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SEX AND CULTURE: Humans come in two varieties female and male ( SEX the genetic and physical

al identity of a person and is meant to signify the fact that one is either male or female) This is one facts of life that we share with most animal species. However, even if we have different organs of reproduction, it does not explain why we differ in other physical ways. Notice that many animal species hardly differ. It does not also explain why males and females should differ in behavior or be treated differently by society(GENDER ROLES- defined as the expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes and activities of males & females). Physical Differences Based on General Appearance: MALES taller have heavier skeletons larger proportion of body weight in muscle greater grip strength larger heart and lungs greater aerobic capacity ( greater maximum uptake of oxygen during exercise FEMALES - have proportionately wider pelvises - larger proportion in fat - (opposite to that of a male)

According to Anthropologist, all societies have some sex differences in the way they assign or divide labor. The question is why this is so? ( WHY THE DIVISION OF LABOR BY SEX UNIVERSAL?) Worldwide Pattern in the Division of Labor by Sex
MALES ALMOST ALWAYS Hunt Trap small animals MALES USSUALLY Fish Herd Large animals Clear land Prepare soil for hunting Butcher Animals EITHER SEX OR BOTH Collect shellfish Care for small animals Plant crops Tend crops Harvest Crops Milk Animals Preserve meat or fish FEMALES USSUALLY Gather wild plants FEMALES ALMOST ALWAYS



Care for Children Cook Prepare -vegetable food -drinks -dairy products Launder


Work with wood Work with mineral and stones Work with bone, horn, or shell Exercise political leadership

Build houses Make Nets Make Rope

Fetch water Collect fuel Prepare skins Make -leather products -baskets -mats -clothing -pottery Spin yarn

THEORIES 1. STRENGTH THEORY: The greater the strength of males, and their superior capacity to mobilize strength in quick burst in energy, has commonly been cited as the reason in the division of labor ( WEAKNESS: It cannot readily explain all the observed patterns. And in some societies women engage in very heavy labor) 2. COMPATIBILITY WITH CHILD-CARE THEORY: the argument here is that womens tasks tend to be those that are more compatible with child care (Note: Most societies, women breast-feed their children for 2 years in the average). Womens task may be those that do not take them far from home for long periods, that do not place children in potential danger if they are taken along. (WEAKNESS: It cannot explain why men usually prepare soil for planting, make boats, houses, or work bone, horn, or shell). 3. EXPENDABILITY THEORY: Men, rather than women will tend to do the dangerous work in a society because men are more expendable, because the loss of men is les advantageous than the loss of women( Remember gentlemen; that if you loose youre lives in your line of job, reproduction need not suffer long, as most fertile women have sexual access to men) GENDER ROLE SOCIALIZATION All of us can describe the traditional gender-role patterns which have been influential in the socialization of children. Males get blue blankets, while female get pink ones. Boys are expected to play with trucks, and toy soldiers; girls are given dolls and kitchen goods. Boys must be masculine active, aggressive, daring, and dominant whereas girls must be feminine soft emotional, sweet, & submissive. What/Who are the agents of socialization: 1. Adults ( parents)- besides teaching and treating our children on the basis of their sex. Children do also by identifying with females and males in their families.

2. Mass Media- (televisions tends to reinforce conventional gender roles) ( Studies shows also that books also underrepresent females - Most of the female characters were portrayed as helpless, passive, incompetent, and in need of s strong male caretaker) 3. Religious Institution 4. Educational Institution EXPLAINING STRATIFICATION BY GENDER: Cross cultural studies shows that societies dominated by men ( Contributions to subsistence, Political Leadership and Warfare,. Etc.)are much more common than those in which women play the decisive role. 1. FUNCTIONALIST VIEW: Gender differentiation has contributed to overall social stability. In order to function most efficiently, the family requires adults who will specialize in particular role. Instrumentality: refers to the emphasis on tasks, focus on more distant goals, and a concern for external relationships between ones family and other social institutions. Role taken by males. Expressiveness: denotes concern for maintenance of harmony and internal emotional affairs of the family. By females obviously. Division of Household Tasks by Gender: Caring for Sick children Preparing Meals 28% Caring for Children in Daily Basis Cleaning The House 22% Washing dishes 31% Doing yardWork 21% 63% females Making Minor Home Repairs 16% 74%
(Proportion by each sex saying they do all or most of a task)

78% 10% 78% 72% 12% 69% 68%


2. THE CONFLICT RESPONSE: see gender differences as a reflection of the subjugation of one group by another group. - Traditional gender roles do not simply assign various qualities and behaviors to females and males . It suggests that the two crucial messages of gender-role stereotypes are that boys are better and girls are meant to be mothers ( so children are socialized to accept traditional gender-role divisions as natural and just. WOMEN: THE OPPRESSED MAJORITY 1. MARGINALIZATION: ( Economic) - under on non valuation of womens work - unequal pay for work of equal value - women are last to be hired and first to be fired - economic opportunities for women are limited 2. SUBORDINATION ( Political) a. manifested in their status on society b. position they handle c. decision making process 3. MULTIPLE BURDEN - parenting - housework - work outside the home 3. GENDER STEREOTYPING - Child rearing Occupation/education Language/behavior 4. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN - verbal, psychological or physical abuse - domestic violence, prostitution, rape - women have no control over their bodies OTHER GENDER ISSUES: 1. Lack of legal rights or power to make decisions ADD ON :

Few issues seem to stir as much intense conflict as abortion. Feminists argued that the right to abortion was fundamental to womens sexual and reproductive freedom. In their view, women, not legislatures or judges should have an unconditional right to decide whether and under what circumstances they would bear children. Feminists further insisted that no law would ever prevent women from obtaining abortions. The issue was simply whether these abortions would be performed safely by doctors, or dangerously by backroom abortionists or by pregnant women themselves. 2. Division of labor ( or male /female roles) a. provider vs. the nurturer b. preservation of family at all costs 3. Preference for Boys a. support for education b. carry the name of the family 4. Abuse of male authority over young female members - sexual advances/ abuse/ incest /sgd