justice is contained punishment; and though this is never regarded by pure love as damnation or evil but as salvation or good, as stated above, n. 5333, yet it ap pears otherwise. That nevertheless there will be condemnation, arises from another source, the cause whereof the reader may see in various preceding passages. 9 5337. Since, therefore, in pure love, that is, in God Messiah, is universal mercy, and nevertheless he saw this people to be of such a character that he could not but turn his face away from them, and thus deliver them to the devil to be consumed, it follows that he granted to Moses to use this expression, namely, that he would "permit" him, and this when Moses was in the appearance that he would destroy them. But it flows from universal love that he
8 The reference is undoubtedly to pages at the end of the present Codex, see n. 4477 note. This Codex, like Codex 60 (see n. i2531 note), before being used for the present work had been paged, as for an index, A, A 1, etc., B, B 1, etc.; and, as shown by a note on the inside cover page of the Codex, these pages went to M 41. As at present preserved, the last leaf is marked M 98, showing that originally the volume contained 13 additional leaves or 96 pages. It was on these pages that Swedenborg entered the note referred to in the present text, together with other notes of a like character, as is specifically indicated in n. 5384. Subsequently, the pages thus filled with memorabilia were removed to form the first part of the Memorabilia; see our Introduction, pp. 193 and f98. In the present case, there can be no doubt but that the passage marked X is the same as n. 54 of the Memorabilia. Nos. 1-148 of the latter work are missing, but from the Index to the work (s.v. Am01', Salu8, Volunta8), we learn that n. 54 contained" a proposition to spirits, as to whether Pure Love can will anything, save the salvation of all. The answer was, that Pure Love is He who alone wills, and that the salvation of all is what He wills." The second half of this paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.

318

III Ad. 3199-3flOfl

EXODUS XXXII: 10

[5338-4~

could not do this, and, indeed, on account of Abraham, that is to say, on account of the faith of the whole of Israel whom he then saw present from eternity to eternity. 5338. Those who are ignorant of mysteries cannot but wonder why God Messiah said to Moses, Permit me, and this with a promise 1 that he would make him into a great nation. This, however, is understood from what has been said above En. 53~~ ~3], to wit, that he had then set Moses over the people as their head or leader. Thus this people was then placed under his authority, as it were, lest it be delivered to the devil and so be consumed; for Moses was the man with whom He willed to speak and whom He then looked on as their chief. Therefore, in accordance with order, He willed to receive an answer from the prince or head. 5339. But it has many times been demonstrated above as a most manifest truth, and it can be still further demonstrated by manifold experience, that of himself man cannot even think and will the least thing that is not poured in. Thus man speaks and answers nothing whatsoever, save as this is given him or permitted by God Messiah. Hence it was not Moses who permitted, but God Messiah himself by means of Moses; and this from infinite mercy, as stated above [n. 5337]. 5340. That He willed to have an answer from the man, as though it were the man's own, when yet it is not the man's, is a profound arcanum. In man alone is universal order perfected. It is from order that this comes about, and he who does not understand order cannot understand the things which are here declared to be profoundly arcane. 5341. That Moses was not of such a character that it was from mercy, which flows from love, that he made entreaty to avert the destruction of the people, can be evident enough; but that this entreaty, and also Moses' whole answer, was dictated solely by God Messiah, the only Intercessor, this I can swear. When God Messiah intercedes, he infuses faith and a looking to himself, for without faith in God Messiah there is no salvation. 5342. Therefore, what is here presented, is the mystery of intercession, for it is thus that the whole of heaven makes suppliant prayer to God Messiah with bent knees that it may pray for the people. Wherefore, he is driven, as it were, by means of faith,
, [Crossed off:1 as though He wished consent from a man.

III Ad.

3~03-3~09

319

5343-46]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

for he has need of no one, etc., etc.,2 seeing that he possesses the whole of heaven, and has all felicity in himself. It is only by mercy, which comes from love toward the lost human race, that he is actuated, being thus actuated from himself. Still he wills that man shall insist, and thus that he shall be urged, as is evident enough from his Word. This, then, is what is meant by doing violence or pressing into his kingdom by force (see his own words in the Gospel), namely, that his kingdom suffers violence, etc. [Matt. 11 12 ; Luke 16 16 ]. All true faith has this character istic within it, that intercession is made for the entire human race, this being within faith because within love. 5343. [But Moses entreated the faces of J ehovah his God, and said, Wherefore, 0 Jehovah, doth thine anger wax hot against thy people which thou hast led forth out of the land of Egypt with great strength, and with a mighty hand?], vs. 11. Since, then, the entreaty made through Moses to avert the consumption of the people, was the entreaty not of Moses but of God Messiah alone, the Intercessor with Jehovah his Father, nay, of the whole of heaven or of the choir of angels who were then present, it can be evident from the prayers themselves how intercession is made. 5344. Here, in the supreme sense, it is not Moses who is meant, but God Messiah with the choir of angels. Moses could not make entreaty, but he acted as a representative, and this in al most the same way as did Aaron when, as high priest, he interceded for the people, and as did all the other Aarons or high priests; for the speech that was put into Moses' mouth was taken up by the choir of angels and so was carried to God Messiah, it being in this way that the intercession was made. 3 5345. As to how God Messiah intercedes for the entire human race, this can nowhere be more clearly evident than from his prayer [Matt. 69~13] which is called the Lord's Prayer. He who prays this prayer from true faith will perceive the mysteries of the prayer, nay, and also the intercession. 5346. God Messiah prays for the people of the whole earth. Not that J ehovah his Father willed to consume the human race, that is, to condemn it, but that from goodness as well as from
2 This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. 3 This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.

3~O

III Ad.

3~10-3~14

EXODUS XXXII: 11

[5347-49

truth, that is, from love as well as from justice, it is his good pleasure to save the world created by himself by means of the Word, that is, by means of God Messiah and the Holy Spirit. 4 Thus, in its essence, the intercession of God Messiah is his own in tercession, but by means of his one only Son, without whom is no salvation, and without whom, no intercession can avail, whether by angels in the heavens or by man on earth. It was to this end that the Son was born from eternity, and that the whole world, that is, heaven and earth, was created by him. These are the prayers of God Messiah to J ehovah his Father through Moses. It is in this way, therefore, that the inmost and supreme meaning of these words comes to be explained. 534'(1 As touching Moses, being the head of that body or the lea er of that people, he seems to hav~ understood no other than the external meanin of his words; that is to say, he had in mind that people which was stiffnecked, as also are th~re~d JJ leaders at the present day. But there must be a meaning wholly different, an most universal. 5348. That Jehovah God is moved, is a matter that concerns the universe and the very kingdom of God Messiah, as can be con firmed by many considerations both from the divine Essence and from the Word of God Messiah, and also from many other sources which human minds could likewise comprehend, if they did not wish to attach faith merely to such things as sport fallaciously before the external senses. 5349. "To entreat the faces" of anyone, is to turn his mind away from the things which he desires; thus, when he is angry, to turn it from revenge and punishment. In the more interior sense, " to entreat the faces" is to turn the mind away from its affections, and this that it may not inflict punishment on a man; for in the Word of God Messiah faces, properly speaking, are affections, these being called faces because they shine out from the face.. In the inmost sense, " to entreat the faces" is so to bend God Messiah by means of prayers arising from faith that he may have mercy on one; thus, as stated above [n. 5342], to insist, and to bring in violence, as it were. In the supreme sense, " to entreat the faces" is the entreaty for the human race by God Messiah himself to
This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.

III Ad. 3215-3221

5850-53]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

J ehovah his Father whom He bends by intercession and by the in terposition of himself, thus, by justice and merit. Hence the pun ishment of justice is turned into mercy, that is, Jehovah God is appeased. 5350. Universal prayers are prayers such as are read in chap ter 346 , to wit: " J ehovah God, merciful and gracious (of J ehovah God, mercy and grace are predicated), slow to anger (that is, far from revenge and thus from condemning men), and great in good ness and truth." 5351. Wherefore, 0 J ehovah, doth thine anger wax hot against thy people. In the supreme sense, the waxing hot of anger means the punishing of man from truth and thus from justice; but be cause Jehovah is appeased, it means the restoring of man, and this from goodness and love, and thus by means of the Love which be came Justice,5 etc., etc. 6 In the inmost sense, the meaning is con tained in the faith of the supplication to justice itself 1 and, at the same time, to love. Thus the man is restored. This, therefore, comes from God Messiah alone, as frequently stated above. In the prayers there must be faith. 5352. It is said thy people. In the external sense, this people was not the people of Jehovah God, as is clearly evident from verse 7 above. " The people of J ehovah God" is every people in the universe that is a true Israel. This can be meant in no other way by God Messiah, before whom all and single things are present from eternity to eternity; before whom all things are present from the first day of creation to the last. Can one understand any thing else by thy people than the people Israel in the universe? This also must be present in the faith of the suppliant to God Mes siah; for from that which is most single, He understands all things in the universe, and thus from that which is universal, things most singular-as can be evident from many considerations. 5353. Which thou hast led forth out of the land of Egypt with great strength, and with a mighty hand? Out of Egypt, that is, out of the house of captivity, as Egypt is called, and so away from
See n. 5333 note. This first part of the paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. The meaning of the Latin text is obscure. In sensu intimo est conten tum [the Latin Editor reads, contra tum] supplicationis, in fide, ad Ipsam Justitiam (In the inmost sense, the content of the supplication is in faith [directed] to justice itself).

39l9l

III Ad.

39l~~39l~7

EXODUS XXXII: 11

[5354-57

captivity by the devil, it being this captivity that is meant in the inmost sense. No other captivity can be meant by God Messiah, in that it is this servitude and captivity from which He has de livered man. It is said, thou hast led forth out of this captivity, differently than in verse 7; for the leading forth of that people was a representation of the deliverance of man in the universe from spiritual captivity. 5354. With great strength, and with a mighty hand. Great strength is power, and a mighty hand is force or might. As to what that power is, and what that force or might, which led Israel out of damnation, in the supreme sense it is God Messiah, in that he became Justice. Consequently, he it is who is called great strength and a mighty hand. 8 In the inmost sense, it is saving faith. As to what must be the nature of such faith if there is to be great power and force or might, this will be described else'where, God Messiah granting. 5355. Moses could not have led Israel out of spiritual or eternal captivity by this force and by this hand, he not being of such a character as to have any power by faith, for he merely represented the king and priest of Israel. It was the representation of Moses that the choir of angels took up and thus carried away to God Messiah. A man who shall be such as to be strong by faith will not be in externals; that is to say, he will not see the miracles, the loud and the pillar, this being done with the external senses. But he will see the miracles and the rest, not with the external eyes but inmostly, that is to say, with saving faith. He it is who is strong. 5356. Moses was strong, not by himself but by his representa tion of the king and priest of the people Israel; for he now repre sented both. He was leader or king, and was also priest, it being he who inaugurated Aaron and thereby exercised the office of priest. It was this representation that was carried up by the choir of Israel, being carried even to the inmost angels with whom was faith in God Messiah. In this way Moses had strength, and this from the eternal ordinance of Jehovah God. 9 5357. [Wherefore should the Egyptians say, saying, Into evil did he lead them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to con sume them from upon the faces of the earth? Turn back from the
Reading manus for 'Vis (force) which is probably a slip. The latter half of this paragraph is marked" Obs. Obs."

III Ad.

3~~8-3~35

3~3

5358-60]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

\I

wrath of thine anger, and be moved with repentance over the evil for thy people], vs. l~. Wherefore should the Egyptians say. By the Egyptians are meant the impious, that is, all evil men in the entire globe. And since impious and evil men are the crew of the devil, and it is the devil who arouses the malice of their heart, therefore, when intercession is made by God Messiah, then by the Egyptians is meant the devil. 5358. Hence the words, should say, saying, Into evil did he lead them forth. To lead one into evil is to lead him away from O'DDd, this being the characte.ritic of the impious and ih.e devil; but to lead one from evil into ood is the characteristic of J ehovah God, it being in thi;-;;Y that man is le r~Qm damnation to heaven. For since it was foreseen from ~ternity that t viI would de ceive man~ an-d therefore, that from justice man would come into damnation, thus, that he would be led FROM GOOD INTO EVIL; there-\ fore, at the same time, it w~~ also foreseen that G~<! Messiah ;;uld \ tram le u .2.n the ~ o...!~he seryent [Gen.~], and so would 1 dr~w m~n away fro~ damnation, that is, wol!ld -.draw hi!!!-FROl\1 EVIL INTO GOOD. Hence the meaning of the phrase, Wherefore/ ~ld the Egyptians say, saying, Into evil did he lead them forth? is now evident. 5359. To slay them in the mountains, that is, in the mystical sense, to condemn those who have faith in God Messiah, mountains being the things which saving faith involves, thus every doctrine of true faith. In the supreme sense, however, God Messiah is the mountain, and also the mountains; for all holy mountains, both in the wilderness and in the land of Canaan, such as Horeb, Sinai, etc., signified God Messiah; see above [n. 466~-3]. To slay them in the mountains would be contrary to Jehovah God himself, being contrary to that infinite goodness which prevails over truth; that is, contrary to love which prevails over the justice of punishing man even to eternal death. 5360. To consume them from upon the faces of the earth, that is, to condemn the faithful also, being those who have faith in God Messiah. This was against justice and love, that is, against infinite truth and goodness. 1
" The words between the asterisks are emphasized by "Obs., Obs." written in the margin. 1 This paragraph is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.

3914

III Ad.

3~36-3M4

EXODUS XXXII: 13

[5361-64

5361. Turn back from the wrath of thine anger, that is, from the just punishment; see above '(n. 5349]. It is said turn back be cause he punishes from truth, and restores from infinite goodness. 5362. And be moved with repentance over the evil for thy people. In what has preceded, we read that Jehovah repented [Gen. 6 6 ,7]. Not that he did repent, for he foresees and pro vides for all and single things from eternity to eternity; but, be cause he turns back, as explained above '(n. 5361], therefore, it is also said that he repents. Here, by repentance is meant mercy, for it cannot be said that one says to Jehovah God that he should repent, but that he should have mercy, as in chapter 3319 Hence, by repenting is meant both turning back and having mercy. By repentance is also meant that he pardons the evil. In the supreme sense, therefore, it is an act of intercession, namely, that he turns back from justice and comes to infinite mercy and grace. Here, as above, by people is meant all Israel in the entire globe.
WHAT ABRAHAl\!, ISAAC, AND JACOB ARE IN THE MYSTICAL SENSE.
2

5363. [Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou swarest by thine own self, and spakest unto them, I ZfJill multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, that they may inherit it for ever], vs. 13. 'Vhat is meant in the internal sense by Abra ham, Isaac, and J acob, must now be explained, for this trine oc curs very frequently. In the inmost sense, it is not the persons who are meant but those essentials of life which were in them, that is to say, which constitute them. Without these, man is not a man after the manner of a spirit who can enter into heaven. Man's predication as a man comes from his internal quality, such being the man. Thus Abraham was like any other man, but predication is made concerning him from the gift which he received from God Messiah. By these men, therefore, are meant those who are gifted with a like faculty [as they]. 5364. For the rest, there might have been many on earth who were more holy than Abraham and Isaac-that they were more holy than Jacob can be doubted by none; but these men are men
2 This heading is taken from the inside front cover of the MS. of Contents.

See Table

III Ad. 3245-3254

325

5365-67]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

tioned in the present text because they represent those in the church of God Messiah who are saved, and, indeed, all three classes of them, it being many men who are meant, nay, innumerable. 5365. I do not wish to detract anything from Abraham, but since it has been granted me to know that others may be more powerful than he, I cannot be silent on this matter; even in the Word of God Messiah, Melchisedek, king and priest of Solyma, is set above Abraham [Gen. 14 18- 2 ]. But since there must be men who shall represent those in the church, in heaven, and in the king dom of God Messiah, who are distinguished generally into their degrees or classes, therefore, God Messiah has deigned [to take] these names because they are the best known in His Word, and be cause they were the fathers of the people which represented Israel in the church. Therefore, these men are now mentioned, but it is things essential, abstractly from the men, that are meant. 5366. By Abraham is signified saving faith, that is, faith and obedience. And because saving faith is not possible without love, love being the life and soul of faith, inasmuch as men believe be cause they love, therefore God Messiah is called the Love of Abraham. 5367. By Isaac are meant those who believe but do not love, that is to say, faith not conjoined with love or affection. Their believing comes from various causes, whether it Obe that they have been so persuaded from infancy, or that they have believed later by reason of persuasion, or by means of knowledges which also in duce belief, or by means of an inteUectual gift, in that they per., ceive that God Messiah is the Director of heaven and earth inas much as it cannot be otherwise, thus perceiving this from a pure intellect and not from an intellect trained by art, that is to say, not by means of worldly philosophy which- turns minds away from the faith. In the primitive church, when worldly philosophy had not yet seduced minds, and thus closed the way to this faith, there were many such men. These constitute the second class in all lands, in the church, in heaven, and in the kingdom of God Messiah. To them, God Messiah is not Love, as He is to those who are called Abrahams or sons of Abraham, but Fear; for they fear Him. Hence also comes the fearing of God in place of the loving of God. Therefore we read of Isaac, that God Messiah is called his Fear [Gen. 31 42 ], they being in fear who believe and do not love. This 3~6 III Ad. 39l55-S9l58

EXODUS XXXII: 13

[5368-69

fear is almost like that of children toward their parents whom they venerate indeed and worship, but do not love. This faith is called [saac, and they who have such faith are called sons of Isaac. As compared with saving faith, this faith is in the next lower degree. By this degree men come to the superior or inmost degree, for which reason, therefore, this degree is called the more interior degree. 5368. As regards J acob, these are they who believe and do not believe. The question as to whether they will have faith, they ex amine into on the basis of happiness of life, wealth, and like things which they call blessings. When blessed by God Messiah in this way, then they acknowledge him; otherwise they do not acknowl edge him. Such men are prone to the worship of other gods, if only they seem to receive from them happiness of life and their own desires, just as was the case with J acob, of whom this is said many times, as in Genesis ~820-22 and elsewhere. Such men suffer themselves to be led by the affections of the natural mind; and these affections would hold dominion in their minds unless the mercy of God Messiah were continually bending them from the way of error, and drawing them, as it were, to himself. This is done by terrors. Therefore, to J acob, God Messiah was Terror or Lightning, but not Fear; for they do not fear as did Isaac, etc. This is the third class, and those belonging thereto may be called minds mediate be tween natural minds and spiritual, those of the former class, that is, the Isaacs, being spiritual minds, and the Abrahams, celestial minds. 5369. But since J acob's character was such as it has been de scribed-and in the Prophets, by whom the most accurate distinc tion is made between J acob and Israel, others than Israel are meant by J acob; and more especially since this people now represented J acob; therefore, Moses does not mention him here, but says Israel. Very rarely, if ever, do we find it said in the 'Vord of God Messiah, " Abraham, Isaac, and Israel." 3 As to what Israel signifies, this the reader may find sufficiently explained in many preceding pas sages. They are those who struggle and fight with the devil, that is to say, who are tempted and so are led forth out of captivity or Egypt.
3

These three names occur together only in the present text and in I Kings

1836 and 2 Chron. 2918 and 306.

III Ad.

3~59-3~67

3~7

5370-7~]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

5370. Because it is from faith that men are God Messiah's servants, as they are called here; and because there are three classes or three degrees of faith; therefore, in order that they may be dis tinguished, they can be conceived of as follows: [1] Faith of the inmost degree is saving faith which is living faith or faith from love to God Messiah. [~] Faith of the next lower degree, being Isaac, is intellectual faith, the nature of which is evident to some extent from the description given above [no 5367], namely, that the men of this class are they who believe and do not love. When let into temptations, such men make rsistance. That is not called intellectual faith which comes from worldly philosophy and thus from the rational mind, but that which comes from the intellectual mind. [3] Faith of the third degree can be called Imaginative Faith, for men of this class suppose that they have faith, but when they make examination, they have so little that it is hardly any, for they fluctuate like the waves of the sea according to the wind. Such men do not resist in temptations, etc. But in respect to these distinctions of faith, I have as yet received little light. 5371. It must further be observed that these three degrees exist in men who are endowed with saving faith, but with the distinction that intellectual faith is under the rule of saving faith, and imagi native faith under the rule of intellectual faith; for they follow each other in exactly the same way as do all things that are in order-of which matter we have spoken here and there above. When, therefore, these degrees are ruled and are obedient accord ing to perfect order, then they are said to be servants of Jehovah God.

5372. To whom thou swarest by thine own self. It is sometimes said that Jehovah gave confirmation by an oath, meaning, in the proximate sense, the confirming of his saying in a human manner. Consequently, it is the confirmation of those things which Jehovah God foresees and provides for from eternity. Therefore," to swear 4 by oneself" can mean nothing else than to confirm that which comes from J ehovah God, and hence all that comes from infinite truth and goodness, or justice and mercy. Jehovah God can swear and confirm nothing else, seeing that there is nothing else save what is from him.
The autograph has confirm.
3~8

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[5373-75

5373. What he sware, that is, what he confirmed, can thus be nothing else than what law and order dictates, he being Law itself because he is order. Justice persuades to the damnation of man, mercy to his restoration by means of God Messiah. Therefore, He cannot confirm anything that is contrary to himself; nor, consequently, can He confirm the choosing of one nation above another, to wit, the posterity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob above all nations, which latter are equally his creatures or creations, and are equally redeemed by the blood of the Messiah. Hence it can be evident that all that is said of Abraham, Isaac, and J acob is a representative, and that what is meant is universal, namely, faith, etc., etc., as stated above [n. 5363 seq.]. So likewise in all other cases. 5374. As to its being said that some are the elect above others, this is true, for such was the good pleasure of J ehovah God. Yet, he who does not believe and see, nay, and perceive, that he is utterly unworthy of so great mercy, and that all mercy is in God Messiah, but ives thoughtJ;o him~ltand his _o~, ab~rs in.-!he entire glQ!>e, etc., etc., can never be among the elect, that is, can never be a character in whom it can be seen that he is an { elect; for such character is infused into men by God Messiah-on which matter, God Messiah granting, the reader may see many particulars at verse 3~. To perceive anything else is destructive of the kingdom of God Messiah, but the other perception is preservative of that kingdom. Let those, therefore, who are of the~ I stem of Judah, and think th~mselveSiJ:one_to be the ele~~ll\\ peoples in the entire O'lobe, so that they wish to exclude them alllet fhemnow JU ge whether they can be counted among the elect. J 5375. I will multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens. As to what is meant by Abraham's seed, this the reader may see above [n. 3~76] ,namely, in the proximate sense, his genuine stem. Thus, by your seed is meant, in the proximate sense, the posterity of Abraham and Isaac from Jacob. In the inmost sense, however, it is faith that is meant, and thus those in the entire globe who are faithful. And because Abraham signifies faith, therefore, he is called the parent of all the faithful in the entire globe. 5 From Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that is to say, from their signification, it can be evident what seed is. It is from this, that seed derives its
, See n. 184 and Gen. 175.

In

Ad.

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5376-80]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

I)

principle; for the one only seed is God Messiah, of whom are born the faithful because of him is born faith. But see what has been said above, concerning the seed of Abraham. 5376. As to His Divine Essence, God Messiah i.j;]le one only seed, that is, the one only Son of Jehovah the Father. As to his ( human n~ture, he is called the seed of the woman [qen. 1]. Be cause-this ~d is holiness itself, hence the faith th~ born there from will be holy. This then is the seed of which Moses says, that J J ehovah declared I will multi Jy your seed. 5377. As the stars of heaven,6 but not, as in sundry passages above, " as the sand of the sea" [Gen. 9l9l 17 , 39l 12 ] or " the dust of the earth" [Gen. 13 16 , 9l8 14 ], which latter expressions have num ber in view, and, specifically, the number of the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and J acob. But to multiply their seed as the stars of_ the heavens me~ns, in a superior and holier sense, [to multiply the faithful in heaven] ; for the faithful in heaven are likfn.edjo .!;ars and, moreover, are called the host of the hea;ens [1 Kings 9l9l 19 , 9l Chron. 1818 , Neh. 9 6 ]. 5378. All this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed. That by the land of Canaan is meant the kingdom of God Messiah, see above [no 477 seq.]. When he says this land, what is meant is heaven in which he is, and from which he intercedes for Israel. 5379. That they may inherit it for ever, that is, may be heirs of his kingdom. In the supreme sense, by for e'Ller, as also by times, such as yesterday, today, etc., is signified eternity. Hence then it is only the faithful who are heirs of the kingdom of God Messiah. This is the final clause because it is the end of all ends and of the whole of creation. 1 To this look all the words that precede, there being nothing that does not look to the kingdom of God Messiah. Wherefore the entreaty is brought to a close thus: That the king dom of God Messiah may come-as in the Lord's Prayer [Matt. 6 10, Luke 11 2 ]. 5380. From the above can be deduced the order of these several expressions, how that they follow each other in the most beautiful order, and look solely to the kingdom of God Messiah to which they have reference. Otherwise, had Israel been slain in the moun~
This is according to the Vulgate and to the Swedish translation. T The words from here to the end of the paragraph are emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.

330

III Ad. 39l96-3310

EXODUS XXXII: 14-15

[5381-83

tains, and consumed 8 from the faces of the earth, the end of cre ation would have perished-which would be contrary to Jehovah God himself. 0 5381. [Wherefore, Jehovah was moved with repentance over the evil which he had spoken to do unto his people], vs. 14. Con cerning the repentance over the evil, see above at verse 1~, to the effect that from justice he condemns man, and from infinite mercy saves him; for justice dictates that the world must perish, but infinite mercy, that it is restored through God Messiah. There fore the evil which he had spoken to do unto his people is dam nation. Now, however, since he has restored man through God Messiah, it is repentance, but repentance understood in the su preme sense. Wherefore, previously [vs. 7] he called Israel Moses' people, but now he calls them his people, it being the people of God Messiah in whom he sees Israel. 5382. [So Moses turned, and went down from the mownt, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written from their two sides; from this side and from that were they written], vs. 15. Moses turned, and went down from the mount. As touching Moses, he could have had no other opinion than that it was he who was praying. Until informed, man knows nought else; nor does he know ought else save at the moment when he is thinking of such things, thinking, namely, that it is not he who can pray in this manner. Spirits know no otherwise save when they think of the matter after being informed. So likewise, Moses could not comprehend otherwise than that it is this people that was meant, and not Israel in the entire globe; for according to the quality of him who prays, such is the understanding of the things contained in the prayer. Therefore, it can be evident enough and to spare, that God Messiah alone prayed, and this not for a single people, still less for this people, but for the whole of Israel. 1 5383. Hence, then, it comes that we read of Moses that he turned, ana went down from the mount. In the external sense, this is understood according to the words themselves. But because there is another meaning within, therefore it is said that he turned, which would not have been necessary save for the sake of a latent meaning within. For Moses had been made the leader of this
Reading consnmeretur, for occidel'etur (been slain) which is plainly a slip. This paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin. 1 This last sentence is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.

III Ad.

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331

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THE WORD EXPLAINED

people--a people which, as yet, must needs have been separated from God Messiah, seeing that they were now adoring a calf and were engaged in dancing, as soon follows [vs. 19] ; and while they are in this act, they can never be otherwise than separated. Then Moses was made their leader that they might not perish, as said above [n. 539l9l-9l3]. Hence we read that Moses turned, that is, turned away from the face of J ehovah God, to the people, and so went down from the mount. By the mount is signified God Mes siah from whom he went down, for in the inmost sense "to turn" and" to go down from the mount" is to turn to such a people and to prefer it to all peoples in the universe. 2 And since Moses per ceived this in a certain way, therefore follow the words concerning Moses which we read later, to wit, in chapter 33, especially verse 13. Moses then doubted as to whether he also would be separated. But for the many particulars, see the text of that chapter and the serIes.
THE TABLES OF THE LAW LAID DOWN IN l\10UNT SINAI; WHAT THEY ARE.
3

. 5384. A nd the two tables of the testimony were in his hand. Concerning the two tables of stone on which the law was inscribed, see above [n. 59170 seq.].4 And now as touching the tables which Moses carried down with him from mount Sinai, these, as having been written by the finger of God, and being here called" the work of God" and" the writing of God" [vs. 16], signify the Law in internals. For the Law in internals is inscribed on everything, there being nothing in the universe that does not have this law in scribed upon it. vVhat thing is there in the universe and in every part of the universe that does not carry order within itself? and
, The last three lines are emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. 3 This heading is taken from the inside of the front cover of the Codex. See Table of Contents. [The following unnumbered paragraphs are here crossed off by the Au thor:] to wit, that in the supreme sense they signify the two essences of God Messiah, the Divine and the Human. For the tables signify the Law. That in the supreme senSe the Law is God Messiah, see above [no 5,"10]. The first table treats concerning his Divine Essence, and the second con cerning his Human Essence; but they are so conjoined that the one [is] the other.

III Ad. 339l4-339l9

EXODUS XXXII: 15

[5385-86

if order, then also law. What thing is there in the universe and in every part of the universe that does not look to the kingdom of God Messiah? and if to the kingdom of God Messiah, then also to God Messiah himself. Therefore, these tables are called the tables of the testimony; and by the tables of the testimony are thus signi fied the Law which was inscribed thereon. As regards man, on him alone does it appear that it is not inscribed, for man is born viler than the brute. See below at the end of this tome [at the sign]

0000000. 5
5385. Because this law was now entirely obliterated and up rooted among this people, it was inscribed on tables that it might appear before their eyes. For the intention was, that from their worship which was magical and diabolical and thus entirely natural, this people might be led to the internal man, and so might learn and comprehend the Law. But because this was vain, seeing that the people had actually fallen into idolatry and so had made void this whole work of God Messiah, therefore it was permitted Moses to break these tables below the mount [vs. 19], and so to wipe away the internal man in the people. For it seems thus to have been decreed that they should become merely a representative church, as follows presently. 5386. Afterwards, however, Moses was commanded to hew out other tables which were the work of Moses [chap. 341 ]. These tables were written on by J ehovah, but the words were those of the external Law which condemns. Hence the words in verse 34.* The same thing, moreover, is signified by the preceding words, M oses turned, and went down from the mount, for " to turn" and " to go down from the mount" is to go from the internal man to the external, thus from good to evil. The contrary is the case with going Up. 6
The reference is to pages at the end of the Codex which were subsequently removed to form the beginning of the Memorabilia,' see n. 5336 note. The pres ent reference seems to be to nos. 39-40 of that work. According to the Index, s.v. Bestia, Ordo, Regeneratio, these numbers show: " That man is viler than the beast; of himself, he does not know the laws of order and society, but must learn them, and then he chooses falses in place of truths, differently than do beasts. Therefore he is to be regenerated." " Opposite the words between the asterisks, being nos. 3336-3338 of the original, is written vertically in the margin: "These points must be well ob served." [The following indented and unnumbered paSsage is here crossed off by the Author, the words in parentheses being doubly crossed:] The things that happened to me now, and previously, when [I wrote} con-

III Ad. 3$30-3339

5387-90]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

The things that happened to me now, and previously, when I wrote concerning the Law laid down in mount Sinai, are stupendous and are such that as yet I dare not reveal them. 7 Therefore Moses now signifies the external Law; 8 and for this reason we read, "Moses and the Prophets" or "the Law and the Prophets"; see the passages. 9 5387. The tables of the Law had been written from their two sides, because they likewise signified those two things, namely, the internal man and the external; but then they signify the external man entirely under the rule of the internal, thus wholly according to order. Afterwards, however, the tables, though inscribed in the same way, had been hewn out by Moses [chap. 34 1 ]. Thus they signified inverted order, for there, it is not said that they were the work of God. 5388. The words must needs have been inscribed by J ehovah, for those are called the works of the law which are in the external or natural man, but those the works of charity which are in the internal or spiritual man. Thus the Law is the same, but changed by reason of the order; the works of charity save, but the works of the law condemn. 1 5389. Moses took this gift with him from mount Sinai, he having then become the leader of that people, and J ehovah God having withdrawn from them, although he remained in the state of representation, as stated above [n. 5Q85], and this for the sake of Israel in the entire globe, for whom God Messiah interceded. Moses, however, prayed solely for that people. Therefore Moses took this gift with him. 5390. The Law in externals entirely destroys the internal Law. The internal Law looks solely to God Messiah, but the external Law, in that it condemns, as said above [n. 4434], looks to the
cerning the Law laid down in mount Sinai, also those which I put for ward (were represented) on the eleventh day of July, 1746, Old Style, are stupendous (and at the same time unutterably wicked; wherefore) they are also such that as yet I dare not reveal them. . T This indented paragraph is not cited by the Author in the Index to his "Memorabilia. [Crossed off:] just as his people signify the representative church. Matthew Il13, Luke 1616, 29, 31. I Opposite this paragraph, the following is written in the margin vertically: "These particulars must be well observed."

334

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[5391-9~

devil; for when the external is separated from the internal, no other can be looked to, seeing that justice is placed in oneself, whatsoever the love. In such a man, the love of the world and self remains, because he still thinks he can be saved by means of him self, that is, can be saved, if only he keeps the Law in externals, as can be seen in this nation from the time of Jacob even to the pres ent day.

5391. [And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables], vs. 16. The ex planation of these words now follows from what has been said just above. As to Moses' character, see what was previously related, to wit, that he had been brought up in the house of Pharaoh [chap. ~10] where magic flourished-and we do not read that he had been instructed in any other place; that he pastured the sheep of Jethro [ chap. 3 1 ] ; that in mount Horeb, when he was eighty years old, he did not yet know who the God of Israel was, as is evident enough from the description there [chap. 3 13 ]. Moreover, he became the head of this people, because the people acknowledged him as their god, it being apparent from verses 1 and ~3 that they attributed to him the power of miracles.
CONCERNING THE PROXIMATE, INTERIOR, l\{ORE INTERIOR, AND INMOST SENSES IN THE WORD OF GOD MESSIAH; AND CONCERNING THE LIKENESSES OF HIMSELF
2

5392. [And when Joshua heard the voice of the people in their shouting, he said unto Moses, The voice of war is in the camp], vs. 17. Now comes the reasoning, as it were, by Joshua and Moses in respect to the clamor which they heard from afar off. Here, however, it must be observed that something mystical lay con cealed in this speech also, though Joshua and Moses had no other understanding of it than the proximate sense of the words, being the sense that at once presents itself before the eyes, this sense being grasped by the interior mind, that is, by the imagination. 3 But every sense of the words of God Messiah is mystical and looks to him.
This heading is taken from the inside back cover page of the Codex. Table of Contents. This sentence is marked" Obs." written in the margin. See

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5393. As to how in general the senses of words ascend in man to the inmost, this can be evident enough from numerous considera tions, if man would but attend to them. As, for example, when we read that seed was cast into sand and hence the work of the sower was vain [Matt. 135- 6 , Mark 4 5- 6 , Luke 8 6 ]. When these words are laid before a farmer, he keeps his whole thought on the land, and at once perceives that when this is sandy nothing will come from it, perceiving this together with many other particulars per taining to the field. Thus the imagination is variously extended with each individual, the variety being according to the compre hension and knowledge of the individual. 5394. The meaning is different with one who is not a farmer. He at once grasps the resultant interior sense, and does not re main in the external sense; for he at once thinks that just as sand produces nothing, being barren earth, so also is it with those who are instructed and brought up whether by masters or parents [and yet do not live accordingly] ; all their knowledges and all that has been said to them and that has happened to them, is of no advan tage. Thus this mari [perceives the words] variously, according to the state of mind in which he then is, and, indeed, in the proxi mate sense,4 according to the applications he makes of the words, whether to men with whom he has been in company, or to ministers and servants, or to himself, or to his pupils, or to his sons; nay, he also applies them to numerous other things. That he will apply the words in this way, can be evident to everyone on slight atten tion to the reflections which he himself makes. Such then are the applications which natural men make, this being natural. 5395. On the other hand, from these same words, the interior or spiritual man grasps in a moment a sense still deeper, being what is called the more interior sense. And he does this by apply ing them to such things as are spiritual and celestial. He per ceives that in the kind of man who is compared to sandy earth, the preaching of the Divine W' ord, and, indeed, the Word itself and every doctrine of faith, produces nothing, but, like seed in barren sand, is at once dried up. He likewise thinks concerning this same matter in different ways, entirely according to the state of his mind at the time, this having a relation to his general state, and accord ing to his faith and his knowledge of the things pertaining to faith.
Reading sensu for statu.

336

III Ad. 3353-3358

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[5396-99

So one man understands the words differently than another, and this with indefinite variety. But of this variety, many things can be said; the present, however, is not the place for this. 5396. The truly spiritual man, however, that is to say, the celestial man who is endowed by God Messiah with saving faith such a man, from himself, and thus, as it were, spontaneously, refers everything to the kingdom of God Messiah, and so to God Messiah himself. Thus he applies these words to faith, that is, as meaning that there are such men, that, howsoever they are taught by God Messiah, yet nothing comes forth; [nay, the teaching] hardly takes root, still less does it take nourishment and bring forth fruit. This he discerns, not from himself, but from some thing above himself which flows in. 5 5397. Hence the reason why God Messiah spoke by parables, in order, namely, that these might serve every sort of man; for whatsoever the parables that were told, they all look to His king dom, as He himself decIares. 6 So likewise, then, does everything that is said in His Word. But as to the application of His Word to Himse!f and to His kingdom, this does not belong to man, for man never penetrates with his understanding to things inmost, in most things being above his understanding. 5398. In the natural man the words do not reach to things more interior, for, as soon as these come into the rational mind they are suffocated and entirely burned up by the fires that con tinually invade that mind, that is to say, by cupidities or the loves of self and the world. So likewise in the present text, where at first sight no other meaning comes to view than that Joshua and Moses spoke in this way, and that, hearing a cIamor, the one supposed one thing and the other another. 5399. Joshua was a man of war, and from this cIamor it at once came to him that there was a battle. Thus he wished to take the part of a captain, this being implanted in him. Moses, on the other hand, having been instructed in the mount that the people had corrupted itself, as stated in verses 7 to 8, at once thought that
[Note by the Author, written vertically in the margin of n. 5395-96:] These things must be well observed. Matthew 1311, 24, 81, 83, 44, 1888, 201, 222, 251, 14; Mark 426, 80; Luke 1318, 20.

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it was some worship T and hence singing, for he must needs have revolved this in his mind. These words, however, would never have been interjected here, had there not been another meaning within them; nor could they ever have been conducive to salvation had there been no other than the proximate meaning; for in such case, it would be a mere disputation. 5400. Thus Joshua was aroused to speak, that is to say, through his mouth, [God Messiah] spoke to Moses, The voice of war is in the camp. The voice of war in the camp signifies the same things as the Law or the tables of the Law which Moses was now holding in his hands; for the internal law, and the external, fight with each other, inasmuch as the internal saves man, while the external condemns him. 8 For they who place justice in the works of the law, place it in themselves, and this utterly condemns man. Not so the internal law. Hence comes war, this having reference to the Law, and so to Moses by whom is represented the Law which was now with him, as we read in verse 15. 5401. A war or voice of war of this kind is heard in many sorts of camps, namely, in the spiritual and celestial man, in a society of the same kind, that is to say, in the church, in the entire globe, nay, and in heaven. Such war is continually going on in heaven be tween those who place justice in works, and those who place justice in the Messiah alone. Those who place justice in themselves turn all good into evil; those who place it in God Messiah turn all evil into good; and this continually. Nor do evil spirits know that this war is aroused by the devil who invades, and that it is turned into peace by God Messiah who defends man and pro tects him, like a wall which the enemy wishes to scale [Gen," 49 23 , n. 3003 seq.].9 Therefore, the voice of rvar that is meant in the interior sense, is that which has now been described.
Swedenborg originally wrote .. the worship of a strange god, and," but this he altered as in the translation. S This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin. This indented paragraph, which is marked "Obs. Obs.," is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, s,v. B01llU'Tn, Justitia, Lex, and j}Ialum. It may here be noted that in the Index to the Memorabilia, " Lord" is substi tuted for" God Messiah," See Table of Contents.

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EXODUS XXXII: 18

[540~-o4

5402. [But Moses 1 said, The voice of the clamor is not victory; neither is the voice of the clamor a lost cause: the voice of a song do I hear], vs. 18. Moses, by whom, as was said, is represented the Law in externals, now gave answer. But it may be allowed to speak of these matters from long experience, namely, as to what is meant by this answer of Moses. As said above [n. 5400], those who are for the external law continually attack those who are f~r the internl!lJaw !.....th~~ say, t ose ( 1Yfuutr for t e el"\Ces and t world and for such things as \ arouse the loves thereof, continually invade the others in unnumbered ways, according as this is permitted them by God Messiah. And though they continually succumb and are conquered, they still persist and do not give up. Therefore, they say in ~r hearj;, th~tjs,-th~xJudge, no differently than does Moses in the text: The voice of clamor is not victory; neither t is the voice of clamor a lost cause. 2 5403. Hence, then, the like exists in the man who fightsas in temptations; the like in the church which is continually fighting, etc. For in man and in the church is that fight, as it were, wherein they make war. 3 Hence also come so many schisms, etc., etc. It cannot be otherwise 4 if the natural man is to become spiritual and be renewed, which could never come about without such warfare. s 5404. Good spirits, however, well know that the victory will be awarded to them. Yet they cannot but defend themselves and thus make combat, inasmuch as it is permitted evil spirits to invade in this way. These, then, are arcana from heaven which explain many passages in Holy Scripture. To adduce merely a single one ;?> concerning the an el.MichaEiJhat he contended with the devil and o!.e~e hIm by the blood of the Lamb (Apoc., chap. 1~7. 8. 11]) ; this will come to ~ss in the last day when the juqgmetrt comes, that is, wh~n God~siah :!ilT c0!De into

fl '

1 So Schmidius, but the Hebrew is " and he said." 'See n. 5404 Dote. [Note by the Author, written vertically in the margin of the indented part of n. 540fJ and n. 5403:] These points must be observed. with the utmost accuracy. Reading, Non aliter e88e pote,t for Nam aliter, etc. No. 5403 is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.

Ilr Ad. 337 5..,..338~

339

5405-09]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

_ lory. Wherefore we also read that the nation or eo le 11 called Jacob shall not perish until God Messiah will come 6 in JJ his glory [Gen. 4910], etc., etc. 7 5405. On t e last.day, moreover, the devil will know that } he is conqu~d. Therefore we read further in the Apocalypse, J tl1at he will ~uEE with.- great an er and will come down to the earth and make tumult, etc. [chap. 1~12, 17]. Prior to this, , however, h~ knows..Eo other thl!n thattherejs_ neit1i~ victory ~~ost cause; for he is continuall lusting, and his lust for the kin O'dom blinds him-as is usually the cas~ with all w_ho lust after their ~ lory.8 J 5406. Moses says, the 'Voice of a song do I hear. Song was customary on feast days, for we read in Exodus 151,21, that they sang to J ehovah. 5407. I was confirmed in many ways as to the efficacy which a song has when it comes from faith, but the present is not as yet the place [to speak of this]. 5408. So, in the present case, those who were dancing were also singing. This is a natural consequence, for the devil wishes in every way to imitate the things which he knows look to God Th:t:essiah, inasmuch as he puts himself forward as the Messiah. Wherefore, he so acts upon those minds which place justice in works that they look for a Messiah who will favor their cupidities. Hence the prediction concerning the [false] Christs who are to come at the last day [Matt. ~424]. This glorying by those who invade, is here called a song; for, that the wicked will glory for a time, and so win sing, but only for a short time inasmuch as their song will be turned into lamentation [is openly declared in Amos 810 ]. What this song was, now follows. 9
5409. Moses could not as yet have understood that it was a song such as is described immediately afterwards; for we read [that he learned this] after he had prayed that Jehovah be moved
Reading venturulI est for visurus est. 7 The indented part of n. 540fJ, together with n. 5404 is cited by the Author in the Index_to hiLlIUmQrabilia, s.v. Externa, Interiom, Lex. See Table of Contents. 8 No. 5405 is not Cited by the Author in the Index to his Memo1'abilia. ~ No. 5407-8 are notcited by the Author in the Index to his Memo1abilia.

340

In Ad. 3383--3389

EXODUS XXXII: 19

[5410-13

with repentance. Therefore, when Moses saw the dances, etc., and perceived the song, his anger waxed hot [vs. 19]. God Messiah sustained him, to the end that the people might not be consumed. Hence, then, the song as Moses understood it before he saw the dances was another song; for thus it was taken up by angels from Moses' understanding at the time, and was carried to angels who were more interior, etc. 5410. The voice of a song means here the sound of a song, thus a noise as heard in singing. This is what is signified, both here and elsewhere, by a voice. In the present case, however, the mean ing has regard to the words that follow, while the meaning that re sults from the preceding words is a different one and is gathered from the series itself. Moses does not deny that it is the voice of war, meaning that there is a battle. He merely denies that it is the voice of a war concluded, which is either the clamor of victory, this being made by song and by musical instruments, or the clamor of a lost cause, this being wailing and lamentation. Thus, as ap plied to the preceding words, the voice of a song is also a battle which is going on ; for men then cried out and sounded the trumpet as the signal of war, etc. 5411. Both senses or meanings were then in Moses' mind, it being usually the case, that when the mind is reflecting on things unknown, it turns to many sides. He was led to the one meaning by Joshua's words, to the other by the words which he had heard in the mount; for it is clearly evident from what follows that he was unaware of there being such a song there. 5412. [And when he came nigh unto the camp, and saw the calf, and the dances: it came to pass that Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hand, arid brake them beneath the mount], vs. 19. It was said above [no 5386, 540~], that by Moses is meant the Law, just as by Abraham is meant faith, etc. So long, however, as Moses held in his hand the tables of the testi mony, being the work of God, he could represent the extern{11 Law only as conjoined with the internal Law, for thus they Were one. Hence then comes the mystical sense of these words. 5413. Since by Moses is signified the Law, being the writing of God on the tables which were the work of God, therefore he came unto the camp, that is, to those things which in the Word of God Messiah are frequently called a camp, to wit, gatherings of peoples. III Ad. 3390-3395 341

5414-17]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

By a camp are also signified angels in heaven, as we read of J acob that he saw God's camp [Gen. 3~2]. In a more simple sense, a camp is the man on whom that Law is inscribed. 5414. Therefore, when this Law came unto the camp and saw the calf and the dances-by the calf, or, as in David, " the ox that eateth grass" [Ps. 1062 ], being meant those things in man which are the ultimate things of service, such as the love of the world and of self, and which, like oxen, must be under the yoke-it saw that the people were adoring such things, and acknowledging them as God; for, as previously stated [vs. 5], they were proclaiming a feast, etc. That they were also dancing, means that they were leading a festive life, as do those in the world who love the world, amusements being continually before their eyes. Thus, in this same sense, by dances are meant pleasures of every kind. 5415. It came to pass that AIoses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hand, and brake them beneath the mount, that is, the internal law was thus entirely wiped out, so that with this people it was of no account; for with those who adore themselves, etc., it is broken or annihilated. 5416. This action was inspired in Moses from heaven, to the end that the above might be signified, it being in this sense that the deed is seen in heaven; for there man is regarded not as man but as that of him which is spiritual and celestial, etc., and which makes the man. This is common in heaven, for they can never behold man with their eyes as does an inhabitant of earth, but can behold only his interiors. Hence they receive him from the things where from he derives his human characteristic. This is the reason why Moses is regarded as the Law, etc. 1 5417. Heaven could not suffer that Moses should carry in his hand the Law, being the work of God. Hence, then, comes his anger and his breaking of the tables, and this beneath the mount; to the end that he might thus represent the external Law and all that follows therefrom. For every single affection, even the most minute thing thereof, comes into man from above, nay, and every motion, since it flows therefrom-as can be attested to by so many ex1

This indented line is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memora
34~

bilia.

III Ad. 3396-3403

EXODUS XXXII:

~o

periences that the volume might be swollen by these proofs alone. Moreover, such are the marvels with respect to influx into the human mind and will, and thus into the actions thereof, that man never seems able to believe them unless convinced by such experience, etc., etc. 2 5418. He broke the tables beneath the mount. As to what the mount signifies, to wit, that it is God Messiah, this the reader may see above [n. 5359] ; thus it also signifies the internal man, this man being ruled by God Messiah alone. Therefore the tables be neath the mount, are those things contained in the Law which in man are beneath, and thus which alone [are seen by] the external man. 5419. [And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it with fire, and ground it till it became fine powder; and he strewed it upon the faces of the waters, and made the sons of Israel to drink], vs. ~O. That something mystical lies deeply concealed in this deed of Moses, can be evident to everyone. What the punish ment was, and it was indeed an exceedingly severe one, can also be evident, and this, moreover, from the fact that Moses afterwards slew several thousands by means of the Levites, so that a man slew his companion, as we read in verses ~7, ~8, ~9. As to what it signifies that he burned the calf with fire, ground it to fine powder, and gave it to the people to drink, this can signify nothing else than that he inmostly applied the things signified by the calf and the worship of the calf. This follows as though of itself, inasmuch as he acted from anger and at a time when he was breathing nothing but the slaughter of the people; for as they worshipped this calf externally, so he wished that it should be applied to them internally. 5420. As to whether he acted from just grief, this cannot be said. One thing seemS certain, namely, that heaven or the inhabit ants of heaven, that is, the angels of God Messiah, could no longer be with that people after they had worshipped the devil. There fore it was granted them to inspire Moses to this deed. The rea son is because the people could not worship God. Messiah and, at the same time, the devil, it being better that they should be alto gether cold and unclean, etc.; for then, from infinite providence
2 This indented passage is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memora bilia, s.v. Oogitare, InfluX'U8. See Table of Contents.

III Ad. 3404-3410

343

54~1-!M]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

and wisdom, heaven could dwell with them in the midst of their un cleannesses, as we read in Leviticus 16 16 , but not so when they were lukewarm. 5421. In this way, the angels took from them nothing save things external which were representative, and with which their in ternals were not commingled; for had their internals been com municated with the angels at the same time, as is the case with the sons of God Messiah, then, inasmuch as those internals were un clean after the people had drunk the calf reduced to powder, that is, after idolatry had been thus attached to them, the way between heaven and this people would have been closed. Thus there was no communication of their interiors with heaven, and so the repre sentation remained, that is to say, the external worship, together with the law in externals, it being these that were represented in heaven. 5422. Although the whole people drank this water wherein was the damned dust, still it cannot be concluded therefrom but that some or many of them might not have been cursed or condemned, being those who did not adore the calf-such as their infants, etc. ; for in those who are in God Messiah there is nothing damna ble, and such drink does them no harm. 5423. Nor can this damnation extend to that entire generation any more than to Adam's own generation, who, after he had been condemned, yet begat Abel and Seth [Gen. 4 2 ,213] ; for many of them awaited and desired the Messiah, the Savior of the world, as is clearly evident from the Gospels and from the writings of the apostles, to the effect namely, that many of the Jews also, acknowl edged God Messiah. 5424. Therefore the rites of the church were subsequently in stituted to the end that they might afterwards be representers, rites which could never have been instituted so long as the people were lukewarm and not cold, etc. Nay, it was afterwards for bidden them under severe punishment to eat such things as were sacrificed to idols; nor were they allowed even to eat with idolaters, or to eat the many unclean things spoken of later. Especially were they not to commingle with the Canaanites; not to speak of many other prohibitions of the same kind which in themselves are neither objectionable nor advantageous. 'Vith them, however, as 344 III Ad. 3411-3415

EXODUS XXXII:

stated above :[n. 54~1], they were necessary as being externally representative. Moreover, as to what is signified by their eating together of the sacrifices around the temple or near the altar, this has been told above [n. 5058-60], and, God Messiah granting, will be told elsewhere, namely, the betrothal and nuptials of the Messiah with the true church. From this it can now be evident what these words signify when it was enjoined on the people to eat that calf which was so profane, being the calf which they had worshipped. 5425. Obs: To THE ABOVE MUST BE ADDED THE WORDS SAID BY JEHOVAH in Numbers 1431- 35 From these verses,a it can be evi dent that the little children were blameless, and that the others could indeed represent the true church of God Messiah but could not represent those who entered the kingdom of God Messiah rep resented by the land of Canaan. 5426. [Then Moses said unto Aaron, What did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought upon it grea,t sin?], vs. ~l. Moses first spoke to Aaron, and ascribed the whole fault to him, though Aaron wished to excuse himself in that he attributed the whole fault [to the people]-and that there had been fault, can be evident from verses 1 to 5, ~~, ~5, 35. From this it can be evi dent that Aaron, although made high priest, was still as one of the people, and, being at fault, was worse than they; and though made high priest despite his being an idolater, he had built the altar, had sacrificed to the calf, etc. 5427. Can further arguments be supplied showing that heaven dwelt in the midst of uncleannesses? and that [the people] was un clean from head to foot? For Aaron now represented the head of those who sacrificed to the calf, and later he became the head of the representative church with this people. What can be clearer than that Jehovah God had been separated from this people, being con joined to it only in outmosts, as said above [n. 54~0-1J. Thus it
The verses cited read as follows: "But your little ones . . . them will I bring in, and they shall know the land which ye have despised. But your bodies shall fall in this wilderness. And your sons shall be shepherds in the wilderness forty years, and shall bear your whoredoms, until your bodies are consumed in the wilderness. After the number of the days in which ye searched the land, even forty days, each day for a year, Shall ye bear your iniquitieS, even forty years, that ye may know my breach. I, Jehovah have spoken; I will surely do it unto all this evil congregation that are gathered together against me; in this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die."

III Ad. MI6-MM

345

54~8-31]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

would have amounted to the same thing, whether this people, su premely idolatrous, had been taken for this purpose, or the Egyp tian people, or some other. 5428. That Aaron afterwards repented and became cleaner within-this we do not read, but only that he was clean~ed as to the skin of his hands and feet, and as to his garments, etc., just as was the altar, the cedar, the gold, the brass, the brute animal which was led up and which also was called holy (Lev. ~79-10, Num. 18 17 ]. 5429. Here, therefore, it must first be seen what it is that Aaron represents, for each person represents something in heaven, ab stractly from the person himself. In the present case, Aaron rep resented the priesthood and, as being the high priest, he repre sented the head of the church. Consequently, by him when per forming his office, after having been inaugurated, made high priest, and sanctified, is represented the true worship of God Messiah. 4 5430. It is clearly stated in the text that Aaron brought upon the people great sin, for he ought to have known that what he brought upon them was idolatry and that it was the devil whom they were worshipping. As touching the people, many of these are excused when the sin is that of their leaders or priests; for there are many who, being uninstructed, do not act from purpose and deliberation, and many others, such as little children, who are ignorant. Little children neither see, give heed to, nor desire any thing save what is genial and festive, for they wish to be ever at play.5 Thus there is nothing idolatrous in them, for they do not know what the worship of God is, or what idolatry. With others, the case is different, and this with the utmost variety. Thus many of the people are excused, but not so Aaron who, although he ex cused himself, is yet clearly declared to be the author of the sin, (vss. ~5 and 35). It is here said sin because all profane worship is sin. In the ultimate sense, the devil is called sin and evi1. 6 5431. [And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my lord wax hot: thou knowest the people, that it is .in evil], vs. ~Yl. That Moses waxed so hot with anger that he even broke the tables, and after~ wards slew so many of the people, see verses 19 [and 9l8]. More
No. S429 is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. This statement about " children" is emphasized by "Obs." written in the margin. Confer John 8 34, 1 John 38.

346

III Ad. 349l5-3431

EXQDUS XXXII: 9l9l

[543~-33

over, Aaron could see this from his face; for his face then burned with great anger, because heaven, which was now perturbed, as it were, in that they saw this people to be idolatrous, [inspired him with anger]. From his face shone forth the desire of the heavenly ones to slay Aaron, he being deserving of death in that he had brought the people [to this sin] (verses 911 and 9l5). That Aaron would have been slain [had it not been for Moses' prayer], see Deuteronomy 9 2 .* But Aaron turned this anger aside by a lie or figment. Thus he led the people into sin, and also led Moses to . the destruction of many of the people-a destruction which he himself deserved. 5432. Furthermore, in that it was foreseen that Aaron was to be the high priest, this was done under divine influence, to the end that it might thus be clearly testified that with them the priesthood and thus the church was merely representative and so was enjoined even on a man polluted with unspeakable crimes. For if heaven had then perceived their intrinsic quality, and so had spoken with them in the way in which they speak with me, on which occasions it was granted them to see all the thoughts of my heart ,_ if this had been the case at that time, then, as everyone can see for himself, heaven could never have been with them, seeing that in their heart they even yet adored idols, etc. Would not the devil with his crew have then succeeded in place of the angels of God Messiah? an eventuality, for the avoidance of which, many subse quent things were done. 5433. Of these matters much can be said, namely, as to how a sphere, that is to say, how choirs of angels are formed around man so that nothing save the external comes to inmosts in order of suc cession; and how [it is separated] from the internals of the man, so that the man can, at the same time, be present in the choir of . the angels of God Messiah, it not being possible for one to be in teriorly present in the choir [of the angels] of God Messiah unless he is such that his interiors correspond to those angels-a state which is induced by God Messiah; not to mention many other things, respecting which it has been granted me to speak with
* This sentence is a later addition. This indented passage is not cited by the Author in the Index to his .3'lemorabilia.

III Ad.

343~-3438

347

5434-36J

THE WORD EXPLAINED

the angels and spirits around me. Moreover, it was simul taneously confirmed by such VARIED EXPERIENCE 8 that to ad duce this would be extremely prolix. For the rest, man could never have disturbed heaven save by his impieties, an event against which God Messiah has most wisely guarded, etc., etc. Hence, then, it follows that an external man who is wicked, nay, in his heart an idolater-as for the most part was this stock, as is sufficiently evident-can also represent holy things, espe cially when he is sanctified by means of things which, to the in most of the choir of angels, signify that which is most holy and which, as it were, effigy God Messiah, etc., etc. In this way that which is most holy is presented before heaven and is, as it were, infilled. 9 5434. Thou lcnowest the people, that it is in evil. This was a figment, for it was Aaron who had misled the people, and in verse 9!5, following his answer, this is stated as a settled matter, namely, in the words: "When Moses saw the people that it was loose, in that Aaron had made it loose unto shame among their enemies." 5435. I can surely marvel that the eyes of other men view these words differently, in that they excuse Aaron solely because they fix their thought on the fact that he was made high priest and ad ministered things holy. So long as a man remains in this frame of m~nd, he excuses everything, and views even the profane things in the man [Aaron J as being of such a nature that they are turned into things holy-which nevertheless is not the case save by a miracle, etc., etc. 5436. At the same time, moreover, the external rites were so instituted, that they poured forth holiness before the eyes of Aaron and the people, many things having this in view, as, for instance, the flame in the tent of assembly, the gold, sanctification, prayer, and other like things. This was done at that time, in order that an external holiness might be formed, to the end that the choir of angels might not be disturbed. Therefore, as soon as any thing was done in a different way, the doers were so severely pun ished that they were smitten with death, as, for instance, the two
These words are further emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin. This indented paragraph is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Con'espondentia and Externa. See Table of Contents.

348

III Ad. 3439-3449!

EXODUS XXXII:

~3

[5437-40

sons of Aaron who brought in strange fire [Lev. 101 ,2, Num. 34,
~661 ].

5437. That external holiness can be induced on a man, even a wicked man, can be sufficiently evident from rituals, which have this effect. External holiness can indeed occupy the mind, espe cially when, at the same time, the surrounding angels are moved; this, however, is something separate from the man. But external holiness greatly differs from internal holiness. In respect to these matters also I might adduce many things from experience but as yet I do not comprehend them distinctly; wherefore, it may be allowed to tell them at another time, God Messiah granting.! 5438. External holiness of a sort can also exist in the wicked, nay, in idolaters, as is well known in the case of gentiles who adore idols. This, however, is a kind of holy stupor. For it is innate with all men to believe that there is a supreme God, the Creator of the universe, and when this is brought to their minds, such stupor is aroused; hence the external holiness appearing in the individual man. But with internal holiness the case is different. 5439. As to the predicate" holy," it is allowable to use this; for even the altar of whole burnt offering is called" the holiness of holinesses" [chap. ~937] ; the altar of incense, "holy of holies" [chap. 3010]; the oil also is called holy, and the garments and other like objects. Whence the holiness comes, can be evident from what has been ,said above [n. 5437], namely, from the choir of angels by reason of the representation of the supreme Deity during the time that the human mind is lifted up beyond its own sphere. Stupor then occupies the mind, and this stupor flows in from the human soul proper, which has not fallen. From the above can be deduced numerous particulars which have regard to the salvation of man; but these are utterly arcane. 2 5440. [Therefore it said unto me, Make us gods, which shall go before us: for as for Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him], vs. ~3. On these words, see what was said above at verse 1. The question now
1 This indented passage is not cited by the Author in the Index to his M emombilia. 2 This indented sentence is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia.

III Ad. 3443-3450

349

5441-44]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

arises, Who was it that instigated the people to this thought? the thought namely, that they wished to have gods, and not the God who was going before them and leading them into the land of Canaan. It clearly follows that it was no other than the devil from whom came the Egyptian magic, and who now knew that they were being introduced into the land of Canaan. This thought, therefore, was infused by the enemy who continually aspires to the kingdom of God Messiah, and lusts after it. 5441. Now since it was from infinite Providence that they were being introduced, and thus from promise, therefore it now pleased God Messiah to form in the midst of their uncleanness a choir of angels, this choir being the angel spoken of in the following chap ter 33 2 ,3; though whether God was in their midst as before, may be seen from what follows; for idolaters were to be expelled from the land of Canaan, and this could not have been done by means of the devil. Therefore the angel of God Messiah was sent with them, who should expel idolaters. 5442. That th~vil aspired to lead_the~nto the land of Ca naan just as he aspIres after the kingd~m of god J~h, is suffi ciently evident from what follows. Moreover, that they adored Moses in place of God, has been observed above [n. 5391]; for they acknowledged no other God than one whom they could see, and thus ~ naturaLgQ..d. This also was the reason why God Mes siah appeared to them, as stated above [n. 5441], etc., etc. 5443. [Then I said to them, Who hath gold? tear it off from you. And they gave it me. Therefore I cast it into the fire, and there came o'ut this calf], vs. fl4. As to this, the like thing is also said above in verses fl and 3; see the notes there. That Aaron gave this order, is true; but that the calf came out, as though spontaneously, and thus by a miracle-this is false. For we read in verse 4 that he fashioned the gold with a graving tool, and so made a graven image-which was clearly contrary to the divine precept [chap. ~04J. Thus Aaron seems to have wished to excuse himself by the assertion that the calf was made by a miracle, and so to bring Moses also to believe this. Moreover, it appears from this that he persuaded the people to the same thing, and thus " made it loose," as we read in the verse next following. 5444. As touching the words, came out, other translators say 350 III Ad. 3451-:3459

EXODUS XXXII: M-9l5

[5445-48

came forth,3 thus came from the fire. As to whether this signifies that the calf was made of gold, this may be seen later. The sense resulting from the words, is that Aaron did not tell Moses that he had fashioned it with a graving tool and so had made the calf with his own hand. 5445. Moreover, the statement that the calf came out from the fire involves some mystical thing, meaning that it came out from the love of self and of the world; for these loves are compared to parching fire, also to a firebrand, inasmuch as they set fire to man and burn him up. That the calf came out or came forth from this fire, or,4 if you will, was made from it, can be evident from what has preceded; for they who inwardly cherish these loves, cherish the devil who is the leader of the loves and rouses them up in man. It is these loves then that aspire to the kingdom of God Messiah, and wish to set over themselves, him whom they were adoring under the figure of a calf. The like is also signified later on when treating of the sons of Aaron who carried strange fire and were slain [Lev. 10\ Num. 3\ 9l6 61 ]; respecting this fire, see below. 5446. That the calf comes from the fire, that is to say, that external idolatry comes from those loves, can be evident enough; for they who are imbued with such loves are frequently caned idolaters. Their idols are all the things which they then love, being all that is in themselves and all that is in the world. Hence it can be evident how easy it is with them to fall into idolatry. Thus the calf comes out from the fire. 5447. The calf is also servitude, as said above [no 5304]. This likewise comes from those fires, in that men thus live under the yoke of these lusts and loves. Moreover, hell is described by fire, and this by reason of many analogies. Thus this calf came from hell. 5448. [And when Moses saw the people that it was loose, in that Aaron had made it loose unto shame among their enemies], vs. 9l5.
This is the translation given by Tremellius who has prodiit vitulus iste (that calf came forth), in contrast with Schmidius' exivit vit'ulus hie (this calf came out). The words prodire and exi1'e are practically synonymous, except that prodi1'e involves the idea of coming forward, appearing; while exire has the idea of coming out frOm. Castellio has etreetus est (was made), and the Vulgate and Pagnini eg'ressus est (went out). In the autograph, the words" or, if you will" commence a new line, op~ posite which, in the margin, is written the words "Obs." In his subsequent numbering of the work, Swedenborg took this" Obs." as marking a new 'paragraph, which accordingly he numbered " 3461."

III Ad. 3460-3466

351

5449-51]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

It is said of the people that it was loose, and that Aaron had made it loose; in the Hebrew text, however, the same word signifies naked,5 namely, that the people was naked, and that Aaron had made it naked. This comes to the same thing, for to loosen one is to release from restraints into license that he may rush forth like a man insane and untamed. 5449. In the Word of God Messiah, the word nakedness 6 fre quently occurs where the above~mentioned loves are treated of, in that nakedness arouses shame, as with Adam and Eve after the fall, when they saw that they were naked. To make naked, therefore, is to show in actuality that which is to be covered over, this being the crimes and vices which do not rush forth into act; for they are then laid bare and stand out before the eyes, both human and an gelic. Moreover, men become naked by actuality, actuality being that which lays them bare. Therefore we read that Adam and Eve were clothed with coats of skin (Genesis 3 7 ,10,11,21).7 5450. Unto shame among their enemies. In the proximate sense [by their enemies] are meant idolaters, being those who were then in the neighborhood, and who heard a report concerning these men, who yet were men whom Jehovah God, who is Justice and Truth itself, so greatly favored, to the end that they might cut off idolaters. This was their shame in the proximate sense. By shame, in the interior sense, is meant vituperation by the devil, the real enemy; and this because God Messiah had so greatly aided worshippers of self, to the end that they might be instruments whereby the Canaanites would be cut off, and by means of whom his Word might be preached. 5451. What other result, then, can follow but thafHe was sepa rated from them in the way already spoken of '[n. 54~7]? yet He protected them so long as they observed th~ Law in externals and the rites. This, moreover, is evident enough; for as soon as they
This is the translation made by Tremellius, the Vulgate, and Pagnini, though the latter gives the interpretation "naked among their enemies." The Arcana agrees with Schmidius' translation dissolutus (loose). The root mean ing of the Hebrew Yi) is "to tear off," "loosen," "separate," "make bare." It may be added that the present notes on vs. 25 are referred to in the margin of the Author's copy of Schmidius' Bible at Gen. 37. In the A.V. naked or nakedness is usually a translation of some derivative of the root tliY and only in the present verse and in !il Chron. !il8 19 , is it a trans lation of Vie. It may be added that these notes on Nakedness are referred to by the Author in the margin of Schmidius' Bible at Genesis 3: 5. 7 No. 5449 is emphaSized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.
35~

III Ad.

3467-347~

EXODUS XXXII: 915

[5459l-54

sinned against the Law in externals, they were severely punished, and this because heaven, that is, the angel of God Messiah could not then be with them. This is most clearly evident from what we read above (chapter 9l3 20 , 21), namely, that he will not endure their transgression. Moreover, it is proved by many examples. That the heavenly beings who, from their unanimity, are called" an angel," would not endure transgressions, can be confirmed by many examples. Other pa.rticulars concerning them may be seen in what has been said of the cherubs [no 4691-3] 5452. That Moses spared Aaron, although the latter was re sponsible and had seduced the people, comes, as was said [n. 5439l] , from the Providence of God Messiah, to the end that Aaron might be high priest. From this, the conclusion could be arrived at that the high priests were not holy men, although their functions were holy; as witness many of the high priests who followed Aaron, some of whom were infamous. Aaron was already determined on in heaven as the high priest, and this was the reason why he could not be slain, and, consequently, why Moses suffered himself to be persuaded that the people was in evil, that is to say, was at fault. Whether Moses himself judged differently, cannot be concluded from the words written in the text, for this is the Word of God Messiah wherein can be contained nought but truths. 5453. As touching Aaron and the people in general, it can be concluded from all the circumstances, that while living in Egypt they had been idolaters like the Egyptians; for on the occasion of Moses' short delay, they fell prone into adoration of a calf and into idolatry. Moreover, they did the same thing on later occa sions (which may be looked up), and this even when they were in the midst of miracles, so many in number. What other conclusion, then, can be made, nay, and believed as a certainty, than that they practised idolatry in Egypt? Hence it follows that they cherished the Egyptian idolatry in their heart. 5454. Moreover, from the fact that the land of Egypt Was full of magic, and that by their illusions its magicians also dealt in miracles, one may be allowed to judge with some certainty that [this people] regarded the miracles which were continually pres ent with them, in hardly any other way than had the magicians in Egypt, though in this matter the latter were better informed, m III Ad. 3473-3477 353

5455]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

that they afterwards confessed that the miracles were" the finger of God" [chap. 8 19 ].8 IN A WORD, the people was idolatrous, not only in form, but in act, for they sacrificed, made adoration, etc. And not only was there a breaking of the covenant (see above [no 5307-11]), but there was a complete denial and nullification of all that had hitherto been done by God Messiah, thus of all the miracles which should then have strengthened them and led them back to the way. For we twice 9 read that they said, " These are thy gods, 0 Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt" [vs. 4].1 Moreover, as they openly confessed, they di rected all their trust and faith to him, that is, to their idol, or the devil, and it was he who was to lead them into the land of Canaan, they being desirous of having gods who would go before them. And all this in the midst of miracles and as a result of a temptation of the lightest kind! for they had no lack of food, etc. How, then, could su~h men have been introduced into the land of Canaan? 5455. [Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is for Jehovah? to me! Therefore, all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him], vs. fl6. It is said that Moses stood in the gate of the camp. As yet he had not entered the camp, nor did he enter it for some time afterwards, having set his tent outside the camp at some distance therefrom, as stated in the next chapter (33 7 ). For as yet he did not desire to be the leader and head of that people inasmuch as he had come from mount Sinai and carried with him the tables of the Law; nor did he have this desire so long
[The following unnumbered and partly indented paragraph is here crossed off by the Author:] As to the question of whether Aaron was exempt from these idolatries, to be ignorant of the answer is inadmissible, it being Aaron who persuaded the people. Of Aaron's character after death, when he was among spirits, r can indeed know nothing for certain; yet, from the murmurings of certain spirits [I could know 1 that he was such that they did not wish to tell these things. For there are con tinual representations of spirits among themselves, the representations of good spirits being representations of the kingdom of God Messiah, and those of evil spirits being the contrary, and unspeakably wicked. It is enough that I heard, as it were, a murmuring. [Continuation, written in the broad margin of the indent:] But perhaps the above should be omitted-this may be looked into at the time [of printing], for r cannot know but that these words are insinuated among good spirits. This is said in verse 4, but not elsewhere in the present chapter. Probably the reference is to the implication of the words in verse 1. 1 The first part of n. 5454 is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.

354

III Ad. 3478-3480

EXODUS XXXII:

~6

[5456-57

as the people had not been reconciled to J ehovah. That it was now separated, see above [no 54~7J. It had been decreed that Moses was now the head of the people, for which reason the latter is called Moses' people (vs. 7 above). It is also called Moses' people later on (chapter 33 1 ) 2 as I call to mind. That Moses was to be its head, is confirmed in chapter 3410. But because he was different, as already stated, he could not be set over this people as its head until the things that follow had been accomplished. Otherwise the people must needs have perished; nor could the true church of God Messiah have been represented in this people and by that church over which Aaron was set. 3 5456. Therefore Moses now stood in the gate of the camp and remained far outside the camp until all things had been again re stored, so that a representation might exist, it not being possible that the one could be separated from the other, just as the head cannot be separated from the body. For, that a body may be healed, there must first be a [healthy] head, this being the source of all influx into the body; for with a head in health the body also is restored, as can be evident from many considerations. The body can indeed be sick and entirely diseased while the head still remains entire; but still the head suffers. 4 If, therefore, a head is to be set over them, that head must be entirely healthy. This is the reason for the happenings related below, namely, that Moses was received into grace-of which grace, however, he was doubtful, and this for the same reason; see the next chapter (33 [verse 13 seq.]). In a word, the subject there treated of is as to how Moses was to be set over them as their leader or head, and how that thus the people was to be again restored. This follows from the series. 5457. As to how the matter stood afterwards, however, and how it could stand, this can be evident from the series of what follows: for it was only external things that were thus enjoined on them, no hope being left of making them internal men. Hence Moses rep resents the Law, as above [no 541~-3], and indeed, the Law in ex ternals; otherwise the internal man and the true Israel could never have been represented by this people. These, then, are the mysThis reference is a marginal addition to the text. The latter half of this paragraph is emphasized by "Obs." written in the margin. This sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin.

III Ad. 3481-3489

5458-60]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

teries which here lie concealed, and which are more fully disclosed in what follows. 5458. In the camp they had gates, as can. be evident; thus they represented a camp within gates. At that time there. was nothing instituted among them that did not have some representation. Re specting their gates we speak elsewhere. Meanwhile, as to what is signified by gates and also by like things pertaining to a camp or city, this, God Messiah granting, will be told elsewhere. There fore, the devil now reigned within the gates, having invaded the camp, as he had invaded the land of Canaan where was Abraham and Isaac and also other worshippers of God Messiah; but the devil invaded that land, and therefore they were uprooted. 5459. The camp where they now were, was the devil's camp; but the camp of God was in mount Sinai from which Moses had come down, with whom were angels. The result, therefore, could be no other than that war should arise; for according to the rigor of the law they must all have been uprooted, so that, with the exception of the little children, not one would be left. This was not, indeed, done at the present time, but it was done gradually so that not one of them came into the land of Canaan. And because, as said above [vs. 14], God Mess~ah was moved with pity, and this for reasons of which we have previously spoken [n. 5333, 5381], therefore He now willed merely to bring them into a state of terror that they might humble themselves and acknowledge their sin. 5460. Terror has the effect that a man humbles himself to the lowest degree, prostrates himself to the earth, and makes himself to be nothing. Yet fear effects nothing, save that the sin may thus be acknowledged; for when men recover from the fear, they are of the same disposition as before. This is what fear does, as also, of the mercy of God Messiah, was vividly shown me in the case of certain spirits around me, who were so humbled by fear that they could not be more humble; but as soon as they recovered, they were exactly as before. In their fear they ac knowledged their sins, but beyond this acknowledgment there was nothing. 5 Moreover, in fear, the devil is driven away; for according as one is elated, so, in the contrary state, he is timid. Thus there is
This first part of n. 5460 is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia,s.v. Humiliatio, Timor. See Table of Contents.

356

III Ad. 3490-3498

EXODUS XXXII:

~6

[5461-63

nothing prouder than the devil, and, in the contrary state, nothing is ever more timid. The fear of the people is described in the next chapter (33, [verses 4,6, 8, 10]). 5461. Since the crew of the devil occupied the camp, therefore, that this crew might be conquered, and by fear be forcibly reduced to the utmost humiliation, it now came to pass that Moses said: Who is for Jehovah? to me!6 that is, Let him who is willing to come to the side of God Messiah depart from the accursed camp. Thus they were set into two parties, and so a combat was repre sented, being that combat which in man, in the church, and also in heaven, is a continual combat prior to the judgment; for then comes the victory and the fruits of victory. 5462. All the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him. This was done for the reason that it was foreseen that these sons would be adopted into the representative priesthood, and this to the end that as priests they might thus act as the party of God, while those who were in the camp acted as the party of the devil. Thus is represented that combat of which many things might be told. That eleven tribes stood on the side of the devil can be evi dent enough, for these tribes remained aloof and did not come to Moses although they heard his call: Who is for Jehovah? to me! Therefore, all who remained were necessarily on the side of the devil. The combat itself is then described, being described in what follows, to wit, that though in number they were at least as eleven to one, still they could not make the least resistance but suffered themselves to be slaughtered. In heaven as on earth, the combat of angels of God Messiah against the evil is of such a nature that the evil cannot offer the least resistance hut are smitten with such' dread that they are slaughtered entiri:lly within themselves. This, moreover, can be evident from the very series; for since none but the sons of Levi came to Moses, it follows that [the others] had the intention of resisting, and that they expected help from the devil whom they called their gods who had led them out of Egypt [vs. 4] ; and the more so since, having drunk the dust of the calf, they now held him in their bowels. 5463. [And he said unto them, Th1ts saith Jeho'Vah the God of Israel, Put every man his sword upon his thigh; pass through, and
Or, as it would be expressed in French, a mai, meaning, let him come to me; see n. 5481.

III Ad. 3499-3506

357

5464]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

1'eturn from gate to gate in the camp, and slay a man his brother, and a man his companion, and a man his neighbor], vs. ~7. This was now the command of Jehovah, to the end that they might thus drive the devil away in great terror, which terror precedes. To put the sword upon his thigh signifies, in the mystical sense, that they should arm themselves with faith whereby they should resist; as to what the thigh signifies, see in various places above. The sword upon the thigh signifies the spiritual arms whereby the devil is conquered. In times of old, the thigh was a most holy part in man. Men placed their hand under the thigh when they took a sacred oath; see Genesis ~42, 9 ; see also what is said at Genesis 3~25, etc. In the present text, therefore, that spiritual combat is repre sented of which God Messiah says that He came not to bring peace but war, so that brother would be against brother, son against father, etc., see the passage [Matt. 1034- 35 ; confer verse ~l] ; for the combat of the church is continual, being the combat with the devil, who attacks. 7 This combat is represented in vari ous ways, but the nature of the combat is seen in oneself, for every one ought to fight and, indeed, against himself. 5464. Reason must fight against the understanding, so that a man ought to conquer himself; for when the understanding, being aroused, persuades in various ways to what is contrary [to rea son], it must be fought, and, this with various arms, that is to say, with those spiritual arms which are treated of in so many places in the Word of God Messiah. Reason against the understanding is brother against brother, the one persuading and the other dissuad ing. Reason against the will is companion against companion. Neighbor against neighbor means against cupidities. But these matters are of such great extent that by no means can they be set forth in a few words. So likewise in the church in its combat against the enemies of the church; against their reasonings and their writings, seeing that these must be refuted; against their af fections and cupidities. There is like combat in heaven. The human understanding is here called man, and what is here repre sented is the understanding which fights for God Messiah and thus for faith, doing this from love and thus with sword at thigh.
In the autograph, the words that follow, being n. 3511 of the Latin text, commence a new page, being page E n. But preceding them, on the same page, comes the following words which are crossed off by the Author: " Edom see Tongue." This is the third and last Index entry in the volume; tOil fer n. 4810 note.

358

III Ad. 3507-3516

EXODUS XXXII:

~8

[5465-68

5465. And so from gate to gate in the camp. The camp is within man, where are those who are near mount Sinai, and those who are in the camp, that is, in those things which are in the natural mind and which fight back. But the combat differs ac cording to the state of the man. In the natural man the devil con quers and also is conquered. But in man, after the combat, that is to say, in the spiritual and celestial man, the devil is continually being conquered. 5466. These things were represented to me by continual combats within myself, and afterwards by combats outside me, I being in the midst of them; and this for so long a time that were the whole of this experience to be told, it would swell a volume. 8 5467. [And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men J, vs. ~8. It must be observed that all would have fallen had not God Messiah been moved by Moses' prayer, and this from causes of which we have spoken above [n. 5346 J. '\Therefore, to the end that all might not be slain, it behooved Moses to break the tables of the Law, which he was carrying with him [vs. 19J, being the work of God [vs. 16J ; for had these not been broken, that Law must needs have condemned them all, and have represented their damnation by the death and cutting off of all. Wherefore, the rigor of the law now stopped at the slaughter of three thousand, in order that it might smite the rest only with fear. 9 Moreover, it must further be observed that the spiritual man does indeed fight in this way, yet not that he may slay the enemy but that he may protect himself, and; in the supreme sense, that he may defend God Messiah and his kingdom, this being done by various spiritual arms. For the crew of the devil are continually attacking, and they wish to climb the wall, but they can never enter [Gen. 49 23 , n. 3003 seq.]. 5468. What is meant by defending the wall can be ex pounded from a perception of the interior faculties, namely,
This indented paragraph is not cited in the Author's Index to his Memora
bilia.

This passage as to the breaking of the tables is emphasized by "Obs." written twice in the margin.

III Ad.

3517-35~5

359

5469-70]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

that from infancy the form of the human mind is led by out ward assault into the obedience of the natural mind; and that by this defence and combat it is reduced into a form truly spiritual, and so subjugates the enemy; thus it does not slay him. That to the sons of Levi, it was, however, granted to slay their brethren, companions, and neighbors, was because they themselves were in the same fault, being those who were sacrificing and adoring [the calf]. Thus they were like the rest, Aaron their head being also of the tribe of Levi. There fore it was permitted them to slay their brethren, companions, and neighbors, scarcely otherwise than as when God Messiah punishes the wicked. Such punishment is not done by means of good angels; for these never punish anyone or slay him, but defend themselves and subjugate the enemy, that is, put him in bonds and hold him in bonds, their continual intention being to render the enemy more sane. Heavenly love contains within itself the characteristic that it never wills the damnation of anyone, that is, his death, this characteristic being what the angels have from God Messiah who rules them. 5469. Thus what is here set forth is rather punishment than truly spiritual combat; for when the devil's crew is given the opportunity, the one rushes upon the other, not caring whether that other is a brother, a companion, a neighbor, or even a son, as we read later [vs. Q9]. Still a spiritual combat is repre sented, inasmuch as they were sons of Levi, who were to be in augurated into the priesthood. This will appear more clearly from the words of the verse that now follows.!

5470. [For Moses had said, Infill your hand this day to Je hovah, while a man is against his son, and against his brother; for it is for the bestowing of a blessing upon you this day], vs. Q9. Here now follows the representation of spiritual combat, for both [punishment and combat] are involved, as can be evident from the series. l\10ses said, Infill now your hands,2 that is, consecrate yourselves to the ministry, as another interpreter has it. 3 As to
1 The indented paragraphs, n. 5468-69 are not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia. This is in agreement with the Swedish version. The reference is to TremeHius whose version reads: "Consecrate your ministry this day." The Vulgate reads: " You have consecrated this day your hands."

360

III Ad.

35Q6~35Q9

EXODUS XXXII:

~9

[5471-74

what" infilling the hands" means, this the reader may see above, namely, consecrating oneself to the priesthood which the sons of Levi were to represent. Thus from being parricides they were made also leaders, even as Aaron, from being an idolater was made high priest. See the passages concerning the infilling of hands, as explained above [no 5048, 5076]. 5471. It is said, Infill your hand this day to J ehovah, while a man is against his son, and against his b1other. Here both things are meant, namely, that they should slay their sons, that is, their friends, companions, and neighbors-a deed which, as was said [n. 5469], was to be brought about by the devil; and that yet they should be consecrated, and this for the same reason as in the case of Aaron; for previously they had performed the ministry of the devil. Hence they became representers. Such is the natal day of the Jewish church. 4 5472. A representative church could indeed have existed without such a nativity, namely, a church which would have been like the primitive church. In the latter, however, they did not represent the internal man, but reflected it," the internal man being simultaneously present in every representation. But here, because the representation was separated, that is to say, because what was external was for its own sake, as said above [no 5457], the internal alone was in heaven, [the people] being such that it could not be otherwise. And yet the causes were such that the internal could be represented in this people. This therefore was done. 5 5473. For it is for the bestowing of a blessing upon you this day. The blessing was the representative priesthood into which they were now entering. 5474. When man is intent on no other things than such as come before the senses, then spirits apprehend nothing else than those same things. And that this may be the case without the concurrence of the internals in the man, the choir of angels is disposed in the manner stated above [no 5409, 54~1, 5433, 5436-7, 5439], being so disposed, that the external things are apprehended by them and so are carried up. This also I have experienced in myself, namely, how that they apprehend only external things without their internals, being at once affected
This last sentence is emphasized by " Obs." written in the margin. * See n. 51537 note. No. 54753 is emphasized by "Ol>s." written twice in the margin.

III Ad. 3530-3535

361

5475-76]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

by the external. This is the case in the general man, as being itself a man. But in me this could happen only rarely, being merely for the sake of demonstration and thus of confirma tion; for among the external things, the internal also were present at the same time, and these I could clearly discern. Therefore, when holy things were being represented, they were represented around the tent of assembly and the ark, where was the choir of angels. This is the reason why at that time, all the rites were carried on there in so holy a manner, lest any thing external should come in which might disturb. As to whether the angels of God Messiah could have been present with this people in other places, this must be doubted, save in the case of :M:oses, Joshua, and some others whose names are not here preserved, and also in the case of infants. 6 5475. In the presence of the altar, the tabernacle, etc., all those things were aroused which were present [with the choir of angels], and they were so disposed by God Messiah that a most holy representation might come to the inmost. There fore, all things were so furnished that innumerable ideas might be formed in entire accordance with the decision of God Mes siah, all justification and all salvation and the whole kingdom of God Messiah being thus represented with infinite variety. This variety arose from the specific composition of all and single things; for nothing could be so holy that it could not be set forth in this way, and he who comprehends the idea of the rites and ceremonies in this church can acquire an idea of all the arcana which are of the true Christian church. 7
[THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE JEWISH CHURCH AND THE TR ULY CHRISTIAN]

I thirrgs~e contained in t h e ' s Pra er. As to how infinite


ar;-the arcana wlich thiL rayer involves, this I could learn
No. 54-14- is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, S.\'. Repraesentatio, Spiritus, and with nos. 54-15-6, 54-18, S.\'. Intel'iora, Ecclesia, Eroterna, and Ordo. See Table of Contents. r No. 54-15, which is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin, is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, S.v. Repraesentatio and Spilitus. See Table of Contents; see also the preceding note.

I \

5476. But in the truly- Christian i:hUI:.C.h, all and single

III Ad. 3536-3537

JEWISH AND TRULY CHRISTIAN CHURCH

[5477-78

Ir

from the thin s that have been insinuated with me daily with inex ressible variety wh~n I read th~ ra er. 8 5477. In the truly Christian church, that is, in the internal man, things external are entirely withdrawn from things in ernal, so that when the former are seen by the eye or heard by the ear, the internal man does not apprehend them, but is left inwardly to itself, and in this way all things are referred to things inmost. NoLs_o hen the ext.e_ nal senses lire resent. Then men bestow but a slight glance on internals-~s ~ \ man has been so habituated that extern~l things bringno conI fus~n but carry him to the intern~thing~ ';hich C<;resp ond. 9 ) 5478. Take, for instance, "bread" in the Prayer of our Lord. When the holy bread on the table was represented be fore their eyes, and also the loaves on the whole burnt offering/ the eyes of the people placed the holiness in the bread. Hence what is then represented is bread as applied to every necessity of life, and also to all spiritual food, and likewise to celestial, and finally to God Messiah who is the Heavenl Bread and the (manna Joh~ 631- 35 ]. For this reason also they had heav~y bread every day [chap. 1635 ], to the end that God Messiah alone might be continually represented in their food, that so he might be the All in all. The like is also infused into the hu man mind in the Lord's Prayer; for since [the idea of] bread extends to all the necessities of natural life, so, by the internal man, it is~.xtende<LtQ.Jlllth~ necessities of s intual anacelestTa.l life. This then is the" daily bread" [Matt. 611 , Luke 11 ]. From this it can also be seen how greatly the Jewish church, being merely representative, differed from the truly Christian church, seeing that its ~re is ~h tha!~ resentations are not within the man, and so are not lifted up, but are only ( outside th~n. When theya;:;-withi; the man;they are cir cumstanced in the same way as in the choir of angels; and the church is then one and the same with the truly Christian

No. 5476, together with n. 5478 is cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia, s.v. Oratio, Repm6sentatio and Spiritus. See able of ontents; see a so n. 5474 no e. No. 5477, which is emphasized by" Ohs." written twice in the margin, is not cited by the Author in the Index to his Memorabilia. 1 One would expect to read "on the table"; for bread was not used in the whole burnt offering.

IH Ad. 3538-3541

363

5479-81]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

church; for by reason of the connection by means of corre (spondence, t~e latter can represent to itself what is spiritual and celestial in every single objeet. 2 5479. Thus in man representation goes from externals ~ inmosts, it being in this way that the gate to heaven is opened, -a gate whichotherwise is ~1.2sed. For it is God Messiah ;ho produces this effect; namely, that there is nothjpg that is ~t thus carried up to Him. This is done-sole y y faith in God -.r.x- essiah. \On the other hand when the internal man p~es over to the external, as was the case in Moses, then it is not the inmost that operates but a certain natural wherein is the spir itual. Hence the radiatIon 0 I os~e (chap. 34 35 ). The internal man is radiant not in face but inmostly, as can be evi dent from the Word of God Messiah. s

5480. [And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up unto Jehovah; peradventure I shall make atonement for your sin], vs. 30. While the people was thus in terror because it had been smit ten, Moses waited till the next day. Thus he left the people in their terror, uncertain as to whether or not they would all be slain. When in terror, men obey whatever is then told them; for, as stated above [n. 5460], they know nothing else than to humble themselves. Thus this people could then for the first time acknowledge their sin. Terror is something that takes away all hope of safety. Such was the terror of Jacob when Esau came to meet him; and as to how ardently he then prayed, this can be evident from Genesis
3~9-12.

5481. "To sin a great sin" does not signify a grievous sin; for man's sinning consists in his sinning in thought or within him self, the sinning a sin being what breaks forth therefrom into act. A great sin is thus actual sin of the most grievous kind, for in the ,Vord of God Messiah" great" or " exceeding" signifies the super lative. Thin idolatry in the midst of miracles while God Messiah
See n. 5476 note. [The following unnumbered continuation of these 'ndented paragraphs is here crossed off by the Author:] From the above, many things can be deduced I with respect to Christi~ty as regards the external rites of the church rites hich.J:Jmtrilmte nothin whatever to alY.a.tion,Jm oleLy_ aJ:!:J man [no 5479 is not cited by the uthor ~Index to his Memorabilia]. -
2

364

III Ad.

354~-3548

EXODUS XXXII: 30

[548~-83

was showing his presence and grace before their eyes, is the most grievous sin, there being none that can be more grievous. Idola try is what is called adultery or the going a whoring after strange gods; for it is loving the devil and thus hating God Messiah who so greatly loved them. This we learn clearly enough from the fact that they had in mind to resist Moses also; for with the excep tion of the sons of Levi, not one of them gathered around him when he said, Who is for Jehovah? Let him come to' me! [vs. ~6]. As to the reason which led these sons to gather around him, this can be evident; for they could not have been aroused thereto save from a natural cause, fear of death, favor, because Moses was of their tribe, etc., but not from love of Jehovah. 5482. To go up unto J ehovah is an expression everywhere in use [in the "Vord of God Messiah]. In the proximate sense it here means to go up to the mountain; in the interior sense, to that which is higher and more sublime; in the more interior sense, to those things which are more interior or higher; and thus, in the inmost sense, to God Messiah who is called the Mountain, and here mount Sinai. Therefore it also signifies the same thing as entering into the shrine, into the tent of assembly, into the habitacle, into the ark, etc. In the present case, because the going up was a repre sentation, and God Messiah appeared not only in miracles but also before the eyes of Moses on mount Sinai, therefore, " going up " is here used in its proper sense. 5483. It must be observed that in the Jewish church which was merely representative, words were used in their proper or proxi mate sense, for otherwise they could not have been understood by the people. Therefore, neither [do they understand them any dif ferently] at the present day; for so long as they are of such a character, they can [not] be admitted to things interior, still less to things more interior, and least of all to things inmost. As to how far a man can be thus admitted, this can be seen from his understanding of the Word of God Messiah. 4 lt is a matter of great wonder, however, that men, even those. who wish to be esteemed wise or learned, hardly wish to admit of there being any other sense in God Messiah's 'Vord of the Old Testament than the proximate, that is, the external sense. This comes, indeed, from the Providence of God Messiah, to the end namely, that they may
This first part of n. 5483 is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.

IIX Ad. 3549-3553

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5484]

THE WORD EXPLAINED

not fall into errors when submitting these words to the philosophy of the mind or to ratiocination concerning things more interior. Still it is a matter of common knowledge that such men do explain these same words in El more interior sense-but by means of com parison; as, for instance, in respect to the golden calf, it being a common practice to compare the avaricious with this calf, and to compare persons of such a character with those who make for themselves a golden calf and adore it; and so in a great many other cases; 5 thus, as though the like meaning was not meant by God Messiah who dictated this Word by the mouth of Moses. They likewise know what is meant by " going up unto Jehovah," but still they do not readily admit such an explanation. Who then wishes to believe that these words, one and all, look to the kingdom of God Messiah and to the Messiah himself? 5484. Peradventure I shall make atonement for your sin. In the proximate sense, this means to make earnest prayer on account of their sin. But here lies something deeply concealed, namely, that God Messiah now willed to pray for this people; for previ ously [vs. 13] he had prayed for the entire globe, that is, for Israel in the entire globe. This prayer he obtained, for we read in verse 14 that" Jehovah was moved with repentance over the evil which he had spoken to do unto his people." There he says" his people," when yet [previously (vs. 7)] he calls it Moses' people, etc., as above [n. 5318 seq.]. Therefore, he now willed to pray for this people, that is, to make intercession for them; and this was done with an ardor so urgent that it could not possibly be more urgent. The word atonement is used when one puts oneself in the place of another, and declares that he is willing to be blotted out of the book of Jehovah, provided only that other be pardoned. This could not have been done save from pure love, and he who feels this in himself, has it not from himself but from him who is God and is pure Love. 6 The prayer or intercession for this people was in entire.correspondence with its crime, for with this they were blotted out of the book of life. Moses could never have known this, nor even what the book of life is. Therefore the correspond ence lay in his saying that he wished himself to be blotted out of
The passage concerning the use of comparisons is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin. 6 This part of n. 5484, from the word" Therefore," is emphasized by " Obs." written twice in the margin.

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