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UAVs for Civil Applications Are we geared up?

Squadron Leader (Retd) V.S. Srinivasan Head UAV Flight Operations

UAS POTENTIAL

Unmanned aircraft promise new ways to increase efficiency, save money, enhance safety and even save lives. FAA November 2010

Scope
Definition & Classification of UAVs Payloads Civil applications Case studies Unmanned Aerial Systems in India Challenges for civil use UAS Way forward
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Definitions
Unmanned Aircraft (UA)
An aircraft which is designed to operate with no human pilot on board, as part of a UAS. Moreover a UA is:
Capable of sustained flight by aerodynamic means Remotely piloted or automatically flies a pre-programmed flight profile Reusable Not classified as a guided weapon or similar one-shot device designed for the delivery of munitions.
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UAS Components
Unmanned aircraft (UA) Ground Control Stations (GCS)

Payloads

Other System Elements


Datalink , Launch and Recovery

Classification of UAVs

Performance Specifications

Mission aspects

Category 1

Civil Small UAV Light UAV UAV

AUW < 20 Kg

Military Equivalent Nano, Micro

2 3

20 150 kg Mini, Tactical > 150 kg MALE, HALE

3/2/2012

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Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR)

Combat (Armed UAVs and UCAVs)

Multi-Purpose
Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) Radar and Communication Relay

Aerial Delivery and Resupply, Casevac/Medevac etc


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Why Classify?
Performance Aspects

Most suitable platform


Mission Aspects
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ELECTRO-OPTIC

OPERATES IN THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM


OPERATES IN THE INFRA RED SPECTRUM

INFRA-RED

IMAGING IN 3-10 BANDS MULTISPECTRAL VIS RED, VIS GREEN, VIS BLUE, NEAR IR ETC

HYPERSPECTRAL CONTINUOUS SPECTRAL MEASUREMENT OF 100 BANDS


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Radar Electronic Lidar Radiometric

SAR/ISAR Ground / Foliage penetration SIGINT COMINT

Ground mapping Vegetation to terrain clearance


Nuclear radiation monitoring EMP & Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics
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Persistent Presence in Area of Interest

Dull, Dirty and Dangerous Missions

Reliable, Accurate and Real Time Data

Remote / Dangerous Locations


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Mission Specific Payloads

Night Operable

Lower Operating Costs

Lower Consequence of Loss/Crash


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Law and order

Counter insurgency Internal security and anti terror Roadways and freight corridors Floods Earthquakes Fire

Disaster management

Surveillance

Vital installations Public events Forests - anti-poaching Coastal - smuggling & trafficking
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Case Study#1: COUNTER TERRORISM OPERATIONS

Features of CI Operations
Intelligence Detection and Classification Deployment of Own Forces
Reliable Accurate Timely Forest Cover Jungle Camps Night Move Decision Making Access Routes: Dangers of IED/Ambush Tracking and Position Update Capture/Surrender Minimise Casualties Least Collateral Damage
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Arrest

Advantages Of UAVs in CI Ops


Persistent Wide Area Surveillance
Long Endurance Mission specific high resolution sensors Real-time data availability Data record and retrieval

Force Protection
Advanced Intelligence Support Simultaneous Data Access To Several Recipients Faster Decision Making Reduced Sensor To Shooter Cycle : Alert And Re-task Forces Reduced Casualties Better Co-ordination

Day and Night Vision Sensors

Foliage Penetration Sensors

Motion Detection Sensors

UAV Endurance

Real Time Situational Awareness

Signal and Data Processing


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Minefield imaged at 2000ft AGL with a Single Polarisation SAR Left : Buried Mines at about 30cm and invisible Right: Surface laid Sensors: Ultra Wide Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Gimbal Stabilised Electro Optic Camera Software Advanced Signal Processors Imagery

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ASSET MONITORING

Oil and gas pipelines Power Transmission lines Railway lines Crop spraying Crop management Digital elevation mapping Volumetric measurements Rail and highways corridor mapping Forestry Water & Offshore platforms

AGRICULTURE
LAND MANAGEMENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REMOTE SENSING

Environmental mapping Geological mapping


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Case Study #2: Aerial Survey Transmission Powerlines

3/2/2012

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Aerial Platforms: Options


ENDURANCE DATA AVAILABILITY FUEL 5:00 HRS Post-mission 2000 LTS 3:00 HRS Post-mission 600 LTS >10:00 HRS Real-time 140 LTS

PAYLOADS
PAYLOAD OPERATORS MISSION CHANGES

On-board
All on board Post-mission

AUW Dependent
Few on board Post-mission
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Mission Specific
As & when Reqd In flight

Powerline Survey Requirements


Electrical
Insulation Isolators Corona

Visual
Sag and Sway of Cable Vegetation Structural Integrity Theft

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Diagnostic tools
Isolators & Insulators Cable
Corona Detection by UV Scanner IR for Hot spots
IR For Hot Spots EO for fray, discontinuity LiDAR for Sag and Sway EO for Damage/Theft IR for Night Surveillance

Structural Integrity
Vegetation

LiDAR for ground clearance of cables EO /IR for visual surveillance


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Hot-Spot Detection

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UV Corona Detection

Corona discharges from highvoltage lines and equipment

indicative of possible faults

Detection of cracked insulators

CORONA DISCHARGE (HIGHVOLTAGE SPOTS)


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LIDAR Images

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Mission Planning Concept


UV Scanner IR Video Aerial Photo LIDAR

Autonomous Production of 3D Geo Infrastructure Image

Fusion of Images From Sensors 3-D Model Surveillance Planning Maintenance activities Emergency reaction

Fault / Change Detection In Time


Transfer Data & Results

Case Study: Findings


All Terrain Application Faster than traditional methods Increased safety for personnel Enables Condition Based Monitoring

Digitisation of Records Less costly than conventional methods


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HERON- 2000
ISRD, SAR ELINT, COMINT

LAKSHYA- 1999
TARGET TOW

UAVs IN INDIA

SEARCHER -2000
ISRD, ELINT

Nishant

The Indian UAV Opportunity


Limited to Military Users Indian UAVs
By DRDO Imported

Private Companies
Offset Obligations for Defence Contracts Licensed Manufacturers

Huge Potential
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Challenges
Aircrew Airspace Airworthiness Awareness

Airworthiness
Ability to operate without significant hazard Safety of general public Limited application of manned aircraft certification criteria Total system certification approach Catch 22 Situation Regulators require a sample System to certify Industry requires regulations to bring in such system
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Airspace
Equivalent level of safety to manned aircraft

Rules for non-segregated UAS Operations


Reliable and predictable behaviour Transparent to ATC personnel & other users

Standards for emergency response


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Aircrew
Validated criteria for UAS Pilot training UAS pilots to be well versed in Rules of the Air Incorporate elements unique to UAS operations

Tailored training criteria


Emulate training philosophy of Armed Forces
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Enhance UAV Production In India


Public and Private Sector Co-operation Civil and Commercial Applications Regulations for Flight Operations Creation of Joint Working Group in India

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