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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Introduction Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the environment, on individual, organizational or governmental level, for the benefit of the natural environment and (or) humans. Due to the pressures of population and our technology the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized and governments began placing restraints on activities that caused environmental degradation. Since the 1960s activism by the environmental movement has created awareness of the various environmental issues. There is not a full agreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity and protection measures are occasionally criticized. Academic institutions now offer courses such as environmental studies, environmental management and environmental engineering that study the history and methods of environmental protection. Protection of the environment is needed from various human activities. Waste, pollution, loss of biodiversity, and the introduction of invasive species are some of the issues relating to environmental protection. Eco Logic works with communities to foster sustainable livelihoods and protect biodiversity. We aim to conserve unique landscapes in Central America and Mexico by putting poor, rural communities in charge of managing local natural resources. By working with local partners we are helping communities become better environmental stewards of their land. Our Five Areas of Focus: 1. Water Resource Management In Central America, only 21% of the freshwater available in 1950 remains today. This decline is due to extensive deforestation and a lack of economic incentives for sustainable land use. We work with community led water committees to protect their water sources through watershed management. 2. Forest Conservation Through reforestation, Protected Areas (PA) management plans, the installation of fuel efficient wood stoves, the establishment of agroforestry plots that reduce carbon emissions and increase crop yields, the training of "forest guardians" and park rangers, and more we aim to turn the tide on deforestation. 3. Carbon Plus Program Forest loss and degradation are major contributors to global climate change and constitute the second largest source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions after fossil fuel combustion. By using carbon profits as incentives for communities to decrease pressure on forests, the program

simultaneously conserves biodiversity and important ecosystems, increases forest carbon stocks, and strengthens rural communities. 4. Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) A voluntary transaction where the provider of an environmental service is compensated by a buyer for continuously securing the provision of that service. In other words, the buyer compensates the provider for protecting the environment and ensuring that an ecosystem service will continue to exist. 5. Sustainable Livelihood Alternatives We understand that lack of alternatives is a major reason the rural poor degrade natural resources. Eco Logic works to promote sustainable agriculture, non-timber forest products and community enterprise. We are working to provide these alternative opportunities that improve individual and community well-being. Evolving approaches to environmental protection Discussion concerning environmental protection often focuses on the role of government, legislation and enforcement, however in its broadest sense environmental protection may be seen to be the responsibility of all people and not simply that of government. Decisions that impact on the environment will ideally involve a broad range of stakeholders including industry, indigenous groups, and environmental group and community representatives. Gradually environmental decision-making processes are evolving to reflect this broad base of stakeholders and are becoming more collaborative in many countries.[2] Environmental protection is influenced by three interwoven factors: environmental legislation, ethics and education. Each of these factors plays its part in influencing national level environmental decisions and personal level environmental values and behaviours. For environmental protection to become a reality it will be important for societies to develop each of these areas that together will inform and drive environmental decisions.[3] Although environmental protection is not simply the role of government agencies they are however generally seen as being of prime importance in establishing and maintaining basic standards that protect both the environment and the people interacting with it. Outlined below are several approaches to environmental protection that are currently evolving. Further discussion on approaches to environmental protection is included on the pages related to natural resource management, environmental governance and environmental law. Voluntary Environmental agreements In industrialised countries voluntary environmental agreements often provide a platform for companies to be recognized for moving beyond the minimum regulatory standards and thus support the development of best environmental practice.[4] In developing countries such as throughout Latin America, these agreements are more commonly used to remedy significant levels of non-compliance with mandatory regulation.[5] The challenges that exist with these

agreements lie in establishing baseline data, targets, monitoring and reporting. Due to the difficulties inherent in evaluating effectiveness their use is often questioned and indeed the environment may well be adversely affected as a result. The key advantage of their use in developing countries is that their use helps to build environmental management capacity.[6]

Ecosystems approach An ecosystems approach to resource management and environmental protection aims to consider the complex interrelationships of an entire ecosystem in decision making rather than simply responding to specific issues and challenges. Ideally the decision-making processes under such an approach would be a collaborative approach to planning and decision-making that involves a broad range of stakeholders across all relevant government departments as well as representatives of industry, environmental groups and community. This approach ideally supports better exchange of information, development of conflict resolution strategies and improved regional conservation.[7] Kyoto Protocol Commitment map 2010 Many of the earths resources are especially vulnerable because they are influenced by human impacts across many countries. As a result of this many attempts are made by countries to develop agreements that are signed by multiple governments to prevent damage or manage the impacts of human activity on natural resources. This can include agreements that impact on factors such as climate, oceans, rivers and air pollution. These international environmental agreements are sometimes legally binding documents that have legal implications when they are not followed and at other times are more agreements in principle or as codes of conduct. These agreements have a long history with some multinational agreements being in place from as early as 1910 in Europe, America and Africa.[8] Some of the most well known multinational agreements include: the Kyoto Protocol, Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer and Rio Declaration on Development and Environment.

Questions: 1. What are the precautions to be taken for eco- friendly Industrial Environment? 2. What are the measures to be adopted to control the usage of resources?

Source Compiled By

: CA Club : Abilash A Thattil

Email ID & Mob : absaks123@gmail.com, 9496349211.