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Scope it is the total breadth of the activity in a subject field. This determines the extent or limits of activity or coverage. Example:
1. Economic Security 2. Peace and Order 3. Hygiene and Sanitation 4. Home Beautification

5. Food Production 6. Recreation 7. Civic Life 8. Moral Life

Sequence is the placement of curriculum content or learning experience from the standpoint of time. Example:
Grades I & II Home and family life and living in our schools III Living in our town and province. IV The Filipino and their past. V The Filipino nation and its resources. VI The Philippines in the community of Eastern and Western hemispheres and in the emerging work community

Steps in Curriculum Organization 1. Consideration of the educational aims to be achieved. 2. Formulation of educational objectives. 3. Selection and organization of the content. 4. Procedures and methods to be used to accomplish aims. 5. Selection of techniques for the evaluation of outcomes. 6. The selection of references and materials to be used by the learners and by the teachers. 7. Determination of specific grade outcomes and standards of attainment.

Selection and Organization of Content and learning Experiences in Curriculum Development

Curriculum Organization is the systematic arrangement of content and educational learning experiences for the effective employment of human and material resources for the attainment of educational objectives. refers to the structure and form of the curriculum.

Types of Curriculum Organization

1. Traditional Curriculum Patterns 2. Integrative Curriculum Patterns 3. Unified Program 1. Traditional Curriculum
a. Subject curriculum is an organization in which the school subjects

constitute the basis for organizing the school experiences of learners.

b. Correlated curriculum is one that articulates and establishes

relationships between two or more subjects on the basis of a topic or a theme, or teaching similar topics on two or more subjects simultaneously in an effort to help students gain a better understanding of such topics.
c. Broad Fields Curriculum is essentially an effort to overcome the

compartmentalization and atomization of the curriculum by combining several specific areas into larger fields.
2. Integrative Curriculum - entirely eliminates school subject division and

broad fields of subject matter and organizes the learning experiences of the work of the school around the learners needs, interests, abilities, major functions of social life, and normal activities of learners.
a. Learner-Centered Curriculum is one that organizes its learning

experiences and content around normal child activities such as exploring, listening, storytelling, playing and listening.
b. Experience Curriculum is one that places emphasis on the immediate felt

needs of learners and not on the anticipated needs and interest.

c. Core Curriculum is also called the social functions or Areas of Living

Curriculum. is intended to enable the learner to study problems that demand personal and social action in the contemporary world.

3. Unified Program

According to William B. Ragan, there should be a balance between extremes in educational theory and educational practice.

Curriculum Issues, Concerns and Responses

Curriculum managers and educational experts are always looking for better ways to achieve better learning through teaching. However, curriculum innovations seemed to be difficult for many, issues which need to be addressed. Certain aspects need to be clarified in order to overcome the attitude and feelings that create some concerns. Curricular Issues and Concerns

Poor academic performance of the learners. Issues on the varied implementation of the curriculum among schools and teachers seem to be the one of the reasons for the prevailing low performance of the schools all over the country. There is perennial complaint about books and other instructional materials. Overcrowded classrooms do not provide a good learning environment. Curricular innovations lack the sense of ownership from stakeholders. Sometimes the implementers lack full understanding of the changes or modifications that they are doing. The goal is unclear, thus there are a lot of questions in the implementation as well as evaluation from concerned persons. Because of these concerns, there is little support that comes from other stakeholders. They just leave the school to do it their own thus, giving the classroom teacher the burden. Some curricular innovations are results of bandwagon but are not well supported by the managers. In desire of some schools to be part of global educational scenario, changes and innovations are drastically implemented even if the school is not ready. They jus have to show that they are also keeping abreast of the development even if their equipment is insufficient. Lack of regular monitoring and evaluation. After a new curriculum has been installed, it is left unattended. Very little means is provided to find out if the implementation is running smoothly or not. When the time of implementation ends, sometimes there is no evaluation aspects, thus the innovation cannot be judged as failure or success for it to be continued or not. Innovations result to teacher burn out. With so many new changes taking place in the curriculum, many teachers are getting burn out. They get so tired quickly and motivation is very low because they cannot cope up with rapid changes that take place. Innovations are not communicated to all. Only the managers or the proponents understand the changes. Those who are directly involved merely follow hook line and sinker. This is called regimentation.

Responses to Issues and Concerns The BEC is an example of an innovation that tries to address the continuous decline in the learners performance in basic education and the DepEd is eager to provide support for its implementation. Among the support that DepEd provided were the fast tracking of textbook procurement, the retraining and upgrading of teachers, the teacher induction program, the support of principals and more initiatives. More school buildings were constructed and computers and other technology related equipment are provided. In the installation of a new curriculum or innovation, all stakeholders should be involved. Even in the planning stage, consultations should be held. Right at the beginning, the students, teachers, alumni, industry and other sectors involved in workshops, conferences and consultations. There is a need to respond to the fast changing times in terms of school curriculum innovations but the steps however, should be well planned and well studied. Changing for the sake of change is useless or even irrelevant if the innovation is not well studied. General practice seems to show that when anew curriculum is introduced or implemented, it ends without report of result. However, because this issue has been raised again and again, it is noteworthy to find new curricular programs have now embedded monitoring and evaluation in its plan. In fact, in the school-based innovations, principals have been empowered to conduct monitoring new curricular programs. Collaboration in the implementation of a new curriculum is very necessary. In School heads or managers, teachers, and learners should have adequate information about the innovation before it will be introduced. They must even help in deciding whether such innovation should be introduced or not.

Approaches to Curriculum Design

There are three commonly used approaches to curriculum design. These approaches are subject-centered, curriculum, learner-centered curriculum, and problem-centered. Each of these approaches has several specific examples. I. Subject-Centered Curriculum This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. This corresponds mostly to the textbook, written for the specific subject. Henry Morrison and William Harris- are the few curricularists who were firm believers of this design.
a. Subject Design- is the oldest and so far the most familiar design for

teachers, parents and layman.

b. Discipline Design- focuses on the academic disciplines. c. Correlation Design- This comes from a core, correlated curriculum

design that links, separate subject designs in order to reduce fragmentation.

d. Broad-Field Design/Interdisciplinary- is a variation of the subject-

centered design. II. Learner-Centered Curriculum The philosophy underlying in this curriculum design is that the child is the center of the educational process and the curriculum should be build upon his interest, abilities, purposes and needs.
a. Child-Centered Design- This design is often attributed to the

influence of John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi, and Froebel. Learners interact with the teacher and environment.
b. Experience-Centered Design- believes that the interest of learners

cannot be pre-planned.
c. Humanistic Design- the development of self is the ultimate objective

of learning. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers- are the key lead personalities in this curriculum design. II. Problem-Centered Curriculum This design draws on social needs, problem, interest and abilities of the learners.
d. Life-Situations Design- The contents are organized in ways that

allow students to clearly view problem areas clearly. .

e. Core Design- it is centered on general education and the problems are

based on common human activities.

Implementing Curriculum Change

There must be an examination of the place of formative process and summative evaluations of curriculum programs and of the practical materials for the actual process of installing new curricula in schools.

Change and the Curriculum Development

Before a developer can develop the skills needed to manage of the programs of innovations, a curriculum developer must have some knowledge of the change process itself. He must plan for the consequences that arise from the different change strategies employed. Effective curriculum change program must maintain the relevance of the schools to the current needs of the society.

Management of Change
Change- is defined as any alteration of the properties of one or more system elements; the relationship between system elements; the properties of the client system. Client System- defined as any recipient of a change element; any group of system elements characterized by natural boundaries (a school, a community, a nation). System Elements- is defined as discreet phenomena whether material (buildings, students, .people, pupils) or immaterial (ideas, attitudes, values) that are interrelated and can be considered as part of client system. Change Element- is defined as a material or immaterial phenomenon that is foreign or new to the client system, this includes new combinations of system elements. (ex. new relationship). Change Agent- is defined as the carrier of the change element. Resistance to Change- is defined efforts of the client system or of individual system elements to frustrate or slow the introduction of a change element or to alter its properties.

Persons Involved in Curriculum Design

The persons involved in curriculum design are teachers, students, administration, DepEd/CHED, alumni, parents, professionals, organizations, and business organizations. These are the persons who support and give life to the curriculum.
1. Internal- means inside a. Teachers- are the developers and implementers of the curriculum. They are

the curriculum maker. The one who prepares activities for the students to do.
b. Students- are the center of the curriculum. They are the reason why a

curriculum is developed. They are the primary stakeholder in the curriculum. They are the ones who make the curriculum alive.
c. Administration- They are the ones who provide optimum educational

opportunities for all the children in school, like equipment, supplies, finance, curriculum faculty and other personnel. They are the one who prepare the school budget and assist in curriculum construction.
d. DepEd/CHED- this are the two agencies that has mandatory and regulatory

powers over the implementation of any curricula, because all schools in the country are under the regulation of the national government as provided in the Philippine Constitution, then the government has a great stake in curriculum implementation.
2. External- means outside a. Alumni- These are the graduate students, the one who are already

experienced, and benefited the effectiveness of the curriculum.

b. Parents- They are the supporters of the curriculum, because they are the

ones paying for their childs education. They are willing to pay the cost of educating their child for as long as their children get the best learning or schooling experiences. They follow up the lessons of their children especially in basic education. They provide curriculum materials that are not provided in school. They provide permission for their children to participate in various activities outside the school campus.
c. Professionals- They are engaged in an occupation as a paid job rather than

as a hobby, showing a high degree of competence. They are being asked by curriculum specialists to contribute in curriculum review because they have a voice in licensure examinations, curriculum enhancement and many more.
d. Organizations- A group of people identified by shared interests or purpose.

This also refers to the group of students in school.

e. Business Organization- They are the company or other organization that

buys and sells goods, makes products or provide services for a course of study at a university, college and other education that teaches the basic principles of business and business practices.

Curriculum Evaluation
Every activity that has objectives needs corresponding evaluation that will determine the extent to which goals are being achieved. Evaluation therefore, is important for it serves as a way of making conclusions of the effectiveness of the activity being conducted. What is Curriculum evaluation? Curriculum evaluation refers to a systematic process of judging the value, effectiveness, and adequacy of a curriculum: its process, product and setting. Steps in Evaluating the Curriculum 1. Identification of the instructional objectives. 2. Selection and administration of instruments. 3. Data collection. 4. Data analysis. 5. Interpretation. Techniques of evaluation 1. Formative Evaluation - is done when pupils achievement or written tests are administered during preliminary tryouts of an educational program in order to improve a proposed curriculum. 2. Summative Evaluation - is terminal evaluation and it involves judgment of a finished product such as teaching machine or a curriculum on the market and assessing whether it is better than another or the best among others of its kind. 3. Payoff Evaluation - is the examination of the effects of the instrument or curriculum on student learning by comparing the results of pre- and post-tests or determining the scores of the experimental group and those of controlled group on specific criteria. 4. Intrinsic Evaluation - refers to the assessment of the educational program or the curriculum itself 5. Cost-Benefit Study - is figuring out of the opportunity cost, that is, the cost of forgoing, the next best alternative. Marks of a Good Curriculum A good curriculum is systematically planned and evaluated. A good curriculum maintains balance among all aims of the school. A good curriculum reflects adequately the aims of the school. A good curriculum promotes continuity of experience. A good curriculum arranges learning opportunities flexibly for adaptation to particular situations and individuals. A good curriculum utilizes the most effective learning experiences and resource available. A good curriculum makes maximum provision for the development of each learner.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Formulation of Objectives in Curriculum Design

An Activity which is intentional like the curriculum should be based for its effectiveness upon the origin of intentions, that is, upon the valued objectives of those and participating in the activity. Intentional, deliberate, organized activities and pressured concentration upon some things rather than others, making of choices and an establishment of properties. Curriculum developers today recognize the need to translate educational aims into educational objectives which suggest the process of and content element of learning. This specific objective serves as a reference for classroom selection and some modifications. It is important that the objectives must be sufficiently specific to guide instructional decisions in making the curriculum and since these objectives must be enumerated I a rational organization, it must propose some kind of organizational plan to the classroom teacher.

Educational Aims and Educational Objectives

Two Kinds of Educational Aims
1. Specialized Educational Aims- which establish criteria to be met before

educational technicians who render services to others.

2. General Educational Aims- which do not impose minimum standard

achievement, since this serve all men in their individual differences for adjustment and self-fulfillment. Two Kinds of Educational Objectives
1. Educational Objective is directly derived from an educational aim which

is formulated for students who are identified to their level of education, for example, primary, intermediate, secondary, collegiate, or college level.
2. Instructional Objective is suggested by an educational objective and

educational aims. Characteristics of Educational Objectives Rational curriculum development demands that educational objectives meet the following requirements:
1. Comprehensive. Full implications of educational aims may be returned to

the objectives in the process of derivation among substantive elements and transactions among the curriculum developers at the various curriculum planning.
2. Consistency. Logical faithfulness of the objectives to aims as well as that

the objectives must be maintained. The different objective must relate with the other and be supportive of the educational aims.
3. Attainability. The objective must be achievable by the students educational

purpose, result of studies in psychology may be used in achieving the attainability or not of objectives.
4. Feasibility. Educational objectives must be evaluated in the ways of

practical considerations including teacher competence, available instructional materials, time allotment, expenses involved, and the prejudice of the community served by the educational system.

Functions of Educational Objectives

Educational aims are stated in general levels in order to provide orientation to the main emphasis in education al programs. The educational objectives however, are more specific which describes behaviors or programs to be attained in a particular unit, a subject matter, course, educational level program. The function of the educational objective is to guide the making of curriculum decisions on what to cover, what to emphasize, what to select, and which learning experience to stretch.

Guidelines in the Formulation of Educational Objectives

1. Educational objectives must be clearly conceived and clearly stated. 2. A statement of objectives describes both the kind of behavior expertise and the content or the context on which the behavior is applied.
3. Complex educational objectives need to be stated analytically and

specifically enough so that there is no doubt as the kind of behavior expected. 4. Educational objectives should also be so formulated that there is clear distinctions among learning experiences required to attain different behaviors.
5. Educational objectives should be developmental, representing roads to

transfer rather than terminal points.

Sources of Educational Objectives

1. Objectives are derived from felt needs, social values and ideals.

Educational objectives must emerge from continuous studies of contemporary society, changing conditions, and trends, society, social values, and ideals in the growing needs and demands. 2. It is derived from studies and researches.

Educational Objectives in the Philippines

In the Philippine Educational System, the fundamental aims of education are provided in Sec. 3 if Article XIV of the 1987 constitution which states that: 1. Educational institution shall include the study of the constitution as prescribed in the curriculum.
2. They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity

and respect for human rights. Teach the rights and duties of citizenship stronger than ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage creative thinking and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency. Article II Sec. 17 states that the state shall priority to education, science and technology, arts culture and sports. Article XV also states that The state recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation.

Points of View of the Curriculum

Curriculum - is a set of subject/ body of subject which is prepared by the
teachers for the students or learners.

Robert M. Hutchins emphasized the basic education. Joseph Schwab stated that the curriculum is divided into chunk of
knowledge. (English, math, etc.) And the academic discipline becomes the view of what the curriculum is.

Progressive Point of View of Curriculum (experience is given importance)

- curriculum is defined as the total learning experience of an individual.

Coswell and Campbell curriculum is the all experience/ total

experience of children acquired under the guidance of their teachers.

Point of view on Curriculum Development it connotes changes

which are systematic. It also produce positive changes, development should be purposeful, planned and progressive.

Three Interacting Process in Curriculum Development

Planning Implementing Evaluation

Types of Curriculum Operating in School

Allan Glatthorn describes seven types of curriculum operating in school. 1. Recommended Curriculum proposed by scholars and professional organizations. It may come from a national agency like the Department of Education (DepEd), Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Department of Science and Technology (DOST) or professional organization. 2. Written Curriculum this includes documents, course of study or syllabi handed down to the schools, districts, division, department or colleges for implementation. Most of the written curriculums are made by the curriculum experts with the participations of the teachers. Examples of these are the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Another example is the written lesson plan of each classroom teacher made up of objectives and planned activities of the teachers. 3. Taught Curriculum the different planned which are put into action in the classroom composed of taught curriculum. These are varied activities that are implemented in order to arrive at the objectives or purpose of the written curriculum. 4. Supported Curriculum this refers to the support curriculum that includes materials, resources such as books, computers, audio-visual materials, laboratory equipment, playground, zoos, and other facilities. 5. Assessed Curriculum this refers to a tested or evaluated curriculum. At the end of the teaching episodes, series of evaluation are being done by the teachers to determine the extent of teaching or to tell if the student is having a progress. Assessment tools like the pencil and paper test, authentic instruments like portfolio are being utilized. 6. Learned Curriculum refers to the learning outcomes made by the students. Learning outcomes are indicated by the results of the tests and changes in between which can either be cognitive, affective and psychomotor. 7. Hidden Curriculum this is unintended curriculum which is deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence learning outcomes. Examples of these are peer influence, school environment, physical condition, teacher-learner interaction, mood of teachers and many other factors make up the hidden curriculum. Factors to be considered in Curriculum Development 6. Teaching-Learning Process a. Teacher b. Learner c. Learning situation 7. Teaching-Learning Process a. Teacher b. Learner c. Learning situation

8. Teaching-Learning Process
a. School

b. Community 9. Social Needs

Dimensions and Principles of Curriculum Design

Curriculum design provides clear relationship between and among the different elements of the curriculum: objectives, content, activities and evaluation. Considering all

of these elements, as curriculum designer, one has look into the parameters or dimensions upon which a design can be crafted.

Dimensions of Curriculum Scope- (Tyler, 2004) defines curriculum as all content, topics, learning experiences and
organizing threads comprising the educational plans. Scope does not refer to the cognitive content but, but also to the affective and psychomotor.

Sequence- contents and experiences are arranged in hierarchical manner. Some schools
formulate curricular objectives, content and experience by grade levels and consider the stages of thinking.

Smith, Stanley, and Shore (1957) Introduced Principles for Sequence 1. Simple to complex learning
Content and experiences are organized from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, from easy to difficult.

2. Prerequisite learning
It means that there are fundamental thing to be learned ahead. Example: 1. addition- multiplication 2. words - phrase

3. Whole to part learning

The meaning can be very well understood if everything will be taken as a whole. This principle is same as Gestalt Theory. Example: 1. forest before the trees 2. body systems to tissues/cells

4. Chronological learning
This principle is closely allied to history, political science, and world events. The sequence can be arranged from the most recent to the distant past or vice versa.

Major Principles for Organizing content in Units which can Also be Applied to a Curriculum (Posner and Rudnitsky, 1944) 1. World-Related Sequence
Relationship that exist among people, objects or events of the world;

a. Space
- Spatial relations will be the basis if the sequence. Example: 1. Closest to farthest 2. bottom to top three east to west

b. Time
- The content is based from the earliest to the more recent. - Same as Smith, Chronological Learning. Example: 1. Philippine president first to current 2. Discoveries from earliest to present

c. Physical Attributes - This principle refers to the physical characteristics of the phenomena like age, shape, size, brightness and others. Example: 1. 3 regions, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao should be taken ahead of Panay, Negros, Cebu and Bohol. 2. Heavenly bodies like stars, comets, galaxies should be ahead of planets.

2. Concept-Related Sequence
This arrangement reflects the organization of the conceptual world, how ideas are related together in a logical manner.

a. Class Relation
Class concept refers to the group or set of things that share common practices. Teaching the characteristics of the whole class ahead of the characteristics of the member of the class. Example: 1. Teach mammals before teaching specific animals. 2. Compare sound and light before teaching about wave motion.

b. Propositional Relation
Sequence is arranged so that evidence is presented ahead before proposition. Example: 1. Teaching the principle of equal protection under the laws then proceed to discuss Supreme Court decisions. 2. Study first the rules in moving decimal point before multiply, add, divide, and subtract it.

3. Inquiry-Related Sequence
This is based upon the scientific method of inquiry. Example: Scientific method- problem, hypothesis, observation, experimentation, evaluation

4. Learning-Related Sequence
This is based on the psychology of learning and how people learn experiences.

a. Empirical Prerequisites
Sequence primarily requires application based on empirical studies where the basics are required before learning the next level. Example: 1. Initial consonants- complex words. 2. Teach catching and throwing the ball before batting.

b. Familiarity
What is familiar should be taken up first before the unfamiliar. Example: 1. Teach the peso before the dollar. 2. Identifying the animals in the community before those in Manila Zoo.

c. Difficulty
Easy content is taken ahead than the difficult one. Example: 1. Rhymes before the blank words..

d. Interest
Use these content and experiences to whet their appetite for learning. These can arouse the curiosity of the learners. Example 1. Identify the different volcanoes before teaching about volcanism. 2. Identify the different beautiful scenery before different kinds of landforms.

e. Continuity
This process enables the learners to strengthen the permanency of learning and development of skills. Gerome Bruner calls this spiral curriculum where the content is organized according to the interrelationship between the structure/ pattern of a basic idea of major disciplines. Example: 1. Concepts of living things in science which continuously occurs in the elementary curriculum but with different complexity from level to level

f. Integration
Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of emerging themes. This is the essence of integration in the curriculum design. Merging or integrate the subject like math to science.

g. Articulation
This can be done either vertically or horizontally. In vertical articulation, contents are arranged from level to level or grade to grade so that the content in a lower level is connected to the next level. In horizontal articulation, it happens when the association is among or between elements that happens at the same time. Like social studies in grade six is related to science in grade six.

h. Balance
Equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements to establish the balance in curriculum design..