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# Chennai Institute of Technology

1. Calibration Test Rig For Venturimeter. USER MANUAL Calibration test rig for Venturimeters INTRODUCTION: To control Industrial processes, it is essential to know the amount of material entering and leaving the process. Many different types of meters are used industrially. A few types of flow meters measure the mass flow rate directly, but the majority measures the volumetric flow rate or the average fluid velocity from which the volumetric flow rate can be calculated. Venturimeter is an apparatus for finding out the discharge of a liquid flowing in a pipe. A Venturimeter in it simplest form consists of the following three parts. a. Convergent Cone. b. Throat and c. Divergent Cone. The principle of the orifice meter is identical with that of the Venturimeter. However the Venturimeter has certain practical disadvantages for ordinary plant practice. It is expensive, it occupies considerable space its ratio of throat Diameter to pipe cannot be changed. For a given meter and definite Manometer system, the maximum measurable flow rate is fixed. So if the flow range is changed, the throat diameter may be too large to give an accurate reading or too small to accommodate the maximum flow rate.

Description: The apparatus consisting of Venturimeters of two different Sizes fitted separately on pipeline with flow control valves. Pressure tapping from Venturimeters are connected to a multiport manifold and to Manometer. The whole unit is mounted on a sturdy iron stand. A collecting tank with gauge glass, scale fitting and a drain valve. A sump tank with a monoblock pumping unit is provided.

Aim : To determine the co-efficient of discharge of the Venturimeter. Procedure: 1. Measure the length and breadth of the collecting tank. L= B 2. m. = m.

Open the respective valve in a pipeline and close all other valves. Adjust the flow suitably Note the left limb reading (h1) m and right limb reading (h2) m of the manometer.

3.

4. Close the drain valve of the collecting tank. 5. Find the time taken for 10 cm (0.1 m) ( R ) rise of water level in the collecting tank. Staff Name: T. Sudhakar Dept : Mechanical Engineering 1

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6. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates and through different flow Meters. Calculations: For Venturimeter I: Diameter of the pipe Diameter of the throat For Venturimeter II: Diameter of the pipe Diameter of the Throat

## Area of the collecting tank A = L x B = Area of the pipeline = (/4)*d12 m2.

Theoretical discharge Qt = K h m3 / sec. Where K = a1* a2 2g / (a12 - a22) Where g = 9.81 m/sec2

h = h1 - h2 (S1/S2 1) m of water column Where S1 and S2 are densities of manometric fluid and water respectively. In the case of inverted water manometer the value of h = h1 h2 m Actual discharge Qa = AR/ t m3/sec. Co-efficient of Meter C = Qa / Qt. Tabulate the readings as below: Manometer Reading Hg h2 cm

## Chennai Institute of Technology

2. Calibration Test Rig For Orifice meter USER MANUAL Calibration test rig for Orifice Meter INTRODUCTION: To control Industrial processes, it is essential to know the amount of material entering and leaving the process. Many different types of meters are used industrially. A few types of flow meters measures the mass flow rate directly, but the majority measure the volumetric flow rate or the average fluid velocity from which the volumetric flow rate can be calculated. Venturimeter is an apparatus for finding out the discharge of a liquid flowing in a pipe. A Venturimeter in it simplest form consists of the following three parts. b. Convergent Cone. b. Throat and c. Divergent Cone. The principle of the orifice meter is identical with that of the Venturimeter. However the Venturimeter has certain practical disadvantages for ordinary plant practice. It is expensive, it occupies considerable space its ratio of throat Diameter to pipe cannot be changed. For a given meter and definite Manometer system, the maximum measurable flow rate is fixed. So if the flow range is changed, the throat diameter may be too large to give an accurate reading or too small to accommodate the maximum flow rate.

The orifice meter meets these objections to the Venturimeter but at the price of large power consumption. (i.e. the pressure recovery in an orifice meter is poor.)

An orifice meter in its simple form consists of a plate having a sharp circular hole. This plate is fixed in a pipeline with flanges for measuring the discharge of flowing liquid.

Description: The apparatus consisting of orificemeter fitted separately on pipeline with flow control valves. Pressure tapping from Orifice meters is connected to a multi port manifold and to Manometer. The whole unit is mounted on a sturdy iron stand. A collecting tank with gauge glass, scale fitting and a drain valve.

## Procedure: 1. L= B= Measure the length and breadth of the collecting tank. m. m.

2. Open the respective valve in the pipeline and close all other valves. Adjust the Flow suitably 3. Note the left limb reading (h1) m and right limb reading (h2) m of the manometer. 4. Close the drain valve of the collecting tank. 5. Find the time taken for 10 cm (0.1 m) ( R ) rise of water level in the collecting tank. 6. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates and through different flow Meters. Calculations: For Orificemeter I: Diameter of the pipe Orifice Diameter d1 = 0.04 m d2 =0.024 m.

For Orifice meter II: Diameter of the pipe d1 = 0.025 m Orifice Diameter d2 =0.015 m Area of the collecting tank A = L x B = m2. 2 2 Area of the pipeline = (/4)*d1 m . Theoretical discharge Qt = K h m3 / sec. Where g = 9.81 m/sec2 Where K = a1* a2 2g / (a12 - a22) h = h1 - h2 (S1/S2 1) m of water column Where S1 and S2 are densities of manometric fluid and water respectively. In the case of inverted water manometer the value of h = h1 h2 m Actual discharge Qa = AR/ t m3/sec. Co-efficient of Meter C = Qa / Qt Tabulate the readings as below: Manometer Reading Hg h2 cm

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3. LOSSES IN PIPE LINE FITTINGS USER MANUAL LOSSES IN PIPE LINE FITTINGS

INTRODUCTION:

Whenever the velocity of a fluid is changed, either in direction or magnitude, by a change in the direction or size of the conduct friction is generated in addition to the skin friction from flow through the straight pipe. However such friction includes form friction resulting from vortices that develop when the normal streamlines disturbed and when boundary layer separation occurs. However these effects cannot be calculated precisely. The object of this experiment is to find the loss co-efficient at different joints of interest, and to estimate the total loss of head by friction. DESCRIPTION: The apparatus consisting of piping system with 2 GI pipelines of sizes 25 and 15mm with sudden expansion, sudden contraction, bend and Elbow. A multipoint manifold connects the pressure tappings to a manometer. A collecting tank with gauge glass, scale fittings and a drain valve provided. Aim : To study flow in pipes and determine the losses due to pipe fittings minor losses. Procedure: 1) Measure the length and breadth of the collecting tank and find the area A m2 2) Open the respective cocks in the manifold where the head loss due to friction is to be measured close all other valves and

pressure cocks. Adjust the flow rate suitably. 3) 4) 5) 6) Note the left limb reading (h1) m and right limb reading (h2) m of the Manometer. Close the drain valve of the collecting tank. Find the time taken t for 10 cm (0.1 m)rise ( R ) of water in the collecting tank t = sec. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates and flow through different Fittings.

## Calculation: Diameter of the pipe d = m

Loss of head due to friction for that particular joint h = h1 - h2 ((S1/S2) 1))m. Where S1 & S2 are densities of manometric fluid and water respectively. In the case of inverted water manometer the value of h = h1 h2 m For contraction h = K * v22/2g , where v2 is the velocity in the smaller pipe on the down stream side and K is the Loss coefficient. The velocity v2 may be calculated knowing the area of the pipe and the total discharge. Area of the pipe on the downstream side (a) =( d2)/4 = m2 3 Quantity of water collected Qa = AR/t m / sec For expansion h = K(v1 v2)2 / 2g Where v1 and v2 are the velocities of water in the smaller pipe and in the bigger diameter pipe respectively. The velocity may be calculated as detailed above. Staff Name: T. Sudhakar Dept : Mechanical Engineering 5

m2

## Time for 10cm raise in water level in sec. Collecting tank.

Result: The coefficient of loss due to a) b) c) d) Sudden Expansion = Sudden Contraction= (Fittings) Bend = (Fittings) Elbow =

## Chennai Institute of Technology

4. PELTON WHEEL TURBINE TEST RIG USER MANUAL INTRODUCTION. The Pelton wheel turbine test rig is supplied as a complete set to conduct experiment on model Pelton wheel turbine in Engineering College and technical Institutions. It has been specially designed to conduct experiments in METRIC UNITS. The test rig consists essentially of (1) Pelton wheel Turbine (2) A Supply water to the above Pelton turbine (3) A flow measuring unit consisting of Orificemeter and pressure gauge (4) Piping system. GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Pelton wheel turbine consists of casing overhung bearings housing and rotor assembly, shaft, brake drum and brake arrangement all mounted on suitable MS base. A transparent section made of clear acrylic sheet provided at the runner side of the turbine makes it possible to have visual observation of flow in the buckets. The casing safeguards the runner against accident and also prevents the splashing of water. The horizontal shaft rotates in roller bearing supports the overhung buckets. The runner is fixed to the horizontal shaft. On the periphery of the runner bucket are fixed uniformly by means of steel bolts. This facilities replacing of worn out bucket (which may occur after longer periods of usage) in case any of the buckets wears out. The Nozzle assembly is bolted to the casing in such a way that the inlet pipe is kept vertically upwards. The spear inside the nozzle can be moved radically towards the runner thereby regulating the quantity of water flowing through the nozzle. The water in the form of jet strikes the buckets thus causing it to rotate.

A belt brake arrangement is provided to load the turbine. The output of the turbine can be controlled by regulating the jet of water striking he runner buckets. The net supply head on the turbine is measured means of a Pressure gauge and the speed of the turbine may be measured using a hand tachometer.

CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES CASING: Casing is fabricated from MS Plates with integral base and the loading frame. RUNNER: Runner is made of steel and machined precisely and fixed to the horizontal shaft. The bucket resembles a

hemispherical cup with a dividing wall in its center in the radial direction of the runner. The buckets are arranged uniformly on the periphery of the runner. The complete assembly is Nickel plated to prevent corrosion and also to have a smooth finish. NOZZLE ASSEMBLY: Nozzle Assembly consists essentially of a spear, a control rod, a hand wheel and the input pipe. The water from the supply pump is made to pass through the nozzle before it enters the turbine. Shaft is made of s.steel rod and carries the runner and the brake drum.

## Chennai Institute of Technology

BEARING: Bearings are of high quality to ensure smooth operation for longer periods with provision for grease lubrication. BRAKE ARRANGEMENT: Brake arrangement consists of machined and polished brake drum, cooling water pipes internal water scoop, discharge pipe spring balances, belt arrangement, supporting stand , etc. for loading of the turbine. BASE FRAME:Base frame is made of MS Channel for sturdy construction and it is an integral part of the casting.

COMMISSIONING

NOTE THE FOLLOWING 1.Operation of the bearing, temperature rise, noise etc. 2.Vibration of the unit. 3. Steady constant speed and speed fluctuations if any. If the operation of the above parts is normal then load the turbine slowly and take readings. Open the water inlet valve and allow some cooling water through the brake drum when the turbine runs under load so that the heat generated by brake drum is carried by the cooling water. Do not load the turbine suddenly. Load the turbine gradually. TO SHUT DOWN: Before switching off the supply pump, first remove the all load, and close the drum cooling inlet water gate valve. Then close the main valve and switch off supply pump set. Never SWITICH OFF THE SUPPLY PUMPSET WHEN THE TURBINE IS WORKING UNDER LOAD, Should the electric line trips the off when the turbine is working, first release the load from the turbine. MAINTENANCE: The units are built very sturdy and they do not require any routine a regular maintenance. However we recommend the following to be done once in a year to increase the life of element. Lubricate all the working parts where provision for lubrication is made. Remove the grease and apply fresh grease. Then run the machine for a few minutes to eject the excess grease in bearing housing. Over greasing results in excessive heat generation due to pumping action of the bearing and it is as harmful as under greasing.

Never run pump without water in it. Never try throttling the suction side of the pump to control discharge as it would seriously affect the performance of the pump.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

Pelton TURBINE
1. Rated supply head 2. Discharge - 30 m - 450 1pm

## Chennai Institute of Technology

3. Rated Speed 4. Runner outside Diameter 5. No. of Pelton cups 6. Brake drum diameter 7. Power Output

## - 800 rpm - 250 mm - 18 Nos. - 200 mm - 1HP

FLOW MEASURING UNIT 1. Size of Orifice meter 3.Throat diameter 4. Pressure gauge - 50 mm - 30 mm - 7 kg/cm2

TESTING OF THE PELTON WHEEL TURBINE TEST RIG OBJECTIVES Determine brake power and efficiency of Pelton wheel at constant head and speed for different gate openings. Calculate the actual discharge of water flowing through the system utilizing the Orificemeter and manometer. Calculate the input power from the head of water at the base of the nozzle which is read on the pressure gauge and actual discharge. Calculate the brake power from the rpm of the shaft, radius of the rope brake drum and the applied load. Calculate the efficiency from the output brake power and the input power computed. Aim : To study the characteristics of Pelton Wheeel 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Experimental Procedure (CONSTANT HEAD) Start the pump. Gradually open the delivery valve of the pump. Adjust the nozzle at th of the opening approximately, by operating the needle valve (Spear) by the hand wheel. The head should be made constant by operating the delivery valve and the head should be maintained at constant value. Observe the speed of the wheel using the tachometer. Observe the reading h1 and h2 corresponding the fluid level in the two manometer limbs, which are connected to the orificemeter. Apply load on the brake drum, using screw rod provided on the loading frame and tighten the lock nut, note the speed of the turbine using the tachometer, and spring balances readings. 8. 9. Repeat step 7 for repeating the experiment. Repeat the experiment for , ( approximately) and full opening of the nozzle maintaining the head constant by adjusting the Inlet Valve. Aim: To determine the characteristic of the pelton wheel. Experimental procedure (Constant Speed Method.) 1. Close the delivery valve of the pump.

## Chennai Institute of Technology

2. 3. 4. 5.

Start the Pump. Gradually open the delivery valve of the pump and adjust the nozzle at of the opening. Read the pressure gauge and note down the value Apply the load on the brake drum so that the speed shown by the tachometer comes to the rated speed and note this rated speed. Note down the spring balances reading attached to the brake drum.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Observe and note the reading of the manometer limbs. Manipulate the discharge through the valve and control the speed at the rated value and note the spring balances readings. Observe and note down the manometer readings h1 &h2 Repeat the experiment for different loads.

10. Repeat the experiment for different and full opening of the nozzle. Tabular Column

Turbine Speed N

## Spring Balance Reading LOAD T1 T2 Kg.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Calculations: Input power (Pi) = g*Q**H watts Flow rate of water Q = a1*a2 * 2gh / a1 a22 Where a1 = Area of the inlet of the orifice meter. a2= Area of the orifice meter. h = h1-h2 Head of water on turbine = H mtrs. of water column.( Convert the Pressure/Vacuum gauge readings to mtrs of W.C) Out put power (Po) =2 /60 watts, where N is the turbine speed in rpm, and T = torque = Radius of the brake drum * Difference in spring balance reading in Kg * g Efficiency of the turbine = Po / Pi

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Graphs: The following graphs are drawn taking speed on x-axis: a) Speed (N) vs I/P power b) Speed (N) vs %efficiency c) Speed (N) Vs Discharge.

Result: 1. Efficiency of the pelton wheel. 2. Corresponding Discharge = 3. Corresponding Pi = 4. Corresponding N = 5. Corresponding Sp. Speed =

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## Chennai Institute of Technology

5. FRANCIS TURBINE TEST RIG USER MANUAL FRANCIS TURBINE TEST RIG

The Francis Turbine test rig is supplied as a complete set to conduct experiments on model Francis Turbine in Institutions. It has been specially designed to conduct experiments in metric units. The Test Rig mainly consists of Francis Turbine, A Supply pump unit to supply water to the Francis Turbine Flow measuring unit consisting of a Orifice meter with a Manometer, and piping system and Control valve. GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The unit essentially consists of a spiral casing, and rotor assembly with runner shaft and brake drum, all mounted on a suitable sturdy base frame. An elbow fitted draft tube is provided for the purpose of regaining the kinetic energy from the exit water and also facilitating easy accessibility of the turbine due to its location at a higher level than the tailrace. A transparent hollow Perspex cylinder is provided in between the draft bend and the casing for the purpose of observation of flow at exit of runner. A belt brake arrangement is provided to load the turbine. The net supply head on the turbine is measured by a pressure and vacuum gauge. Technical Specifications: Francis Turbine 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rated supply head Discharge Rated speed Power Output Brake drum diameter 1HP 200 mm. 7 meters. 1200 lpm 800 rpm.

FLOW MEASURING UNIT: Size of Pipe Orifice diameter Manometer 100 mm 80 mm Double column differential type

STARTING UP Make sure before starting that the pipelines are free from foreign matter. Also note whether all the joints are watertight and leak proof. Prime the pump and start it with closed gate valve. bearings in the units are properly lubricated.

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Then slowly open the gate valve situated above the turbine and open the cock fitted to the pressure gauge and see that the pump develops the rated head. If the pump develops the required head, Run the turbine at the normal speed (1200 rpm) for about one hour and carefully note the following:

1. Operation of the bearings, temperature rise, noise etc. 2. Vibration of the unit. 3 Steady constant speed and speed fluctuations if any. In addition to this on the pump side, note the operation of the stuffing box (The stuffing box should show an occasional drip of water. If the gland is over tightened the leakage stops but the packing will heat up, burn and damage the shaft).

If the operation of the above parts are normal, load the turbine slowly and take readings. Open the water inlet valve and allow some cooling water through the brake drum when the turbine runs under load, so that the heat generated by the brake drum is carried away by the cooling water. Do not suddenly load the turbine. Load the turbine gradually and at the same time open the guide vanes to run the turbine at the normal speed TO SHUT DOWN Before switching off the supply pump, first remove all the load on the turbine. Close the cooling inlet water gate valve. Slowly close the guide vanes to its full closed position. Then close the gate valve just above the turbine. Manometer cocks and Orifice meter cocks should also be closed, in order to isolate the Manometer. Then switch off the supply pump. Never switch off the supply pump when the turbine is working under load. Should the electric line trips off when the turbine is working, first unload turbine, close all the valves and cocks. Start the electric motor again, when the line gets the power and then operate the turbine by opening the valves in the order said above. TESTING Water turbines are tested in the hydraulic laboratory to demonstrate how tests on small water turbine are carried out, to study their construction, and to give the students a clear knowledge about the different types of turbines and their characteristics. Apply load slowly by adjusting the screw rod connected to the belt, for loading the brake drum and tighten the lock nut. The speed gets reduced, Open the Gate valve to an extent the speed is 900 rpm again. Note the spring balance reading, Pressure gauge reading and manometer reading. Plot graphs BP Vs efficiency The experiment may also be repeated at constant net supply head. by varying the load, speed and guide vane settings.

However the net supply head on the turbine may be reduced and the turbine tested in which case the power developed by the turbine and the best efficiency speed will also is reduced. Though the turbines can also be tested at higher net supply heads, the supply pump cannot develop the higher head at the same time maintaining higher rate of flow.

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The output power from the turbine is calculated from the readings taken on the brake and the speed of the shaft. The input power supplied to the turbine is calculated from the net supply head on the turbine and discharge through the turbine. Efficiency of the turbine being the ratio between the output and input and can be determined from these two readings.

The discharge is measured by the Orifice meter and the Manometer fitted with the calibrated Scale. Supply head is measured with the help of the pressure gauge. (Any calibration error of the gauges, the difference in levels of the pressure and vacuum gauge should also be taken into account). The speed of the turbine is measured with a hand tachometer.

It is suggested that the turbines shall be tested at normal speed, 3 speeds below normal speed, 3 speeds above normal speed. After starting and running the turbine at normal speed for some time, load the turbine and take readings. Note the following:

1. Net supply head pressure and vacuum gauge readings plus (height of pressure gauge over vacuum gauge). 2. Discharge (Manometer readings) 3. Turbine shaft speed. 4. Spring balance reading. For any particular setting of the guide vanes first run the turbine at light load and then gradually load it. The net supply head on the turbine shall be maintained constant at the rated value, and adjusting the gate valve fitted just above the turbine can do this. Calculations: Input power (Pi) = g*Q**H watts Flow rate of water Q = a1*a2 * 2gh / a1 a22 Where a1 = Area of the inlet of the orifice meter. a2= Area of the orifice meter. h = h1-h2 Head of water on turbine = H mtrs. of water column.( Convert the Pressure/Vacuum gauge readings to mtrs of W.C) Out put power (Po) =2 /60 watts, where N is the turbine speed in rpm, and T = torque = Radius of the brake drum * Difference in spring balance reading in Kg * g Efficiency of the turbine = Po / Pi

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Tabular Column

Sl No:

Spring Balance Reading Pressure Gauge Reading Gauge Reading Vacuum Manometer Reading Turbine Speed Spring Balance Reading LOAD Kg/cm Kg/cm T1 T2 N h1 cm h2 cm Kg.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Graphs: The following graphs are drawn taking speed on x-axis: a) Speed (N) vs I/P power b) Speed (N) vs %efficiency c) Speed (N) Vs Discharge.

Result: 1. Efficiency of the Francis Turbine 2. Corresponding Discharge = 3. Corresponding Pi = 4. Corresponding N = 5. Corresponding Sp. Speed =

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6. Kaplan Turbine Test Rig USER MANUAL Kaplan Turbine Test Rig Introduction: The Kaplan Turbine test rig is supplied as a complete set to conduct experiments on model Kaplan turbine in Technical Institution. The test rig consists essentially of (1) Kaplan turbine, (2) A supply pump unit to supply water to the above Kaplan turbine, (3) A flow measuring unit consisting a Orificemeter and Manometer (4) Piping system & A sump tank..

General Description: The Kaplan turbine consists mainly of a spiral casing with supporting legs, overhung Bearing housing, and assembly with bladed runner, shaft and brake drum and brake arrangement all mounted on a suitable M.S. base. An elbow draft tube is provided with a draught bend immediately after the runner, for the purpose of regaining the kinetic energy from the exit water and also facilitating easy accessibility of the turbine due to its location at a higher level than the tail race. The operation of regaining the kinetic energy from the exist water by means of draft tube assumes great importance in high specific speed hydraulic turbines, as the absolute velocity of water leaving the runner is high. A transparent hollow Perspex cylinder is provided in between the draught bend and the casing for observation of flow behind the runner. A belt brake arrangement is provided to load the turbine. The net supply head on the turbine is measured by means of a pressure gauge. Constructional Specification: Spiral Casing : Cast iron with smooth inner section, and flanged connection

: Runner with four blades . All parts coming in contact with water are made of SS. : Stainless steel : Designed for long life with provision for grease lubrication. : Is provided at the exit with a transparent cylindrical window for observation of flow past the runner. : consists of a machined and polished cast iron brake drum, spring balances, belt brake etc., arranged for loading the turbine. : M.S. Channels for sturdy construction.

Technical Specifications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rated supply head Discharge Rated speed Power Output Brake drum diameter 7 meters. 1200 lpm 900 rpm. 1HP 200 mm.

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FLOW MEASURING UNIT: Size of Pipe Orifice diameter Manometer 75 mm Double column differential type 125 mm

The turbine is placed on a Channel base situated at a suitable height from the floor level. The supply pump draws water from the sump tank and supplies it to the turbine. The Orifice meter and Manometer arrangement are provided to measure the rate of flow.

A valve is provided after the outlet of the pump to regulate the discharge and supply head on the turbine

Make sure before starting that the pipelines are free from foreign matter. Also note whether all the joints are watertight and leak proof. While starting, the valve near the pump should be closed. This precaution is necessary because pumps requires high power while starting. See that all the bearings in the units are properly lubricated. Then slowly open the valve near the pump and see that the pump develops the rated head the turbine attains the normal rated speed of 900 rpm. Run the turbine at the rated speed for about one hour and carefully note the following.

Operation of the bearings, temperature rise, noise etc., Vibration of the unit. Steady constant speed and speed fluctuations, if any.

In addition to this, on the pump side note the operation of the stuffing box. (The Stuffing box should show an occasionally drip of water. If the gland is over tightened, the leakage stops, but the packing will heat up, burn and damage the Shaft). If the operation of the above parts are normal load the turbine slowly and take readings. Open the water inlet valve and allow some cooling water through brake drum when the turbine runs under load, so that the heat generated by the brake drum is carried away by the cooling water. Do not suddenly load the turbine. Load the turbine gradually and at the same time open the guide vanes to run the turbine at the normal speed.

To Shut Down: Before switching off the supply pump set, first remove the entire load, Manometer cocks should also be closed in order to isolate the manometer. Then close the main valve, and switch off the supply pump set.

NEVER SWITCH OFF THE SUPPLY PUMPSET WHEN THE TURBINE IS WORKING UNDER LOAD.

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Should the electric line trips off when the turbine is working, first unload the turbine, close all the valves and cocks.. Start the electric motor again when the line gets the power and then operate the turbine by opening the valves in the order said above.

Testing: Water turbines are tested in the hydraulic laboratory to demonstrate how tests on small water turbines are carried out, to study their construction, and to give the students a clear knowledge about the different types of turbines and their characteristics.

Turbines shall be first tested at constant net supply head (at the rated a value of 7m) by varying the load, speed, However, the net supply head on the turbine may be reduced and the turbine tested in which case the power developed by the turbine and the best efficiency speed will also be reduced. Though the turbine can also be tested at higher net supply heads, the supply pump set cannot provide the higher head at the same time maintaining higher rate of flow.

The output power from the turbine is calculated from the reading taken on the brake and the speed of the shaft. The input power supplied to the turbine is calculated from the net supply head on the turbine and discharge through the Turbine. Efficiency of the turbine being the ratio between the output and input can be determined from these readings.

The discharge is measured by the Orifice meter and with the manometer. Supply head is measured with the help of the pressure gauge and vacuum gauge. The speed of the turbine may be measured with a hand tachometer.

After starting and running the turbine at normal speed for some time load the turbine and take readings Note the following: Net supply head (The differential of the readings on pressure & vacuum gauges. Discharge (Manometer reading). Turbine shaft speed Spring balance reading.

For any particular setting of the guide vane and runner blades first run the turbine at light load and then gradually load it.. The net supply head on the turbine shall be maintained constant at the rated value, and this can be done by adjusting the valve fitted just after the pump.

Maintenance: As these units are built very sturdily, they do not require any routine or regular maintenance. However, we recommend the following to be done Lubricate all the working parts where provision for lubrication is made. Never run the pump without water in it, as this would cause damage to stuffing box, bush bearing etc. Never try to throttle the suction side of the pump to control discharge as it would

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Seriously affect the performance of the pump. Regularly run the Turbine at least 3 days in a week at the rated speed. Aim : To study the characteristics of Kaplan Turbine

Tabular Column

Sl No:

Spring Balance Reading Pressure Gauge Reading Gauge Reading Vacuum Manometer Reading Turbine Speed Spring Balance Reading LOAD Kg/cm Kg/cm T1 T2 h1 cm h2 cm N Kg.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Calculations: Input power (Pi) = g*Q**H watts Flow rate of water Q = a1*a2 * 2gh / a1 a22 Where a1 = Area of the inlet of the orifice meter. a2= Area of the orifice meter. h = h1-h2 Head of water on turbine = H mtrs. of water column.( Convert the Pressure/Vacuum gauge readings to mtrs of W.C) Out put power (Po) =2 /60 watts, where N is the turbine speed in rpm, and T = torque = Radius of the brake drum * Difference in spring balance reading in Kg * g Efficiency of the turbine = Po / Pi

Graphs: The following graphs are drawn taking speed on x-axis: a) Speed (N) vs I/P power b) Speed (N) vs %efficiency c) Speed (N) Vs Discharge.

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Result : 1. Efficiency of the Kaplan Turbine 2. Corresponding Discharge = 3. Corresponding Pi = 4. Corresponding N = 5. Corresponding Sp. Speed =

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7. Rotometer Test Rig USER MANUAL Rotometer Test Rig Introduction In the orifice, nozzle or venturi, the variations of flow rate through a constant area generate a variable pressure drop, which is related to the flow rate. Another class of meters, called area meters, consists of devices in which the pressure drop is constant or nearly so, and the area through which the fluid flows varies with flow rate.

Description The most important area meter is a Rotometer. It consists essentially of a gradually tapered glass tube mounted vertically in a frame with the large end up. The fluid flows upward through the tapered tube and suspends freely a float (Which does not actually float but is completely submerged in the fluid). The float is the indicating element and the greater the flow rate, the higher the float rides in the tube. The entire fluid stream must flow through the annular space between the float and the tube well. The tube is marked in divisions, and the reading of the meter is obtained from the scale reading at the reading edge of the float, which is taken at the largest cross section of the float. Rotometers can be used for either liquid- or gas flow measurement. The bore of a Rotometer tube is either an accurately formed plain conical taper parallel with the axis of the tube. The tube shown in Fig. is a tapered tube. In the Rotometers angled notches in the top of the float made it rotate, but the float does not rotate in most current designs. For opaque liquids, for high temperatures or pressures, or for other conditions where glass is impracticable, metal tubes are used. Metal tubes are plain tapered. Since in a metal tube the float is invisible, means must be provided for either indicating or transmitting the meter reading. This is accomplished by attaching a rod, called an extension, to the top or bottom of the float and using the extension as an armature. The extension is enclosed in a fluid tight tube mounted on one of the fittings. Since the inside of this tube communicates directly with the interior of the Rotometer, no stuffing box for the extension is needed. The tube is surrounded by external induction coils the length of the extension exposed to the coils varies with the position of the float. This is turn change the inductance of the coil, and the variation of the inductance is measured electrically to operate a control valve or to give a reading on a recorder. Also, a magnetic follower, mounted outside the extension tube and adjacent to a vertical scale, can be used as a visual indicator for the top edge of the extension. By such modifications the Rotometer has developed from a simple visual indicating instrument using only glass tubes into a versatile recording and controlling device.

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Floats may be constructed of metals of various densities from lead to aluminium or from glass or plastic. Stainless steel floats are common. Float shapes and proportions are also varied for different applications. Model Calculations

Sl.No

## Time Taken for raise for 10 cm

Drag Force

FLOAT

Area of the Collecting Tank = Side x Side m2 Raise in water level in the collecting tank= 10 cm = 0.1 m Quantity of water Collected =Qa= 3600AR/t m3/hr Rotometer reading x 1000 m3/hr % Error = (Rotometer reading Qa)/Rotometer reading x 100%

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## Chennai Institute of Technology

8. SUBMERSIBLE PUMP TEST RIG USER MANUAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP TEST RIG

INTRODUCTION: Submersible pump is a multistage pump with a difference the pump and motor are submerged in water. Since there is a limitation on the suction head of a ordinary pumps this pump is used where the suction head is large.

The submersible pump test rig consisting of multistage mixed flow impellers arranged on a single shaft with a submersible motor of 3 hp capacity. The suction housing of the pump is arranged between the pump and the motor and is guarded by a perforated strainer.

The pump is used to provide high discharge with medium total head. The outlet of the pump is connected to a 1 delivery pipe with a pressure gauge to indicate the total head developed and a flow control valve. A Orifice meter of inlet Diameter 40 mm and throat Diameter 24 mm is connected to the delivery pipe with a manometer to measure discharge. Panel with switch, starter and energy meter provided to note the input energy for the pump

PROCEDURE:

Adjust the delivery valve and maintain required delivery head. Note the reading Note the manometer reading. For different delivery head repeat the experiment. For every set of reading note the time taken for 10 Rev. energy meter. CALCULATION: The total effective head H in meters of W.C. = Hd

Since the delivery pressure is in Kg/cm2 the total head developed by the pump to be converted in mtrs. of water column. Where Hd = Delivery head Discharge Q = a1 a2 2ghw / a12 a22 m3/sec. Where a1 = Inlet area of Orifice meter. a2 = Throat area of Orifice meter hw = (h1 h2 ) x m / w

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## Chennai Institute of Technology

Where h1 and h2 are manometer reading and M = density of mercury. W = density of water.

The work done by the pump is given by Po = ( * g * Q * H)/1000 KW. The Input power Pi = 3600/t x 10/t KW.

Graph:

Plot graphs

## Discharge Vs power. Discharge Vs Head. Discharge Vs Efficiency.

Result : 1. Efficiency of the Submersible 2. Corresponding Discharge = 3. Corresponding Pi = 4. Corresponding N = 5. Corresponding Sp. Speed =

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## Chennai Institute of Technology

9. GEAR PUMP TEST RIG USER MANUAL GEAR PUMP TEST RIG The gear pump Test Rig consisting of a gear pump coupled to an induction Motor through flexible coupling. The pump is mounted on an oil sump and a suction pipe with suction gauge, delivery pipe with delivery gauge, discharge control valve etc provided. This being a positive displacement pump full closing of the delivery control valve should be avoided.

A collecting tank with gauge glass and scale fittings with drain valve fittings provided to measure the pump discharge and to drain back the oil to the sump.

A panel with switch, starter and energy meter provided to note the input power. The gear pump consists of two identical intermeshing spur wheels working with a fine clearance inside the casing. The wheels are so designed that they form a fluid tight joint at the point of contact. One of the wheels is keyed to the driving shaft and the other revolves as a driven wheel.

The pump is first filled with the liquid before it is started, As the gear rotate, the liquid is trapped in between their teeth and is flown to the discharge end round the casing The rotating gears build up sufficient pressure to force the liquid into the delivery pipe. Each tooth of gear acts like a piston of a reciprocating pump to force liquid into the discharge line.

Note: Oil using grade SAE 20/40W lubricating oil. PROCEDURE: Prime the pump if necessary, open the delivery valve and switch on the unit. Close the delivery valve and maintain required delivery head. Note the reading Note the corresponding suction head. Measure the area of the collecting tank. Close the drain valve and note the time for 10 cm rise of oil level in the collecting tank For different delivery head repeat the experiment. For every set of reading note the time taken for 10 Rev. energy meter CALCULATION: The total effective head H in meters of oil column = Hd + Hs + X Since the delivery pressure is in Kg/cm2 and the suction gauge readings are in mm of Hg, the total head developed by the pump to be converted in mtrs. of oil column. Where Hd = Delivery head Hs = Suction head Staff Name: T. Sudhakar Dept : Mechanical Engineering 25

X Note:

## = Datum level difference.

The Velocity head and the loss of head in the suction pipe are neglected. Knowing the discharge Q = AR/t m3 / sec. The work done by the pump is given by Po = ( * g * Q * H)/1000 KW.

The energy meter constant is noted (E - rev/KWH) OR E Rev / 3600 Sec = 1 KW Hence input Power Pi = (3600/E) x (10/T) KW Efficiency = Po/Pi x 100

S..No S No

## For 10 cms (r ) Collecting Tank (t )

Result : 1. Efficiency of the Gear Pump 2. Corresponding Discharge = 3. Corresponding Pi = 4. Corresponding N = 5. Corresponding Sp. Speed =

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## 10. MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TEST RIG USER MANUAL

MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TEST RIG INTRODUCTION: The Maximum head that it is practicable to generate in a single impeller is limited by the peripheral speed reasonably attainable. A so-called high energy centrifugal pump can develop a head of more than 650 ft (200) in a single stage, but generally when a head greater than about 10 ft (30m) is needed, two or more impellers can be mounted in series on a single shaft and a multistage pump so obtained. The discharge from the first stage provides suction for the second,the discharge from the second provides suction for the third, and so forth. The developed heads of all stages add to give a total head several times that of a single stage. The discharge from the pump is measured using a collecting tank with a gauge glass and scale fittings. The control panel with switch starter and energy meter provided on an ms stand. PROCEDURE: Prime the pump, close the delivery valve and switch on the unit. Open the delivery valve and maintain required delivery head. Note the suction head corresponding. Measure the area of the collecting tank. Close the drain valve and collect water for 10 cm rise of water level in the tank. The actual discharge is given by AR/t cm3 / sec for various pump head, note the discharge. For every set of reading note the time taken for 10 rev energy meter.

CALCULATIONS: The total effective head H in meters of W.C. = Hd + Hs + X Where Hd = Delivery head Hs = Suction head X Knowing the discharge Q = AR/t m3 / sec. The work done by the pump is given by Po = x g x Q x H/1000 KW. The Input power Staff Name: T. Sudhakar Dept : Mechanical Engineering 27 = Datum level

Note: The Velocity head and the loss of head in the suction pipe is neglected.

imp/Kwhr.

## The efficiency of the pump = = Po/Pi x 100 % Tabular Column :

Sl No:

Pressure Gauge Vacuum Gauge Reading For 10 call. Of Time For 5 cm Raise in Collecting Time Energy Reading Meter Tank mm of Hg t t Kg/cm Sec Sec.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Result : 1. Efficiency of the Multistage Centrifugal pump= 2. Corresponding Discharge = 3. Corresponding Pi = 4. Corresponding N = 5. Corresponding Sp. Speed =

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## Chennai Institute of Technology

11. SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TEST RIG USER MANUAL SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TEST RIG

INTRODUCTION: The pump which raises water from a lower level to a higher level by the action of Centrifugal force is known as centrifugal pump. The pump lifts water because of atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of water. The pump reduces the pressure in the casing to such an extent that the atmospheric pressure forces up water in the suction pipe

DESCRIPTION: The centrifugal pump with motor mounted on a sturdy iron base plate. The suction pipe is provided with a suction gauge, and a foot valve. The delivery pipe with a priming valve, delivery control valve, and a pressure gauge. The discharge from the pump is measured using a collecting tank with a gauge glass. Panel with switch starter and energy meter provided.

PROCEDURE: Prime the pump, close the delivery valve and switch on the unit. Open the delivery valve and maintain required delivery head. Note the reading Note the corresponding suction head. Measure the area of the collecting tank, A. Close the drain valve and note the time for 10 cm ( 0.1 m ), R rise of water level in the collecting tank For different delivery head repeat the experiment. For every set of reading note the time taken for 10 Rev. energy meter. CALCULATION: The total effective head H in meters of W.C. = Hd + Hs + X

Since the delivery pressure is in Kg/cm2 and the suction gauge readings are in mm of Hg, the total head developed by the pump to be converted in mtrs. of water column. Where HD = Delivery head HS = Suction head X Note: The Velocity head and the loss of head in the suction pipe are neglected. Knowing the discharge Q = AR/t m3 / sec. The work done by the pump is given by = Datum level difference.

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## Po = ( * g * Q * H)/1000 KW. The Input power Pi = 3600/t x 10/t KW.

The efficiency of the pump = Po / Pi x 100 % IN CASE OF MEASURING THE DISCHARGE USING VENTURIMETER Cd of the venturimeter =0.9 Diameter of the inlet Diameter of the Throat d1=5 cm d2=3 cm. = (/4)*d12 cm2. = (/4)*d22 cm2.

Area of the inlet of the venturimeter a1 Area at the throat of the venturimeter a2 Discharge Q = K h cm3 / sec. Where K = Cd* (a1* a2 2g / (a12 - a22))

## Where g = 981 cm/sec2

h = h1 - h2 (S1/S2 1) cm of water column Where S1 and S2 are densities of manometric fluid and water respectively. S1 = 13600 Kg/m3 for Mercury S2= 1000 Kg/m3 for water Tabular Column Suction Gauge Reading mm of Hg. Delivery Gauge Reading for 5 call of Energy meter 10 cm raise in water level in Time Time for reading t in sec. Collecting Tank Reading Kg/cm2

Result : 1. Efficiency of the Single Stage Centrifugal Pump= 2. Corresponding Discharge = 3. Corresponding Pi = 4. Corresponding N = 5. Corresponding Sp. Speed =

12. RECIPROCATING PUMP TEST RIG Staff Name: T. Sudhakar Dept : Mechanical Engineering 30

## Chennai Institute of Technology

USER MANUAL INTRODUCTION: Reciprocating pumps are also classified as positive displacement pumps as a definite volume of liquid is trapped in a chamber which is alternatively filled from the inlet and emptied at a higher pressure through the discharge. Most piston pumps are acting with liquid admitted alternatively on each side of the piston so that one part of the cylinder is being filled while the other is being emptied to minimize fluctuations in the discharge. DESCRIPTION: It consists of a double action reciprocating pump of size 25 x 20 mm with air vessel coupled to a 1 HP, 1440 RPM single phase Ac motor, piping system consisting of pipes, gate valve, foot valve, pressure and vacuum gauges. Collecting tank with gauge glass scale fittings and drain valve. Panel with switch, starter and energy meter. PROCEDURE: Keep the delivery valve open and switch on the pump. Slowly close the delivery valve Note the delivery and suction gauge reading. Note the time for 10 Rev of energy meter. Note the time for 10 cm rise in water level in the collecting tank. Note the speed of the pump (N) RPM. Repeat the procedure for various openings of the delivery valve Tabulate the readings as below: and maintain a constant head.

S..No S No

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## Chennai Institute of Technology

Note the Energy meter constant. (E) = Rev./KW.hr. Stroke length of the pump (L) = 0.045mtrs. Bore (d) = 0.04mtrs. Piston area Speed of the pump( rpm ) (A) = /4 (0.04)2 (N)

Area of the collecting tank (a ) m2 Calculations To find the percentage of slip = Qt Qa x 100 Qt Qt = Theoretical discharge. = 2LAN/60 m3/sec. Qa = Actual discharge = a(r)/t m3/sec , a= Area of the collecting tank,and t = time for ( r ) m rise in water level. To find the over all efficiency of the pump = Po/Pi Input power Pi = 3600/E (10/te) Kw. Output power Po = gQaH/1000 Kw. H = Suction head + Del. head in mtrs. of W.C.

Result : 1. Efficiency of the Reciprocating Pump= 2. Corresponding Discharge = 3. Corresponding Pi = 4. Corresponding N = 5. Corresponding Sp. Speed =

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