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List of Contents
Prof. Djoko Santoso (Director General of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture of
Indonesia ) : Keynote Speech
Dewi Odjar Ratna Komala (Deputy of Chair, BSN, Indonesia) : Mechanism of Developing Education about
Standardization in Indonesia
1. Prof. Masami Tanaka (Japanese Standards Association): Innovative Approach on Standards
Education in Japan A case of Waseda University
2. Edward Tanujaya, Akhir Syabani and Moch. Hasan (University of Indonesia): Carbon Currency
Calculator (C3): Measuring Energy Footprint for Sustainability, A Need for Standardization and
Educational Platform
3. M. Rosiawan, Indonesia : Innovative Approach on Education about Standardization through games
4. Prof. Joniarto Parung (University of Surabaya Indonesia): The Implementation on Education about
Standardization at Universities: Experiences of University of Surabaya
5. Prof. Wilfried Hesser (Helmut Schmidt Univ - Germany): E-learning - A challenge for teachers,
their expertise and the innovative capacity of a university
6. Geerten van de Kaa (Delft university of Technology Netherland): Education on standardization as an
input to research on standardization: a success story
7. Antony Cooper (University of Pretoria and CSIR - South Africa): Opportunities for research and
innovation from involvement in standards development Experiences of two researchers
8. Endang Suhendar (Indraprasta University Indonesia): Learning Antrophometric as One Way of
Understanding the Standardization

1. Prof. Knut Blind (Technical University of Berlin, Germany) : Best Practice on Education about
2. Prof. Syamsir Abduh and Nunu Wisnuaji (Trisakti University Indonesia): The Integrated
Dounsoni Competency towards Sustainable Development in Standardization
3. Bazinzi Natamba (Makerere University Business School - Uganda): The Effect of International
Standards to Trade in Developing Countries Teaching Experiences
4. Newell Hampson-Jones (British Standard Institute - UK): Teaching sustainability standards to
business students a collaborative approach between Kingston University and BSI
5. Prof. Song Mingshun (Jiliang University China): The New Progress in China Jiliang University for
Standardization Education
6. Geoff Visser (SABS - South Africa): Education on Standardization in South Africa

7. Prof. Toshiaki Kurokawa (ICES): An Innovative Approach for Education about Standardization
Design Thinking
8. Dr. Erik Puskar (NIST USA): NIST Training Program for Government Employees
9. Folke Hermansson Snickars (EURAS): Learning about Standardization as Adult
10. Ali Reza Khakifirooz (Standard Research Institute (ISIRI) Iran): Designing a University Specialized
Course for Master in Standardization
11. Fu Qiang (CNIST - China): Exploration on Combining Master of Engineering and Standardization
Professional Qualification Certification
12. Dr. Dradjad Irianto (Bandung Institute of Technology Indonesia): A Quest for Curriculum of
Standardization Education Program in Engineering Higher Education in Indonesia
13. Tri Wahono (Brawijaya University Indonesia): Conquering High Grade Language of QMS Standard
A 15 Years Experience in Teaching QMS Standard for Undergraduate Students

1. Daniele Gerundino (ISO) and Franois Coallier [cole de technologie suprieure, Montreal, Chair of
ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 7) via teleconference]: ISO Contributions to University Programmes Covering
2. Jack Sheldon (IEC): IEC contributions to University Programmes Covering Standardization
3. Aurora Rubio (ITU): ITU contributions to University Programmes Covering Standardization

1. Henk de Vries and Basak Manders (Erasmus - Netherlands): The ISO repository
2. Donggeun Choi (KSA - Republic of Korea): Initiatives from the APEC region
3. Henk de Vries (EURAS): CMC (CEN-CENELEC Management Center), ETSI and Euras initiatives
4. Prof. W. Hesser (Helmut Schmidt Univ Germany); the UN/ECE's Model Standardization
5. Dr. Erik. Puskar (NIST, USA): The IEEE's Standards Education Program
6. Susan Hoyler (ANSI,USA): Matchmaking 101:Academia, Industry & SDOs

1. Prof. Syamsir Abduh (Trisakti University Indonesia), (KATS/KSA South Korea), Prof. Henk
De Vries (Erasmus University - Netherlands): Results of the ISO-DEVT/KATS workshop, providing
a guideline on good practices on cooperation between NSBs and universities
2. Aurora Rubio (ITU): ITUs experience with its series of Kaleidoscope events which aim to increase
the dialogue between experts working on the standardization of information and communication
technologies (ICTs) and academia

1. LIU Fei, China : ASTM International Standards in Education in China
2. C. Rangkuti, Indonesia: Teaching Standard to Mechanical Engineering Students at Trisakti
3. Hanna H. Bachtiar-Iskandar, Indonesia : The role of Academic Standardization in Quality
Assurance at Universitas Indonesia
4. Riyanto, Indonesia : Implementation of ISO 9001 for Quality Management System and ISO 17025 for
Laboratory Quality System at Islamic University of Indonesia (UII)
5. Ienneke Indra Dewi, Endang Ernawati, Rudi : Implementation of Peer Review and Sit in as
Evaluation and Monitoring Method in Academic Quality Assurance : A Case Study in Universitas Bina

1. Opening Speech by Dr. Bambang Setiadi, Director
General of National Standardization Agency,
2. Keynote Speech by Prof. Djoko Santoso, Director
General of Higher Education of Minister of
Education and Culture, Indonesia
3. MechanismofDevelopingEducationabout
StandardizationinIndonesia,Dewi Odjar Ratna
Komala Deputy of Chair National Standardization Komala DeputyofChair,NationalStandardization
The Mechani sm
Devel opi ng p g
St andar ds Educ at i on Pr ogr am
i n
I ndonesi a
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Dewi Odjar Ratna Komala
Deputy Chairman for Information and Promotion of Standardization,
National Standardization Agency, Indonesia
Standardization is getting more complex and
plays very important role in global market
The need for standardization experts is
increasing all over the world
Public awareness of standard and
standardization is still very limited, especially
for academicians and industries in
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
I ndust r i es
Ac ademi c i on
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Curriculum & Textbook Development
Developing SE Networks with Universities
2010 2009 2011 2012 2007 2008 2005 2006
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Development of Education about Standardization Development of Education about Standardization
in Higher in Higher Education Education (2005 (2005--2009) 2009)
I. BSN with UNDIP (2005) develop Curriculum of Standards Education consisting of :
1. Instructional Analysis (AI),
2. Highlights of Teaching Programs (GBPP) and
3. Teaching Program Units (SAP)
II. Curriculum Workshops for 60 Lecturers at UNDIP
III. General lectures for students
IV. Development of Teaching Modules and Presentation materials
V Pil t T t th I l t ti f i l t F lt f I d t i l E i i
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
V. Pilot Test on the Implementation of curriculum at Faculty of Industrial Engineering
VI. Revision of curriculum and modules (2008)
VII. Textbook Development (2008-2009)
Approach Approach has t o be has t o be based on University Needs (not NSBs needs) based on University Needs (not NSBs needs)
How t o sell How t o sell SSt andards Educat ion t o Universit ies t andards Educat ion t o Universit ies
Creat ion Development and Expansion of t he Market of St andard Educat ion Creat ion Development and Expansion of t he Market of St andard Educat ion Creat ion, Development and Expansion of t he Market of St andard Educat ion Creat ion, Development and Expansion of t he Market of St andard Educat ion
We have t o t We have t o t hink about For Whom and Who sells t he SE hink about For Whom and Who sells t he SE
TThe diversity of media and t he channel he diversity of media and t he channel - - ssuch as : DVD, e uch as : DVD, e- -Learning Learning
Promot ion of St andards Educat ion Promot ion of St andards Educat ion
bb ff ff h h l b h h l b
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
I t seems t o be I t seems t o be more more effect ive effect ive tt o show What result obt ain o show What result obt ain
aaft er ft er received SE service received SE service
and and
it is very import ant for st akeholders t o cont inue discuss and t alk it is very import ant for st akeholders t o cont inue discuss and t alk
about about t he necessity t he necessity of t he SE of t he SE
Awareness Raising for Academician
(since 2008)
General lectures for university students and
academicians academicians
Workshop/Training for selected lecturers
Internship at NSB for university students
Study visit to NSB and Industries
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Scientific writing contests on Standardization
Publications: posters, journal, magazines, web
SSigning MoU with Universities igning MoU with Universities
Scope of Cooperation :
1. Education, training, and
promotion of standardization
2. Expert participation in
standards development
3. Information exchange
4 Laboratory Development
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
4. Laboratory Development
5. Research on standardization
An International Workshop :
Standardization and How to Teach it
Jakarta 3 November 2010
2004 - 2005
Jakarta, 3 November 2010
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Tokyo, Japan Geneva,Switzerland
Bali, Indonesia
Jiliang, China
Second Winner of
Case Study Competition
On Standardization
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
28 Universities MoU + 1
8 Univ. implementing SE
3 Prospective Univ.
4.I PB
6 UB
12 UI
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
7.I TB
15.UI I
16.I TS
8 Universities (16 lecturers) delivered Standardization courses,
followed by 984 students
740 Lecturers attended Workshop on SE
241 Lecturers attended Conformity Assessment Training y g
e-Learning on Standardization has establised on website
Standardization Education Forum (20 lecturer)
3 Bachelor graduates have completted their theses on
1 Lecturer took a Standardization Post Graduate Programin
1 Graduate student applied for Master Programof Standardization
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
1 Graduate student applied for Master Program of Standardization
in University of Geneva.
Trisakti University gained Finalist of ISO Award 2011
University of Indonesia achieved 2
Winner of International Cases
Studies Competition on Standardization
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
TC/STC; 33
QC; 10
Increasing universities experts
Involvement in standardization
(TC/STC; Assessor; Auditors;
( ; ; ;
QC & Standardization Society
Increasing member on SNI
on-line from academician
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
(Lecturer & university
students); and
Standard Information
Network with universities
15 laboratories from 7
Universities have granted
laboratory accreditation
from KAN (National from KAN (National
Accreditation Body)
Increasing number and scope of
research from universities:
Education about Standardization,
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Industrial management, Electrical,
Peat-land, QMS, Construction and
Civil Engineering
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
(in bahasa)
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
New Initiatives
Devel opi ng Mast er pr ogr am on SE, suppor t ed by
FORSTAN ( For um of SE Lect ur er s) & Di r ect or
Gener al f or Hi gher Educat i on, Mi ni st r y of Educat i on
& Cul t ur e & Cul t ur e
Devel opi ng Pr of essi onal Car r i er Pat h i n
St andar di zat i on, suppor t ed by MASTAN ( I ndonesi an
Soci et y f or St andar di sat i on)
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Devel opi ng SE Pr ogr am f or Pr i mar y and Secondar y
School s
(Sub-Committee on Standard and Conformance)
2009 2010
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Thank you for your attention
The ICES Conference & WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 10-11 May, 2012
BSN is the
member of
Dewi Odjar Ratna Komala
1. Prof.MasamiTanaka(JapaneseStandardsAssociation):InnovativeApproachonStandards
2. EdwardTanujaya,AkhirSyabaniandMoch.Hasan(UniversityofIndonesia):CarbonCurrency
3. M.Rosiawan,Indonesia:InnovativeApproachonEducationaboutStandardizationthrough
4 P f J i P (U i i f S b I d i ) Th I l i Ed i 4. Prof.JoniartoParung(UniversityofSurabaya Indonesia):TheImplementationonEducation
5. Prof.WilfriedHesser(HelmutSchmidtUniv Germany):Elearning Achallengeforteachers,
6. GeertenvandeKaa(DelftuniversityofTechnologyNetherland):Educationonstandardizationas
7 Antony Cooper (University of Pretoria and CSIR South Africa): Opportunities for research and 7. AntonyCooper(UniversityofPretoriaandCSIR SouthAfrica):Opportunitiesforresearchand
innovationfrominvolvementinstandardsdevelopment Experiencesoftworesearchers
8. EndangSuhendar(IndraprastaUniversity Indonesia): LearningAntrophometricasOneWayof
Innovative Approach on Standards Education in Japan A case of Waseda University

Prof.M Tanaka , Professor of National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (former ISO president)
Prof.T Sato , Professor of Waseda University Graduate School of Global Information Technology and
Telecommunication Studies (GITS)
Mr.Y Chiba, Japanese Standards Association
Mr.K Iwadare, Japanese Standards Association

In recent years, the teaching of standards in higher
education has been becoming increasingly wide
spread and is now implementing on a worldwide
basis. However, the scope of knowledge mastered
by standard related professionals has widened and
knowledge itself has become more complex. It
covers wide range of topics ; benefits of standards
and cost of their writing, much basic knowledge
of corporate strategies and consumer needs,
related to institutional frameworks such as WTO,
IPR rules and antitrust law, as well as consistency
of conformity assessment rules to regulatory
schemes. By responding to these complexity of
the knowledge, many people have begun to tailor
them into more strategic methodologies, where
the pedagogy, curricula, topics covered and so on
have become more sophisticated. This has
triggered challenge to business, academic
institutions and standards organizations and
resulted in achieving evolution by incorporating
many ideas and sharing best practices.
The Waseda University Graduate School of
Global Information Technology and
Telecommunication Studies (GITS) has started
implementing a standards education course called
Business and Global Standardization since in
2007, which was initially supported by the
Japanese Government. It involved around 130
students, with IT engineering backgrounds at the
graduate school, with remote participation at other
sites through IT network. Their key motivation for
taking the course is knowledge advancement, and
to improve their ability to carry out their existing
research activities, as well as regarding the course
as a useful addition to their careers.
The course goals are:
- to reinforce and expand students basic
knowledge of standardization, including its
benefits and usefulness as a business tool
- to provide standardization case studies by
using written materials and guest lecturers
- to combine their acquired knowledge from
the course with their research activities, so
that students can use standardization as a
useful tool and solution provider
The course consists of 13 sessions (see figure 1)
covering different standards-related topics
including business strategies, international
negotiations on standards development processes,
advanced research and standardization,
conformity assessment and so on. Each session
lasts 90 minutes.

Topics at the sessions
Global Business
Innovation &
Technical Change
Property Right
Trade Policy
and certification

Figure 1-Topics at the sessions

This standards education course has following
three outstanding characteristics

1) IT network and access to visual materials
( see figure 2)
It has been popular to utilize the IT tools for
education and there are many excellent methods
and trials such as e-learning and open educations.
The Waseda standards education course have
adopted these experiences.
The first outstanding one is to link the brach of
Waseda, outskirt of Tokyo and the engineering
faculty at Osaka University, western part of Japan
and the sessions are performing simultenously.
The interactive network can easily encourage the
remote students to participate visually the
This IT method may give opportunities to invites
more participants simultaneously and improve the
productivities of standards educations if the
course is carefully planned and implemented.
The other characteristic is to put recorded video at
the website of JSA, the video which is taken at the
each session of the course. The student can review
the class and reflect it to their accumulated
It is more important to realize that these
accumulated videos and materials such as power
points and written references may give
opportunities for open students , not necessarily
confined to Waseda university, to learn various
kinds of knowledge related to the standards. As
JSA has lots of recorded videos and materials
related to standards writings and their
dissimilation, there is the possibility to give tailor
made teaching materials to every segments of the
students as well as business world.

Utilization of IT
Interactive lectures
Videos at lectures
Other campuses

Figure 2-Utilization of IT

2)Two step education scheme consisting of
passive and active education. (see Figure 3)
Two Step approach of the course
The Students have IT
The first step by lecture:
-Acknowledging basic theories,
models and approaches through
several case studies of
The second step
-Finding out the cases for research
-Presenting the cases and discussions
Understanding the disciplines through the case
with the
the knowledge
Q&A , Discussion
Session content
the fundamental
knowledge of
Figure 3-Two Step approach of the course

(1)The first step, mainly giving lectures, involves
mixture of basics knowledge and actual case
studies; The lecture on basic knowledge of
standards covers theories, models and approaches
for standardization by using hand-outs and visual
materials which provides students with the
information they need for an in-depth
The business case for standardization involves
lectures by standardization experts from various
fields. Students, increasingly equipped with the
basic theory and concept, discuss the business
cases with the class. During the discussion, the
lectures guide the students in their understanding
of the case using the framework of basic
knowledge, and cultivate students insights
focusing on standards in their knowledgee of IT
technologies at the graduate school.

(2) At the second step of the course, students
actively participate this course, in sharp contrast
from the passive first part as mentioned. Students
are divided into several groups and each group,
consulting within group of students, research a
business case, based on their own research
interests or general life and daily interests with
their acquired knowledge and views of
standardization. The research is reported as an
oral presentation with power point slides,
followed by Q&A between participating all
students and instructors.
Importance is how they can reflect their acquired
knowledge through the passive participation of
first step lectures into their research themes
selected by themselves, the reflection which is the
active process of participating standardization.
In order to ferment this process effectively, the
groups should discuss the merits and demerits by
standardization on the topics in being aware of
benefits and cost to the society.

3) continuous quality improvement of lectures
and instructions

(1) state of arts and consistency
The teaching staffs consist of academic
researchers, business people with experiences of
standards writing and participating the standards
process, and standardizers who work at standard
related organizations. They are all conscious of
their state of arts related to the standards at their
own world.
The academics face emerging disciplines and
themes of IT technologies at the science and
engineering faculty. The business people are
confronting changing markets needs and
standards writers can have contacting points in the
new working items at standards organizations.
Respectively they can bridge their new acquired
knowledge with the course of standards education.
Rather than taking care of whole series of course
by single person, the group of teaching staffs has
enjoyed benefits by way of sharing experience
and stimulating each other by their different
backgrounds. However, unless strong
coordination would lead the teaching staffs in
consistent curricula to secure common disciplines
and ideas, there would happen some risks of
diversifying the whole course by each lecture
following by themselves. The role of keeping
uniformity is played by the JSA staffs, who
prepare the consistent curricula by consultation

I knew it w ell(4people)
I knew it(25)
I have learned it at
other lectures(9)
I have just heard the
w ord of it before(74)
I did not know
it at all(12)
Levelof U nderstanding the
im portance of standardization
I understood
very w ell(98)
I understood
W ell(25)
It seem s
very useful(80)
It seem s
N ot useful(1)
U sefulness in the future career
how m uch did you know about
standard and standardization
before the lecture
with teaching staffs. At the same time, teaching
staffs have many opportunities to contact with the
frontier of standards world, for examples ,
information of seminars and new starting
activities of technical groups at many standards
developing organization such as ISO/IEC/ITU
and ASTM.

(2) quality circle (see Figure 4)
In Japan, there has appeared a voluntary informal
network for exchanging information by more than
hundred people who have interest in standards
education . The network, coordinated by JSA,
works by sending e-mails information related to
standards education each other. While the
members consists of academics ,business, and
standards writers, some of them , teaching staffs
at the Waseda university, are members of this
network. At the occasion when the academic
circle , the Japanese branch of The Society for
Engineering Education has an annual meeting,
10-20 people have participated in the session of
standards education and some Waseda teaching
staff made presentations at the session and discuss
the pedagogy, curricula, topics of standards and
share the best practices. This is similar to the
activities of ICES at the international arena.
Quality Improvements of lectures
Education community
Industrial Sectors
STEEL company etc..
ISO related
ex.ISO president ,
vice president etc..
IT field
Students requests
to each lecture
End of the course
Overall review (all lecturers come together)
Refection for next term
ISO current topics
After every session of the course, students are
required to complete a light assignment giving a
sheet to quest the satisfaction of the session with
comments. These assignments help check their
extent of understanding and reinforce their
participating to the class. By scrutinizing the
reposes from students, teaching staff may reflect
the needs and request to their lectures and guide
their discussions.
It is important to realize that Waseda teaching
staffs have an effort to promote improvement in
their education quality. Through these information
network and gathering at academic circle as well
as check sheet, they have carefully go over the
case studies ,several data, and experiences and
come up with more qualified teaching materials
and methods. The members share the same
fascination with the challenge of quality
improvement. That is the some kind of joy such
as sport, which is hard to communicate to ones
who have not tried it. It revives the joy of creation
that ones once derives from making goods by
hands. As a result of the activities, we got
effective results (see figure 5).
At the end of the course, review meeting , by
participating teaching staff ,has been exciting to
improve quality of course.

Figure 5-Results of the questionnaire on
the lecture
Figure 4-Quality Improvements of lectures
1) T.Sato, The corroborated subject entitled
Company Business Strategy and Global
Standardization supported by Japanese
Standard Association and Ministry of
Economy, Trade and Industry, proceedings
of the Japanese Society for Engineering
Education (JSEE) 2010 annual meeting
2) M.tanaka, ISOs work helps put education
for sustainable development into practice,
ISO Focus Volume2, No3, April (2005),pp1
3) M.tanaka, ISOs work helps put education
for sustainable development into practice,
ISO focus+, June (2011), pp19-20
4) M.tanaka, Evolutions of Standards
Education in the World, proceedings of the
International Cooperation for Education
about Standardization(ICES) 2009
workshop,(2009), pp15-19

Carbon Currency Calculator (C3):

Measuring Energy Footprint for Sustainability,
A Need for Standardization and Educational Platform

Even though the concern of environmental sustainability has significantly
increased among business leaders, environmental activists and scholars,
public still have little awareness of environmental sustainability. That is
why public participation in environmental sustainability program is
relatively low. The lack of public participation is the main challenge for
effective execution of environmental sustainability program. Its mostly
due to the absence of public understanding that there is direct linkage
between environmental sustainability and individual wealth. Since
environmental sustainability program is seen as public interest that give
no any benefit for individual, individual see no incentive to participate in
that kind of program. On that point, we propose Carbon Currency
Calculator (C3) as alternative solution. C3 is an application concept that
is designed to encourage citizen participating in environmental
sustainability program. C3 allows citizens to calculate their footprint
energy in currency unit so that it allows citizens to compare their energy
consumption. C3 that is built on idea of standardization encourages
citizens to save energy for their own wealth. Its expected that C3 will be
used widely by citizen and enterprise. In the end, we expect C3 will be
effective solution for environmental sustainability.


Nowadays, the development of industries and information technology has been
advancing rapidly. As the access to the emerging economies is getting more opened, the
industries are quickly expanding to gain from the growing markets, improve cost efficiency
and, obviously, increase the profitability. Information technology which was booming with the
invention of cellular phone fifteen years ago now has advanced to high-speed internet
connection 4.5G. This also demonstrates how the wealth and prosperity of the people keep
growing as the time goes by, creating more demands and pushing the industries to increase
their capacity and upgrade their products and services quality.

This situation directly relates to the increase of industrial products usage (electronics,
vehicles, foods, clothes, etc). Combined with the highly growing populations, the dramatic
increase in industrial production and consumption are sometimes unbearable.

Problems arise when production and consumption of industrial products contribute
the negative side effects for the earth. The side effects are mainly in the form of carbon
emission and other pollutions. If these externalities are not taken seriously, the impacts would
severely endanger and jeopardize humanity in the long run. Some instances of the impacts of
pollutions are greenhouse gas effects, destruction of the ozone that creates global warming,
famine, etc.




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limited or no socialization from the government, and the limited numbers of tools that can be
easily used to measure carbon footprint. If people can understand how much the carbon
emitted and understand the acceptable standard of carbon footprint that can be attributed to
every individual to build environmental sustainability, they will be able to find out whether
theyre already living green or not.

Measuring Energy Footprint on Carbon Emitted

Seeing those problems, education on standard for carbon footprint is getting more
crucial to create environmental sustainability as early as possible. It is expected that the
educated society on standardization issue can proliferate and apply their knowledge in their
everyday life and socialize them to wider groups of people. To ease the process, a tool is
needed to easily measure and understand for every individual and consider whether the
carbon emitted is redundant or not. Other than its easiness to use, this tool should also be
able to be world standard on the calculation of carbon footprint so that each user can
compare as apple-to-apple to the other users around the world.

These days, there are plenty of websites providing carbon footprint calculator that
can be used individually, like,,, etc.
Those carbon calculators can actually be used well and easily, but the main weakness of
those websites is that theyre somehow complicated for the users since they use different unit
of measure as an input.Those websites try to measure energy (or carbon emitted) used by
people and compare it to the standard. People can find out their energy footprint, but they
should estimate their energy use in certain units (KwH, liter, metric tons, etc.)
Starting from there, we propose a concept of carbon footprint calculatorcalled C3 that
is expected to simplify the usage of such calculators and can be used for international
standard that can easily be understandable. The concept we propose is by using money as
the unit of measure of carbon footprint input. We use money as the unit since it will make it
easier for people to understand their carbon footprint. The program will calculate energy we
use for that amount of money by using industry costs average in that country considering
Consumer Price Index (inflation), efficiency, currency rate, etc. The program will also
generate tips & tricks how to be energy efficient by showing how much money you can save
for doing that.

Money as the New Standard

Money is used as a standard of input to create new mindset of the people in seeing
the money they spend. By utilizing money as input, people will become more aware that
money used for consumption also can be indication of how much energy they use and the
carbon emitted from that process, during the consumption or earlier when the production is
undergoing to produce the demanded products. People care about the money they spend,
this is expected to affect their care towards energy they use. In the end of the day, people
can realize that, by doing efficiency on their money spending, they can create both economic
and energy or environmental sustainability.

This standard is also expected to influence the industries when deciding their pricing
method, as encouraged by other concepts such as green accounting. Therefore, price of a
product in the future reflects not only the common concept of cost and margin, but also the
externalities handling and the energy used by the industries to produce such products in
meeting the demands.

Of course, the standard should also consider other factors such as level of
consumption and production in each country, Consumer Price Index (CPI) or other measure
of inflation, and general purchasing power. Once its formulated, we can also see the
comparability within each country.

How C3 Contribute to Education of Standardization

C3 conceptually is designed to be educational platform for citizens, especially in
standardization of carbon or energy footprint. C3 is not just calculator application to calculate
how much carbon energy produced by economic activities, but it is more to be a creative
platform how to inspire citizens to be aware of their carbon energy footprint. The point to
inspire citizens is in line to educate and encourage them to participate in any effort of energy
saving. At least there are three means why C3 can be educational platformfor citizens to be
aware of carbon standardization issues. C3can be linkage of environmental reality to
individual wealth, can simplify the model of carbon energy footprint, and can clearly visualize
the concept.

As stated earlier that the lack of citizens awareness of carbon energy issue is due to
misunderstanding on the linkage of environmental reality to individual wealth. Environmental
cost is only viewed as public cost that is far away from individual economic wealth. That is
why in recentlythe approach used forcampaign the idea of environmental issue is to save the
public interest. On the other hand, C3 takes different approach. C3 uses individual incentive.
C3 clearly makes linkage the environmentalreality to individual wealth. The usage of currency
as standard for calculating carbon is feature how to make linkage the environmental reality to
individual wealth. Citizens, that aware of their energy footprint, are not only for public interest
but more likely for their own wealth. On that point, C3 educates and encourages citizens to
be aware of their carbon energy footprint. Further, C3 provide feature that allow citizen to
grasp the exact figures due to energy saving so that increase their awareness.

C3 is built on advance and sophisticated issues, but it comes to simplify that
sophisticated one to simple model. The idea is to give citizens an environmental
understanding in simple way. Citizens are expected to easily understand the C3smodel of
energy footprint yet get the accurate figures. Simple model of C3 leads to more awareness of
citizens so that they are encouraged to save their energy. Single and familiar calculation unit,
currency, is in the same idea of simplification so that citizens got better understanding of C3

Visualization of C3s concept is to gives clear pictures how C3 work,how to use it,
and how to get meaningful insight of C3 analysis. The usage of technological application is in
line to visualization. The visualization allows the citizen to get big picture of their energy

footprint so that they can plan their own energy footprint. They can easily perform various
analyses, such as sensitivity analysis, and get meaningful insight of these analyses. The
feature of graph, chart, and others ensures that citizens have not missed the key issues of
analysis result.

These are three means that allow C3 to be educational platform to inspire citizens to
be aware, understand, and grasp the meaningful insight of their carbon footprint. As
educational platform, C3 will encourage citizens to save energy.

Conclusion and Future Developments

Some of the visions of C3 should are to be able to impose campaign Save Energy,
Save Money campaign to support sustainability, as well as education on standardization
while keep developing reliable standard for its instrumentation & calculation. This can also be
the support for the concept of environmental management accounting.

Innovative Approach on Education about Standardization Through Development of The Monopoly SNI
Muhammad Rosiawan
Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Surabaya

National Standardization Body (BSN) is a non-ministerial government institutions Indonesia with the main task
to develop and foster standardization activities in the country of Indonesia. In order to promote the development
and implementation of standards, BSN has been working with relevant stakeholders, one of which is the
university. At present, there has been cooperation with 28 universities through the signing of a Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU). One form of cooperation is to teach the subject of standardization in the university.
Universitas Surabaya (UBAYA) as one of the University who has been working with BSN, has also taught
courses standardization in the Department of Industrial Engineering as a compulsory subject in the field of
Performance Management and Quality.

This paper presents the work of students and a lecturer in the Standardization for the year 2011, a game of
Monopoly SNI development as an innovative learning media standardization. The game is played for senior
high school students in the form of Standardization Game Competition. The results of the implementation of the
game, then do a survey to students relating to the application of this game and an understanding of the SNI
standard. The majority of respondents who tried the game, stating that the game is to help them in:
understanding the standards, know the benefits of standards and know that there are different types of SNI. In
addition, respondents also said that this game is very interesting and helpful in increasing their knowledge
related to standards.
Keywords: standardization, development of the Monopoly SNI Game

1. Backgroud
As we know that standardization is one strategy to
improve competitiveness, especially in the era of
free trade, where products and services produced in
the country will be examined from the aspect of
quality, safety, security, health and the

On the other hand, the level of public awareness of
the standardization of products/services is still low.
From the study of BSN (2006) showed that the new
business uses only about 20% of the approximately
6800 SNI that have been published. This fact
indicates that the BSN should work harder in
socializing SNI in the business. Because they do
not fully understand the benefits of the
implementation of standards in the organization
[3]. From the observations also indicate that the
public knows only a limited product SNI helmets,
gas stove, bottled water and instant noodles, etc.

This situation, encourage BSN to work with
colleges or universities to jointly promote standards
in their respective communities. in addition, the
university is expected to produce graduates who
have the ability in the field of standardization.

in 2005, BSN started its cooperation with the
University of Diponegoro (UNDIP) in education,
research, and community service in the field of
standardization. In 2007, BSN and UNDIP formed
a team to develop curriculum of standardization. In
2008, the curriculum was implemented at the
Faculty of Industrial Engineering UNDIP. Results
of implementation, to be the input revise the
curriculum to the secon edition. furthermore, in
2009, the team also developed a textbook of
introduction to standardization. This textbook was
launched on the education forum of
standardization, which is a forum of the signing
college of the MoU with BSN. They agreed to
include standardization or content of
standardization in subjects, and using the textbook
as the its main reference. [5]

Cooperation BSN with UBAYA
UBAYA interested to establish cooperation with
BSN in the development of education about
standardization is expressed by the Rector of the
University of Surabaya (UBAYA), through a letter
written to the Head of BSN in August 2009 which
stated the Rector of UBAYA ready to sign MoU
with BSN [6]. Cooperation activities can be done
by the academic community to contribute promote
standardization by engaging expertise of member
of faculty in standardization activities and also
participated in developing the introduction of
standardization in the community with the
university "language". One of the real form of
cooperation, among others, is teaching a
standardization subject as a compulsory subject for
students of Department of Industrial Engineering in
field Quality & Performance Management, Faculty
of Engineering, University of Surabaya. As
additional information, UBAYA also has been
active in promoting standards and SNI in province
of East Java. For example, UBAYA is host a
gathering of bikers in the activities of SNI Thon
(campaign of Helmet SNI, from Surabaya city to
Jakarta) in 2009, even the lecturer and students of
Department of Industrial Engineering UBAYA
have been conducted campaigns of SNI product in
some Mall in Surabaya.

Subject of Standardization in Department of
Industrial Engineering
The Department of Industrial Engineering have
been to develop curriculum year 2010, in order to
anticipate changes in need of the user's graduates
and stakeholder and to achieve of UBAYA vision
toward internationalization. One indicator is
UBAYA graduates capable of competing at
international level and one of the factors supporting
is the mastery in the field of standardization.
Therefore, the Department of Industrial
Engineering and the curriculum development team
agreed to include courses for Standardization as a
compulsory subject in field of Quality and
Performance Management and effectively be taught
in even semester of 2010/2011.

Lecturing of Standardization Subject
Preparations have been conducted in the teaching
of standardization, include: (a) the provision of
UBAYA lecturer or visiting lecturer of the
industry, (b) the provision of infrastructure (such as
classrooms, textbooks, program of visits to
industries, etc.), and (c) selection of teaching
Especially for the selection of teaching methods,
after reviewing textbook provided by BSN, felt the
material was too heavy and less attractive. it was
said the material is too heavy to taught because
almost all of material is the addition of insight so
that the level of learning lies at the level of
understanding. Level of learning at this level, often
requiring many memorizing. Therefore, teaching
methods should be designed using the method of
direct involvement of students in subject matter
(interactive learning), for example the discussion of
case studies, role playing, simulations, visits to
industries and provision of project tasks.
Assignment of a project is making an
standardization game. Through the game which
they designed is expected to better understand the
material being taught and then they can also
contribute to the introduce of standardization at
student of senior high school and the public.

This paper discusses the task of student projects
related with design of media of education about
standardization through the game development of
popular in the community. It is hoped through this
game the public could learn about standardization
with ease and fun.

2. Literature Review
Before discussing the settlement of the problem,
there are some things that need to be understood
together, especially related to the definition and
understanding of standards, standardization,
conformity assessment, metrology and the use of
instructional media such as a monopoly game for
learning about standardization.

Standar dan Standardisasi. According to
ISO/IEC Guide 2 (ISO 2004-1), Standards is a
document established by consensus and approved
by a recognized body, providing for common and
repeated use rules, guidelines, or characteristics for
activities or their results aimed at the achievement
of the optimum degree of order in a given context.
Meanwhile, Standardization is as the activity of
establishingwith regar to actual or potential
problemsprovision for common and repeated
used aimed at the achievement of the optimum
degree of order in a given context [1]
According to this definition, standardization aims
to achieve maximum of overall economy and
provide benefits to various sectors of society, such
as standards provide access to markets and
facilitate trade, the standard provides benefits for
improving the quality, safety, reliability and
efficiency of production, and so forth.

Indonesia National Standard (SNI). SNI is a
document containing the technical provisions of an
activity or the results are formulated by consensus
and set by the BSN to be used by stakeholders with
the aim of achieving an optimum arrangement in
terms of the context of a specific purpose [3]. BSN
as the bodies responsible for national
standardization activities, interested party in
increased the application of SNI both voluntary and
mandatory in manufacturing / services in order to
increase the competitiveness of nations.

Conformity Assessment. ISO / IEC 17000:2004
defines conformity assessment as a statement that
the product, process, system, person or institution
has met certain requirements, which may include
activities of testing, inspection, certification,
accreditation and conformity assessment bodies.
Just as standards, conformity assessment is also
basicly a voluntary activity in accordance with the
needs of the transacting parties. In practice,
conformity assessment can be done by the
manufacturer (first party), by the buyer (second
party), as well as other parties (third parties) which
are not part of producers and consumers.
Metrology. Requirements in the standards,
particularly with respect to product characteristics,
the general form of the quantitative limits that are
based on the results of measurements made on the
conformity assessment process. Therefore, to
achieve its implementation should be created a
guarantee equality of outcome measures between
all parties concerned with the application of a
In ISO / IEC Guide 99: 2007, metrology is defined
as the science of measurement and its application,
which covers all theoretical and practical aspects of
measurement, the overall level of measurement
uncertainty and the whole field of its application.

Learning Media through Games. Play a game is
fun because the game was designed as a medium of
entertainment. Therefore, all the matter of
education and learning will be very interesting and
easily digestible by the students when designed in
the form of the game. Games are always played
again and over again until the players are satisfied,
thus the materials submitted will be easily digested
and understood by the game player. Many types of
interactive games that can be used as a medium of
education and learning. For example, puzzle
games, monopoly games, etc. [8].

Monopoly Games. Monopoly is one of the most
famous board game in the world. The goal is to
master all the plots on the board through property
purchases, leases and exchanges in a simplified
economic system.
Each player in turn throws the dice to move pawn,
and when he landed in the plots that have not
owned by another player, he can buy at a price
appropriate patch listed. If the plot had been bought
another player, he must pay the rent that the players
whose numbers have also been established. [7]
Therefore, the monopoly game that was developed
can be used as a medium of learning that are
innovative, fun and easily digestible by the public
to learn about standardization.

3. Research methodology
The methodology used in this study were (a)
Designing of learning media of standardization
through the game development of the SNI
Monopoly, (b) measuring a player's perception
related to the understanding of the standardization.
Perception of a player is measured by
questionnaires deployment which are then
processed descriptively and analyzed . Level of
perception was measured using a Likert scale
where a scale of 1 indicates strongly disagree, 2

states less agree, 3 states indifferent, 4 and 5 states

agree and strongly agree

Target respondents is student of senior high school
who playing the SNI monopoly game who follow
the Standardization Game Competition organized
by the Department of Industrial Engineering-
UBAYA in November 2011 at Surabaya city.

4. Results and Discussion
Design of the Monopoly SNI Game
Game standardization which to developed should
include three things, namely the understanding of
participants on: (1) standardization, (2) assessment
of the suitability and (3) metrology. In addition, the
game should be played en masse and are
competitive. Looking at these conditions, then the
lecturers and students participating in the course of
Standardization decided to design and develop the
game of monopoly that has been popular in the
community to modified related with material
content of standardization and SNI.

The game is aimed at providing insight to the
participants / players regarding the three pillars that
have been mentioned before, namely standards,
standardization, conformity assessment and
metrology. In addition, players are also introduced
to various types of SNI that could be associated
with the products of the regions and benefit from
the application of SNI. The results of the design
can be seen in Figure 1. From this picture it appears
that various regions in the country of Indonesia is
assumed to require products that have the SNI.

Figure 1. Design of game of the Monopoly SNI

Furthermore, players who are in a the area (see
Figure 2), must answer the questions from
committee related to the material of standardization
to determine the understanding of regard to
standards. If the answer is correct, then the players
are asked to make form of triangular, rectangular,
square or a circle of a piece of colored paper,
depending on the area where the player stand up
(Figure 4). The colored paper must be purchased in
advance from the paper supplier. Players can check
firstly quality of the purchased-paper before use.

Paper forms are made shall be measured in
advance, in accordance with the specifications
defined and ascertained that the measuring
equipment has been calibrated (Fig. 3). When done,
the player handed the paper form (which is
assumed to be the appropriate product standard
SNI) to the committee (in this case the committee
acts as conformity assessment bodies/testing
agency) to be tested whether the piece of paper
forms have been conformity with the specifications
required (Fig. 5 ). If appropriate, the committee
will give a sort of stamp of approval that the
product complies with ISO (with giving tick mark)
and the player is allowed to conduct trade with the
region where it is located. And here, participants
will receive the money earned from the business
transactions which were paid through a bank (Fig.
6). Then the player moves again to another area.
More and more players were able to pass the test of
the product testing agency, the more money earned,
and he will be declared the winner. From this it
could mean that the organization that most of
accomplish of standards, is the party that won the
business competition. And vice versa, the products
that are made do not pass the test SNI products,
then they got losses. For the notes, at the beginning
of the game, players are given capital money by the
Bank for the purchase of raw materials, auxiliary
materials (paper) and measuring instruments and
the payment of damages if the product did not pass
the test.

The Standardization Game Competition
Implementation of game of Monopoly SNI was
held in event the Standardization Game
Competition for high school students at city of
Surabaya, Sidoarjo and surrounding areas.

Students of UBAYA act as a committee to promote
the game competition through UBAYA website,
distributing brochures and posters to schools. There
are about 30 teams (each consisting of 3 students of
senior high school) as participant and competing in
this event. After conducting of the technical
meeting, participants are ready to compete on
November 24, 2011 at Cito Mall-Surabaya. The
choice of a place in the mall with the intention that
the game can be viewed by the public and covered
by the mass media so that we get obtained the
multiplier effect relating to socialization of
standards to society.

Evaluation of the Game Participants
After passing through a fun game, to get feedback,
participants were asked to express his perception

associated with the monopoly SNI game. The result

can be seen in Table 1.
Tabel 1. The results of participants' perceptions related to
the Monopoly SNI Game
Level of agree (%)
1 2 3 4 5
the Monopoly SNI is
interesting game to

0 6 22 53 20
the Monopoly SNI is
game which easy
understood and played

0 0 20 53 27
Display of game of the
monopoly SNI is
colorfull and shapes

0 0 18 53 29
Discussion about SNI
which listed on the game
is attractive

0 0 33 45 22
Discussion about SNI
which listed on the game
is clear and easily

0 0 9 55 36
Game of SNI is very
useful for providing
information and to
getting knowledge about
kinds of SNI

0 0 9 46 45
Source: [4]
From Table 1, shows that 73% of participants had
agreed and strongly agreed that the game is
interesting, 80% of participants stated the game is
easy to understood and played, 82% of participants
stated the game is full of color and interesting
shape. Perception further stated that 67% of
participants expressed a discussion of SNI in this
exciting game, and 91% of participants stated that
SNI discussion on this game is clear and easy to
understand, and most important that 91% of
participants stated that the game SNI is very useful
in providing information and knowledge related
with standards and kinds of SNI.
From the results of descriptive statistics, one might
say that the learning media on education about the
standardization through games of this kind could
succeed in introducing to the public about the
standards and SNI.

Evaluation of Learning Process on
Standardization Subjects
On the other hand, we also need to evaluate the
learning process on standardization subject itself. It
is known that as elective courses, from point of
view related with the number of students, it can
said that it has been achieved participants for odd
semesters 2011/2012 number of 46 students.
number of participants was increased compared
with the previous semester namely a number of 22
participants. Implementation of evaluation of the
learning process conducted by the Quality
Assurance unit-UBAYA for each lecturer at each
faculty, and the results of evaluation of
standardization subject can be seen in Table 2.

Table 2. Results of Evaluation for Learning process of
Standardization subjects

From Table 2, the performance index for the
standardization subjects can be explained as
follows: (a) for the teaching material and learning
process got a score of 3.65, and (b) for teachers got
the maximum score of 4. For the teaching material
and learning process did not get maximum score
due to some of student have delivered complaints
related with implementation the project assignment
namely most of consuming time, so that makes the
task of another subjects a bit neglected. However,
in general most of the students stated that this event
is very interesting and they hope can be
implemented for next year. They also said that the
method of teaching is very interesting, let alone
taught by lecturers who are competent in their field.

Although to be further improved, the learning
media through game such as the monopoly SNI for
teaching about standardization is very interesting,
and hoped could be developed again to look for
another media which suitable both for level of
school and public in order to accelerate
socialization of standardization in the community.

Daftar Pustaka
[1] APEC Sub Committee on Standards and
Conformance Education Guidance 3-
Textbook for Higher Education,
Standardization:Fundamentals, Impact, and
Business Strategy, 2010
[2] Bambang P., Pengantar Standardisasi -
Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional, Edisi
Pertama, 2009
[3] Badan Standardisasi Nasional, SNI Penguat
Daya Saing Bangsa, 2010
[4] Juliani D.T, M.Rosiawan, 2012, Innovation
of Media on Education about Standardization
Through Development of Popular Games,
International Annual Symposium on
Pendidikan Standardisasi & Kuliah Umum di
Surabaya Siap MoU dengan BSN

sebagai Media Pembelajaran Masa Kini

Figure 2. Implementation of the
Monopoly SNI Games

Figure 3. Participants looking for Answers the
question in the Standardization book
Figure 4. Participants Drawing shapes using a
ruler which calibrated internally

Figure 5. Participants cut out a paper in

accordance form with the requirement

Figure 6. The committee play role as a testing
agency(conformity assessment)

Figure 7. The committee play role committee as a
financial institution (Bank)
The implementation on Education about Standardization at Universities:
Experiences of University of Surabaya

Muhammad Rosiawan
Joniarto Parung
Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Surabaya


As a university located in town the industrial, commercial, maritime and education, University of Surabaya
(UBAYA) is very concerned about the success of the business and industry community, particularly in the city
of Surabaya and surrounding areas. One of univeritas mission is to produce graduates who are competent in
accordance with the needs of business and industry. Needs of the business and industry community are
implementation both of Indonesia National Standard (SNI) or International Standard (ISO). Therefore, graduates
UBAYA in the future should be more understanding and have skills related to the standards.

This paper addressed about UBAYA experience in implementation on education about standardization starts
from the scope UBAYA themselves by implementing the international standards of quality management system
ISO 9001:2008, inserting the material of standardizing or content of the standardization into the curriculum or
subjects, then together with National Standardization Agency (BSN) and the East Java Province participated
promoting standard to schools, colleges, community of business and industry. All these things are done also in
order to fulfill one mission UBAYA.

The results of the various activities carried out showing good results, it seen from a survey of customer
satisfaction, increased demand for training and assistance for the implementation of quality management system
ISO 9001:2008 in the industry, some of graduates majoring in industrial engineering has been working in areas
relevant to standards such as a internal quality auditor, management consultant and management representative.

Keywords: Education about Standardization, UBAYA Cooperation with BSN

1. Background
Universitas Surabaya (UBAYA) as one of the
private universities which are well known in
Eastern Indonesia that always wants to realize his
vision became the first university in hearts and
minds, by constantly creating products/services of
teaching, research, and community service which
quality and giving value-added to stakeholders.

UBAYA As an educational institution also has a
mission, such as: (a) produce graduates in higher
education who have competence in the scientific,
skill, and good character, in accordance with the
needs of business and industry, (b) promote
research, application of science and technology, in
context of role in the business community and
industry partners, etc. [1]

From this mission statement, it seems clear that the
graduates as well as services of UBAYA focuses
on an active role in advancing the business and
industrial community. Therefore, in order to
establish relationships with business and industrial
community must use the same business language,
business language namely "standard.

Standard language as a entry point into business
and industry, reinforced by a statement of the Head
of National Standardization Body (BSN), that the
standard has become the second language in
business and industry after prices [2]. Because, in
a global trade, standards will be needed to give
assurance to customers that the product / service
have been conform regarding to aspects of quality,
safety, safety, health and environmentally friendly.

In this regard, and in order to speed up the process
of achieving its vision and its mission, UBAYA
also very concerned on education about
standardization, and continue to work closely with
the parties concerned to the standard, one of them
with a BSN as a developer organization of
Indonesian National Standard (SNI). UBAYA
together with BSN actively promote the
standardization both at the university or the
business and industrial community.

This paper focuses on describe some of activities
related with the implementation of education about
standardization at the UBAYA and the business
and industrial community.

Problem faced is how to implement steps to meet
the expectations of the future, namely UBAYA
want to take role of actively in promoting education
about standardization and in order to fulfill the
mission UBAYA as well as participate in
advancing the business and industrial community.

2. Literature Review
The literature review more emphasis on study
documents that exist in UBAYA and BSN, the
news about education about standardization in
Indonesia, besides definition about standards,
standardization and Indonesia National Standard
(SNI). Review of documents such as is found in
documents of the strategic plan UBAYA's or the
strategic plan BSN's, Memorandum of
Understanding (MoU) between UBAYA and BSN,

Standards dan Standardization. According to
ISO/IEC Guide 2 (ISO 2004-1), Standards is a
document established by consensus and approved
by a recognized body, providing for common and
repeated use rules, guidelines, or characteristics for
activities or their results aimed at the achievement
of the optimum degree of order in a given context.
Meanwhile, Standardization is as the activity of
establishingwith regar to actual or potential
problemsprovision for common and repeated
used aimed at the achievement of the optimum
degree of order in a given context [3]

According to this definition, standardization aims
to achieve maximum of overall economy and
provide benefits to various sectors of society, such
as standards provide access to markets and
facilitate trade, the standard provides benefits for
improving the quality, safety, reliability and
efficiency of production, and so forth.

Indonesia National Standard (SNI). SNI is a
document containing the technical provisions of an
activity or the results are formulated by consensus
and set by the BSN to be used by stakeholders with
the aim of achieving an optimum arrangement in
terms of the context of a specific purpose [4]. BSN
as the bodies responsible for national
standardization activities, interested party in
increased the application of SNI both voluntary and
mandatory in manufacturing / services in order to
increase the competitiveness of nations.

The UBAYA Strategic Plan for period 2011-2018
In the UBAYA strategic plan [1], chapter self-
evaluation results in 2011, showed that the strength
of UBAYA as follows, has: (a) the facilities and
infrastructure campus are adequate, (b) a good
reputation of stakeholders perception, (c)
management information system integrated, (d) the
quality management system that has been
awakened in the scope of supporting units, (e) the
quality of the learning system (hardskills), (f) The
condition of health financial (cash flow, reserve),
(g) commitment organization's to appreciate of the
values of multi-cultural, (h) the pluralist
organization's character and consistent. While the
opportunities in the future include: (a) Higher
education as a center of entrepreneurship and
Technopreneurship (b) International networking
and partnerships, (c) The spread of environmental
issues, (d) Regulatory and government policy
towards higher education, (e) shift lifestyles and
increased awareness of consumer rights, (f) The
need for alumni to updating / upgrading of
competence, (g) development of utilization of
information and communication technology (ICT),
(h) The growth of creative industries.

With the strenght as mentioned, UBAYA will take
the opportunities of external conditions in
connection with the change of the organizational

The BSN Strategic Plan for period 2010-1014
In the Strategic Plan document the exposure of the
results achieved in the period 2005-2009 stated that
the BSN has signed a Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU) with 18 Higher Education
(include UBAYA) in field education about
standardization to organize the development and
coaching in the field of standardization within their
respective universities. Further stated that the
curriculum of standardization for Higher Education
has been established and implemented at the
University of Diponegoro since 2007, and follow
with publication of the Introduction to
Standardization textbooks. Also mentioned that the
BSN has participated actively in the activities of
International Cooperation for
Education about Standardization (ICES) and the
APEC SCSC PAGE (Project Advisory Group on
Education). ICES and APEC SCSC PAGE are an
international and regional organizations engaged in
education of standardization, so that Indonesia can
play a role in development on education about
standardization in the world. Furthermore, also in
this document mentioned that BSN has been
established cooperation of networking of
standards information (called INSTANET) among
BSN with 33 universities/organizations. [5]

BSN also has policies such as promoting standard
culture through education and socialization of
standardization with cooperation among primary
school, secondary school and higher education.

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
between UBAYA with BSN
Together with nine other universities, on 18
November 2009 which was witnessed by Minister
of Research and Technology Republic of
Indonesia, the Rector and the Head of BSN
UBAYA signed the MOU related to the
development and standardization coaching in
education about srandardization in the province of
East Java with a letter number 010/UM/SR /
XI/2009 and 2298/BSN/XI/2009 within the scope
of: (a) education, training, and promotion
standardization in education institution, (b)
increasing the participation of experts in
standardization activities, (c) information exchange
of standardization, (d) the development laboratory
at the university, and (e) research and
dissemination of research results in the field of
standardization. [6]

From both a strategic plan, it appears that there is a
similar activity between UBAYA and BSN, when
combined event will get optimal results. For
example, UBAYA got opportunities to further
enhance networking with partners, involved on
handling of environmental issues and improved
consumer rights which can be combined with need
of BSN associated with the acceleration of
standards culture in society through education /
training on standardization in campus or schools.
Related with the MoU have been signed, UBAYA
will conduct development of education about
standardization through the implementation of
quality management system ISO 9001 ,
Occupational Health and Safety OHSAS 18001,
teaches standardization in some subjects in of the
Faculty /Study Program, conducting of ISO 9001
and ISO 17025 training to the students and staf,
establishment of Standards Information Network
(INSTANET), in cooperation with East Java
province to giving the technical guidance for
worker of standardization field in the district /city
of East Java province, conducting campaigns SNI
for the community, etc.

3. Research methodology
From the literature review, especially the MoU
document, Strategic Plan, news of education about
standardization, etc., then this study is a review of
activities undertaken between UBAYA with BSN,
or UBAYA itself in the field of coaching and
development of educational of standardization. The
results of secondary data processing of the data
taken at the Directorate of Quality Assurance &
Internal Audit -UBAYA, Department of Industrial
Engineering, the news of the website UBAYA and
BSN. Furthermore, Processed data are then
analyzed for efficacy, weakness or obstacles
encountered to obtain a plan of action in the next

4. Results and discussion
Development and Coaching on Education about
Standardization through Implementation of a
Management System
Actually, education about standardization has been
implemented by UBAYA, since 2000, by adopting
the Quality Management System-ISO 9001:2000
in supporting unit under the management of the
university, namely with documenting and
implementing of the standard operating procedure
(SOP). The SOPs are required to assure that service
conducted consistently and the quality service is
increased. In 2005, in which a college is required to
have a Quality Assurance unit as a unit that ensures
the quality of the output of universities and the
accountability to the public, UBAYA anticipate by
establishing QA units. This unit is responsible for
managing all of activity of quality assurance in
units and move forward with the principle of
continuous improvement, so that the outputs
produced by the university assured quality
according to the requirement that has been
established. Related to this, the QA unit has
published standards both standards in academic and
non academic that is comply with the regulations of
the Ministry of Education and Culture.

In 2009, the quality management system of
UBAYA officially have been get certification of
ISO 9001:2008, which starts from 7 units, and then
expanded its scope to 32 units in 2010.
Subsequently, in 2012, the addition of the scope of
certification again in the learning process and the
laboratory at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Faculty of
Engineering, Faculty of Business and Economics,
Faculty of Biotechnology and the Polytechnic. The
documents of standard that have been established
as follow: Quality Manual of Academic, Quality
Standards of Academic, guidelines of Monitoring
and Internal Evaluation, Guidelines of Laboratory
Quality Audit, Guidelines of Performance
Measurement, Manual of Quality Management
System ISO 9001:2008, 141 SOPs of 32 supprting
units and 7 SOPs in the field of learning [5].
Currently, all of standard documents can be viewed
and edited by each unit of work through online in
order to paperless-office and concern for
environmental conservation.[7]

Outcome of education about standardization
through the implementation of this standard is got
on a survey of customers / stakeholders conducted
by Directorate of Quality Assurance & Internal
Audit on November 17 to 23 2011 for 32 units and
faculty earned an average customer satisfaction /
stakeholders was 75.72%. other impact, for
example from 11 programs of undergraduate study
in UBAYA there are six of study program
accredited A (excellent) and five accredited B
(good) by the National Accreditation Board of
Higher Education (BAN-PT).

Some of effort education about Standardization
continue to be improved, by adopting various
international standards such as OHSAS 18001 for
safety, occupational health for employees and
students, beginning with the implementation of 5S
program (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketu and Shitsuke)
in keeping cleanliness of the work environment .
Related with environmental caring, UBAYA have
also established the Center for Environmental
Studies (in 1996) and the Center for Renewable
Energy (in 2011).

Development and Coaching Education about
Standardization through Teaching of
Standardization or Standardization Content in
Faculty/Study Program
Education of Standardization is included in the
curriculum. For example, in the Faculty of
Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering,
Department of Chemical Engineering and
Department of Computer Science. In Department
of Industrial Engineering, subjects standardization
is teached in the concentration field of Enterprise
Quality System. There are 5 elective courses
related to the standardization namely
Standardization, Quality Management System-ISO
9001, occupational, health and safety management
systems-OHSAS 18001, Environmental
Management System-ISO 14001, and Quality &
Supply Chain Management. While in Department
of Chemical Engineering as follow subjects: solid
& hazardous waste management, occupational
health and safety, quality control and food safety.
In the Department of Computer Science, namely in
subjects of Information Systems Audit & Control.

Outcome of the implementation of this subjects, for
example in the Department of Industrial
Engineering, since 2008 has been trusted by some
of manufacturing / services organization in the city
of Surabaya and surrounding areas in: (a) assist
companies / organizations to set up of quality
management system-ISO 9001, (b) conducting in-
house training related to documenting of QMS ISO
9001 and internal quality audits., and (c) is believed
by one of the certifying body in Indonesia became
auditor of quality management system ISO 9001.

Cooperation Development and Coaching of
Education about Standardization with BSN
Cooperation with BSN in field eduaction of
standardization, in addition to accelerating the
creation of quality culture in UBAYA environment,
as well as the intent to move forward the business
and industry community. Activities already carried
out are: (a) Training of ISO 9001:2008 for students
UBAYA and students of Institute of Technology of
Sepuluh November Surabaya (ITS-Surabaya), and
(b) Training on ISO 17025 - General requirements
for the competence of testing and calibration
laboratories for head of laboratory in UBAYA.

Outcome of the implementation of ISO 9001
training in particular the training of students in the
Department of Industrial Engineering, it is appear
at the increasing number of ISO 9001 topics for
Final Project in 2011. In addition to this training,
Department of Industrial Engineering has
conducted an internal quality audit training for
students since 2010, and until now there are about
150 participants who successfully completed. Some
of graduates who have this kind of training they
were already working in relevant fields such as
consulting in quality management systems, as an
internal quality auditor and some of them are
already occupied a position as a management
representative of ISO 9001.

While the outcome of the implementation of ISO
17025 training, although all of laboratories have
not been certified to ISO 17025, but they are
already certified to ISO 9001:2008. The impact of
this certification is an increase of control of the
laboratory administration, more pay attention for
the safety of the laboratory, and the use of
measuring instruments have been calibrated both
internally and externally.

Cooperation other with BSN is in: (a)
Establishment of Standards Information Network
(INSTANET), in which the library UBAYA join in
delivery service information about standardization
to business and industrial community, (b)
Establishment of Forum for Standardization
(FORSTAN), which engages in education of
standardization in schools through competition of
standardization, share your experiences with other
colleges in the teaching method of the
standardization, (c) implementation of SNI
campaigns in the community, (d) participation in
the international event namely the International
Conference on Education about Standardization
(ICES) and World standards Cooperation (WSC) in
2010, 2011, and 2012, (e) participate in celebration
the national children's Day in 2011, where students
of UBAYA display and demonstrate with the
children about some of the games that made , (f),
participated in the exhibition of Micro, Small and
Medium Enterprises (SMEs) at the University of
Education-Tasikmalaya of West Java province,
where students of UBAYA display and
demonstrate some of standards games with visitors
of the exhibition , (g) be a host to activities of SNI
Thon, (h) conducting of standardization game
competition for senior high schools in Surabaya
city and the surrounding areas, (i) exhibition by
students of Department of Industrial Engineering
UBAYA related to education of standardization in
the form of the game, (j) competition of painting t-
shirt SNI for high school students in Surabaya ,

Outcome of this activity is the extend of
networking with partners, both from universities,
schools, government and international

Development and Coaching Education about
Standardization Together with East Java
Province and Indonesia Standardization Society
Cooperation with the East Java Province, Indonesia
Standardization Society for East Java region in
activities such as (a) technical assistance for
technical staff related with the standard, (b)
preparation of the standardization program for
SMEs in the East Java Province, (c) inviting the
guest lectures and visits to product testing

Outcome of these activities in addition to
strengthening ties Academics, Business, and
Government (ABG), also for share knowledge,
experience in the development and promotion of
standardization in the East Java Province.

From a variety of activities shared with BSN, East
Java Province, the Indonesia Society for
Standardization is both in terms of implementation
of joint activities, technically problems were not
found. However, the need for improvement in next
future is in making the work plan activities
together. Where do many activities that are
conducted sporadically, because it is not well
planned in the early. For example, after signing
MoU between UBAYA with BSN should be
followed up with set up a joint program activities in
one year, which in it contains a number of activities
to be carried out either by the BSN and UBAYA
related to education of in standardization. After one
year, then the program evaluated against the
achievement of its performance, and so on. With a
well planned activity will impact on the setting of
the allocation of its resources each including the
provision of a joint budget for activities to be

With all its potential, UBAYA continue to move
forward to take the path towards the vision and
mission. The road taken is the road that has been
followed by many organizations, which proved to
be directing the success of the organization, one of
road is the implementation of standard consistenly.
Those standards can be a regulatory requirement,
the relevant guidelines for the organization, etc.

6. Referensi
[1] -, Rencana Strategis Universitas Surabaya tahun
[3] APEC Sub Committee on Standards and
Conformance Education Guidance 3-
Textbook for Higher Education,
Standardization:Fundamentals, Impact, and
Business Strategy, 2010
[4] Bambang P., Pengantar Standardisasi -
Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional, Edisi
Pertama, 2009
[6] Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
UBAYA dengan BSN, surat no
010/UM/SR/XI/2003 dan 2298/BSN/XI/2009
[7] Prof. Parung J., Laporan Tahunan Rektor
UBAYA, 2012, Extending Learning Beyond
The Classroom:Nurturing Creativity and
4/forum pendidikan standardisasi
=2895/ Jawa Timur kerjasama dengan BSN

Attachment some of pictures related with
activities education about standardization have
been done

Figure 1. Student of UBAYA participate in
celebration the national children's Day in 2011

Figure 2. Forum of Standardization (FORSTAN)

Figure 3. Standardization Game Competition

Figure 4. Student of UBAYA display and
demonstrate some of standards games with visitors
of the exhibition

Figure 5. Student of UBAYA visits to product
testing laboratory.

Figure 6. Lecturer of UBAYA attends to
ICES&WSC Day, Hang Zhou, China.

Figure 7. Students and Lecturer of UBAYA
participate on SNI Campaign in Mall

Figure 8. Lecturer of UBAYA conducts initial
audit of ISO 9001:2008 at School

10-11 MAY 2012

E-learning A challenge for teachers, their expertise and the innovative capacity of a
Prof. Dr.-Ing. em. Wilfried Hesser
Helmut Schmidt Universitt Hamburg, Germany

Successfully implementing e-learning at universities means promoting the acceptance and
expertise of both teachers and students through suitable measures.
The lecture describes the challenges in teaching as well as for the teachers and the
university when introducing NEW media.

1 Establishment of an organisational structure for the implementation of NEW
media at a university
The following deliberations essentially concern a university service concept.
The aim of my deliberations is to illustrate a way of successfully integrating the organisation
of an e-learning platform into the infrastructure of a university on a lasting basis. Lasting and
sustainable primarily refer to the use of the e-learning platform by the teachers and students
of the university.
Experience shows that multimedia projects often end without having caused a didactic
reform in the preparation and transmission of teaching content. From the view of an
attendance-based university, i.e. from the view of the capital invested in computers, software,
staff, etc., sustainability is defined by an increased quality in teaching and study, improved
learning success amongst the students and increased success rates in terms of
qualifications and not least by increased skills amongst university teachers in dealing with
Professionalism of the agents and the quality of the media products is essentially determined
by the skills of the persons involved, their team spirit and their integration into the university
structure or organisation.
Without doubt the running of an e-learning project, i.e. the preparation and implementation of
teaching and study content is a complex project and demands the widest range of skills; this
justifies its organisation within a service centre at a university.
Experience shows that service centres otherwise known as competence centres are a
prerequisite for the sustainable safeguarding of media expertise, i.e. the treatment and
implementation of e-teaching/e-learning contents. This guarantees permanent and lasting
success for an e-learning platform.
2 Didactic preparation of e-teaching materials

Training of the teaching staff (lecturers/professors) in the use of NEW media technology,
including the training of employees/assistants to prepare teaching materials (drafting and
provision of online materials), will be regarded as mandatory in the future.At an attendance-
based university the students and staff are the prime focus of any investment by the
university management or the responsible university committees. The aim here is to secure
the universitys survival on the market, and this is determined by the reputation of the
university and hence the public recognition of teaching and research.
This turns the question to the actors who determine a universitys reputation, namely the
teachers at the higher education establishment. It thus becomes clear that if an e-learning
platform is set up, e-teaching and e-learning units are developed or an e-learning community
is established without the inclusion of university teachers, it will have no lasting character.
Accordingly, a change in the teaching at attendance-based universities is also closely linked
with the skills of university teachers in using multimedia techniques to prepare e-teaching
materials. When developing e-learning concepts, we are not concerned with the ability to
have detailed didactic-methodological and multimedia skills. However, one skill that should
be acquired is the ability to make decisions on which didactic-methodological models and
techniques (methods of structuring) are to be used in designing and preparing the subject
matter of the department for presentation on an e-learning platform. This decision should be
made in an informed selection process with support from competent advisors. New media
such as e-learning platforms offer various forms of digitally processing study contents, such
as through the use of videos, animations, interactive tests, FAQs, MC tests, wikis, etc.
In this context, the lecture makes reference to the preparation and didactic treatment of
teaching materials/contents for the subject of Standardisation in companies and markets.

3 Development of didactic teaching/learning scenarios in the use of NEW media
Training of teaching staff (lecturers/professors) in the use of techniques for NEW media is
illustrated by various usage scenarios, including, for example the provision of teaching
materials/content, the use/management of online supervision (asynchronously via forums or
synchronously via chats), virtual classrooms, mobile learning, etc.
This raises the question of organising the acquisition of skills needed to establish an e-
teaching and e-learning culture at an attendance-based university.
Skills are represented by staff who perform their tasks with a high level of identification. An
essential part of this identification is determined by the self-determination of the employees,
i.e. their own responsibility and level of independent organisation in their work while at the
same time bearing the responsibility for the success of the measures implemented.

This raise the questions as to who is best placed in terms of skills to assess the success of a
particular measure, i.e. the development and provision of an e-teaching/e-study unit, and
hence justify having made the investment.
In a first step it will be the students and their success in their studies, in the second step the
university teaching staff. Including the latter in the development of any e-learning concept is
a requirement for successful action.
The skills of the teachers in imparting knowledge cannot be left out of consideration. Only
with their experience will it be possible to recognise the barriers in the process of transferring
knowledge and to counter them with multimedia techniques.
In this process, training in handling new media should be at the forefront of any educational
measures for teaching staff and students in universities. New media offer a host of e-
teaching/e-learning scenarios that can be developed individually according to the teaching
contents, such as maths, physics, standardisation, etc. Various didactic models can be
employed depending on the teaching contents. Examples that may be mentioned include
learning-objective-oriented didactics, performance-oriented didactics, etc. Recent
investigations show that e-learning and, above all in this context, blended learning are at the
focus of applications in universities.
E-learning is defined as all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching that aim to
effect the construction of knowledge with reference to individual experience, practice and
knowledge of the learner. Information and communication systems, whether networked or
not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process (cf. Tavangarian et al. 2004).
Blended Learning refers to a mixing of different learning environments. A blended learning
approach can combine face-to-face instruction with computer-mediated instruction (cf.
Graham 2005).
Providing university teachers selectively within the scope of project agreements with
competence and hence personal resources for a limited period is a promising option in terms
of university policy and organisation for implementing e-teaching and e-learning units in
university departments and hence at an attendance-based university.
A university service concept, i.e. the organisation of skills for setting up an e-teaching and e-
learning platform at an attendance-based university, should therefore be incorporated in the
form of a matrix organisation while at the same time organising project management and
allocating subject responsibility in the project to the departments that have joined the e-
learning project.
The strategy for integrating an e-learning platform at universities is the responsibility of the
management and the university committees. The task of the committees and management of
a university is to combine systems of objectives and values and shape them into a
successful whole.

One component of this system of objectives should be to establish a multimedia teaching
and learning structure at universities. Only when this objective has been adopted will there
be a chance for the successful and permanent organisational integration of an e-learning
platform into the infrastructure of a university.
The development of an e-learning platform represents a strategic potential. The aim is,
through the formation of skills, to set up a lasting and sustainable infrastructure in the e-
learning sector at our universities and thus guarantee participation in the scientific community
within a global Internet world.

4 Requirements on teaching staff and students resulting from new media
The lecture gives an appraisal of e-learning and the associated challenges for the teaching
staff and students at universities.
Future developments in the use of media are heavily influenced by the media affinity of
younger professors, who as experience shows make greater use of online
communications tools, and by the pressure of demand from students accustomed to such
In contrast to this statement, investigations such as those by Schulmeister in 2009 show in
particular that e-learning platforms are only used by up to approx. 50% of students and
podcast lectures by only approx. 36%. However, here it is important to point out that
entertainment media such as music, photos, films, videos, etc. are more commonly used
than participatory media such as weblogs, audio podcasts, interactive games, etc.
Surprising results came in response to questions concerning online learning materials such
as discussions in forums, online tests, contact by chat, online group work or interactive
exercises. It came as a complete surprise that only a few students (10% to 22%) are familiar
with or have made use of the teaching materials available online.
What the young people of today actually do with the computer is as follows: they work a
great deal but for purposes of communication. It is therefore an additional tool with the
principal function of communication.
"95 per cent of American students are on Facebook. 80 to 90 per cent in Germany are on
StudiVZ. Wikipedia and the like are also used, except that everything else that distinguishes
Web 2.0 namely interactive working within a network and the cooperative elements are
used by a maximum of 5-10 per cent of young people. This includes contributions to
Wikipedia, actively maintaining weblogs (Schulmeister 2009).
Mobility is an additional aspect, although this is probably not the users objective. The
objective that is actually being strived for is to have entertainment, information and services
available when one is not otherwise occupied, e.g. by listening to music or news or
shortening waiting times through e-mail. Summarising the analysis reveals firstly that

students can be assumed to have skills in dealing with communication tools but that deficits
exist in more complex applications for new media such as e-learning tools or Web 2.0
The use of e-learning 2.0 and Web 2.0 is to some extent already reality, albeit not in the daily
routine of university teaching. University teaching staff are confronted with this situation to
the same extent as students. This therefore raises the urgent question of skills among
teaching staff in handling new media.
University teaching staff need media skills to exploit the new media for designing their own
work processes, for preparing tuition, for supporting research activities, etc. They also need
knowledge in media didactics that describes the use of information and communication
technologies as teaching and learning resources.
Accordingly, teaching staff have to decide whether and how they deploy the various media
available. At the level of an individual study unit, it is necessary to decide whether and which
media are used for (re)presenting knowledge, conveying knowledge or as a tool for
knowledge design as well as an instrument for communicating knowledge.
Whether university teaching staff (have to) independently develop their multimedia
components for their own teaching engagements depends on whether they have the time,
willingness, ability, motivation and interest to do so and also on what available resources
they have as support. This support within the university is one of the key factors that
determine which technical skills, university teaching staff have to acquire themselves in order
to be able to employ new media in their teaching and which skills have to come from other
sources, such as the media centre, in the form of service provision.
The implementation of new media represents a strategic potential for universities. The aim is,
through the formation of skills, to create a culture of teaching/learning through which it will be
possible to set up a lasting and sustainable infrastructure in the e-learning sector at our
universities and thus guarantee participation in the scientific community within a global
Internet world.

References: Excerpts from the following reference form a part of this article.
Claudia Bremer - Kompetenzzentrum fr Neue Medien in der Lehre, Universitt Frankfurt/M.
Hochschullehre und Neue Medien; Medienkompetenz und Qualifizierungsstrategien fr
Hochschullehrende. In: Ulrich Welbers (Ed.) Hochschuldidaktische Aus und Weiter-bildung,
Bertelsmann, Gtersloh, 2003 p. 323 - 345.
Michael Grosch; Gerd Gidion Mediennutzungs-gewohnheiten im Wandel. Karlsruher
Institut fr Technologie (KIT), KIT Scientific Publishing, 2011.
Rolf Schulmeister Studierende, Internet, E-Learning und Web 2.0. In: E-Learning 2009
Lernen im digitalen Zeitalter; Waxmann 2009



Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Hesser
Nordmarkstr. 30-32
D-22047 Hamburg
Tel: +49 (0)40-667255
E-learning A challenge for teachers,
their expertise and the innovative
capacity of a university
Prof. Dr.-Ing. em. Wilfried Hesser
Helmut Schmidt Universitt Hamburg, Germany
1. Establishment of an organisational structure
2. Didactic preparation of teaching materials
3. E-learning and teaching/learning scenarios
4. Requirements on teaching staff and students
resulting from new media
E-learning A challenge for teachers and
1 Establishment of an organisational
E-learning A challenge for teachers and
Organisational structure
Central services
Media centre
Data Centre
Mech. Eng.
Elec. Eng.
The following areas of expertise are
pooled in the media centre
Equipment for teaching sessions and lecture
Print shop and reprographic office
Graphics studio (formerly ZMKE Design and
Drawing Office)
Photographic and video office
E-learning coordination office
Media centre
17 employees
Advice on aspects of organisation and media
didactics for study services:
Project management tasks, planning and control
for the implementation of learning services;
training sessions
IT management and technical advice for learning
Development of hardware and software structure
(concept, procurement, etc.)
Server management and applications
administration (ILIAS)
Tasks for e-learning in the media centre
Core competencies of media centres
Work areas ranking
didactic advice 2.69
electronic reserve shelf 4.32
media production 2.12
multimedia archive 3.23
development tools 3.88
podcast lecture 2.37
user data maintenance 4.45
video conference technology 3.00
eLearning platform 2.16
Intranet/Internet portal 3.42
media technology/classrooms 2.63
* 23 media centres in Germany in 2010
Video formats
picture jerky
MKV, H.264, AC3, 1,080P *
MKV, H.264, AC3, 720P *
AVI, H.264, MP3, 720P
AVI, MPEG-2, MP3, 576P
MP4, H.264, AAC, 720P
MP4, DIVX, AAC, 720P
MP4, XVID, AAC, 720P
MOV, H.264, AAC, 720P
*via MX Video Player 04/2012
ILIAS cluster at HSU HH
File server
Databases at the HSU HH
load balance
Incorporation into the computer infrastructure of the computing
Blade server in the cluster
2 Didactic preparation of teaching materials
Example: Standardisation in Companies and Markets
E-learning A challenge for teachers and
E- mail
funct ion
t ut or ing
E- mail
funct ion
t ut or ing
Pict ures
animat ions
Pict ures
animat ions
I nt eract ive
exer cises
I nt eract ive
exer cises
Chat ,
Chat ,
Not ice
Not ice
Teaching Unit s
Teaching Unit s
Different elements of our teaching units
Information in text form
Media frame with pictures,
animations or video
Blended learning scenario 3-window technology
Compl ex of k now l edge
Compl ex of k now l edge
Blended learning scenario
2.1 Content sharing An initiative by
higher educationestablishments
E-learning A challenge for teachers and universities
Network group for lecturers
Teaching /
Study platform
FH Kiel
FH Kempten
FH Cologne
FH Landshut
FH Wiesbaden
FH Vorarlberg
HS Esslingen
HS Merseburg
HS Niederreihn
OvGU Magdeburg
RWTH Aachen
TU Munich
TU Clausthal
TU Dresden
Univ. Kassel
Content Sharing Technical Drawing/CAD
Central use of contents for the subject of
Technical Drawing/CAD
Cooperation partners approx. 20
Content sharing - An initiative by the higher education
establishments in Baden-Wrttemberg
Teaching /
Study platform
Teaching /
Study platform
Teaching /
Study platform
Content Sharing for:
Introduction to Statistics
Atmospheric Physics I
Atmospheric Physics II
Soils of the Earth
Irrigation Engineering
Decentralised use of contents for different subjects
Teaching /
Study platform
Teaching /
Study platform
3 E-Learning and teaching - learning
E-learning A challenge for teachers and
0 20 40 60 80 100
Exploitation of new learning technologies
Study MMB Learning Delphi 2010
Theories of teaching/learning
Teaching/learning concepts
Preparation of teaching materials
New learning contents
Examination, passing the
The learner at the centre of the process
Use of the forums
Multiple choice
test / working
Exercises (internalising the
learning unit)
Blended learning scenario
attheDepartmentofStandardisation andTechnicalDrawing/CAD
Week 1: Knowledge complex 1
learning units
learning units
in forum
in forum
Supplementary independent
Week 2: Knowledge complex 2
Week n: Knowledge complex n
L 1
MC test
Autumn term
Winter term
L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 L 6 L 7 L 8 L 9 L 10 L 11 L 12
MC test
MC test
MC test
MC test
MC test
MC test
MC test
MC test
MC test
MC test
MC test
Ex 1
ledge test
Ex 2 Ex 3 Ex 4 Ex 5 Ex 6 Ex 7 Ex 8 Ex 9 Ex 10 Ex 11 Ex 12
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
ledge test
Exam Provision of tests
for self-learning
Provision of tests
for self-learning
Obligatory tests
for checking
Obligatory tests
for checking
Raising performance by creating continuous
awareness of deficits
Promoting self-learning competence
Preparation of teaching materials in a variety of service ranges
Tests MC
Chats, forums
pdf documents
E-learning - supervision - Tasks of a teletutor
Blended learning scenario at HSU HH
Provide orientation
Information (on course schedule)
Welcome and introduction
Provide personal support
in the learning process (for problems of motivation and learning)
for technical problems in cooperation with technical support
Provide didactic support
Supply materials
Provide learning assignments
Give feedback
Deliver summaries
Supervise the transfer
Support social processes
Stimulate communication between students and tutor
Plan and execute group processes (group learning, etc.)
Initiate and promote mutual support
Blended learning scenario at HSU HH
26 teaching units in total
EU Standardisation Chat
EU Standardisation Researchers
Password: BSN2010
E-learning A challenge for teachers and universities
4 Requirements on teaching staff and students
resulting from new media
Media competence of lecturers and students
requirements for
e-teacher and
arrangement of
multiple teaching
Adoption of multimedia elements
low high
Degree of interaction
Teaching units
Teaching units
Portfolio of e-learning elements
Media competence for lecturers
PowerPoint slide
Multiple choice test
Animations Flash
Interactive tests
Teaching units
Internet telephony
Video conferencing
Facebook, social network
E-learning A challenge for teachers and universities
4.1 Media competence of students
daily % weekly % monthly %
E-mail 93.8 Online encyclopaedias 54.2 Online shopping 42.2
Telephony 79.4 Online banking 48.8
75.8 Online city maps 46.8
65.6 Product searches 38.8
SMS / MMS 61.5 Specialised datbases 33.6
38.9 Online catalogues 33.5
Chat / IM 36.4 Online magazines 28.7
Schulmeister 2009, students surveyed: 2096
Survey of student new media use: How often do you use the
following types of communication, the Internet, or online media?
Media use
often sometimes seldom never Not familiar
Audio podcasts 5.7% 13.3% 20.2% 44.2% 14.8%
Music 45.7% 26.9% 14.3% 9.7% 0.5%
Internet-radio 17.3% 29.7% 24.6% 24.4% 1.4%
Films 21.2% 28.7% 21.3% 25.6% 0.9%
Videos 18.6% 32.1% 23.8% 21.7% 1.1%
Video podcasts 3.7% 11.9% 20.3% 50.8% 11.0%
Internet-TV 6.5% 17.5% 22.1% 48.9% 2.8%
Weblogs 6.1% 13.2% 23.5% 45.6% 8.9%
Interact. Games 3.6% 8.6% 16.9% 63.4% 5.2%
Photos 28.6% 36.9% 20.7% 8.8% 0.7%
Survey: Which of the following digital types of media do you use?
Media use (rng-study) Schulmeister 2009
never never plus Im not familiar with the method
Virtual worlds 78.3% 93.2%
ePortfolio 52.9% 92.2%
Social bookmarking 45.7% 89.4%
Virtual classroom 70.6% 86.4%
Podcast lecture 64.8% 83.2%
Data exchange platforms 53.1% 82.7%
Web conferencing 70.6% 81.7%
Event platforms 51.8% 79.7%
Writing wikis 65.9% 79.0%
File sharing community 51.5% 77.2%
Own website 73.0% 76.2%
Reading e-books 59.3% 64.9%
LMS/eLearning 50.1% 63.5%
Taking part in discussion
49.5% 50.9%
Internet telephony 31.9% 34.0%
Survey: Which of the following Internet services do you use?
Schulmeister 2009
Technological development in the field of
new media is advancing very rapidly
Teaching staff and students can (only)
keep pace with this development to a
limited extent
Sustainability of an E-learning platform
From the view of an attendance-based university, i.e. from the
view of the capital invested in computers, software, staff, et
sustainability is defined by
a rise in the quality of teaching and
greater learning success among the
increased success rates in terms of
qualifications and not least
increased skills of university teachers in
dealing with multimedia.
Thank you for your attention!
e-learning is defined as all forms of electronic supported learning and teaching, which aim
to effect the construction of knowledge with reference to individual experience, practice and
knowledge of the learner. Information and communication systems, whether networked or
not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. (cf. Tavangarian et al. 2004)
Blended Learning
Blended Learning refers to a mixing of different learning environments. A blended learning
approach can combine face-to-face instruction with computer-mediated instruction. (cf.
Graham 2005)
A wiki ( /wki/ WIK-ee) is a website that allows the easy creation and editing of any number
of interlinked web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a
WYSIWYG text editor. Wikis are typically powered by wiki software and are often used to
create collaborative websites, to power community websites, for personal note taking, in
corporate intranets, and in knowledge management systems.
Forum Chat
Wiki etc
Learning management system
e- l ear ni ng el ement s
E-learning elements
Education on standardization as
an input to research on
standardization: a success story
Geerten van de Kaa
At the faculty of Technology, Policy and
Management, Delft University of Technology, The
Netherlands, education about standardization
focuses on market based standardization and
particularly onfactors for standards battles. We have
developed a general (award winning) course on
technology and strategy in the first year of the
M.Sc. Management of Technology and we have
developed a specific course on standards battles in
the specialization stage of the master program that
builds upon and extents the knowledge taught in the
general course. We provide students with a detailed
understanding of the specifics of market based
An important part of the course on technology and
strategy focuses on identifying the reasons why
most industries adopt a dominant standard and why
a particular firms technology is adopted as the
dominant standard. Furthermore, different factors
that affect the outcome of technology battles are
examined. At the end of the first year of the M.Sc.
Management of Technology, students will choose a
specialization. Students that choose to specialize in
innovation management will follow the basic
course on standards battles, technology patterns and
business ecosystems. In this course, students study
how the network of stakeholders supporting the
competing standards changes over time during the
technology life cycle and how this impacts
dominance of the competing standards.
What makes education on standardization at Delft
University of Technology so innovative? First, in
our courses we apply state of the art research on
standardization and we constantly update the
teaching material. So our education is strongly
research driven. Second, our education results in
novel input for research through empirical material
gathered in the courses and in the master theses.
In this paper we will explain each course in detail
providing information on course objectives, format,
organization, and grading. We will provide students
evaluations where possible. We will conclude with
a discussion on how education on standardization
provides valuable input to our research on
Table 1 provides an overview of the basic
characteristics of each course.
Technology and
Standards battles,
Patterns, Business
Geerten van de Kaa Geerten van de Kaa
Other involved
Cees van Beers,
Erik den Hartigh
Erik den Hartigh,
Roland Ortt
Program M.Sc. Management
of Technology
M.Sc. Management
of Technology
Stage 1
year 2
Study load 6 ECTS
# students +/-75 +/- 12
Language English English

Table 1: general characteristics of the courses on

In the remainder of this paper we will explain each
course in detail providing information on course
objectives, format, organization, and grading. We
will provide students evaluations where possible.
We will conclude with a discussion on how
education on standardization provides valuable
input to our research.
Education on standardization
Course objectives relating to the standardization
part of the course technology and strategy include:
Identify differences in the types of
innovation and the general patterns that
characterize technology improvement
trajectories and technology diffusion rates
(including s-curves and technological
To increase students understanding of
why a dominant standard emerges and
why it is not always the most technological
superior standard that becomes dominant.
To identify the primary sources of
increasing returns and network
Familiarize students with the key factors
affecting standard dominance including
timing, licensing and compatibility,
pricing, distribution, and marketing.
The course is organized into 6 regular sessions, 6
teaching case sessions and 1 game session. Each
regular session consists of interactive lectures. In
the teaching case sessions students present and
discuss questions posed in assigned teaching cases
that relate to the topics studied in the regular
sessions. Example of teaching cases include the

The European Credit Transfer and accumulation System
(ECTS) is a standard for comparing study load for courses across
the European Union. 1 ECTS equals 28 hours.
battle between bluray and HD-DVD and the battles
fought in different generations of the gaming
console industry. Students are expected to analyze
these battles and discuss questions posed in the
teaching cases. As such they apply the theory to
different practical situations.
For the regular sessions students study the literature
and for the teaching case sessions students prepare
the teaching cases in an assigment. When a teaching
case is presented all groups participate in a class-
wide discussion. For each teaching case, one group
is assigned as a discussant group and prepares
several discussion topics and initiates these topics
in class. In class, the teacher introduces additional
questions about the case. Other students are also
invited to introduce their additional questions.
Through class discussion students further deepen
their understanding of the topics and themes of the
regular session.
In one session, we play the Back bay battery
game. This simulation is designed to bridge theories
in innovation and the impact of an emerging,
disruptive technology (standard) to the real-world
context in which managers must make decisions
about investing in innovative technologies
(standards) under conditions of uncertainty. The
simulation presents the student with the challenges
associated with making investment choices in both
mature and emerging technologies under
uncertainand highly constrainingreal-world
conditions. After the session the game is open to
students until the exam takes place and for 5
additional runs. The 10 students with the highest
score at the end of this period will earn one extra
point for the exam. This provides the students with
an extra incentive to play the game and apply the
theories covered in the course.
We distinguish between two grading components:
(1) The unweighted average of the grades for the
teaching case, presentation, plus discussion in class,
which counts for 20% of the end grade, and (2)
Written individual exam: a closed book exam with
open questions, which counts for 80% of the end
grade. Each of the grades should be at least 5.75
. A prerequisite for participation in the
exam is a sufficient grade for all teaching cases.
The final grade is the weighted average of the
grades for the assignment and the exam.
In total, 168 hours are spend on the course. This
includes 4 hours/week lectures = total 28 hours (1
ECTS), 8 hours/week preparing lectures = total 53
hours (2ECTS), 28 hours preparing teaching cases
(1ECTS), and finally, 53 hours preparing exam,
teaching game, plus 3 hours exam (2ECTS)

The grading system in The Netherlands is on a numerical scale
from 1 (bad) to 10 (excellent).
Standards Battles, Technology Patterns and
The main course objective that we have specified
for the course Standards Battles, Technology
Patterns and Business Ecosystems is:
After the course students are able to
understand the theoretical background of
standards battles, technology patterns, and
business ecosystems and the relations
between these topics.
The course is organized into 6 regular session of 4
hours and one closing session. Each of the regular
sessions consists of a mixture of lecturing and
discussions. For each session students study the
literature. Through class discussions students
further deepen their understanding of the topics and
themes of the class.
The course starts with presenting a framework of
different factors for standard dominance which is a
result of research carried out by the author(Van de
Kaa et al., 2011). To increase understanding of the
factors for standard dominance, students apply the
framework to different standards battles in
class(e.g. Gallagher et al., 2002; Schilling, 2003;
Shapiro et al., 1999). In subsequent lectures the
technology life cycle is presented and different
papers are discussed that focus on how factors for
standard dominance may change in different stages
of the technology life cycle(e.g. Suarez, 2004).
Finally, in the last two lectures, students get
acquainted with the literature on inter-
organizational networks. Students analyze different
papers that study the impact of inter-organizational
networks on standard dominance(e.g. Leiponen,
Every student has to complete an assignment. In the
assignment the students are asked to analyze a
standards battle in depth. In the first session they
can choose for a standards battle. The assignment
consists of three parts: (1) Standards battles , (2)
Business Ecosystems, and (3) Technology Patterns.
For the first part students have to analyze a
standards battle. The end result is a document in
which student present a case description and a case
analysis. The case description consists of a
historical overview of the standards battle. The case
analysis consists of a text in which the student
analyzes the battle and determine why the
(dominant) standard has achieved dominance. To
arrive at a case description and analysis students
begin with analyzing the existing literature that
reports on the standards battle (some standards
battles such as the battle for a VCR standard have
been studied numerous times). From this initial
analysis students will arrive at a table in which for
every factor and for every publication, they will
indicate whether the factor was mentioned in the
publication. Maybe the literature on the standards
battle does not mention all factors found in the
literature. This can mean that these factors did not
apply to the case or that addition of one or more of
these factors could provide a better explanation of
the case. Therefore, additional research should
show to what extent these factors actually have
played a role in the battle. Hence, the student
conducts a secondary data analysis in the form of
reports, practitioners literature, external databases,
etc. and the write a preliminary version of the case
description and analysis. At this stage the student
has to carry out additional interviews with
practitioners to fully reconstruct the case. A pre-
defined questionnaire is used when carrying out
interviews. The interviews are transcribed and
attached as an appendix. Quotes can be used to
back up claims made in the report. In the analysis
of the standards battle students are asked to link all
of their observations back to the literature (so a
particular event that leads to dominance of one
particular standard should not just be mentioned but
also be explained by making use of the appropriate
In the second part of the assignment students should
give an answer to the primary question: What is
the pattern of development and diffusion for the
product in which the standard is implemented?
First, the student should begin with providing a
clear definition of the product / technology. Second,
students should provide a historical overview of the
main events in the life cycle of the product. This
results in a technology life cycle for the product in
which the standard is implemented.
In the final part of the assignment, students should
analyse the interorganizational network of actors
developing and promoting each standard in every
stage of the technology life cycle. Finally, students
should give an answer to the primary question: how
the network of stakeholders supporting the
competing standards changes over time during the
technology life cycle and how this impacts
dominance of the competing standards.
We ask students to be particularly critical towards
theory (theory can be right, but can also be not
applicable to their problem) and towards data (data
can be more or less reliable, depending on the
source). Students make the assignment in the form
of a paper. There is an up-front limitation in
numbers of words. Students are encouraged to
make the paper as short, compact and clear as
possible. It is graded on the quality or the
argumentation, the structuring of the document and
the arguments, theory based reasoning, fact (data)
based reasoning, compactness (too long stories will
be graded lower), clarity of argumentation, and
general understanding of the topic.
Discussion: how education on
standardization may lead to research
on standardization

The assignment which is part of the course
Standards Battles, Technology Patterns and
Business Ecosystems results in a report that
follows a pre-defined template set up by the
teachers. This makes it possible to analyze and
compare the empirical data that the students have
gathered. Eventually, good reports have been used
as empirical data in our research. For example, two
students have gathered data on the case of HD DVD
versus Blu-ray and Windows versus Mac PC
operating systems. We have used that data as
empirical data in a paper in which we track the
changes in structure and composition of business
networks supporting these technologies in the
different phases of the technology life cycle. In the
paper we suggest that strategic decisions of firms
were key to winning and losing these battles and
should therefore not be overlooked. The paper has
been presented at several conferences and published
as a book chapter (den Hartigh et al., 2011). The
paper is a typical example of how education about
standardization can lead to insights for research on
Students that have written excellent reports
and that want to deepen their knowledge of
standards battles can choose to write a masters
thesis on the topic of the course applying the
empirical data gathered in the course.To date, three
students that have participated in the course
Standards Battles, Technology Patterns and
Business Ecosystems have chosen to write a
master thesis on the topic of standards battles. For
example, one student is currently finishing his
master thesis on the topic of re-evaluating the class
video standards battle. The classical battle between
VHS (as supported by JVC), Betamax (supported
by Sony) and V2000 (Philips and others) is a well
documented battle (Bartlett et al., 1988; Cottrell et
al., 2001; Cusumano et al., 1992; Dai, 1996;
Economides, 1996; Grindley, 1995; Johne, 1994;
Klopfenstein, 1989; Ohashi, 2002; Puffert, 1999;
Roome, 2006) about the emergence of a dominant
standard in the VCR market in the 1970s and
1980s. Although at that time Betamax was widely
recognized as superior compared to VHS, the latter
standard eventually won the standards battle. In this
research project the objective is to re-evaluate this
battle using a framework for standard dominance
(Van de Kaa et al., 2011)that is more complete
compared to existing frameworks suggested in the
literature (Lee et al., 1995; Schilling, 1998; Suarez,
2004). Second objective is to test the framework:
does it provide a better toolbox to analyze
standards battles than other models / literature
do?The project started with an extensive literature
study in which the different papers that have
studied the standards battle were analysed. It was
investigated whether the factors mentioned in the
framework played a role in this battle and if so how
they affected the outcome of the battle. Maybe the
literature on the VCR battle did not mention all
factors found by Van de Kaa et al. (2011). This can
mean that these factors did not apply to the case or
that addition of one or more of these factors could
provide a better explanation of the case. Therefore,
additional research should show to what extent
these factors actually have played a role in the
battle. This has been done by interviewing both
academics who studied the case and practitioners
who were involved in the case. In interviews with
key authors about the case, the factors mentioned in
the framework have been discussed and it was
assessed whether the author came to new insights in
the case after applying the model. The research
carried out by the student will result in a paper or
material for a paper.
Other examples include a studentthat has
graduated in 2011 on the topic of Interrelation of
Factors for Standard Dominance in Standard Battles
in the consumer electronics and IT industries and a
student that has graduated in 2011 (with an 8) on
the topic of Factors influencing photovoltaic
adoption and selection. The latter thesis has been
written in the form of a paper and is currently under
preparation for an ISI rated journal.
So what makes education on standardization at
Delft University of Technology so distinctive?
First, in our courses we apply state of the art
research on standardization (Cusumano, 2011;
Gallagher, 2012; Millar et al., 2010; Soh, 2010;
Van de Kaa et al., 2011) and we constantly update
our teaching material. So our education is very
much research driven. Second, our education results
in novel input for research through empirical
material gathered in the courses and in the master
theses. Finally, the fact that we use a diverse
amount of teaching methods including interactive
lectures, teaching cases, and a teaching game results
in the fact that students apply the knowledge in
different ways greatly contributing to their
understanding of the specifics of market based
The course Technology and Strategy is evaluated
good by students (see table 2).
Criteria Student evaluation
Usefulness Good
Connection to prior knowledge Good
Level Excellent
Teaching method Good
Teaching Good
Study material Satisfactory/good
Organization Good
Assessment Good
General opinion 7+
Table 2: student evaluations Technology and
Strategy 2010-2011, 78 students enrolled of which
58 participated in the evaluation.
The course Technology and Strategyalso received
a teaching award. This award is based upon the
student evaluations for the course during the period
of 2010-2011. 78 students enrolled of which 58
participated in the evaluation. Due to the small
amount of students involved quantitative evidence
is not available for the course Standards Battles,
Technology Patterns and Business Ecosystems
The overriding intent of the courses that we provide
at Delft University of Technology is to help
students, as engineers, become savvier players and
better prepare them for a successful business career
in the area of standardization. Students can become
standardization strategists in large companies such
as Philips or they can apply their knowledge at
consulting agencies or standard development
Bartlett CA, Ghosal S. 1988. Organizing for World
Wide Effectiveness: the Transnational Solution.
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Cottrell T, Sick G. 2001. First-Mover
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Management: Platform Wars Come to Social
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Cusumano MA, Mylonadis Y, Rosenbloom RS.
1992. Strategic maneuvering and mass-market
dynamics: The triumph of VHS over Beta. Business
History Review66(1): 51-94.
Dai X. 1996. Corporate Strategy, Public Policy and
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Ltd: Exeter.
den Hartigh E, Ortt R, van de Kaa G, Stolwijk C.
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Technology Blind K, Jakobs K (eds.), Mainz
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Economides N. 1996. Network Externalities,
Complementarities, and Invitations to Enter.
European Journal of Political Economy12(2): 211-
Gallagher S, Park SH. 2002. Innovation and
Competition in Standard-Based Industries: A
Historical Analysis of the U.S. Home Video Game
Market. IEEE Transactions on Engineering
Management49(1): 67-82.
Gallagher SR. 2012. The battle of the blue laser
DVDs: The significance of corporate strategy in
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Grindley P. 1995. Video Cassette Recorder: The
Value of Co-operation. In Standards, Strategy, and
Policy: Cases and Stories. Grindley P (ed.), Oxford
University Press: Oxford.
Johne A. 1994. Listening to the Voice of the
Market. International Marketing Review11(1): 47-
Klopfenstein BC. 1989. Forecasting Consumer
Adoption of Information Technology and Services -
Lessons from Home Video Forecasting. Journal of
the American Society for Information Science40(1):
Lee J, O'Neal DE, Pruett MW, Thoams H. 1995.
Planning for dominance: a strategic perspective on
the emergence of a dominant design. R&D
Management25(1): 3-15.
Leiponen AE. 2008. Competing Through
Cooperation: The Organization of Standard Setting
in Wireless Telecommunications. Management
Science54(11): 19041919.
Millar CCJM, Millar PH, Choi CJ. 2010.
Technology standards and increasing returns:
Microsoft versus Nokia and Linux. International
Journal of Technology Management49(4): 357-369.
Ohashi H. 2002. Anticipatory effects of voluntary
export restraints: a study of home video cassette
recorders market. Journal of International
Economics57(1): 83105.
Puffert DJ. 1999. Path Dependence in Economic
History. Institute for Economic History: Munich.
Roome N. 2006. Transformations in Information,
Communication and Computing Technology
(ICCT) Industries - the strategic role of
responsibility in company competitive strategies. (2
Schilling MA. 1998. Technological Lockout: An
Integrative Model of the Economic and Strategic
Factors Driving Technology Success and Failure.
Academy of Management Review23(2): 267-284.
Schilling MA. 2003. Technological Leapfrogging:
Lessons from the U.S. Video Game Console
Industry. California Management Review45(3): 6-
Shapiro C, Varian HR. 1999. The Art of Standards
Wars. California Management Review41(2): 8-32.
Soh P-H. 2010. Network Patterns and Competitive
Advantage before the Emergence of a Dominant
Design. Strategic Management Journal31: 438-461.
Suarez FF. 2004. Battles for technological
dominance: an integrative framework. Research
Policy33(2): 271-286.
Van de Kaa G, Van den Ende J, De Vries HJ, Van
Heck E. 2011. Factors for Winning Interface
Format Battles: A Review and Synthesis of the
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Change78: 1397-1411.





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2. Experiences

We have mainly been involved in the development of
geographic information standards since 2006 and 1985
respectively (refer to the note at the end about the
authors involvement). Geographic information is
information concerning phenomena implicitly or
explicitly associated with a location relative to the Earth
[ISO 19101:2002] and plays a central role in service
delivery by local governments, for example. Our
experience has primarily been of standards development
in the International Organization for Standardizations
Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic
information/Geomatics, and its local mirror committee,
SABS/SC71E, Geographic information, but we have
also been exposed to standards development in industry
consortia, such as the Open Geospatial Consortium
(OGC), which collaborates closely with ISO/TC 211.
Standards development requires expertise and
innovation in the domain being addressed (often
requiring expertise across disciplines), as well as in
standards and standards development themselves. An
example of this within ISO/TC 211 is the realisation
that standards development can be compared to
configuration management in software engineering,
which also confirms OGCs route to modular standards,
i.e. that, a standard is more a container of normative
clauses, rather than an end in itself [Coetzee 2011,
Coetzee et al 2011].
2.1. How have standards and our involvement in
standards influenced our research?
Involvement in standards has made it easier to find and
understand standards, their implementations and the
implications of standards adoption. For the analysis of a
data grid approach for spatial data infrastructures (SDI),
being involved in standards made it easier to find and
understand the implications of relevant standards, not
only those related to the committees and organizations
that we are involved in, but also those from other
standardization organizations, such as the Open Grid
Forum (OGF) and the Organization for the
Advancement of Structured Information Systems
(OASIS) [Coetzee 2009, Coetzee & Bishop 2009].

Involvement in standards provides an opportunity for
networking and we have both used this opportunity to
get involved in other research. We contribute to the
research of the Commission on Geoinformation
Infrastructures and Standards of the International
Cartographic Association (ICA) [Cooper & Clarke
1991, Cooper 1997, Cooper & Gavin 2005, Hjelmager
et al 2008]. In turn, participation in the ICA
commission has led to a bilateral research project
between South Africa and Poland. Another research
initiative on the writing and modularity of standards is
on-going, in collaboration with other members of
ISO/TC 211 [Coetzee et al 2011].

Involvement in standards raises many interesting
research questions, which we have integrated into
research projects. One student investigated the use of
standard web services in thematic web maps
[Rautenbach et al 2012] on our bilateral research project
between South Africa and Poland, while another is
experimenting with the use of ontologies for cross-
mapping between address specifications [Tewolde &
Coetzee 2011]. Results from the latter were used as
input for the new work item proposal (NWIP) for ISO
19160-1, Addressing Part 1: Conceptual Model.
(currently out for ballot). We have published
extensively about our standards related research,
amongst others seven articles in peer-reviewed journals,
four book chapters, and conference papers in a variety
of international conference proceedings.

Google Scholar confirms that there is much research
exploiting standards: it records about 7,200 papers with
ISO 9000 in their title, for example. Within
geographical information science (GISc), 42 papers in
the prestigious International Journal for Geographical
Information Science alone reference ISO 19115 [2003],
the metadata standard developed by ISO/TC 211,
Geographic information/Geomatics.

Involvement in standards brings academics into contact
with the practitioners [Coetzee et al 2008, Coetzee et al
2010]. The cross-pollination between these two
communities enriches the resultant standards and
research. Similarly, involvement in standardization
brings one into contact with experts from different
cultures, and working on standards then emphasises
how different not just languages are from one another,
but also education systems and hence the contexts
within which experts from different countries
understand technologies and standards. This has led us
to realise the importance of getting a common
understanding of the concepts, terminology and scope,
before starting to write the standard or starting an
international research project, or even a domestic
research project in a multi-lingual and multi-cultural
country such as South Africa (e.g. creating a
methodology for standards development in an
organisation [Cooper 2005]). We have applied this to
new standards under development, such as ISO 19152,
Geographic information -- Land Administration
Domain Model (LADM), and ISO 19160-1, Addressing
Part 1: Conceptual model, [Lemmen et al 2011,
Coetzee et al 2010].
2.2. How has our research influenced standards?
The development of the South African standard for the
exchange of digital geo-referenced information [Clarke
et al 1988, Cooper 1988] required extensive research on
the nature of geographical information, which also
contributed to the research being conducted at the
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) at
the time. The result was an innovative, relational
standard that escaped from the constraints of then
current systems.
Results from the analysis of the data grid approach for
address data sharing in spatial data infrastructures has
provided direction and guidance for work on the South
African address standard [Coetzee & Cooper 2007,
SANS 1883:2009], as well as the international standard,
ISO 19160, Addressing. Results from other research
projects, such as the bilateral project mentioned above;
a project on institutional address data, funded by the
University of Pretorias research development
programme; a THRIP (industry collaboration) project
funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (dti)
and AfriGIS; and a grant by the Global Spatial Data
Infrastructure Association (GSDI), have all provided
further input to these standards.
Results from a normative dependency analysis of
geographic information standards [Coetzee 2011] have
led to further work in ISO/TC 211 to improve the
modularity of standards and to explicitly record
dependencies between standards [Coetzee et al 2011].
Recommendations will now be implemented in ISO/TC
211 in order to improve the readability, testability and
maintainability of standards. In related work by a South
Africa colleague, Walker [2011] cross-referenced
provisions from quality and process-related standards,
including ISO 9001:2008. The effort needed to find and
cross-reference requirements confirmed the need for
modular standards.
2.3. Did the standards that we were involved in create
new opportunities for innovation?
The published South African standard for the exchange
of digital geo-referenced information was implemented
by the CSIR for two vendors, resulting in the finding
that an exchange standard is a language [Cooper 1993]
and the development of a formal model for the standard
and its encoding in LEX and YACC [Cooper 1994].
Feedback from delegates at standards meetings suggests
that the South African address standard has prompted
innovation: the South African Post Office is
implementing a new address validation system based on
SANS 1883:2009 and various private sector companies
are promoting SANS 1883-compliant tools.
Internationally, we expect a similar trend, once the
different parts of ISO 19160 are published. Already
now, while the draft is still under development, at least
six profiles of ISO 19160-1, Addressing Part 1:
Conceptual Model, for various countries and regions are
under development. These profiles will spawn
addressing tools in the respective countries and regions.
2.4. What are the barriers to implementing standards,
thereby facilitating innovation?
There is an acute lack of awareness of the existence of
relevant standards. This is evident from the delegates
attending our annual Introduction to GIS Standards
short course presented by Continued Education at the
University of Pretoria (CE at UP). We spend a large
part of the first morning educating them on where to
find information about standards and how to access
these. Occasional queries we receive from the public
show that the SABS website does not come up as an
option for finding a standard. Could it be that people do
not associate the SABS with information technology
A cost of as little as R 1.00 for a standard is a barrier to
accessing that standard, because of the bureaucracy that
needs to be dealt with to approve purchases (especially
in local authorities). The answer is to have licensing
mechanisms for large clients, such as the South African
government (all three tiers), if not for the whole
country. The CSIR has such a licence, for example.
The readability of a standard, or rather the lack thereof,
is a huge barrier. As we have often stated, a standard is
not a novel! It is written for precision, not for
entertainment. Nevertheless, the writing of standards
can be improved. This is evident in novice standards
users, but also in experienced delegates at standards
meetings. It takes a while to understand the
implications of shall, may and the other verbal forms
for the expression of provisions in a standard. Once
understood, realization strikes that provisions are often
hidden behind other words or phrases, such as is a!
Readability also influences the testability of a standard:
if requirements are difficult to find, it is also difficult to
test conformance of these requirements. Readability
can be improved by the way in which standards are
written [Coetzee 2011, Coetzee et al 2011], but
standardization education on reading, interpreting and
writing standards will also improve readability and thus
remove barriers to implementation.
Because there is no conformance approval or other
incentive for geographic information standards
implementation in South Africa, the public and private
sector are reluctant to spend money on standards
implementation for which there is no explicit financial
2.5. What are the barriers to involvement in standards
The Department of Higher Education and Training
(DHET) subsidises publications by South African
universities in peer-reviewed accredited journals, which
are typically reviewed by two to three peers. In
contrast, experts from the member bodies of a technical
committee scrutinize a standard through several stages
before it is accepted. ISO/TC 211, for example, has 63
member bodies and many more liaison organizations.
ISO/TC 211s most widely used standard, ISO 19115
(2003), has generally had over 1,000 comments at each
stage. Despite this, there is no subsidy for standards
from the DHET and therefore support from the
universities for standards involvement is lacking. It is
sometimes difficult to fund attendance at standards
meetings from a research project, because the research
in standards development is not recognised. While
standards are recognized as a research output at the
CSIR (one of several science councils in South Africa),
it can also be difficult to participate in standards
development, because CSIR staff need to obtain funding
to cover their time at charge-out rates.
Another barrier is very limited recognition of, or
teaching of, standards at school or university, even
though one is continually exposed to standards. The
initial focus should be on the undergraduate curriculum
for science, engineering, commerce and law indeed,
with their exposure to legislation and policies, students
in commerce and law might be more receptive to
standards in the curriculum, and there are many
standards relevant to them (e.g. management standards).
As a result, the SABS will be targeting business schools
to introduce standards to their curricula [Visser 2012].
One problem encountered by those new to the writing of
standards is the need to maintain tedious consistency
throughout the standard. For example, if clauses are
structured exactly the same (i.e. have a lot of text in
common in the same places in the clauses), this is
because they are equivalent, but for different concepts.
Where clauses are structured similarly, this is because
they are nearly the same, but there are key differences.

3. Conclusion

In summary, standards, research and innovation have
many mutual benefits:
- Involvement in standards development is an
opportunity for research networking.
- Involvement in standards development improves
ones understanding of standards and their value.
- During standards development, research questions
are raised.
- Input from research results has a positive influence
on the resultant standard.
- Standards provide opportunities for innovation.
- Cross-pollination between academics and
practitioners during standards development
enriches resultant research and standards.
- Exposure to the international standards
development community is beneficial experience
for work on international research projects and for
innovation for global markets.

These benefits could drive innovation but are hindered
by a number of barriers in South Africa:
- Lack of awareness of standards.
- Costs of standards and the resulting barrier to
accessing standards.
- Readability and testability of standards.
- No DHET subsidy incentive to universities for
involvement in standards.
- No conformance testing for geographic information

Based on our experience, we recommend the following
with the objective of stimulating the discussion on the
involvement of academics in standards development and
on standardization education in university curricula:
- Students and academics at universities should have
free online access to all standards.
- National and provincial government departments,
as well as local governments, should have easy
online access to relevant standards through a site
licensing mechanism.
- Standardization education should be integrated into
the undergraduate and postgraduate curricula of
tertiary degree programmes.
- The DHET should recognise the research and
innovation that go into a standard and include
standards in the subsidy mechanism for
- Testing data and products for conformity to
geographic information standards should be
provided by accredited organizations.
- Standards should be written in a modular fashion
for better readability, testability and

The authors would like to thank the South African
Bureau of Standards (SABS) for the invitation to submit
this paper and their financial support to participate in
the ICES Conference and the WSC Academic Day
2012. We would also like to thank the SABS for their
support for SANS 1883, Geographic information
Addresses and ISO 19160, Addressing, as well as the
financial support to the authors to attend meetings of
ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics, and
other standards-related meetings.

A preliminary version of this paper was presented by Dr
Coetzee at the South African Bureau of Standards
(SABS) Academics Open Day, 1 March 2012 [Coetzee
& Cooper 2012], and we thank the SABS for the
invitation to make the presentation.


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(2008). Towards an international address standard,
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About the authors involvement in standards
development and education

Mr Antony Cooper was appointed to the CSIR in 1985
to develop the South African standard for the
exchange of digital geo-referenced information. He
currently chairs SABS/SC 71E, Geographic
information. He has attended every Plenary of
ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics,
since 1999, was Convenor of Working Group 2,
Geospatial data models and operators, and is
currently Convenor of Working Group 7,
Information Communities. He has also participated
in two Plenaries of ISO/TC 69, Applications of
statistical methods, in several other SABS
committees, and chairs the Commission on
Geoinformation Infrastructures and Standards of the
International Cartographic Association (ICA).

Dr Serena Coetzee was the project leader for the South
African Address standard, which was initiated in
2006 and published in 2009 (SANS 1883:2009). She
is the project leader of ISO 19160, Addressing, and
chairs the Programme Maintenance Group of
ISO/TC 211, which monitors the committees
programme of work to ensure harmonization and
consistency among standards. Serena is also a
member of the ICA Commission on Geoinformation
Infrastructures and Standards. She is the Programme
Chair for the academic track for the GISSA
Ukubuzana 2012 conference, to be held in October
2012 in Ekurhuleni, South Africa.



Unindra has the vision and mission as one of the educational institution concerned with
standardization tried to introduce learning education standards in the education curriculum in
industrial engineering. One of the ways the application introduction of standardization in the
industrial engineering Unindra is making the education system already integrated practicum from
the beginning up to the end of the semester. These practicums are not only discussing the
standardization of theoretically but performed simulations concerning the definition and benefits
of standardization so that students understand the meaning of standardization with the
appropriate. One of practicum in Industrial Engineering Unindra who introduced the used of

A. Introduction

Standardization is the determination

of the size that should be followed in
producing something, while making many

The word comes from the English

"standard", can be a translation from French
be defined as a standard in the form of

To distinguish between the

definitions of the term standard, hence the
term "standard" is given the meaning as
"norme", while etalon" in English is defined
as "measurement standard". Standardization
of the term comes from the Word default
which means the unit of measure is used as
the basis of comparison for the quantity,
quality, the value, and attainment that was
done. In the broader sense of the standard

Definition of standards and

standardization that used BSN (National
Standardization Agency of Indonesia)
referenced from PP No. 102 in 2000 was
"technical specifications or something that
includes standardized procedures and
methods are arranged based on the
consensus of all parties associated with
health, the environment, development of
science and technology, as well as the
experience, the development of the present

Head of the BSN, Dr. Bambang

Setiadi, on the sidelines of a Seminar on
National Standardization, Tuesday 15
from college intellectuals. In other countries,
campus. A number of existing products
turned out to be standardization by the
students and professors, for that individual
college are expected to understand correctly
about the definition and benefits of

University of Indraprasta PGRI

(UNINDRA) is one of the colleges that have
commitment concern and awareness of the
importance of standardization, so as to be
able to participates and contributed ideas
and socialization of standardization to
students then at the start of 2011 has held
seminars on standardization that follow
socializing by 500 students and professors
from industrial engineering courses with
tutor directly from Dr. Bambang Setiadi as
the Head of National Standardization Agency
(BSN). The student's response at that point
very well, as evidenced by the existence of
several discussions between students with

This made the Rector of UNINDRA

very enthusiastic to make cooperation in the
form of MoU between UNINDRA and BSN,
and finally MoU has been the signing on
Tuesday 15 November 2011 at Balai Kartini,
Jakarta. MoU between UNINDRA with BSN is
of UNINDRA as well as the concern of the
peoples of Indonesia that with proper
standards of this nation can improve the

Basically in subjects that are taught

on the course industrial engineering there
are materials about the standardization of
as well as discussing various certification
standard that exist in Indonesia or in the
world such as ISO, JIS, ICSA CERTIFIED and
SNI. These courses include Engineering
Drawings, Design Analysis, Work Quality
Control, System Production, Quality

discussing the standardization of
theoretically but performed simulations
concerning the definition and benefits of
standardization so that students understand
the meaning of standardization with the

The student is the younger

generation that will contribute to the
competitiveness of Nations, by having a
proper understanding of the standardization
of the students can improve the
competitiveness of the nation with the
application of standardization in either
product, system or standardization

In this short paper, we of Course

industrial engineering faculty of engineering,
mathematics and Natural Sciences University
of Indraprasta PGRI will discuss how the
standardization in the learning material

B. ProblemStatements

Based on the background which has

been discussed in the introduction, then the
standardization on Student Learning through
one of the educational institution concerned
with standardization tried to introduce
learning education standards in the
education curriculum in industrial
One of the ways the application
introduction of standardization in the
industrial engineering unindra is making the
education system already integrated
practicum from the beginning up to the end
of the semester.


C. ProjectScope

In order for this paper the focus in the

discussion there are some things that should

1. The variables to be used in the

data size of the students of courses of
design Analysis Work as many as 30
2. Products that are made in the learning
object is educational chair brands
3. The Discussions will be undertaken is a
highbackrestseat,backrestand a long
wide Board Educational chair brand

D. ResearchObjectives

According to formulation of the

problem and the constraints of the problem,
then the purpose of the research is: find out
how learning methods and standardization
regarding learning outcomes of college
student seats are used in the material

E. LiteratureReview
1. Standardization

Definition of standards and

standardization that used BSN (National
Badan Standardisasi) referenced from PP
No. 102 in 2000 are as follows: standard
is a technical specification or something
that includes standardized procedures
and methods are arranged based on the
consensus of all parties associated with
attention to the conditions of safety,
security, health, the environment,
development of science and technology,
as well as the experience, the
development of the present and the

Standardization is the process of

formulating, establishing, implementing
and revising standard, which is
implemented in an orderly through
cooperation with all the parties
concerned. Indonesia's national standard
(SNI) is a standard set by the National
Standardization Bodies (BSN) and applies

By quoting the explanation from The

book "The aims and principles of
Standardization" published by ISO
standardization objectives can then
Suitability for a specific use (fitness
Being able to switch
Control of biodiversity (variety
Communication and a better
Maintaining the security, safety and

2. Anthropometric

Anthropometric comes from the

word anthropos and logos (Greece),
which means that the human body and
the word antropo (man) and metron
(measure). Anthropometric that the
study relating to the measurement of
the human body to be used as
human interaction. That is the basic
concept that must be understood in
using Anthropometric is the concept of
growth. Anthropometric performed on
children to assess the growing flower
flower child walk normally or not.
Anthropometric is part of the science of
ergonomicsrelated dimensions of the
human body which includes the shape,
size and strength and its application to

for design of equipment and work
environment. The convenience of using
the tool relies on the suitability of the
size of the tool to the size of a human
time will lead to stress the body among

Anthropometric is knowledge
concerning the measurement of the
dimensions of the human body and the
body of another special characteristic
that are relevant to the design of the
a) Anthropometric static, where
silent position and linear on the
b) Anthropometric Dynamic, where
the measurement is carried out by
when these workers carry out its

Anthropometric commonly used in

a product that deals directly with
humans. Almost all products are indeed
related directly with humans. For
example, the brake pedals on a car. Ever
felt that the pedal width too narrow? or
the size of the Steering booster seat is
adjusted in such a way? Or maybe seats
occupied feels uncomfortable, that sort
of thing which is the discussion in

To address issues such as the above,

based on the design concept of
Anthropometric is divided into three
3. Design of the adjustable (adjustable

lot known as the use of percentile lines.
The bottom line for designing for small
size like high short people then use
high doors then use percentile lines 95.
Perhaps the images below can give

Designing with average population

used if considered the use of extreme
upside. While design can be setting
(adjustable range) better if viewed from
thecannotadjustthesizewith ahuman
Anthropometric. May products with this
approach we often see around us like a
Chair that can be adjusted in height, the
table, the size of the household and
3. EducationalchairFutura

Educational Chair used inlectures onthe

course industrial engineering FTMIPA
UNINDRA is a brand of Futura to the
specifications shown in the following figure:

ISO in the ISO 5970: 1979 about Furniture: Chairs and

1992 (File size: 190.33 KB). Title: Chair, single College of


F. Discussion

In learning courses Analysis of design Work

on the material Anthropometric, students are
given a lecture about anthropometric then
anthropometricwiththe applicationdirectlyon
the real example that is in the form of lecture
1. Students are given Educational Chair size
question why Futura brand they use has the
same size? Whether there has been
standardization? What is the size of
2. Students are given the direction, that they
will be required to compare the results of
the measurements of the anthropometric
those results will be compared with the size
of the seat branddirected Lecture with
Futura in the size of the standard human
3. Studentsmeasurethebodypartsofhimand
his colleagues are divided into several
groups using anthropometric chairs and
4. Student data is then sought to cultivate the
values of percentile lines some measure of
body parts that are required in the
5. StudentsmeasurethesizeoftheEducational
6. The Students compare their body
measurement results with the size of the
7. What is the conclusion?


P5 42.59 37.28 27.70 37.93 36.93 35.51 20.34
P50 45.50 40.78 33.25 43.96 40.67 42.71 23.40
P95 48.70 44.43 36.52 47.68 46.37 46.32 24.80

P5 40.45 33.23 25.10 43.04 39.17 34.48 18.71
P50 43.50 35.38 32.78 46.40 41.45 39.50 24.87
P95 46.77 39.74 40.26 48.8 46.41 48.35 28.52
1. HighPitchback(TSP) :UsedtodeterminethelengthofthebackofaChair
2. SetWidth(S) :Usedtodeterminethewidthofthepitch
3. Thewidthofthehips(LP) :Usedtospecifythewidthofthepadssit
4. AssPopliteal(PPL) :Usedtodeterminethelengthofthetraysits
5. PoplitealHeight(TPL) :Usedtodeterminesurfaceheightpedestalseat
6. ElbowDistanceArms(JST) :Usedtodeterminethelengthofthetable
7. HighAngledSeated(TSD) :Usedtodeterminetheheightofatable

40 41 36 37.5 46
57.5 21.5

1. PS :Longpitch
2. LS :widthofthePitch
3. LAD :WideBaseSitting
4. PAD :LengthPedestalSeat
5. TAD :HighPedestalSits
6. PPM :Board:lengthTable
7. TPM :highBoardTable

Here are the results of the analysis of the

students after done a comparison between
measurement results with the results of the
- ThelengthofthebackSeatsturnedoutto
be the default size 5 high percentile lines
derived from the human body upon
Indonesia namely 40 cm, it is seen on the
results of the measurement of the height
of the back of a female student's back
order to percentile make comfortable all
- Wide pitch, turned out to be the size of
the standard comes from the wide
- Wide Base Sitting turns out size from
so that the majority of women can sit
comfortably while for men, the width is
- The length of the base turns out to come
from longSitting poplitealpercentile lines
on women, so thatwomen who are the 5
have politeal ass short can sit
- High Pedestal Seats turns out to come
from high poplteal men on the percentile
lines 75, so that the male can sit down
- ThelengthoftheBoardTableturnsoutto
come from the elbow to the fingertips
Distance man on with a standard 75 plus
percentile deviation for storing books or
- High Plank Table turns out to come from
the size of a woman sitting on a high
elbow percentile line 5, so that women
with high short elbows can sit

Seen from the results of the analysis of

human anthropometric the size of Indonesia
which is represented by the size of the
anthropometric students serve as a standard
brand of future tuition every student seated
use it can sit comfortably so that the
maximum concentration of learning can be

G. Conclusion

Of learning an outcome in class by means of

simulation have obtained some conclusions
1. ThatthesizeoftheChairturnsoutto
have College brand Futura with
standardized measure of human
body parts in Indonesia . so that
students will feel to use a Futura
2. Learning standards by using
simulation on real objects can
provide a proper understanding to
students regarding the
standardization of definitions and
3. Fromtheresultsofananalysisthatis
done to see that the achievement of
the goal of keeping students
understand about the standard of
good form definition, functions, and
benefits of standardization can be
4. If viewed from the syllabi and SAP as
well as the purpose of the lecture
"Introduction to Standardization"
made by BSN at the confluence of 5
conformity assessment, metrology,
basic principles, the anatomy of the
standard, the standard formulation
of the process's standard substance
on the process of learning, then
Anthropometric can be achieved by


[1] Bridger, R. S., Intoduction to

Ergonomic, Mc Graw Hill, inc.,

[2] David H. Jonassen, Haandbook Of

Research For Education
Communications and Technology,
[3] Hirano, Hiroyuki. 1995. Penerapan 5S Di
Tempat Kerja: Pendekatan Langkah
langkah Praktis. Jakarta: Productivity
[4] Soebroto W Sritomo, PrinsipPrinsip
Perancangan Berbasiskan Dimensi
Tubuh (Antrophometri) dan
Ergonomi & Perancangan Sistem Kerja,
Jurusan Teknik Industri Institut
[5] Imai, Masaaki. 1992. Kaizen: Kunci
Sukses Jepang Dalam Persaingan.
[6] Imai, Masaaki. 1998. Gemba Kaizen:
Pada Manajemen. Jakarta: P.T Pustaka
[7] Jahja, Kristianto. (1999). 5R (Ringkas,
Rapi, Resik, Rawat Rajin) Dalam
Membangun Industri Kelas Dunia.
Jakarta: Productivity and Quality
[8] MC. Cormick, E. J., Human Factors in
Engineering and Design, 6
Edition, Mc Graw Hill Book Company,
[9] Sastrowinoto, S., Meningkatkan
Produktivitas dengan Ergonomi,
Cetakan I, PT. Pusrtaka Binaman
[10] Siswanto, J., 1995, Ergonomi
Antropometri, Laboratorium
Jurusan Teknik IndustriFakultas
[11] Sutalaksana, I. Z., 1979, Teknik Tata
Cara Kerja, Pnerbit Departemen ITB,

1. Prof.KnutBlind(TechnicalUniversityofBerlin,Germany) :BestPracticeonEducationabout
2. Prof.SyamsirAbduhandNunuWisnuaji(TrisaktiUniversity Indonesia):TheIntegratedDounsoni
3. BazinziNatamba(MakerereUniversityBusinessSchool Uganda): TheEffectofInternational
StandardstoTradeinDevelopingCountries TeachingExperiences
4. NewellHampsonJones(BritishStandardInstitute UK):Teachingsustainabilitystandardsto
businessstudents acollaborativeapproachbetweenKingstonUniversityandBSI
5. Prof.SongMingshun(Jiliang University China):TheNewProgressinChinaJiliangUniversityfor
6. GeoffVisser(SABS SouthAfrica):EducationonStandardizationinSouthAfrica
7. Prof.ToshiakiKurokawa(ICES):AnInnovativeApproachfor EducationaboutStandardization
8. Dr.ErikPuskar(NIST USA):NISTTrainingProgramforGovernmentEmployees
9. FolkeHermanssonSnickars(EURAS):LearningaboutStandardizationasAdult
10. AliRezaKhakifirooz(StandardResearchInstitute(ISIRI) Iran):DesigningaUniversitySpecialized
11. FuQiang(CNIST China):ExplorationonCombiningMasterofEngineeringandStandardization
12. Dr. DradjadIrianto(BandungInstituteofTechnology Indonesia):AQuestforCurriculumof
13. TriWahono(BrawijayaUniversity Indonesia):ConqueringHighGradeLanguageofQMSStandard
Best Practice on Education about Standardization:
The Success Story at the Berlin University of Technology
Prof. Dr. Knut Blind
Standardization education: Success factors in a competitive two-sided market
The success story The success story
Success factors
Future challenges
General difficulty to introduce new contents in university curricula
New contents are driven by supply and demand side
Demand side: requirements from employers from private (industry, services)
and public sector
Increasing relevance of standardization in industry and policy acknowledged
Which role does the supply side play, i.e. science and research?
Challenge: sustainable positioning of standardization in education
Education about standardization:
Success factors in a competitive two-sided market
Competition between
contents of education
Students of today =
Decision makers of
Employers of private
and public sectors
Support by
Excellence in research as a necessary requirement
for the successful positioning of standardization
General trends in standardization research
Updated overview by Swann (2010) The Economics of Standardization: An Update
Triplication of relevant publications in 10 years from 500 to 1500!
Progress in: Progress in:
- Standards, Growth and Productivity
- Standards and Trade
- Standards and Innovation
- Inside the Black Box
Others (e g ISO Methodology) - Others (e.g. ISO Methodology)
Relevant research at the Chair of Innovation Economics at TU Berlin
Innovation Systems and Quality Infrastructure
Technology Foresight
R&D and Innovation Management
new insights
IPR Management
Productivity and Growth
new insights
new strategies
new tools
Cooperation the Technical University of Berlin and
the German Institute of Standardization DIN
Cooperation Treaty between DIN
and TU Berlin signed July 2008
Strategic cooperation in research and education
Future areas information, communication, mobility,
water, energy, security, services and production
Course about standardization offered to all faculties
since 2007 and taught by members of DIN since 2007 and taught by members of DIN
management (Dr. Kiehl, Heinz Gaub, Dr. Hvel)
University-wide promotion of the course via flyer
Topics of the course I
1 Introduction into standardization as a strategic instrument
2 The standardization process and opportunities for involvement
3 European and international standardization 3 European and international standardization
4 Standardization as contribution to support government authorities
and contract law
5 Standardization to reach general goals (e. g. health, environment,
safety) safety)
6 Standardization as element in research, development and
7 Standardization as strategic instrument for companies
Topics of the lecture II
8 Macro and company specific benefits of standardization
(with examples)
Guest lectures by standardization experts from policy, industry,
SMEs and managers from DIN
Lecture closes with a 90 min exam Lecture closes with a 90 min exam
Certificate DIN-Standardisation Expert
With passing the exam an industry-
wide certificate DIN- wide certificate DIN
Standardization Expert Module I:
Basics of Standardization is
Accompanying exercise
The exercises is blocked into 4 appointments.
Possible events:
Meetings of national, European or international TC
meetings in the premises of DIN
Workshops on innovative issues
For each event, a report has to be drafted, which will be
Combination of exam and exercise grade is possible.
First course in the winter term 08/09
Second course in the summer term 09
Third course in the winter term 09/10
Students per semester
WS 08/09 SS 09 WS 09/10 SS 10 WS 10/11 SS 11
In SS 11 also course in English
Additional Output
Two completed PhDs, one based on the DIN-TU training package (2-year
trainee, 3 DIN funded PhD position)
Three additional PhDs will be completed this year
Three Bachelor Thesis (several additional already started)
One Master Thesis (three additional already started)
Three case studies according to the ISO methodology
First students completed the course hired by German industry
Success factors
Promotion for the course within all faculties of the Technical University of Berlin
Guest lectures and excursions
Interactive presentations with questions and discussions
Close relation to practice supported by many examples
Updated interactive website and other media (movies)
Easy understandable and available course materials
Intensive taking care of the exercise providing insight into real standardization
Entertainment Education
Consequence: excellent evaluation of the course by the students
Future challenges
integration of standardization in further curricula (e.g. in information systems)
internationalization of education (within Master of Innovation Management)
development of a European Master of Standardization?
national and international diffusion of standardization education
building sustainable critical mass in standardization research
fostering of excellence in research by international networks
sustainable and growing network of students with knowledge in standardization
(e.g. supported by an alumni network)
Many thanks for your attention!
P f D K t Bli d Prof. Dr. Knut Blind
Berlin University of Technology
Faculty of Economics and Management
Chair of Innovation Economcis
Mller-Breslau-Strae 15
10623 Berlin
Fraunhofer Institut for Open Communication Systems
Research Group Public Innovation
Chair of Standardiisation at the Rottterdam School of Management
Erasmus University









Bazinzi Natamba
Bazinzi Natamba, MSC, is a Lecturer, Faculty of Commerce, Makerere University Business
School, Kampala-Uganda. His Teaching and research interests are in finance and accounting
and standards. He can be contacted on or

Just as developing countries are beginning to overcome some major hurdles in their quest to
expand trade with industrial countries, another is rearing its head. As a result of agreements
negotiated at the World Trade Organization (WTO), traditional trade protection measures such
as tariffs and quotas are falling away. But to some extent they are being replaced by domestic
technical regulations that permit countries to bar products from entering their markets if the
products do not meet certain standards.
These obstacles include measures ostensibly aimed at protecting citizens from everyday food
hazards, known in WTO language as sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS). High tariffs
remain a significant barrier. Barriers, such as arbitrarily imposed phytosanitary rules, further
limit goods exported to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD), a grouping of 30 wealthy nations.
Barriers to trade are measures in place in the countries to which you wish to export or import
which makes it difficult, even impossible for you to export your product or services to it. Such
measures are considered undesirable in context of world trade because they restrict the flow of
goods and services especially in Developing Countries, drive prices up and are detrimental to
the consumer. The result has been that standards put in place by the developed countries in
most cases do not favour developing countries at all. This is so because Developing Countries
may or may not have been taken into consideration when developing International standards

Standards are documents approved by a recognized body that provides, for common and
repeated use, rules, guidines or characteristics for products and their related processes or
production methods, with which compliance is not mandatory. Standards may also cover
terminology, symbols, and packaging, marking or labeling requirements as they apply to a
product, process or production methods (ITC, 2004). This means that standards are voluntary in
nature and doesnt form part of legislation, according to the TBT Agreement.
The Question remains whether International Standards are also voluntary and friendly to
trade in Developing Countries.
Historically, every country has developed standards to deal with the needs of industry and
society at a national level. These standards may or may not have taken international best
practice into consideration. The result has been that standards for the same product differed
from country to country. With the increase in world trade, the concentration of manufacturing
in certain parts of the world and various other factors, soon become real problems for
manufacturing industries especially in developing countries. The fact that Developing
Countries would in turn find it difficult to export to other countries, makes them to remain
operating/produce for their domestic markets only.
This therefore calls for Regulators, driven by the need to address a specific problem at
international level, to often develop International Standards considering Developing Countries
or even the capacity of developing countries to participate in International Trade.
Why do International standards matter for trade?
Government regulations or industry standards for goods can impact trade in at least three
ways: they can facilitate exchange by clearly defining product characteristics and improving
compatibility and usability; they also advance domestic social goals like public health by
establishing minimum standards or prescribing safety requirements; finally, they can hide
protectionist policies. During the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, member
nations established The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS)
Measures and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) to address the emerging
debate over the use of standards in international trade. The SPS and TBT Agreements can be
interpreted as an attempt to balance the first two uses of standards and to minimize the third.
In other words, these Agreements balance the competing demands for domestic regulatory
autonomy and the global harmonization of product standards. At the same time, the
agreements attempt to prevent standards from becoming a protectionist device.
A Case of Developing Countries
Developing countries take issue with the agreements because they make intensive use of
multilaterally established standards that are determined by a process that is both politically and
economically skewed. Standard-setting has until recently been the exclusive domain of rich,
technologically advanced nations who have dominated the terms of debate in bodies like the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
Thus, implementing the SPS and TBT Agreements often requires developing countries to
adhere to standards more appropriate for their industrialized counterparts. The lack of
developing country input in the formation of standards translates into what some observers
have called techno-imperialism or the imposition of standards by the rich countries upon the
poor ones.
Because the standards were set mainly by developed countries during the last series of trade
negotiations, the Uruguay Round, they mainly reflect the interests of those nations. During the
Uruguay Round, which ended in 1994, many developing countries either could not afford to send
negotiators to represent them or focused on areas of greater or more immediate concern, such as
Northern agricultural subsidies. Many still are not part of the international standard-setting
agencies that govern this area, nor do they have the money, manpower or infrastructure needed
to abide by the standards created. Although special and differential treatment may exist for least
developed and developing countries, the latter have always to bear in mind that producing to
standards lower than those of the rest of the world makes it harder for them to export and fully
participate in International trade. Therefore, future agreements must seek to ensure that
technical regulations and International Standards, as well as testing and certification
procedures, do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade. Even if countries have the right to
establish protection levels that they consider appropriate, for example, to safeguard human,
animal or plant life or health or the environment, the agreement should not prevent countries
from taking measures necessary to ensure that these levels of protection are met. Its important
to note that tremendous amount of work has still to be done, especially in developing countries
that lack the knowledge, infrastructure and finances to meet the requirements of developed
countries. This is also a real problem for the small and medium-sized enterprise.
Policy Implications and Conclusion
Harmonization of product standards is crucial to ensure a smooth dynamism in economic
activity, and it is equally important when it comes to international trade. Nowadays, when
regional economies become integrated through trade, the differences of product standards
across countries or economic regions have far-reaching implications. As it turns out, this is
especially true for exporting firms from the developing world (Chen et al. 2006 and Czubala et
al. 2007).
This paper provides support for the WTO agreement on technical barriers to trade as a way to
champion the use of international standards whenever possible and sectoral efforts to foster
international harmonization, for example, by building on the Information Technology
Agreement for electronic products and to Introduce education about International Standards
in Developing Countries. It also unveils the importance for firms in the developing world to
find ways to improve competitiveness and take advantage of further reductions in barriers to
international trade.

The Integrated Dounsoni Competency towards Sustainable Development in

Syamsir Abduh
Nunu Wisnuaji
Trisakti University-Indonesia

I. Background
As the call for relevance in higher education opens the doorway from the
classroom to the community, creations and innovations to provide viable
academic exercises within this context are being sought by increasing numbers
of faculty and administrators. One of these is the adoption of Dounsoni; a local
wisdom based educational principle into our vision of higher education, defined
as a required competency a graduate has to meet. It is simply a three bound
principle saying Ing Ngarso Sung Tulodo, Ing Madyo Mangun Karso, Tut
Wuri Handayani (Dounsoni abbreviated in this work) that guides ones moral,
attitude, and behavior in social life needed in the accomplishment of
sustainable development goals. Rooted to such educational vision is a question
of how best faculty translates the wisdom into teaching learning activity that
begins from their course design writing to the implementation and evaluation. In
order to have meaningful teaching- learning that gears towards the enhancement
of education quality, endeavors to standardize the teaching-learning program
based on the local wisdom principle are carried out.

II. Programme Objective
This programme of standardization on teaching learning practice that begins
with course design writing is aimed at helping higher education institutions with

independence of the learning outputs as the ready agents within sustainable
development in terms of compatibility, interoperability, and quality.

III. Programme Content

The Dounsoni principle is a philosophical base and orientation of a student-
centered teaching-learning activity in which education is viewed as a cognitive
process of placing a learning participant with his/her intrinsic potential to lead,
to motivate and help others in finding truth through a variety of reliable routes
to optimal states when exposed in non-optimal states. Such potential possession
to lead a group will have to require an individual the ability to become a model
to follow by, to motivate and help other members accomplish the common
tasks or goals. This is then a set of principles defined as the dounsoni
competency as the main goal of education a learning output needs to possess
in order to head his/her mastery of academic content defined as the means or
instrument to find the truth. Thus it is the integration of dounsoni principle and
the academic content. To approach such vision the role of instructors is mainly
to facilitate the learning when delivering knowledge, skills and
information and it goes without saying to perform the dounsoni principle in
carrying out his/her duty and responsibility.

This is it. The principle constitutes the orientation of teaching activity, from the
course design to the implementation and evaluation. The following illustrates
how the local wisdom is applied in academic exercises to yield a meaningful
learning bringing individual awareness that the goals of sustainable
development can be accomplished only if the individual participates in the
process (see Figures below).


Design Writing
Course Content
Knowledge Technology Arts Skills

Compatible to
Users needs
Sustainable Development Goals

Harmony of Man-Nature relationship characterized
by nature conservation and improvement of human
The Local wisdom
Dousini Principle

Dounsoni based Course Design Writing
The writing is a cyclic process that involves (see figures below):
1. Definition of aims and learning outcomes
Aim: Dounsoni principle- based Statement of intent or purpose
Learning outcome: specifying what individual learning participant should be able to do
after completing the course
2. Review the participants entering knowledge, prior learning experience, learning styles
and needs, motivation of doing the course. Revise aims and learning outcomes, if
3. Determine the core content required to deliver the learning outcomes,
4. Determine teaching-learning strategies that support and reinforce the statement of intent.
5. Assessment to measure the learning achievement
6. Continual evaluation to the whole aspects of the program (materials, time allocation,
teaching technique, etc.)


IV Monitoring and evaluation of results

A small scale local project on the improvement of teaching methodology was carried out in
the new academic year of 2005/2006. Participated by some fifteen faculty members from
different schools, the project was aimed at readopting the old educational principles,
Dounsoni, thought as a local wisdom into teaching practice which is from course design
writing and the implementation to the evaluation. The effort was based upon need analysis of
the output users as the stakeholders, both of the state and private. The bulk of the demands
on the output qualification put the importance of leadership and sustainable mind frame
Albeit most of the project participants had no previous pedagogic trainings, they could
manage the adoption well. This was due to their familiarity with the principle of the local
wisdom and our peer reviewing program in the course design writing which was held during
academic recess, and peer class observation, discussion and evaluation in the time of

implementing the course design. The result was then first that the local wisdom based-
teaching learning implementation product is compatible to users needs to step to the
sustainable development goals; second, due to its simplicity and ease to follow the
teaching-learning procedure is duplicable into the various teaching-learning program, and
third the local wisdom-based teaching-learning pattern improves meaningfulness and quality
of learners learning journey at higher education.

V. Major Achievements, including performance indicators

The major achievements gained from the program implementation are as follows:

A. To the education institutions

Enjoying reputation and more trust from the stakeholders as improving output quality; the
average volume of learning participant in one class was 40 to 45. Before the program
implementation, only 20 % of the participant could complete their education on time and 5%
occupied discipline- related job market, 14 % did in unrelated, and 1% did entrepreneurship,
After the implementation 15 % completed their education in time, and 46% did on time,
55% occupied their discipline related job market, and the rest decided to do their

A. To the learning participants

Found meaningful and humanistic learning experience as given opportunities to exercise
leadership and ease in applying science, knowledge and theories into practice.

B. To the faculty members

Found ease in facilitating the learning participants develop their expected competency. More
and more faculty members apply the principle into their teaching-learning program.

VI. Future developments

Developing the project into national and wider scales through research and workshop under
the theme Dounsoni Standardization for Higher Education.

The New Progress
in China Jiliang University in China Jiliang University
for Standardization Education
Prof Mingshun Song Prof. Mingshun Song

Bali. Indonesia
10 May. 2012
Education modes
Education modes
Key Courses
1. The Educat i on Modes 1. The Educat i on Modes
i n CJLU i n CJLU
1.The Education Modes 1.The Education Modes
Education mode St udent s Ty pes
Course (16 hours) Undergraduate Elective course for
t d t every students
Standardization and
Quality Management
Undergraduate Major of Business
Engineering (NEW)
Undergraduate Major of
Engineering g g ( ) g g
Standardization and
Quality Science (NEW)
Graduate Master of
2. The Cur r i cul um of St andar di zat i on 2. The Cur r i cul um of St andar di zat i on
& Qual i t y Management Maj or & Qual i t y Management Maj or
Discipline Foundation
1.1 The Structure of the Curriculum of 1.1 The Structure of the Curriculum of
the Major the Major
1 2 3 4
Public Foundation
Course name Scores hours
Hours division
class experience
1.2 The Curriculum of the Major 1.2 The Curriculum of the Major
English 12 200 200
10 170 170
P1010020 Linear Algebra 2.5 42 42
Probability and
2.5 40 40
C Programming
3.5 75 42 33
Course name Scores Hours
Hours division
class experience
3 62 40 22
Chinese Business
2 34 34
Principle of
3 59 42 17
D1110020 Micro economics 3 51 51 D1110020 Micro-economics 3 51 51
Principle of
3 59 42 17
Fundamentals of
3 50 44 6
2.5 40 40
3 48 48
D1113150 Marketing 2.5 40 40
3.5 64 48 16
Application of
D t b
3 64 32 32 D1111100
3 64 32 32
2 32 32
D1113190 Operation 3 48 48
2 32 32
Production &
2.5 40 40
The Error
D1113320 Theory and
Data Process
2.5 40 40
Course name Scores Hours
T1040020 Practice of Metal Machining 2 2W T1040020 Practice of Metal Machining 2 2W
Operational Research
course Design
1 1W
Management Information
System Course Design
2 2W
Management Software
3 3W
Si l ti t M t
Simulating to Management
2 2W
Professional Practice 6 6W
T1113100 Pre-graduation Project 14 14W
3.The Key Cour ses of t he Cur r i cul um 3.The Key Cour ses of t he Cur r i cul um
The Key Courses of the Major The Key Courses of the Major
11 22
44 33
4.The Cont ent s of t he Key Cour ses 4.The Cont ent s of t he Key Cour ses
Chapter1 Chapter1
Qual i t y Ter mi nol ogy
Qual i t y Hi st or y
Course1: Quality Management
Chapter2 Chapter2
Chapter3 Chapter3
Qual i t y Hi st or y
The 7 Basi c Tool s
Chapter4 Chapter4
Chapter5 Chapter5
Qual i t y I nspect i on
Sampl i ng Techni ques
Course1: Quality Management
Chapter6 Chapter6
Chapter7 Chapter7
Sampl i ng Techni ques
Cost umer Sat i sf act i on I ndex
Si x Si gma
Chapter8 Chapter8
Ex cel l ent Per f or mance
Qual i t y Aw ar d
Chapter Chapter Contents Contents
Course 2: Metrology Management
Data Processing Chapter 4
The Roles of Using SI Chapter 3
Measurement Units & SI Chapter 2
Quantity & its Dimension Chapter 1
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Measurement Uncertainty
ISO/IEC17025 & Lab Accreditation
Industrial Metrology
Chapter 8 Legal Metrology
Chapter Chapter Contents Contents
Course 3: Conformity Assessment
Quality Management System & Certification Chapter 4
ISO9001 Standard Chapter 3
Classification of Conformity Chapter 2
Terminology Chapter 1
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
ISO14001 Standard & EMS
Product Certifications
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
Chapter 1: The Outline of Standardization
1. Terminology: Standard, Standardization;
ISO/IEC Guide 2: 2004, WTO/TBT;
Document, Physical .
2. The History of Standardization:
from ancient time to present;
from China to the world.
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
3. Classification of Standards:
from Hierarchical levels, Fields, and
Implement Ways.
4. The roles of Standardization:
from Industry, Agriculture, Service, Safety,
Economy, and Society. Economy, and Society.
5. China Standardization:
Administration System, SDOs, Policies,
and Laws.
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
Chapter 2: The Standardization Theory
1. T.R.B Sanders Theory:
The 7 Articles
2. The Principles of Matsura Shiro:
The 19 Articles
A. System Effect Theory
3.The Principles of Standardization.
A. System Effect Theory
B. Structural Optimization Theory
C. Order Theory
Course 4: Standardization Course 4: Standardization
D. Feedback Theory
E. Control Theory.
4.The Models of Standardization.
A. Simplification
B. Unification
C. Generalization
D. Serialization
E. Combination
F. Modularization
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
Chapter 3: Parameter Classification
1. The General Number Series
Arithmetic Progression
2. The Preferred Number Series
Geometric Progression
Charles Renard Numbers
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
3 The Electricity Number Series 3. The Electricity Number Series
Geometric Progression
4. The Modulus Number System
C t ti M d l S t Construction Modulus System
Package Modulus System
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
Chapter 4: Parameter Design
1. QFD
In Terms of Customers Satisfaction
2. DOE
The Design of Experiment
Based on Experiment in Practice/Lab
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
3 Genichi Taguchi Methods 3. Genichi Taguchi Methods
System Design
Parameter Design
Permitted Error Design
4. The Reliability Design
The Reliability Indicators
The Technologies of Reliability Design
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
Chapter 5: Drafting Standard
1. The Principles of Making Standard
In Terms of GB/T1.12009
2. Standard Structure
The Normative Elements
The Informative Elements
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
3 Drawing up and Editing Standard 3. Drawing up and Editing Standard
Normative General Elements, Normative
Technical Elements;
Informative Overview Elements,
Informative Complementary Elements.
4. The Procedure of Drafting Standard
Based on GB/T167331997
The 9 Phrases
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
Chapter 6: International Standardization
1. International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
2. International Electrotechnical Commission
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
3 International Telecommunication Union 3. International Telecommunication Union
4. The Regional Standardization Organizations
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
Chapter 7: Company Standardization
1. Draw up Company Standards
Management and Technical Standards
2. Carrying out Standards
Company Standards, Product Certificates,
Management System Certificates.
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
3 Standard Information Works 3. Standard Information Works
4. Taking Part in the External Standardization
Cour se 4: St andar di zat i on
Chapter 8: WTO/TBT
1. Introduction of TBT
2 WTO/TBT Agreement 2. WTO/TBT Agreement
3. Case Study:
Standardization and International Trade

The SABS launched its academic engagement strategy on 1 March 2012. Through this strategy the organisation
seeks to contribute towards the overall relevance of the organisation; and to improve awareness and participation by
academics through several initiatives targeted at South African institutions of higher learning. The academic
engagement strategy seeks to raise awareness of standards and improve the use of standards by students and
academics, it seeks to increase the participation and contribution of academics in the standards development
programme and it seeks to contribute to basic research in fields related to standards or in the application of standards
in technologically relevant fields.

Close cooperation with some professional registration bodies has proved useful in gaining acceptance of the
programme where the bodies have articulated the need for the use of standards as key skills for basic qualifications
and continued professional development requirements.

The paper will briefly sketch the outline of the strategy and will provide some early experiences with
implementing the programme and early lessons learned.

The academic community is a valuable stakeholder in
the development of South African National Standards. South
Africas future technical, economic, social and political
leaders are currently developed in the countrys academic
institutions;the Countrys teaching organisations transfer
knowledge in key technical fields to these future leaders but
through basic and applied research; and the organisations
also keep abreast and even advance the state of knowledge
in important areas. Standards, on the other hand, provide a
valuable resource that can be used in a regulated; semi
regulated; or completely voluntary manner to bring the state
of the art into the commercial environment thereby opening
up markets while at the same time providing assurance and
protection to users and consumers. If the collection of
National Standards is to remain relevant to a changing
technical, economic and political environment, the standards
development organisation (SDO) needs to get closer to
where this environment is shaped, and this means engaging
the academic community.
Several articles in the popular press as well as
conferences, seminars, workshops and symposiums all point
to the fact that there is a need to raise awareness in the
community of standards and standardisation, see Burger
[2010],Fuller [2007], Hollman [2009] as examples. It could
be argued that one of the biggest problems that the SABS
faces is that many of the young people are simply not aware
of the SABS, Standards; or the benefits or possible
application of standards in their respective fields of interest.
Several publications (eg: Delphi Group [2003], DIN
[1999], DTI [2005], de Vries 2006) have reiterated that
Standards offer several advantages including reducing costs;
facilitating communication; improving safety and providing
assurance to reduce uncertainty in the environment; all of
which, in turn, can lead to more effective and efficient
innovation. It is hoped through this initiative to unblock and
expose this resource to the innovators currently associated
with the teaching organisations in South Africa.
An extension of the lack of awareness of standards is
the lack of awareness (not only in the academic community
but in industry too) of the benefits and strategic advantage of
participating in the development of standards nationally and
internationally. The ability to shape the standards and rules
by which an industry operates features high on the agenda of
several globally competitive organisations and by extension
in competitive countries the number of organisations
actively committed to shaping national and international
standards too, is high. The SABS has committed to improve

OverviewSABSAcademicengagementStrategy2012 Page2 of6

the level of knowledge of the standards development process

and to develop skills in the area and a pool of knowledge in
the field of standardisation skills towards developing a cadre
of standards professionals working within the SABS and in
industry to develop increasingly relevant standards (SABS
Despite the importance of standards, the business of
developing and implementing standards seems to remain
somewhat of a mystery to most, as is discussed by Cooper &
Coetzee [2012]. The SABS feels strongly that introducing
standards in the "classroom" would augment the learning
experience by pointing learners to available design tools and
best industry practices. As a result those entering the
workplace would be better placed to transition from
classroom to workplace by aligning educational concepts
with real-world applications and market constraints. Added
to this are the much needed skills associated with
understanding, developing and using standards in the South
African industry in order to gain not only a technical but
also a competitive strategic advantage. Further, standards
provides a fruitful ground for research, as has already been
shown by some South African researchers, see Coetzee
[2011], Coetzee et al [2011, Walker [2010] and Walker
[2011], for example.
SABS launched its academic engagement Strategy on 1
March 2012 and through this seeks to target various
academic institutions around the country to increase: the
level of understanding; the degree of utilisation and the
intensity of participation in the development of standards by
students and academics (Visser [2012]).
Along with its activities in the area of standard
development, conformity testing and certification, the SABS
is committed to the development and dissemination of
educational materials about standards and promoting their
use among academics. The programme seeks to contribute
to the SABS objectives of growing both the significance and
relevance of the SABS by:
1. Providing undergraduate training material that is
relevant to the degree being served and that
highlights the relevance and importance of

2. Improving understanding of the economic
relevance of standards [as well as the process of
developing standards] among the academic

3. Encouraging an increased use of standards by
students and young professionals;

4. Incorporating new technologies and technological
innovation into the current standards programme;

5. Contributing to technical publications that
contribute to advancing the knowledge on
standardisation or advancement in technical
disciplines through application of standards; and,

6. Improving the participation by academics on
current standards setting committees.

Action Plan
In order to achieve this, the SABS has initiated a
programme to deliver the following:
1. a series of talks, lectures, or lecture material to
students and faculty staff on the benefits of
2. assistance in the development of course material to
be included in appropriate undergraduate courses
related to standards;
3. assistance and possible collaboration in research
projects related to standards;
4. running an annual academic standards award
programme, recognizing excellence and innovation
in the field of standardization and quality,
5. improving controlled access to South African
National Standards as a resource for teaching in a
particular discipline;
a. Provision of dedicated collections of
standards as reference material at a special
rate for students of courses that use
standards extensively
b. Working with university libraries to
provide access to standards for research
6. providing information on relevant applicable
standards available nationally and internationally.

Recognizing that the role of standards in current
engineering and technical academic curricula is often
unclear, and that most graduates of these programs receive
little systematic education on standards, the SABS wishes to
encourage academics to redefine and enhance the integration
of standards into education. Integration of standards into
these Engineering and Technical curricula may be achieved
in the following ways:
1. By reference indicating that a process, technique
or a device is dealt with by a technical standard
and, where possible, citing the standard.
2. By introducing the principals of the technical
provisions of a standard an indirect introduction
to a technical standard by extraction of the
principal aspects of the standard and incorporating
them into classroom instruction, self-study
assignments, laboratories or projects.
3. By the direct use of a published standard (or a
significant excerpt of a published standard) in
classroom instruction, self-study assignments,
laboratories or projects.
4. By regular use of and reference to technical
standards in large scale projects, especially final
year design projects. Students should be
encouraged to conduct a formal standards search in

OverviewSABSAcademicengagementStrategy2012 Page3 of6

addition to the current practices of literature and

patent searches.
The primary market of this programme is the post-
secondary school students entering the workplace. We see
these people as:
potential employees to the SABS
possible future users of standards;
possible future users of the products of the SABS
(such as training, testing or conformity services);
potential contributors to the development of
There are various institutions operating formally in
South Africa with several more operating informally and in
the region. The market will therefore be segmented to first
target the 10 largest universities as well as the larger
business schools offering post-graduate courses in business
management their exposure to legislation and policies
might make them more receptive to standards in their
curricula [Cooper & Coetzee 2012].
Universities and Universities of technology
The South African post-schooling education is made up
of several universities, Universities of technology and
comprehensive universities. There are also several other
degree granting institutions and foreign degrees being
offered locally making a very large and complex picture.
The National Department of Higher Education rationalised
the landscape somewhat in 2005, promoting the
amalgamation of several teaching institutions and changing
the previously held distinction between universities and
technikons. The revised picture has left South Africa with
some 22 universities, some of which are quite large in terms
of the total number of enrolled students.
In some cases the published data do not readily disclose
the exact student numbers currently enrolled and, of the
students enrolled, the students might not all fall into the
target group that will initially targeted by the programme.
While it is important to develop material that can be
deployed to all tertiary institutions, it will not be possible to
reach all of them at once; a more focused approach is
therefore chosen looking at the largest universities and will
focus on the faculties of science, business sciences, health
sciences, the built environment and engineering.
Business and Management Training
The economic impact of standards is important to
businesses and to the standards community. Certain
organisations across the globe have embraced
standardisation as a key strategic objective and have done so
rather profitably. Closer to home, the importance of
standards and conformity assessment in the procurement
space is becoming apparent with several high profile
exposs of tender irregularities where requirements were not
clearly specified or where the conformity to those
requirements was not adequately verified. The strategy
therefore seeks to target those individuals who will be
setting company and organisational strategy and raise with
them an awareness of the strategic nature of local and
international standardisation. In short, we want to get
Standardisation into the boardrooms of South African
Of particular importance to this strategy are the
countrys business schools, more specifically, those schools
offering MBA and other postgraduate management
diplomas. These schools currently target the decision makers
and entrepreneurs in the South African business world. The
introduction of standards and standardisation to this debate
would be important since these people are or will become
the decision makers in businesses in South Africa. The
flexible nature of these courses also makes it possible to
develop elective modules that can be addressed by the
students as part of their curriculum or as a research elective.
There are currently 17 business schools currently
offering MBAs in South Africa added to this there are
several other foreign universities offering courses not
accredited locally but that are issued internationally.
There are several schools offering postgraduate training
to people who will be entering decision making positions in
various companies in the South African Economy and the
standards is a topic particularly relevant to the repertoire of
these individuals. Promotional material, Course material,
research topics and case studies will be developed for this
Career-specific post school training institutions
It would be worth mentioning that there are also several
post-school training bodies that do not necessarily issue
degrees but that do issue technical diplomas and certificates
of competence and prepare students to enter into certain
fields and trades. In many cases the SABS has had a good
degree of success in these areas of basic skills like
plumbing, electrical contracting, catering and more. These
courses already make extensive reference to South African
National Standards and codes. Already the use of standards
is often prescribed by the lecturers and this provides a means
to increase the utilisation of South African National
Standards. Our aim is to work with the standards sales
department and the Standards development programme to
improve this over time.
A number of schools and FET (Further Education and
Training) colleges offer qualifications in Quality and other
standards related activities. The courses refer extensively to
published standards and codes and directly use national
standards. Since the course attendees are often already
employed in business in South Africa the exposure to the
SABS also leads to an increased demand for the quality
services of the SABS. The relationship with these
institutions is good but needs to improve to ensure that
SABS is top of mind for quality solutions and for standards.

OverviewSABSAcademicengagementStrategy2012 Page4 of6

Learned Societies and industry associations

The training and development of both undergraduate
and post graduate students takes place not only at in the
formal teaching space but the level of knowledge is
advanced through learned societies and associations in the
country where research topics, papers and posters are
presented and discussed among peers to share information
and developments among their peers.
These societies and associations can and should
influence the standards debate and are therefore be targeted
as part of the academic engagement strategy through
contributions to conferences and conventions and
collaboration, where applicable, to research papers.
Professional registration bodies
Some professional bodies have committed to standards
as a means to self -regulate practices in the industry. The
need for codes of good practice and for the practicing
community to participate in their development is
increasingly seen as important to the professional societies.
International recognition, offered by the various
conventions and agreements between South African
Societies and equivalent bodies internationally has become
an important aspect of the relevance of the registration
bodies and as a global society, professionals are increasingly
moving between jurisdictions and delivering work to
customers all over the world. Professional practice should
therefore be described by standards that are internationally
aligned, the knowledge of international standards should be
a key skill and the contribution to both local and
international standards in the field should be recognised as a
key component of the continued professional development
of professionals.
There is a growing understanding that regulators will
not have the competence or the capacity to police all
industries but at the same time there is a growing need for
the professional bodies to ensure that their members behave
according to agreed codes of ethics and that they are deemed
competent to perform the activities for which they are
charging professional fees.
In order for any subject matter or tools to be adopted in
schools or institutions of higher learning, it is evident that
the material needs to align closely with the course
curriculum and that the curriculum needs to align with
standards set by the relevant authorities (Fleischmann,
2007). In south Africa Formal academic course material
developed should also be aligned with the national
qualifications framework (NQF) as well as appropriate
Sectorial Education and Training Authorities (SETAs). A
significant part of the work of the unit will therefore be to
liaise with the authorities to ensure that standards are
included in the framework and that the course material
developed is ultimately accredited. This process will require
alignment with the work of the SABS learning academy.
Big business
Large organisations and businesses in South Africa
have traditionally supported Standards and Standardisation
by direct participation on technical committees. Some
businesses even have their own standards development
departments, developing internal standards or limited use
documents like manufacturing specifications, operating
manuals or tender specifications.
Large organisations also commit to Research and
development and some also contribute to funding
universities and learning institutions and to some degree set
direction often with a long term view of creating technical
capacity in the country. Approaches will be made to large
institutions of this nature to promote standards and the need
to promote teaching and training in the field of standards.
Business federations and associations will be targeted as a
means to access business.
The strategy includes the following core products:
1. Brochures:
Information brochures to University teaching staff
introducing the SABS and the benefits of standards as they
apply to a particular discipline. Engineering, Chemistry,
Economics, Medicine will be targeted at first.
2. Information material for talks:
A series of talks delivered to teaching faculties to
outline the benefits of standards and the possibility of closer
collaboration with SABS. Each talk should last about 1 hour
and should cover the current projects applicable to the
faculty as well as some current developments
3. Lecture material:
A series of 1 hour lectures covering several bases
related to the standards and quality infrastructure in South
Africa and internationally including concepts such as
accuracy, calibration traceability, conformity testing,
Standards the structure of standards and the applicability of
standards to the field in question.
4. SABS Academic open day and workshop:
SABS would like to showcase conformity testing and
the new testing facilities to highlight:
a. The importance and significance of
National standards
b. The important role that SABS plays in
South African by providing assurance of
conformity to these standards
c. Examples of testing and the important role
that SABS plays in the daily lives of South
SABS would like to highlight the need for SABS and
academic institutions to work closely in future to formally:
d. Increase awareness of standards

OverviewSABSAcademicengagementStrategy2012 Page5 of6

e. Educate students on Standards and quality,

f. Research to advance areas of product

5. Formal Standardisation Course Material
Working together with a partner university, to offer a
formal post graduate course (at the MBA, honours or
masters level) related to standards. This could include the
economic benefits of standards; economic impact of and
assessment of the case for new standards or areas of
standardisation activity; or, specific research into suitability
of materials to be specified in standards.
The economic impact of standards and standards as a
trade tool.
6. Revamped SABS Academic awards scheme
The re-launch of a formal scheme to acknowledge
students and institutions that can demonstrate that they have
embraced standardisation and quality. The scheme should
align with the academic almanac in order for it to form part
of the main stream syllabus. The scheme should also
recognise the valuable contributions made by the academics
and teaching staff since these are the players that drive the
programmes to a large extent.
Other indirect benefits of an award scheme through the
improved publicity include:
Positioning SABS as an employer of choice;
Developing the recognition of SABS as an
employer of graduates; and
Developing standardisation and quality as a
recognised field / sub-field of study.

7. National Science week
The National Department of Science and Technology
through its agency responsible for Scientific and technical
promotion (SAASTA South African Agency for Scientific
and Technology Advancement) has invited SABS to form
part of their annual Scientific awareness week where they
promote science and technology to school goers and
university students in south Africa. With the additional
funding provided for this initiative, the programme will be
intensified during the last week of July 2012 aiming to reach
in excess of 5000 students providing a one hour introductory
lecture on standards and inviting participation in the SABS
national Student Essay competition for which several prizes
of R10 000 ($1 250 USD) have been provided. The same
theme as the WSC theme of Standards improve efficiency
has been chosen and students asked to contribute based on
their own context. Winning entrants will be compiled in the
form of a publication distributed to key stakeholders and
customers of the SABS.
Currently the strategy will be driven by a Research
fellow in a consultancy capacity. The Standards division of
the SABS will establish a portfolio for economic research
and stakeholder engagement and this will support this
function, especially in terms of administration and logistics.
As the strategy unfolds in the second and subsequent
years, the possibility of collaborative work in terms of
supervision of research projects at the post graduate level
the unit will engage people with the required technical skills
and if appropriate will consider funding or partially funding
The strategy focuses on the South African market. The
mandate of the SABS is to serve the needs of the South
African economy and the engagement with stakeholders will
be local. The material developed will however have
significant relevance to other similar bodies in Africa and
the rest of the world and it is envisaged that through
partnership agreements with other standards bodies,
international bodies and development agencies, the material
can be shared and delivered on a consultancy basis.
It is also understood that the work done and material
developed in other countries will be equally relevant to
South Africa and should be sought rather than developing
the material from first principles (re-inventing the wheel!).
The strategy represents the start of a journey by the
SABS to get closer to universities and other bodies that are
driving innovation in South Africa. It promotes an active
engagement with these bodies to provide information as to
how the standards system works and how it can be made to
work more effectively for them and the people of South
It is understood that as the engagement increases and
the level of participation increases, the stakeholders will
identify more opportunities for closer collaboration in the
spirit of achieving more effective innovation and a more
relevant collection of standards and conformity assessment
services that support the use of standards in order to improve
efficiency, protect consumers and gain access to markets.
Burger, S (2010) Increasing public awareness of
standards of
Coetzee S (2011). Results from a normative dependency
analysis of geographic information standards, Computer
Standards & Interfaces,vol 33, pp 485-493.

OverviewSABSAcademicengagementStrategy2012 Page6 of6

Coetzee S, Cox S & Herring J (2011). Configuration

management of a system of interdependent standards,7th
International Conference on Standardization and Innovation
in Information Technology (SIIT), Berlin, Germany, 28-30
September 2011.
Cooper AK & Coetzee S (2012), Opportunities for
research and innovation from involvement in standards
development Experiences of two researchers, International
Conference on Education in Standardisation (ICES) 2012
and WSC Academic Day, Bali, Indonesia, 9-11 May 2012.
Delphi Group (2003). The Value of Standards, at,
DIN (Deutsches Institut fr Normalung) (1999),
Economic benefits of standardisation: summary of results, at
[accessed 11 November 2007].
De Vries (2006), Standards for Business How
companies benefit form participation in international
standards setting, Published in International Standardization
as a Strategic Tool: Commended Papers from the IEC
Centenary Challenge 2006, IEC, Geneva, Switzerland,
ISBN: 2-8318-8867-
DTI (2005). Economics Paper No 12: The Empirical
Economics of Standards, London, at,Technology & society
10(4), 110-117.
Fleischmnn, K (2007) Standardization from below:
Science and technology Standards and Eductational software
Fuller, L (2007) Food safety: HACCP awareness and
Legislation, SAJCN 20,2 pp 48,49.
Holman, J. (2009), Association aims to raise awareness
and set standards;
SABS (South African Bureau of Standards (2011),
enhancing the role of Standards,
Visser, GR (2012) Academic engagement Overview,
Presentation:South African Bureau of Standards (SABS)
Academics Open Day, 1 March 2012.
Walker AJ (2010).A conformant process reference
model for ISO 9001, ISO/IEC 200001 and ISO/IEC 2700,
Technical report produced for the SABS SC71F,
Information Security, and SABS SC71C, ICT Software and
Systems Engineering, committees.
Walker AJ (2011).Evaluating the ISO TMB
Management System Common Text proposal in terms of
selection of candidate management system standards, SPI
Laboratory(Pty) Ltd, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2011.

Affili F ll NISTEP MEX AffiliateFellow,NISTEP,MEX
St d d /St d di ti Standards/Standardization
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diverse: diverse:
Courses are made/operated from Supplyside Coursesaremade/operatedfromSupply side
ToshiKurokawa2012/11/11 3
N G d t NewGraduates
Some locals cannot find the Jobs around SomelocalscannotfindtheJobsaround
For better life safety sustainability innovation Forbetterlife,safety,sustainability,innovation
Case studies Casestudies
Internship Internship
2004/5/17BusinessWeek IDEO
design thinking designthinking
2006/1Davos Meeting,World
DesignThinking ComponentView
ToshiKurokawa2012/11/11 10
DesignThinking ProcessView
ToshiKurokawa2012/11/11 11 2012/05/10
DesignThinking whats &hows
2012/05/10 TimBrown,ChangebyDesign
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I E li h F i t d t M t /Ph D InEnglish Foreignstudents,Master/Ph.D
N T tb k NoTextbooks
Facilitators,notTeachers ,
Inspiration/empathy WhyStandards
L l f St d d
ToshiKurokawa2012/11/11 15
R di l A t RadicalArguments
P d E t i t d f W k ProduceEntrepreneursinsteadofWorkers
d i production
Skills for knowledge acquisition Skillsforknowledgeacquisition
ToshiKurokawa2012/11/11 18
Infrastructure development Infrastructuredevelopment
ICES Workshop ICESWorkshop
Provided by NISTs Standards Coordination ProvidedbyNIST sStandardsCoordination
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Focus on technology and sectoral priorities Focusontechnologyandsectoral priorities
d i device
d ( ) guidance(NTTAA)
governmentpersonnelinFY10 FY12(todate)
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Standards Simulation Exercise StandardsSimulationExercise
Learning about standardisation as adult
Folke Hermansson Snickars
Key words: Adult learning, andragogy, dialogue learning, distance learning, standardisation, training evaluation
There have been numerous initiatives to have standards and standardisation included in education at different stages, from primary
level to master programmes. In most cases these initiatives have either been driven from outside the educational institutions, or from
existing parts of the educational institutions. Some of these initiatives have introduced electronic means like the German-Asian
Standardisation in Companies and Markets, others are more directed to influencing curricula.
There are also activities addressing adults who has already left schools and universities. Standards organisations have gradually
found it necessary to introduce training in their portfolios. Either as short sessions during committee meetings (e.g. 15 minutes as an
agenda point on Other business) or as 1-2 days courses, seminars and workshops. In international standardisation training has been
offered for Committee Secretariats, for participants within international meetings (e.g. on terminology principles) or as pre-events in
conjunction with Technical Committee meetings (e.g. ISO TC 207). The latter format was especially introduced to involve
participants from countries under represented in international standardisation and was developed during the re-establishment of ISO
TC 223 Societal security and in the development of ISO 26000:2010 Guidance for social responsibility. Training in ISO COPOLCO
was developed into regional training events. First in the country hosting the COPOLCO annual meetings, then as separate regional
events in-between meetings. COPOLCO then developed the first ISO distance learning material for consumer participation in
standardisation (available on CD-ROM and now also on ISO online). To establish national/regional resources COPOLCO also
introduced a training trainers-programme which resulted in a restricted number of resource persons as trainers in Africa, Asia,
Caribbean and Latin America. ISO has also developed an ISO e-learning programme Expert in international standardisation
management. Similar regional training activities have been offered in APEC (e.g. SCSC Standards Education Initiative) and EU
(e.g. CEN environmental training). On national level some NSBs are offering regular training either as courses (e.g. BSI, SIS) or as
e-learning (e.g. BSI, ANSI).
This paper will discuss pros and cons of the different formats used in standardisation to give participants an opportunity to learn
about standardisation. It will also give an outlook on the present state of the art in adult learning and the development of Virtual
Learning Environments (VLE).
My personal background
Trained and graduated as an engineer at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden, I found that my interest was more oriented
towards human communication in a general, and not so much towards the technological parts of it (telecommunication, information
science, digital data processing). As an example, my master thesis was dealing with training within solid-state physics. Supported by
my examiner professor Torkel Wallmark it was published as an article
in a peer-reviewed journal issued by a still very dominant
standards writing organisation, IEEE.
At that time B F Skinner, the US behaviourist, had invented the teaching machine, very similar to the one we used at Chalmers and
it was obvious that this mechanical view on learning attracted an engineering student, at a time when the computer was invented,
but not yet used for learning. My interest in communication brought me into information and library services, first for industry (at a
* Trainer for standards organisations and international development projects, Ambi Prospect AB, Trosa, Sweden,
1 Folke Hermanson Snickars, Bert Jeppson, and Torkel Wallmark, An Experiment with Pretesting of Programmed Texts, IEEE
Transactions on Education E-11, no. 1 (March 1968): 3741.
Page 1 of 8
Illustration 1: The Teaching Machine invented by B F Skinner
Technical-Economical Department of a Public Library in Norrkping), then for research (at the Swedish Nuclear Research Institute,
Studsvik, and at the Bibliographic Institute at the Royal Library, Stockholm) and finally for standardisation. Learning was not
directly addressed during that period, but now afterwards, I believe many activities, projects, positions were dealing with some sort
of knowledge management. Using books and journals to answer technical queries, recording meta data on research documents in
machine-readable form, accessing storages of meta data through telecommunication networks (before the establishment of
Internet) to find requested information, establishment of data bases covering existing standards, and publishing of magazines and
newsletters on standardisation.
Learning from theory to practise
As a personal reflection I regard learning as a subset of communication. There are several definitions of learning. One recent
discussion by Mohammed Chowdhury
is claiming a generally accepted definition of learning as any relatively permanent change in
behaviour that occurs as a result of experience. Training is an instructor-led, content-based intervention, leading to desired changes
in behaviour. Two processes or stages of learning in the context of training are evident, namely the process of acquiring skills,
knowledge and concepts, and the process of putting these into actions. This differentiates training from education. How we learn is a
question that begs the answer--based on learning theory. Chowdhury classifies learning theories into four paradigms. These are (a)
behaviourism, (b) cognitivism, (c) constructivism, and (d) social learning theories.
Behaviourism: Based on observable changes in behaviour. Behaviourism focuses on a new behavioural pattern being repeated until
it becomes automatic.
Cognitivism: Based on the thought process behind the behaviour. Changes in behaviour are observed, and used as indicators as to
what is happening inside the learner's mind.
Constructivism: Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and
schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations.
Social learning theories: Considers four distinct components or sub-processes: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and
motivational processes. Banduras Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and
Adult learning (Andragogy)
Malcolm Knowles, one of the pioneers of the art and science of helping adults learn, identified six principles of adult learning:
Adults are internally motivated and self-directed
Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences
Adults are goal oriented
Adults are relevancy oriented
Adults are practical
Adult learners like to be respected
Dialogue learning
When Sweden was visited by the US author William Isaacs presenting his book: Dialogue and the art of thinking together
I attended
a seminar which gave me the opportunity to learn and practise the methodology for organizational change developed by Isaacs who
during his time at MIT co-funded (with Peter Senge) the Center for Organizational Learning. At that time (2001-2002) I got an
assignment to facilitate a number of regional workshops for the development of an ISO Action plan for developing countries. By
applying the dialogue methodology to the needs assessment and programme design, ISO got a unique input
to its policy and strategy
development which gave as a result the ISO Action plan for developing countries 2005-2010
. The success of the dialogue approach
was highlighted by the ISO Bulletin
. The applicability of the dialogue approach was then also tested as a training approach. This
development is described further on in the paper and dialogues have now been accepted and applied in most ISO training events. As
Isaacs was not really seeing the dialogues as an approach to training, I found this development of the method as an addition to its
original area of application (organizational change). Only this year I have found that this was not a unique discovery. Learning by
dialogue and Dialogue education are trade marks both based on work by Jane Vella
. Approaches are similar, even if roots
(intellectual heritage) are different.
2 Mohammed S. Chowdhury, Human Behavior in the Context of Training: An Overviews of the Role of Learning Theories as
Applied to Trainbing and Development, Vol. 7, Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, June 2006,
3 William Isaacs, Dialogue and the Art of Thinking Together (Currency, Doubleday, Random House, 1999).
4 ISO General Assembly 2002 Wkshp-snickars-en.pdf, n.d.
5 ISO Action Plan for Developing Countries_2005-2010.pdf, n.d.
6 ISO Is Listening, ISO Bulletin (June 2002): 1719.
7 Dialogue Education - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, n.d.,
Page 2 of 8
Distance learning
Distance learning has existed long before the computer was invented. Mostly as correspondent courses, where the organiser designed
and structured the content in lessons, send them by mail containing subject information, questions to reflect on and answer, and a
test to be carried out before mailing it back to the organiser, who sent a new lesson, if the test was passed. I spend some time after
my graduation preparing such a correspondence course on television technology, while I was waiting for my wife to complete her
studies. Nowadays distance learning is more or less related to computer technology and data communication, which is open lots of
new features for publishing (CD-ROM or on-line access) and for interactivity (self-paced or tutor monitored).
ISO COPOLCO has prepared a distance learning course: Consumers and standards: partnership for a better world was made
available free as a CD in both an English and a French version. Both the English and French versions have been available on ISO
. This distance learning course is mainly referring to existing printed material and resources from ISO and Consumers
International or to other parts of the ISO web site.
ISO has also developed an ISO e-learning programme Expert in international standardisation management.
The e-learning development has created a new market sector containing system and software developers, commercial actors as well
as non-profit developers (mostly within the academic sector and learning institutes and organisations). With the introduction of what
is called web 2.0,
many enterprises are offering cloud hosting services for all types of information systems like Drupal, Joomla! and
many others including different Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) such as Moodle. A Virtual Learning Environment is an
education system based on the Web that models conventional real-world education by integrating a set of equivalent virtual concepts
for tests, homework, classes, classrooms, and the like. It normally uses Web 2.0 tools for 2-way interaction, and includes a . Virtual
learning environments are the basic component of contemporary distance learning, but can also be integrated with a physical learning
environment; this is sometimes referred to as Blended Learning.
Training offered by the Standards Organisations
Training on the development process
Participants from a country who are selected as representative for the National Standards Body (NSB) in international
standardization, be it on global or regional level, are in the best of worlds trained in advance by the NSB. SIS, the Swedish Standards
Institute, where I spent more than 25 years of my life, has more than 200 international secretariats of ISO Technical Committees,
Subcommittees or Working Groups and CEN Technical Committees or Working Groups. The Chair/Convener and Secretaries of
these groups constitute more than 400 individuals. Even if these Swedish citizens are not expected to represent SIS or any other NSB,
SIS found it fair to offer these individuals, who generally was not staff members of SIS, a relevant opportunity to learn about
processes and procedures within ISO and CEN, but also to master the leadership role in a consistent and competent way. Most of
these Swedish individuals attended a one day training event: Efficient leadership in international standardization which in addition
to inputs from SIS management and coordinators mainly consisted of dialogues in teams sharing experiences and learning from each
Training of participants in international standardization cannot only be a national responsibility. Not all NSBs are offering such
training, others are, but not in a consistent and coherent manner. Some international groups attacked this situation by scheduling time
during an international meeting for a training activity. In ISO Technical Committee 176 Quality management and quality assurance
understanding of terminological principles where either lacking or not applied by the standards drafting teams. Terminology experts
active in both ISO TC 176 and ISO TC 37 Terminology and other language and content resources then offered training, usually as
voluntary evening sessions, during a 5-days meeting. Other Technical Committees, having shorter meetings (1-2 days) allocated in
their agendas 15 60 minutes for short introductions on topics like Environmental aspects in standardization. ISO has now taken
initiatives to train Chairs and Conveners of Committees and Working Groups
and CEN introduced already 2006 an environmental
training programme consisting of an e-learning course in 5 modules
and also of 1-day courses in Brussels
. Within the ISO
Development programme the lack of training for new participants from developing and emerging economies was recognized and as a
first attempt to motivate and prepare new participants, ISO invited and sponsored participants for one week of pre-event training,
followed by participation in a following week the meeting in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000 with ISO TC 207 Environmental
management. This approach was then adapted to other ISO projects, as e.g. the ISO Working group on Social responsibility and ISO
Technical Committee 223 Societal security. The length of the training was changed from one week into 1-2 days, and sometimes
even less, depending on needs, interest, and available time and resources.
8 Consumers and Standards: Partnership for a Better World, n.d.,
9 Web 2.0 is a loosely defined intersection of web application features that facilitate participatory information sharing,
interoperability, user-centered design and collaboration on the World Wide Web.
10 TMB_Communiqu_Issue_Nr._40_(March_2012).pdf, n.d.,
11 CEN - European Committee for Standardization, E-learning Courses, n.d.,
12 CEN - European Committee for Standardization, Environmental Training, n.d.,
Page 3 of 8
The funding of participants from developing and emerging economies to the ISO Working group on Social responsibility made it
possible to arrange 15 global, 23 regional, and 13 national events with a total of 3.870 participants in the 51 events during the period
Global workshops were arranged in direct conjunction to the meetings with the Working Group (WG). From two full
days in the beginning of the project to 1 day during the end of the project.
Regional workshops aimed to raise awareness in regions with low participation in the WG. Most regional workshops
were facilitated by experts having leadership positions in the project with national workshops for the host country back-to-
back the day before or after the regional event.
National workshops were offered on requests from ISO members which needed support in establishing mirror
committees or in understanding how national stakeholders could participate in the development process by commenting
and voting
The formula for the workshops was based on experiences from ISO TC 207 described above.
The programme of each global and regional workshop was designed with the intention to prepare the participants for their attendance
in the WG meeting in terms of
Understanding the procedures
During the first workshops, the general ISO process for the development of international standards was presented, together
with special adaptations introduced for the WG
Insight in the issues which will be discussed at the following WG meeting
To each workshop representatives from the drafting groups were invited to submit input to the workshop dialogues. It was
always stressed that the aim of such inputs was only to assist in the identification of any specific development issues, not to
anticipate the general content discussions which should take place in the WG meetings.
Building a collaborative spirit among stakeholders, within geographical regions and within language groups
Establishment of a Developing Country Contact Group (DCCG)
Linking relations between participants from Developing Countries and the WG leadership
Invited resource persons
To safeguard inputs from the social responsibility area in general, key persons from outside the WG were also invited to the
global workshops. Some addressing the workshops formally representing donors or UN-organizations. Others, presenting
specific studies or projects with relevance for developing countries).
The workshops had as a primary purpose to build capacity for an efficient participation in a standardization project. The reactions of
the participants were collected after each workshop and showed the progress achieved, but also improvements suggested for later
workshops. See below on Training evaluation.
In 2002 ISO Consumer Policy Committee (COPOLCO) identified the need for training for consumer representatives and standards
organizations officials to increase the effectiveness of the consumer voice in standards work at the national and international level.
Starting 2003 a training day was included in the programme of the annual COPOLCO meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. A format
encouraging interactivity and dialogue was introduced with participants seated in teams around round tables with a facilitator at each
table. Presenters introduced topics and formulated questions for the teams The focus of the work has been on developing countries
where the challenges of participating in standards development are greater and where they are few training programmes available at
national or regional level. With financial assistance from organizations such as Swedish International Development Cooperation
Agency (Sida), ISOs Funds in Trust, and other standards bodies, a number of training events have been held. In many cases these
events have been held in conjunction with COPOLCO meetings, which also allows training delegates to participate in COPOLCO
events. These training initiatives have also been supported through staff resources from ISO Central Secretariat and staff and
volunteers of national standards bodies. Events were held in: Bangkok, Cairo, Prague, Toronto, Kuala Lumpur and Vienna.
A separate bi-lingual event was held 2006 for Sub-Saharan Africa in Botswana. Two participants from each ISO Member, one
representative of the NSB and one of a consumer organization in the country, were invited and funded. This gave the opportunity to
learn from each other, but also to plan for future cooperation at the national level.
Training trainers
Up to 2005, training events in standardization were usually based on one or several experts of a content lecturing in sometimes good
or sometimes less good instructional style.
Monologue style (reading from manuscript, oral without pictures, oral with support of slides, answers to questions)
Dialogue style (inputs by instructors of facts and questions to discuss, team dialogues with feedback reports, comments by
teams and instructors)
To increase the leverage of investments in training, courses on a content was complemented with training in instruction techniques,
Page 4 of 8
expecting trainees to be converted to trainers after the training event, i.e. This train-the-trainer approach can be designed in
different formats:
Combine content training with training in instruction techniques
Require competence in content as a pre-requisite for the training in instruction techniques
Separate content training and training in instruction techniques
The latter format was chosen for a train-the-trainer course arranged by Japanese Standards Association for consumer representatives
in standardization. More than 40 Japanese consumer representatives were trained in November 2005 at pre-seminars in Tokyo and
Osaka. 16 out of these 40 were then selected for a 2-days train-the-trainer course in Tokyo, January 2006.
The ISO Development and Training Programme (DEVT) and COPOLCO jointly arranged a 5-day train-the-trainer course on
consumer participation in standardization in Ghana, February 2006. This event aimed to provide carefully selected experts with the
necessary skills to become trainers in their own countries and regions, using interactive exercises. Therefore, this "hands-on" training
was designed not only to raise awareness of standards and consumer participation, but also to replicate awareness of consumer
involvement in standards-making on a broader scale through a "multiplier effect".
The 16 participants came from South and Central America, Caribbean, East, North, and West Africa, Central, South and South-East
Asia. They were evenly split between representatives of consumer organizations and standards bodies. There was equal gender
balance and a wide range of ages. The participants received instruction not only in consumer participation issues but also in general
training skills. Both topics to equip them to launch training back home more effectively. Topics on training skills included evaluation
of the training audience, setting objectives and designing the training course to achieve these objectives, adaptation of training
methodology for adults, and designing and conducting evaluations.
Following the global Train-the-trainer event held in Ghana, ISO/DEVT with assistance from COPOLCO initiated a series of follow-
on Workshops at the national and regional levels. These had dual objectives: firstly to enable some of the trainers trained in Ghana to
put into practice what they learnt, supervised by a consumer expert who both supports and evaluates them. Secondly, to train at the
national or regional level, a suitable group of people so that NSBs and consumers can work better together and also to improve the
amount and quality of consumer participation in standards development. These follow-on training events ensure that there is a pool of
appropriate training expertise available regionally for the future.
Application and use of standards
The first edition of the ISO 9000-series of standards was adopted 1987. As a Swedish P-member of the ISO Technical Committee
responsible for the development of the standards (ISO TC 176) SIS was in a position to either reject the proposed requirement
standards (ISO 9001, ISO 9002 and ISO 9003) preferring the quality management standard ISO 9004, or to accept the requirement
standards, but then introduce the ISO 9000-concepts in general and especially avoid to promote the certification usually regarded as a
part of the requirements, in spite it was not. SIS was advocating the principle that certification was appropriate in cases where it was
a requirement (as customer requirements, competitive strategies, need of external audits to change behaviour). With this Swedish
policy, the standards needed to be supported by quite substantive support activities. These support activities have been described
earlier in two papers presented to the annual conferences of EOCQ in 1990 and 1991. Here the discussion will be restricted to the
learning-aspects of the introduction of a new standard. SIS was during the introduction phase not arranging any training courses.
Instead a substantial number of deliverables were produced in a business unit called SIS Quality Forum, which could be used as
training material for organisations who were offering training. Examples of this type of deliverables were a newsletter, pocket
versions, case studies of early adopters. In the newsletter a calender of available training courses was published offering a free and
competitive advertising opportunity for the training organisers.
Page 5 of 8
This approach to training offered by a NSB was changed when new editions of the standards were developed (adoptions in 1994 and
2000). Organisations which had implemented quality management systems in conformance with the standards were requesting early
information on the foreseen changes, but also in-house training on specifics of the standards requirements as internal auditing,
management reviews, continual improvement, preventive and corrective actions. When these activities developed SIS was
transforming the ISO 9000-related activities in SIS Quality Forum into a training subsidiary, SIS Forum AB. As SIS had sold its
subsidiary for certification, SIS Certifiering AB, it allowed SIS Forum to add to its activities also corporate advising and consulting.
SIS have had a long history in international development cooperation both in specific Sida-funded projects to establish NSBs in
developing countries but also to train staff from such NSBs in a Sida ITP, Standardization Management and Techniques. This
international cooperation was administered in another subsidiary of SIS, SIS Service AB, which was merged with SIS Forum in
1998.The ISO development of standards for environmental management with ISO TC 207 was then adding subject areas in which
training also was requested. The ISO 14000-series of standards were also attracting the Swedish International Development
Cooperation Agency (Sida) to arrange an International Training Programme (ITP), Environmental management and development, for
participants from developing countries.
Training evaluation
The instructor in a common classroom-type of training has direct feedback from the learners as one evaluation instrument. You can
also introduce exercises, tests and exams to evaluate learning. Usually this type of evaluation could also be used in training of adults
in the form of courses, seminars, workshops. The most frequently used evaluation instrument still is to circulate after the training
event a questionnaire requesting participants to grade their satisfaction of the training. See example below:
This will help the training organisers to get feedback on logistics, achievements of objectives, performance of instructors, and even
usefulness and relevance of the content. Keeping the same format for repeated courses, gives the opportunity to illustrate
development over time. Participants in the workshops arranged by ISO for developing and emerging economies during the
development of ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on social responsibility. were after each event asked to complete a questionnaire which
Page 6 of 8
have given valuable information on the outcome of the events and also proposals for further improvements. A comparison of the
participants' reactions to a number of statements on a scale from 1- 5 where 1 is Disagreement and 5 is Full agreement after the
global workshops is presented below.
The questionnaire instrument is still not giving any information about if and what participants have learnt, what impact it has on their
behaviour, and how the results of the participant's organisation are affected. The most well-known framework for classifying areas of
evaluation is the Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation (reaction, learning, behaviour, results). Having introduced reaction
questionnaires, attitude surveys and participants feedback in ISO COPOLCO, the COPOLCO training group then introduced
evaluation of the participant's estimate of training's impact of events by a second questionnaire circulated 6 months after the event.
There are still need for further development of tests, simulations, to evaluate learning and also to identify monetary benefits and
intangible measures. The latter type of evaluation is going beyond the Kirkpatrick's four levels adding a fifth level, Return on
Investment. The five-level ROI framework was developed by Jack J. Phillips
and is especially focusing on human resource
development (HRD) within commercial organisations. It has however been applied also in non-profit organisations, in which data
from evaluations can be converted to monetary benefits (e.g. as reduced time for activities resulting in lower labour cost). The cost
reduction could then be compared with the cost for the training and a ROI could then be calculated as ROI =
cost reductiontraining cost
training cost
%. The complete results-based model consist of 18 steps starting with Needs assessment and
conclude with Communication of results. This model was applied in designing a COPOLCO train-the-trainer event in Ghana 2006,
and contained several steps focusing on evaluation:
2. Identify purpose of evaluation (is it to make a decision about the future of the training, or to improve the learning process)
4. Select evaluation method/design (the selection of evaluation method is preceding the formulation of training objectives)
5. Determine evaluation strategy (who, where, and when)
9. Design evaluation instruments (data-gathering tool that collects data to describe changes in attitudes, learning, behaviour,
or other results achieved from the training; instruments may include record-keeping systems, questionnaires,
examinations, attitude surveys, interviews, focus groups, observations, or job simulations.)
14. Collect data at proper stages (data collection must be implemented at the appropriate time; not too early before the end of
the training and not too late, when most have already left)
15. Analyse and interpret data (when analysing data, statistics are usually needed; like mean, median, mode, standard
deviation, analysis of variance, correlation)
13 Jack J. Phillips, Handbook of Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods, 4th ed. (Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing
Company, 2005).
Page 7 of 8
Clear purpose
Purpose achiev ed
Content assimilation
Estimated usability
Presenters' clarity
Presenters' knowledge
Suf f icient documentation
Expectations met
Ov erall satisf action
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5
Workshop evaluations
Salvador 2005
Bangkok 2005
Lisbon 2006
Sydney 2007
Vienna 2007
Santiago 2008
Quebec 2009
Copenhagen 2010
17. Calculate Return on Investment ROI =
cost reductiontraining cost
training cost
Lessons learned
As described above I have devoted most of my professional life to different forms of human communication (awareness raising,
information storage and retrieval, training and instructional design). Without any scientific ambitions, I have tried to describe some
observations worth sharing with others engaged in training of adults about standardisation.
Training Type of training Characteristics Comment
Internal auditing In-house practical audits in
audit teams on existing QMS
with external instructors as
observers giving feedback and
1-2 days depending on size of
Applying auditing in teams
give skills learning, feedback
from colleagues and instructors
Environmental management
and development
International Training
4 weeks in Sweden + follow-up
1 week in one of the
participant's country
Including lectures, group
exercises, study visits, project
planning. At the follow-up
presentations of project
implementation, sharing of
experiences and study visits.
Study visits prepared and
planned before the meeting
with the organisation and
discussed and commented after
the visit enhance the value.
Projects selected by
participants to implemented in
their organisations show how
content has been understood
and could be applied.
Dialogue learning 1-2 days global, regional or
national workshops
Dialogue format with inputs
from instructors and dialogues
among participants sharing
experiences and learning from
each others
Need of feasible room and
table arrangement
Going international 1 day training for Swedish
participants in international
standardisation as Chairs or
Dialogue format Participants from different
subject areas do not meet
internationally, but have lots of
comparable situations to handle
and can share and learn how
they manage these situations.
Train-the-trainer 4-5 days training with
knowledge of content as
Focus on instructional skills
Instructors use different
instruction styles as models
Video recording of
performance give efficient
feedback of trainee's behaviour
Distance learning CD-ROM or online access Can be studied in the pace of
the trainee
Require careful design of
structure of content
presentation and assessment of
Page 8 of 8
Designing a University Specialized Course
for Master in Standardization
By:Dr.Alireza Khakifirooz
Standard Research Institute of ISIRI
Shahla Seifi
Standard Research Institute of ISIRI
Saeed Hassani Soukhtehsaraei
Institute of Standards and Industrial
Research of Iran

Standards and standardization is derived from
human experiences and knowledge through the
years to prevail and search over matters and
difficulties around him and to regulate his
activities. It is worth mentioning that
sustainable success, meeting the needs and
expectations of customers and other interested
stakeholders over a long period is just achieved
by observing the standards and standardization
processes. Sustainable success can be achieved
by the effective management, through
awareness of his surrounding environment,
learning, and by the appropriate application of
improvement methods/ innovations, or both.
Strengthening the standardization process
including standards development, conformity
assessment, accreditation and metrology are the
main and fundamental factors for the progress
of a country and has an outstanding role for
country's infrastructure. Developing countries
generally suffer from lack of resources
including suitable equipment, technology,
know-how knowledge, experts and qualified
human resources. Therefore, in order to meet
the educational need for training qualified
human resources for standardization, this course
has been designed with taking into
consideration the regulations of Ministry of
Science, Research and Technology of Islamic
Republic of Iran.
The course focuses mainly on the following
Sustainable development, standardization and
strategic development, organizing national
participation in ISO technical work, standards
formulation at international and national level,
economic benefits of standards, strategic
planning for sustainable business, management
systems for sustainability, risk management,
assessing costs and benefits of international
standardization, benefits of international
standardization for developing countries and

Mission of the course
The logic behind designing this course
embodies the followings:
1- Recruiting the knowledgeable and qualified
persons to ensure the accurate
implementation of standardization
2- Extending the scope of standardization
activities through applied research and
3- Stimulating and improving the efficiency
and proficiency of the labor by conducting
continuous systematic planned programs.
4- Making appropriate connections with
5- Continuous improvement in entire
activities and performances.
6- Realization of development and sustainable

Duration of the course and pedagogical
Duration of master course in standardization is
at least two years, including four semesters.
Theoretical period is consisting of three
semesters and practical or research stage results
in dissertation after students' research is
For each theoretical unit 16 hours in 16 full
weeks is considered.

Number of credit courses
The syllabus of masters in standardization
course consists of 32 units as follows:
11 specialized units
4 common specialized units
10 optional units
Seminar (1 unit)
Dissertation (6 units)

Program of master in standardization
Core syllabus: 16 units
Optional syllabus: 10 units
Dissertation: 6
Total: 32 units

Semesters, Core units and Optional subjects
Semester 1
Core units

Unit 1
The business environment
Standardization in the work place
Standardization and strategic development
Marketing and standardization
Supply chain analysis

Unit 2
Costing and pricing
Basic product costing
Decision making with costing information
Costing for quality
The pricing decision
The Theory of Constraints
C-V-P analysis

Unit 3
Statistical methods
Linear programming
Bayes theorem
Queuing theory
Games Theory

Unit 4
The global environment
International standardization ISO, GRI etc
Financial, numeric and qualitative standards
and reporting
International trading requirements
WTO and trade barriers

Semester 2

Unit 5
Definitions of sustainability
The Triple Bottom Line
Costing and pricing for sustainability
Sustainability in an international context
Value creation through sustainability
CSR and sustainable development

Unit 6
Research methods
Data collection
Data analysis
Report writing
Argument and proof

Unit 7
Participation in international
Benefits of international standardization for
developing countries
Procedures for technical work
Organizing national participation in ISO
technical work
Selecting and adopting/adapting international
Attitude of developing countries toward
international standardization

Unit 8
Environmental management and ISO 14000
ISO/TC 207 background
ISO 14000, role and importance
ISO environmental management systems
Environmental auditing
Environmental labeling
Environmental performance evaluation
Life cycle assessment
Case study

Semester 3
Pathway 1
Manufacturing Standardization

Unit 9
Process change techniques
Kaizen & kanban
Continuous improvement

Unit 10
Operations management
Mass customization
IT controlled processing
Advanced manufacturing processes

Unit 11
Stock management methodologies
Inventory control
Cost behavior and ordering

Unit 12
Product design
Zero defect technology

Pathway 2
International Business management

Unit 9
Business system design
Elements of systems analysis
Information collection and analysis

Unit 10
Risk management
Impact assessment
Probabilistic approaches
Materials sources and risk
Currency risk control

Unit 11
International trade and marketing
The value chain
Performance evaluation
Supply contracting
International branding

Unit 12
Project management
Project design and costing
PERT analysis
Overcoming bottlenecks
Project appraisal pre and post implementation
GANTT charts

Semester 4


Optional subjects
Conformity assessment
Certification (product, personal, management
Suppliers declaration
Cross-border recognition
Regulatory impact

Teaching of standardization in institutions of
higher learning
Introduction to standardization
Types of standards
Organization of standards work
Elaboration of standards
Quality assurance, certification, metrology
Standards and production planning

Development and organization of a company
standards department
Scope and benefits of a company standards
Factors for a successful company standards
Organization of standardization activities within
the company
Development of company standards
Making standards effective
Organization of standards information
Cost justification for standardization activity

Application of standards
Factors influencing application
Methodologies for promoting the application of
Social responsibility and ISO 26000
History of social responsibility
Principles of social responsibility

ICES Conference and WSC Academic Day 2012
China National Institute of Standardization
Main Contents
Relationship between Master of
Engineering and Professional Qualification
Connection Practice of Master of Engineering and
Standardization Professional Qualification
Prospects for Future Work
Prospects for Future Work
Academic Degree
Closely Combines
Relationship between Master of Engineering and
Professional Qualification



with Professional


Students Engineers

School: ed cate st dents in accordance ith the la of ed cation School: educate students in accordance with the law of education
Enterprise: recruit people according to market demand
School: student education target (standards for degree)
Enterprise: personnel demand (professional certification)
Some distance between school and enterprise
How to achieve relative
same focus??
Professional Qualification
Master of Engineering
same focus??
and appropriate distance???
Main Contents
Relationship between Master of
Engineering and Professional Qualification
Connection Practice of Master of Engineering and
Standardization Professional Qualification
Prospects for Future Work
Prospects for Future Work
Connection Conditions
Talent Guarantee
Resource & Platform
High supports from
leaders of SAC and
Special Research
Institute: Institute of
Standardization Theory
and Education
Classes taught by
famous Chinese and
foreign experts in the
field of standardization
Compilation of
Have the complete
knowledge system
Sign the strategic
cooperative agreements
with national education
authority to jointly push
forward the connection of
master of engineering and
standardization talent
Participation of Beijing
Institute of Technology
and National Institute of
Education Sciences Annual forums and
domestic and overseas
Provide the major of
standardization for master of
i i
Connection Steps
Provide the focus of
standardization for master of
1 1
Provide the standardization
courses and cooperate in
educating standardization
Main Contents
Relationship between Master of
Engineering and Professional Qualification
Connection Practice of Master of Engineering and
Standardization Professional Qualification
Prospects for Future Work
Prospects for Future Work
Recruit the First Group of Master of Engineering
Beijing Institute of Technology: Industrial Engineering
Leaders in the standardization management departments and
technicians in standardization scientific research departments
Students applying for the degree of master of engineering
Recruit the First Group of Master of Engineering
Procedure of Recruitment and
Submit the application in July and take the Graduate Candidate Test
(GCT) in October
Mode of Combined Training
Jointly design the training plan
Provide 20-30% standardization courses with teachers and textbooks
arranged by CNIS
Graduate thesis can focus on CNISs scientific researches and be
completed under the guidance of universities and CNISs experts.
Fu Qiang Associate Researcher Fu Qiang Associate Researcher
Sub-institute of Standardization Theory and Education, CNIS

Dradjad Irianto, Anas Maruf and TMA Ari Samadhi
Manufacturing Systems Research Group
Faculty of Industrial Technology
Bandung Institute of Technology Indonesia
Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132

Recent development in Indonesian economy, industry and trade should be strengthened with
development of professional human resources in quality and standardization. BSN has initiated
collaboration with local universities in promoting standardization education; however there is no
strategic policy in designing educational program about standardization. Recently, BSN initiated
a workshop to establish master degree in standardization and decide a pilot program at two local
universities. This paper is aimed at developing curriculum for standardization education program.
Firstly, we will discuss the standard and standardization in Indonesia. Discussion will follow with
the defining related academic subject in order to develop the body of knowledge as a basis for
developing curriculum of standardization in higher education program in Indonesia.
Keywords: standardization, education, body of knowledge.

1. Introduction
Recently, global trading has shown a changing
trend of destination where two third of global
exported products are going to European and Asian
markets with an increasing trend towards Asian
market including to Indonesian market. After the
crisis in 1997 and 2008, Indonesian trade
performance is continuously improved that resulted
in export of 158 billion USD with import of 132
billion USD in 2010 (Geiger, 2011). It is important
to note that improving Indonesian trading
performance requires efforts in developing
standardization as one industrial soft-infrastructure
in order to provide assurance to customer as well as
to improve supplier-producer relationship. The
fulfillment of standard of certain products, for
example, has decrease steps in material
procurement, inspection and acceptance for
companies that are practicing trust-based supply-
chain management.

It is clear that an increasing global trade should be
followed by procurement of professional human
resources in quality and standardization. In case of
Indonesia, an increasing of global trade, especially
import, does not match with an increasing number
of professional human resources in quality and
standardization. Many professional working on
quality and standardization in general are
professional prepared for other fields not
specializing in quality or standardization. They
involve with quality or standardization in their
related tasks only by chance, which is not mainly
aimed at quality or standardization. Different with
quality jobs, only few companies design the
standardization jobs from the beginning within
their organization. Accordingly, fresh graduates or
new job seekers consider that profession in
standardization is less motivating compared with
profession in quality.

This current career development in standardization,
in the future, is deficient in for solving many cases
and problems about standard and standardization.
Indonesia requires post graduate education to
improve knowledge in standardization. deVries and
Egyedi (2007) identified aspects that can trigger the
development of education in standardization, i.e. (i)
more complicated problems related to standard and
standardization, (ii) a requirement for standard and
standardization jobs that formally offer by
companies and government agencies, (iii) a
requirement for further study or innovation about
standard and standardization, and (iv) an offer of
educational program in standardization by local
universities. Moreover, ministerial meeting of
APEC 2006 in Vietnam mentioned the importance
of education in standardization as in their joint
statement: Ministers recognized the importance of
standards education and encouraged members to
develop reference curriculum and materials to
address the significance of standards and
conformance to trade facilitation in the region.

The need for professional in standardization in
Indonesia becomes more and more significant due
to free trade agreement within South East Asian
countries that will be fully effective from 2015.
National Standardization Agency of Indonesia
(Badan Standarisasi Nasional, BSN) has initiated
collaboration with 28 local universities in
promoting standard and standardization into higher
education programs. However, in Indonesian
midterm or long-term development plan there is no
local university that is designed to provide
educational program in standardization, neither at
undergraduate program nor at master program.
There are master program at local universities that
run master program in quality engineering and
management with some courses related to
standardization, mostly ISO9000. Considering the
continuous development in industrial sectors, it is
never too late to start an educational program in

In this paper we will discuss briefly the standard
and standardization in Indonesia in the following
chapter. Considering the definition and situation in
Indonesia, discussion will follow with the defining
related academic subject related to standardization
in order to develop the body of knowledge about
standardization education. Afterwards, the body of
knowledge will be the basis for developing
curriculum of standardization education program in

2. Standard and Standardization in Indonesia
ISO (in ISO/IEC Guide 2 ISO 2004-1) defines
standard as a document established by consensus
and approved by a recognized body, providing for
common and repeated use rules, guidelines, or
characteristics for activities or their results aimed
at the achievement of the optimum degree of order
in a given context. ISO (in ISO/IEC Guide 2 ISO
2004-1) also defines standardization as activity of
establishing -with regard to actual or potential
problems- provisions for common and repeated use
aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of
order in a given context.
Indonesia formed YDNI (a national agency of
norm) as a representative in ISO since 1955 and
IEC in 1966. Subsequently, development of
standard and standardization begins involving
activities in some ministries of industry, trade, civil
works, health, agriculture, and forestry, and in
other government agencies. Since 1997, Badan
Standarisasi Nasional (BSN) becomes the only
agency in Indonesia responsible for standardization
and as representative to ISO. However, real
activities in developing standard still disperse in
ministries and agencies involving 97 technical
committees that manage totally about 7000
BSN developed PSN 01-2005, Pengembangan
Standar Nasional Indonesia, a guidance for
developing Indonesian national standard by
adopting ISO/IEC Directive Part 1:2004,
Procedure for the technical work. This guidance is
then revised into PSN 01-2007 with the same title.
PSN 01-2007 mentioned that a person (an expert)
or a group of people can propose a draft of standard
to the related technical committees, which then
formally proposes the draft standard before it is
adopted into standard. In most cases, these
professionals (person or group of people) are
members of a technical committee in ministries and
agencies. Almost all of these professional or
experts are not formally educated in
standardization. Originally they are common
employee at ministries and agencies with a task in
regulating requirements of product or process,
which then by their experience they become
capable in developing draft standard.

In Ministry of Industry, as also in other ministries,
there are positions related to standardization, e.g. at
each Sub-Technical Directorate called
standardization and technical section, centre for
standardization, and public service for
standardization and testing almost in each province
throughout Indonesia. Employees can be rotated or
promoted to these positions even though they do
not have capability in standardization. A short
training program usually follows, which thus their
capability in standardization can be properly built
based only on their owned and personal efforts and
motivation. As the problems of standard or
standardization increase or becoming complicated,
their skill and knowledge usually will also improve
through learning-by-doing. Motivated employees
will remain in standardization task, but mostly are
eager to get promoted to other task. As a result, in
the following two or three years, Ministry of
Industry will lack of employee who has capability
in standardization as the existing employees in
standardization are retired. This situation fosters
the need and acceleration for providing formal
educational master program in standardization in

3. Body of Knowledge of Standardization
Education in Indonesia
Requirements in standard of product or process are
stated in a formal document and related to how the
product or process is produced, including all
required services. However, common people are
not interested in formality such as document or
issuing agency that also related to measurement
and conformity assessment. Common people have
more concern on the role of standard in providing
benefit to society. Accordingly, education program
in standardization should not only focus on
developing draft or document of standard, but also
on its implementation and innovation for a better
Based on these requirements, we can propose
competencies of educational program outcomes in
standardization as follows:
C1: Capable to study and acquire basic
knowledge in standardization to recognize,
define, and describe problems related to
standardization in order to formulate the
requirement for standardization and to
develop draft of standard.
C2: Capable to implement knowledge and
skill in standardization to recognize, describe
and optimize the implementation of standard
in industry, government, and society.
C3: Capable to behave and develop attitude in
standardization to be able to adapt and
innovate in accordance to the development of
science and technology.
These competencies classify the professional
resulted from educational program in
standardization as a standard developer, a standard
implementator, and a standard innovator.
From the formal definitions of standard and
standardization (as in ISO/IEC Guide 2 ISO 2004-
1), at least we can find some keywords that
represent the meaning or concept related to
standardization, e.g. recognized body, consensus
etc. as in Figure 1.
These keywords are synthesis from the
international definition of standard and
standardization. Considering the guidance in
developing Indonesian national standard as in PSN
01:2007, and other related guidance (PSN 02:2007,
PSN 03.1:2007, PSN 04:2006, PSN 08:2007),
managing standard and standardization requires
some basic know ledges that are already exist in
several academic program in universities.
Synthesizing the keywords and stages in
developing and managing standard, we can find
some related academic subjects as in Figure 2.
These academic subjects (as in Figure 2) are part of
curriculum in several fields of study including
science, engineering, technology, economics, and
commerce. Within engineering fields, some
academic subjects are part of Master Program in
Industrial Engineering and Management curriculum
at Bandung Institute of Technology Indonesia, i.e.
decision theory, organization and management,
optimization, system modeling, technology
management, data analysis, industrial planning, and
basic metrology.

Figure 1. Some keywords related to standard and standardization.

Figure 2. Academic subjects related to standard and standardization

Figure 3. Academic subjects with orientation on engineering and technology.
BSN has started collaboration with local
universities in promoting standardization education
and forms FORSTAN as a forum for educator and
expert that concern with development of
standardization education. From its workshop, BSN
and FORSTAN have agreed to form pilot program
for standardization higher education at least at two
universities, i.e. University of Gadjah Mada
(UGM), and Bandung Institute of Technology
(ITB). As a pilot program at ITB, the
standardization education program will be oriented
more on the fields of science, engineering, and
technology. This orientation is designed to meet
ITBs higher education character focusing on
science and technology. With this orientation, we
can re-formulate the scope of academic subject as
in Figure 3.
The scope of academic subjects with orientation in
engineering and technology covers four fields of
study, i.e. science and engineering, industrial
engineering, law, and economics, which form the
body of knowledge for standardization educational
program. At ITB educational program, industrial
engineering field of study also includes studies in
system engineering and engineering management.
For some years, ITB is assigned to conduct
undergraduate program in metrology cooperating
with the Ministry of Trade due to the lack of
professional in this field. In case of Indonesia, the
coverage of economics field of study (as in Faculty
of Economics in most universities in Indonesia)
may include programs in development studies and
commerce as can be found in the Faculty of
Economics in most universities in Indonesia.
4. Curriculum for Master Program in
In Indonesia, high school graduates are categorized
into group of students in natural science and in
social science class. Accordingly to regulation for
continuing education to university level, graduate
high school student is limited to choose field of
study at universitys education program. Fields of
study such as science, engineering, agriculture,
psychology, and medical only accept high school
graduate of group of student in natural science, but
these high school graduates are able to choose
higher education in social sciences fields of study.
High school graduate of group of student in social
science can only continue their higher education in
the fields of study in economics, social sciences,
law, literature, and art. Considering the regulation
for continuing education to higher education and
field of study for standardization education, it is not
preferable to design an undergraduate education in
standardization at ITB. Accordingly, in case of
ITB, it is preferable to design education in
standardization as a master program.
Four fields of study cover education in engineering
and social science. ITB has an experience in
conducting master program in applied technology
such as in Industrial Systems Master Program
cooperating with the Ministry of Industry. In this
kind of master program, the curriculum is designed
by considering fields of study in engineering and
social science (i.e. economics and development
studies). From this fruitful experience, ITB can
develop a curriculum for master program in
standardization using the similar approach that has
been done before.
Following guidance in developing curriculum at
ITB, each study program should define the program
educational objectives (PEO) and student outcomes
(SO) as in Table 1. A master program at ITB
should be designed to have minimum 36 credit
units and should be completed in 3 semesters. To
cover four fields of study as in Figure 3, the
proposed curriculum is shown in Table 2. This
curriculum consists of (i) 9 credit units of general
knowledge for standardization (i.e. economics of
standard, industrial analysis and planning,
industrial regulation and trade), (ii) 11 credit units
of basic skill and knowledge in standardization (i.e.
developing standard, basic metrology,
implementation and evaluation of standard, seminar
1, and seminar 2), (iii) 9 credit units of
specialization in standardization (i.e. 3 electives),
and (iv) 7 credit units for final project (i.e. research
methodology, and thesis). Some examples of
electives that form knowledge for specialization in
standardization are also listed in Table 2.

Table 1. PEO and SO of standardization study program.

Table 2. The proposed curriculum for Master Program in Standardization.


5. Conclusion
It is common in companies or government bodies
in Indonesia that people accustome with standard
and standardization via their daily tasks especially
in a specific technical area. They may also become
familiarized with a specific standard after having
ample experience in performing their jobs, or
perhabs after completing a course or training
program. However, in the future, companies or
government bodies can no longer rely on this
experiential approach. This approach will no longer
be sufficient for Indonesia as its industry and trade
soaring, which thus requires educated professional
in standardization.

This paper is aimed at initiating education about
standardization as a master degree program in
Indonesia. This program is a pilot project of BSN
as a government agency responsible for the
development of standardization in Indonesia. The
proposed curriculum for this program was
developed based on body of knowledge on
extracted from principles and practices concerning
standardization in Indonesia and international. As a
pilot program, this developed curriculum still needs

deVries H.J. and Egyedi M.T., Education of
Standardization: Recent Findings, J. of IT
Standards & Standardization Research, 5(2),
1-16, 2007.
Geiger, T., Indonesia Competitiveness Report
2011: Sustaining the Growth Momentum,
World Economic Forum Report, 2011.
ISO/IEC Guide 2 ISO 2004-1, Standardization and
related activities - General vocabulary.

Conquering High Grade Language of QMS Standard
A 15 Years Experience in Teaching QMS Standard for Undergraduate Students
Tri Wahono*

*) Lecture in Food Science and Technology Department Brawijaya University, Malang Indonesia
(email :

ISO 9000 have been taught as a course in Food Science and Technology Department Brawijaya University since
1994. The most difficulty in teaching QMS (ISO 9000 series) for undergraduate students was the language used in
this subject totally new and stranger for the students. Nearly all of the students didnt understand the subject
eventhough the standard and other course materials have been translated into Indonesian Language. Many delivery
methodsand approach have been tried to be used in teaching learning process (TLP) to improve students
understanding of the subject with no satisfication result. In 2009, a new approach, we call it as real process based
approachwas employed in TLP of ISO 9000 in this department. The students understanding of the subject increase
significantly epitomized by their ability to do simulationof any organization to prepare its ISO 9000 documentation
system. Many of the students now have been work in many food factory and other organizations. In real situation
they can successfully apply this new approach in preparing the organization to obtain ISO 9001:2008 certificate.
This paper describes the way TLP of ISO 9000 is undertaken to achieve competency required in developing quality
system for undergraduate students.
Key words : ISO 9000, delivery method, real process based approach.

I. Introduction
Brawijaya University/UniversitasBrawijaya
(abbreviated into UB) became a public university in
1963. Today, UB is one of the leading universities in
Indonesia with nearly40,000 students in various
degrees. In 2011 UB obtain ISO 9001:2008
certificate for its all academic programs and
supporting units from Lloyd Register Quality
Assurance (LRQA). UB successfully obtain ISO
9001:2008certificate merely employ its internal
human resources without involvment of external
consultant. In the processof obtaining ISO certificate
for its all academic programs, we also developing and
applying new approach for managing ISO 9000
implementation throughout UB organization.
The quality system was originally created for
manufacturing industry. Now service industry is also
making lots of effort to improve their service quality.
These ISO 9000 international quality standards are
being implemented in many service organisations
such as educational institutions. Quality management
system is usually applied for the whole activity
concerning the quality of product/ service. If a quality
culture should be sustained by the whole
organisation, its basic principles have to be largely
shared or at least accepted (Vettori et al., 2007).The
implementation of the system of ISO 9001 is the
obligation motivatedby both customer requirements
and the necessity for improving the universitys
service quality through the improvementof its quality
system. UBs most important motive for
implementing ISO 9000 both areexternal study
programs accreditation and internal quality
assessment. FurthermoreUB strive for better image
because ISO 9000 certificate can be some kind of
quality indicatorfor customer proving that the
institution is very much interested in teaching quality.
ISO 9000 standards have caused a business
revolution. Today, more than 1.000.000
organizationsworldwide are registered to these
standards. Often cited for increasing
competitivenessby providing an independent `stamp
of approval' of an organization's quality management
The quality management system of ISO 9000
introduces strict documentation and management
control, raises employees responsibility, motivates
management staff to keep to the requirements. ISO
9000 certificate serves as a basis for constant
improvement and indicates that the improvement has
already been achieved.
Food Technology Department is the oldest
department in Brawijaya University having
experience in teaching ISO 9000. Starting in 1994
under the subject of Quality Control. In 2000 ISO
9000 was teached separately along with HACCP in
the course entitle Quality Management System. The
objective is for preparing the students to understand
the ISO standards usually used in the food industry,
namely ISO 9000, ISO 14000and ISO 22000.
II. Course Design
Couse Title : Quality Management System and Food
Credit : 4 credits
General Instructional Goal :
By completion of this course student will be
expected to be able to spell out the management
functions in the implementation of food quality
and safety policy into daily operational
activities. Hence forth, student will able to
unify and coordinate those operational activities
in achieving the quality objectives. Those
achievement epitomized by the ability of the
student to :
1. Compile the ISO 9000 ducumentation.
2. Compile the HACCP plan
3. Do simulation of LCA studiesin food
4. Apply the quality control tools in the daily
quality and safety control operation.
5. Understand regulations required for the
manufacture and sale of food products.
Course Description :
This course is designed to set the basis for
understanding the basic regulations and standard
related to food quality as well as the principles of
quality management system in a food industry.
In order to accomplish the general instruction goals
specified, the topics covered in this subject are
compiled according to the concept of Integrated
Quality Management System, IQMS in the food
industry. This system comprises of three basic
elements namely : Total Quality Management, TQM,
Environmental Management Systems, EMS, Food
Safety Management, FSM. The international
standards that have been widely used will be used as
reference for the study of each element mentioned.
ISO 9000, HACCP and ISO 22000, ISO 14000
series, respectively will be used as reference for
studying each element mentioned. Delivery method
used in this subject is the combination of teaching,
self study both as individual and group, case study,
seminar and or guess lecture. The evaluation of
student performance will employ the combination of
on going evaluation system and terminal evaluation
system. The elements of the assessment will be
individual and group assignments, quiz, middle test
and final test. Theemphasize of the evaluation will
be on the assessment of both individual and group
In order to effectively cover the wide range of topics,
this course is designed to be completed in 30
meetings, including mid and final term examinations.
This will be conducted in 14 weeks of lectures,
containing two meetings per week. The midandfinal
term examination will be given separatedly of the
lecture meetings.
Time allocation for ISO 9000 itself just 5 meetings
(500 minutes). The goal of the ISO 9000 course is
for equiping undergraduate students with an
adequate competency to establish quality system of
any organization according to the requirements of
ISO 9001 standard. Based on the goal of the course
mentioned, the TLP strategy of ISO 9000 course is
focused on competency building of the student.
III. ISO 9000 Delivery Method
Although the ISO 9001 standard is generic, i.e. it is
applicable to manufacturing and organizations, as
well as health care, small business and education, a
number of terms and concepts in the standard have
manufacturing background.
ISO have provide support package including
complete guide for implementing ISO 9000
comprisis of Guidance on ISO 9001:2008 sub-clause
1.2 Application ; Guidance on the documentation
requirements of ISO 9001:2008 ; Guide to the
Terminology used in ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 ;
Guidance on the concept and use of the process
approach for management systems ; Guidance on
Outsourced processes ; Implementation guidance
for ISO 9001:2008 ; Frequently Asked Questions
(FAQs) ; Interpretation for each clause also available
in ISO web. Step by step course material for
mastering ISO 9000 also availble in numerous web.
In brief, all material in various form i.e text, power
point presentation, video and any other course
materials needed for understanding ISO 9000
actually have been available freely in many web.The
question is : are they not enough for helping
undergraduate students to understand ISO 9000 ???.
Based on our long experience in teaching ISO 9000,
the answer is NOT. The problem not on the quality
of course materials available but on the necessary
condition of undergraduate students needed as a
basis for understanding ISO 9000 course.
Eventhough in certain degree student able to
understand the knowledge of ISO 9000 but they still
have no adequate competencies in developing quality
system according to ISO 9001 requirements.
Usually the sequence of ISO 9000 training course is
starting with general overview of ISO, introduction to
ISO 9000 standard including understanding of
fundamental and vocabulary according to ISO 9000.
Course will be continued by explaining each clause
of ISO 9001 requirements, interpreting each clause
and give necessary example for implementing the
clause, etc-etc. And finally the ISO course will
explain how to develop quality system and its
documentation system suitable to the requirements of
ISO 9001 standard. Step by step to prepare
organization for obtaining ISO certificate and criteria
for choosing registration body usually as closing
menu of ISO 9000 training course. All the topics
usually delivered within 5 days continuing course.
We have applied this conventional delivery method
both for undergraduate students and professional for
many years. This kind of delivery method is less
effective and participant tend to be boring.
Eventhough delivery method have been modify with
participatory approach the result still unsopisticated.

IV. Real Process Based Approach
Real process based approach (RPBA) is a new
delivery method developed in FST Department
Bawijaya University after long time experience in
delivering ISO 9000 course with unsopisticated
result. RPBA is developed based on actual
knowledge and experience of undergraduate students.
Most of undergraduate students usually are not
famialiar with any terms, concept and language style
used in ISO standard, most notably in ISO 9000.
They also lack of industrial experience and havent
yet exposure to real work environment. Introducing
ISO 9000 course for them will be of very difficult
job, these situation lead to poor understanding of the
concept being taught. The student cannot connect
between concept being taught with the real work
situation. Poor understanding of the basic concept of
the ISO 9000 standard will result in poor
competencies. To overcome the problem mentioned
we develop simple guidelines for teaching ISO 9000
course for undergraduate students.
4.1. Guidelines
1. Main objective of RPBA is building
competency to students indeveloping quality
system according to the requirements of ISO
2. All requirements in ISO 9001(clauses)
should be explain by using real process
within organization used as mock-up
(examplefor case study)
3. Related clauses within ISO 9001 should be
explain simultaneously.
4. Keep students to context with real work
situation. Never explain any concept
without real example.
5. All process and example used for explaing
ISO requirements should be the same
organization (never move or change the
6. Do not waste time to explain terminology,
definition and the concept, just explain as
necessary. Be sure students will not
understand the concept without real case.
7. Always ask the sudents to find other
examples after we explain concept and any
4.2. Course Design
RPBA is developed to build students understanding
the way how to meet the requirements of ISO 9001
clauses within limited time (5 meetings ; @100
minutes). To achieve this objective, topics discused
and time allocation is as the following :
Meeting Topics
1 Introduction to ISO, ISO 9000, ISO 9001
2 Meeting ISO 9001 requirements (ISO
9001 clauses). (1)
3 Meeting ISO 9001 requirements (ISO
9001 clauses). (2) and ISO 9001
4 Creating ISO documentation : Quality
policy, Quality Manual, Q objective,
Procedures, Work instruction and forms.
5 ISO 9001 audits and overview.
Before joining the course at the first meeting students
should have been read ISO 9000 and ISO 9001

4.3. Course Evaluation
1. Multiple choice test (quiz) for evaluating
general knowledge and understanding of
ISO, ISO 9000 and ISO 9001.
2. Case study for evaluating students
understanding in meeting ISO 9001
requirements in a given format and table
(individual assignment)
3. Composing ISO 9001 documentation
(Quality manual as group assignment ;
example of quality policy, procedure, work
instruction forms and quality objective as
individual assignment).

4.4. Case study
We will use bakery (bread) industri as a case study to demonstrate how to meet ISO 9001 requirements by using
simple case and process within bakery organization. Bread product is choosen because the product is very familiar
to everybody and all food science students understand the process.
4.5. Course skenario
The new ISO 9001:2008 standard requires identifying all business processes within an organization, to define their
relations and interactions and to manage the processes.The ISO 9001:2008 has a new structure, definition, emphasis,
flexibility, approach and new requirements, and its intent is to encourage the adoption of the process approach to
manage an organization.Accordingly, it is necessary to define all processes. That means we should determine: the
name of process; the goal of the process; borders of the process (initial and final activities); inputs in process and
their producers (suppliers); outputs of the process and their byres/users; the owners of the process the person
responsible forfunctioning of process; and flow diagram of process.
When certification according to ISO 9001:2008 standard is discussed, it is not enough only to documented the
procedures in order to demonstrate that they are consistent with ISO 9000 but it is necessary to manage the
processes in an organization in order to get better results in business or doing the organizational job. In order to do
this, we must identify all of the processes and their interactions.
We will starts discussion from meeting two, meeting one is done using standard method of presentation by using
power point as a tool to simplify course materials. Course skenario will be simplified by using the following table.
1 4.1. Business process determination
Explain to the student how to determine business process within bakery industry and
show example for each. Business process could be devided into three group i.e :
managerial process (as example determination of customer requirements (bakery
characteristic expected by customer) ; core business process (all process from raw
material to finished goods and delivery to customer) and supporting proces (flour
purchasing and bakery training for unskilled labour).
Draw the sequence of the process to form business process diagram.
2 4.2. Documentation requirements
Each process could be devided into many activities ; each process need procedure and
each activities need work instruction. Show example of each type of document and
explain how to identify document requirement of the entire process within bakery
organization. Ask the student to identify document required for the remaining process.
Explain mandatory document for meeting ISO 9001requirements and show example for
each ducument.
3 5 Management responsibility
Explain what should be done by bakery management to meet ISO 9001 requirement, i.e
they should :
1. Establishing quality policy (show the example of document).
2. Establishing quality objective (show example of QO within bakery organization such
as number of non-conformance product, rejected product, etc) ; explain how to set QO
dan criteria for good QO.
3. Determine customer requirements (show the example of costomer requirement such as
smoothness and fressness of the bakery deliveredto customer).
4. Defining responsibility and auhority (explain how to draw organization stucturewithin
bakery industry ; how to do job analysis and how to write job description ;show
exampleof each).
5. Appoint MR (explain what the MR responsibilitys ; show example of real work
should be done by MR such as organizing and monitoring of QO achievements).
6. Conducting management review (explain the mechanism, show each example of
management review item as stated in clause 5.6.such as how to monitor customer
satisfaction, how to respond MR report and internal audit, etc). Show example of a good
management review report.
4. Core business process (4.1.)
Core Business
Activities Procedure Required Product
4.2.1. ; 7.1.b. 7.1.a. 8.2.4. 7.1.a.
Raw material

Raw material handling
WI : checking
incoming material
WI : Storing sensitive
Storing food
ingridients as
stated by
Freshness of
flour and
butter as
stated by QA
Quantity of
damage during
storage, such
as 5 %.
Process preparation

Student should fill out the remaing column in their paperwork.
Moulding and
Storing and
5. Product Realization (7)
Product &
and Work
Inspection & Test
7.1.a. 4.1.c. ; 7.2.1.
; 7.2.2.
6.3. ;6.4. 7.1.c. ; 8.2.3 ;
8.3. 8.5.3. 8.5.2.
(ISO, Codex,
SNI, other
Delivery time
and flawless
of the
facilities and
Premises as
stated by
Checking formula
prior to mixing.
Monitor all
process parameter
Random test for
product parameter
Test plan
production line
Checking all
Add mixing
time if
havent meet
the criteria

Student should fill out the remaing column in their paperwork.

6. Design and Development (7.3.)
Product Product
7.3.2. : 7.3.3. 7.3.2.b. 7.3.4. 7.3.5. 7.3.6. Design input
Design review
Design verifi
Design valid
Low natrium
should similar
to normal
As stated by
low natrium
bread standard
(ask the
looking for
Identify all
between design
input and output
Check if
all product
have been
met, check
Writeall input
and output of
each design

Supporting Process
7. Human Resource (6.2.1.)
Job Description Competency
Skill Available
Training Plan Training
6.2.2.a. 6.2.2.b. 6.1.b ; 6.2.2.d 4.2.4. ; 6.2.2.c
responsible for
formula, process
and new product
Ability to
manage bakery
Diploma in F&B Advance bakery
Number of NC
Number of
Copy of diploma
copy of training
Work experience

Student should fill out the remaing column in their paperwork.

8. Purchasing (7.4.)
Item purchased Purchase
Criteria for
evaluating and
Verification of
7.4.1. 7.4.2. 7.4.1. 7.4.2. 7.4.3.
Wheat Flour Company
Should be created Continuity
Dilivery time
Have passed
Check list of
flour spec as
stated in
purchase order.

Student should fill out the remaing column in their paperwork.

9. Continuous improvements
9 8 Measurement, analysis and improvements
Explain to the student the mechanism of QI in ISO 9001 ; explain how to measure
customer satisfaction such as do direct interwiew, developing questionarie, etc ; how to
do internal audits such as audits of production department ; explain what kind of data
should be analyzed such as customer satisfaction, product characteristic and
requirements, supplier evaluation. All of the analyzed data should be reported to top
management and discussed in management review according to clause 5.6. Top
management shoul formulate action needed to improve customer satisfaction.

In order to improve student understanding of quality improvements we must also explain the basic philosophy of
quality improvemenand show example of each, i.e :
If we can define it we can measure it ; things should be defined is bread quality
If we can measure it we can analyze it ;things should be measured are bread characteristics
If we can analyze it we can control it ; things should be analized are data of bread characteristics
If we can control it we can improve it ; things should be control are factors afecting bread variation
things should be improved are bread characteristics such as smoothness.
V. Results and discussion
Based on our experience in teaching ISO 9000 course
by employing this new approach, the students
competency und understanding of ISO 9001
requirement improve significantly compared to the
conventional TLP. Within 2 meeting student have
able to develop quality system in an food industry.
Evaluation results of the students assignments show
that they can develop quality system in an
organization. Many of the students are appoint to be
leader in their workplace in preparing organization to
obtain ISO 9001certificate. According to them, they
can do the job successfully and the company able to
obtain ISO 9001:2008 certificate. This new appoach
is not bothering the students to understand and digest
very many new terminology and concept. This new
approach also able to maintain the students
understanding with the real work situation. These
will be of beneficial when they work in real work

ISO 9000:2005, ISO, Geneva
ISO 9001:2008, ISO, Geneva
Karapetrovic,S.,D. Rajamani and W. Willborn, 1998,
ISO 9001 Quality System:An Interpretation for the
University, Int. J. Engng Ed. Vol. 14, No. 2, p. 105-
118, 1998.
Katiliute, E and Neverauskas, B, 2009, Development
of Quality Culture In The Universities, Economics &
Management: 2009. 14.
Ramanauskiene, J and Ramanauskas, J, 2006,
Application of the Principles of Total Quality
Management in the Knowledge Formation,
Engineering Economics. 2006. No 1 (46).
Singh, C. and Sareen, K. 2006, Effectiveness of ISO
9000 standards in Indian educational institutions:a
survey, Int. J. Services Technology and Management,
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp.403415.
Vettori O., Lueger M., & Knassmueller M. (2007).
Dealing with ambivalences Strategic options
for nurturing a quality culture in teaching and
learning. In Embedding Quality Culture in
Higher Education. A selection of papers from the
1st European Forum for Quality Assurance (pp.
21-27). Brussels: EUA.

1. DanieleGerundino (ISO)andFranoisCoallier [cole detechnologie
suprieure Montreal Chair of ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 7) via teleconference]: ISO suprieure,Montreal,ChairofISO/IECJTC1SC7)viateleconference]:ISO
ContributionstoUniversityProgrammes CoveringStandardization
2. JackSheldon (IEC): IECcontributionstoUniversityProgrammes Covering
3. AuroraRubio(ITU):ITUcontributionstoUniversityProgrammesCovering
ISO contributions to university programmes
covering standardization
WSC Academic Day 2012
Bali, 11 May 2012
Daniele Gerundino
ISO Strategic Adviser to the Secretary-General

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 2
ISO and Academia
ISO Award
WSC Academic Day/Week and ICES
Application of the ISO Methodology to
assess the Economic Benefits of Standards
Good practices on cooperation
University of Geneva-ISO Masters
Repository of teaching materials
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 3
ISO and Academia
Standards support:
~ Trade in products and services
~ Good business practices
~ Innovation
~ Sustainable development

Role increasingly recognized by
academia this trend of utmost

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 4
Academia contribution to Standardization
Teaching what is and what
can be achieved through
Participating in development
of standards
Developing research and
studies on standards-related
Using Standards to improve
the efficiency of academic
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 5
The ISO Award
Introduced in 2006
Aims to raise awareness of the
importance of standardization
Open to institutions of higher
education that have developed
and implemented successful
educational programmes in
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 6
The ISO Award

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 7

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 8
ISO Award 2011
Prof. Franois Coallier, Department of Software and IT Engineering,
cole de technologie suprieure (ETS), Montral, Canada

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 9
WSC Cooperation with Academia
With IEC and ITU, ISO recognizes the
essential contribution from academia and
has developed initiatives to:
~ Demonstrate its appreciation of
academia's work
~ Encourage and support broader
engagement of academia on
standards-related matters
~ Promote cooperation at various levels
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 10

First WSC Academic Week organized on 5-9 July 2010
In cooperation with ICES International Cooperation on
Education about Standardization (an informal group of individual
and organizations engaged in education about standardization)
More than 100 participants from over 30 countries
Input on company and institutional needs to be met by education
about standardization
Exchange of experiences about education materials and tools;
and initiatives undertaken in various countries
WSC Academic Day and ICES Conference
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 11

An annual appointment which brings together professors and
researchers from universities interested in standardization with
representatives from NSBs, SDOs, industry and government
Joint WSC Academic Day and ICES Conference
Development of good practices on cooperation
between National Standards Bodies and Universities
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 12
In the framework of the Action Plan for developing
countries, ISO is organizing a series of regional
workshops with a view to develop good practices to be
disseminated to all ISO members
The first workshop co-sponsored by KATS (Korea) has
taken place in Bali (indonesia) on 7-9 May 2012

Application of the ISO methodology to assess the
economic benefits of standards cooperation with
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 13
Projects run by ISO members in various
Target interested companies
Conducted in cooperation with
academic institutions
(internships of students from Masters'
and PhD programmes)
With coordination and support
from ISO/CS

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 14
Application of the ISO methodology case studies
2010 / 2011
11 case studies from 10 countries. Publication
distributed at the ISO General Assembly 2011
Key findings:
Companies achieve benefits from using
The overall economic benefits (gross profit)
from the use of standards vary, for most
cases, between around 0,5 % and 4 % of
the annual sales revenues of the companies
Standards can have an especially high
impact, beyond the range mentioned above,
if a company, by meeting or contributing to
developing key standards, is able to shape
or to access new markets.

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 15
Benefits of standards Plan of action 2012
Economic benefits of standards
International case studies second
edition (10 new case studies from
9 countries)
A new publication designed to
describe clearly but rigorously
the various approaches used to
analyze and assess the economic
and social benefits of standards (in
collaboration with TB Technical
University of Berlin)
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 16
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 17
An interdisciplinary programme which involves three disciplines:
sociology, management and economics a partnership between the
Univesity of Geneva, ISO and SNV (the Swiss national standards body)
The programme focuses on sustainable development and on the notion
that sustainable development processes need the active involvement of all
the actors likely to contribute to or to be affected by them
This includes the participatory processes involving public and private
actors situated at various levels (social regulation) and the standard -
setting practices that provide essential voluntary agreements, supporting
the dissemination of knowledge, best practices and monitoring tools

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 18
A plurality of partners are involved in the programme
Internatinonal organizations, SDOs, Experts from industry
and governments participating in standards work
All the materials developed by ISO (5 courses each one
comprising 24 hrs. of lectures and worth 3 credits) will be
available to ISO members and interesterd academic
Repository of teaching materials

DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 19
DQGRIdocuments on standardization in education
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 20
DG - 2012-05-11 ISO and Universities 21
Materials for academic teaching on standardisation

Henk J. de Vries, Basak Manders, and Joey Veurink
Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University


The development of a scientific discipline includes the development of education (Kuhn,
1962). In the area of standardisation, education has been in place for more than 70 years but
still it is far from mature. Recently, an increase in standardisation education activities can be
observed, in particular in Asia (Choi & de Vries, 2011). At the same time the number of
academic papers about standardisation education is increasing but still limited (Hesser &de
Vries, 2011) andthese papers hardly address the topic of education materials, except for de
Vries and Egyedi (2009) who report about a Workshop by the International Cooperation for
Education about Standardization (ICES) during whichthe need for such materialswas
emphasized. This paper aims to describe what is available now, analyse what we have and,
then, discuss what is missing.

Research approach

The authors were involved in a project by the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) to develop a repository of materials for academic teaching about standardisation. ISO
aims to develop a repository of educational materials on standards matters, developed and
used by universities, national standards bodies, ISO and possibly other organizations (such as
international organizations and SDOs)to support and promote the link between
standardization and academia. The objective is to develop a simple and easy-to-use
environment, providing bibliographical data plus references to Internet addresses of the
material itself or the place where it can be ordered.

In order to collect materials from universities, national standards bodies, ISO and
otherinternational organizations, we used a couple of channels: (1) EURAS and SIIT
mailings lists (383 members) (unfortunately, the ICES mailing list could not be used in that
period of time), (2) all member bodies of ISO (national standardization organizations in 161
countries), (3) the members of the Standardisation Education Committee of the American
National Standards Institute ANSI (58 members), (4) universities that had applied to the ISO
Award on Higher Education in Standardization and own university contacts of the first author
(87 academics), and (5) representatives of other organisations from the contact files of the
first author (82 representatives).

Of these 169 ISO Award plus own addresses, 49 e-mail addresses returned as invalid, 24
(27.6%) in universities and 25 (29%) in organizations. Consequently, we used search engines
such as Google, university websites and LinkedIn in an attempt to retrieve the correct e-mail
addresses. These efforts led to final delivery failure notifications of 16 contacts (28.4%) in
universities and 15 (18.1%) in organizations, leaving a total of 139 valid contacts.

We formed an online questionnaire to collect data about the teaching materials.In order to
enable searching on topics we developed a classification system for materials, see Annex 1.
We intended to cover (almost) all topics and therefore we used the most complete set of
2010), as
author, p

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was sent
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40more t
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Figure 1.


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two peak

s currently
s a starting p
publisher, hy
e, abstract, pu
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ng materials
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.Response sp
00 we see a
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point. Apart
yperlink (if
ublication ye
ried out in th
f 741 emai
s. On 3 Dec
ng materials
eminder. Th
sent a two
terials (See F
aterials whi
nded up with
constituted a
a clear increa
first one in 2
t from the cl
f available f
ear, docume
he period No
il addresses
cember 2011
s. On 13 De
his resulted i
week deadl
Figure 1). T
ch were no
h 135 uniqu
a response ra
ase in the nu
2001 and the
ion in Com
for downloa
ent type, and
ovember 201
on 18 Nov
1 we sent a
ecember 201
in the input o
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There were s
ot written f
ue materials.
ate 5.3%.
umber of ma
e other one i
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we asked fo
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11 March
vember 201
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on of the qu
ome duplica
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. 39 unique
aterials (See
n 2006.
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for subject m
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11, we rece
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Figure 2). T
Hesser et al
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d 29addition
rget group b
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and receive
nswers. Ther
es. When w
sanswered th
There are als


Figure 2.Number of teaching materials per year.

Prof.Hessers chair on standardisation at The Helmut Schmidt University in Hamburg,
Germany, authoredthe largest number of materials(32). Followers were the standardisation
chairs atChina Jiliang University in Hangzhou, China (11) and the Rotterdam School of
Management, Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (7).

In terms of languages used, English is the main language but many countries have materials
in their national language. Figure 3 shows the numbers. Sometimes the same material is
published in different languages, mostly English and a national language.

Figure 3.Languages of teaching materials.

In relation to the type of the materials, the respondents were allowed to choose more than one
category. Table 1 provides an overview of the results. Majority of the materials are web-
based materials (49), text books (32) and teaching cases (20). On the other hand, we see
hardly any games (1) or videos (1).



Kind of m
Module i
Annex in
Course m
Module s
Table 1.M

Figure 4.
(40%). H
g case
in repertory
n textbook
ve sample vi
Material kind
all of the
ty mentioned
the project
and teachers
However, Fi
ideos, films,
d above and
n of the mate
was targete
s were often
igure 5 show
materials h
they are e-le
d at materia
mentioned a
ws that othe
have been
earning mod
als for acade
as the main
er groups w
submitted b
dels (See Fig
emic educat
target group
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by the Helm
gure 4).
ion, it is no
p of the teach
ned as well,
mut Schmid
o surprise th
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Figure 5.

Each ma
address t
Asia, 3 a
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one or m
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as countr


needed f
from industr
ses the mater
useful for aca
.Main target
aterial addre
terms, defini
mpany level
onal level. T
about South
merica, Russ
als that add
ther technica
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s. Among th
levels are o
ntion,but pro
r organisati
tions (3) th
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omics of sta
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isation and m
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formity asse
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ries in transit
usion and
n is an ess
for that. Du
e. Using the
ry (20%), st
rial though n
ademic educ
group of the
esses one, se
itions or clas
l, 63 to the
The regional
and Central
sia and the o
dress a speci
al sectors, 5
disation pro
he organisati
oducing com
ions (2), w
he scores ar
e the impact
d competitio
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essment can
0. Developing
tion. Four m
d discuss
sential elem
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channels of
andards pro
not primarily
e materials.
everal or ev
e national l
level is unb
l America, o
other countri
ific business
5 research,4
cesses. Here
ions that de
nted. The di
mpanies (25)
workers / tr
re low. The
at company
on (64) addr
on (32), s
res (16) and
ts and stan
be found in
g countries g
materials addr
ent of a de
st decade, a
f the standa
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ven many to
56 pay atten
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balanced: 34
one about th
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s sector, 15
services, an
e standards
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ade unions
e number o
y level is the
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d/or other top
ndards in l
n 40 materi
get little atte
ress the topi
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a substantial
ardisation res
20%) and p
t an academi
opics. Out o
ntion to the
the region
he Arab cou
ormer Soviet
address me
nd 4 educatio
ards, the for
keholders inv
n other stake
(4) and (o
of materials
e most popul
disation and
ion and ne
pics (7). Leg
egislation b
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ention: 11 m
ic of standard
iscipline an
l number of
search comm
policy maker
ic audience i

of the 135
company le
nal level, an
ns about Eur
untries, and n
t Union, or A
echanical en
on. 100 Mat
gets the low
rmal organi
volved in st
eholders, for
other) non-
that addre
lar one (59).
d internation
etwork ind
gal issues ge
being the m
ogy in 16, a
materials, the
ds and cultu
d teaching
f materials
munity and
rs (18%) i
is expected t
materials, 7
evel, 24 to th
nd 59 to th
ope, 24 abou
nothing abou
Africa. Out o
ngineering, 1
erials addres
west scores;
sations at th
r consumers
ess impact o
. Materials o
nal trade (39
dustries (23
et attention i
most popula
and history o
same numbe
ural diversity
materials ar
have becom
ISO we hav
s /
tried to gather materials. The number of materials is substantial but the number of
submittersis limited and has a strong representation from Asia and Europe. ISO members can
be found everywhere in the world but our own contacts and the mailing lists used have a
relatively high number of people in industrialised countries in Asia, Australia, Europe and
North-America and an underrepresentation of developing countries. This may have led to a
bias additional to normal non-response bias. We expect there are more materials, in
particular in China and probably also in South America. Here the language skills of potential
submitters may hinder their contribution and this may also create a bias in our findings. We
hope the availability of the ISO Repository will stimulate others to also submit and then a
more balanced collection of materials will be the result.

The number of teaching materials per year shows an increase. The peak in 2001 is related to
the large number of web-based teaching materials developed inthe Helmut Schmidt
University.An explanation for the high number in 2006 is the Asia Link project
Standardisation in Companies and Markets which led to a large number of teaching
modules (e-learning) and a text book.

The majority of materials has been written in national languages other than English, which
hinders their use at universities elsewhere. In general, however, we can observe an increase in
the use of teaching materials in English. Therefore for the area of standardization it would be
beneficial to get more English language materials in the form of translations of materials
already available in another language. In particular, we really miss a complete text book in
English language universities that offer standardisation courses would benefit from having
such a book. The book Standardization: Fundamentals, Impact, and Business Strategy
developed in the APEC standardisation project (Choi et al. 2010) is maybe the best one
available but because it is a collection of papers written by different authors it lacks
coherence. The same applies to the book Standardisation in Companies and Markets (Hesser
et al. 2010) and moreover that book is so thick that the better (completeness) has become the
foe of the good: too much for any course except for complete Masters programs in
standardisation. Some people mentioned other books they use, for instance Information rules
(Shapiro and Varian, 1999). That book has not been written for educational purposes and
therefore it was not included in the repository but it is well-written book about standards
battles though a little bit outdated more recent research findings are not included. This also
applies to another good book, not included for the same reason: Standardization essentials
Principles and practice (Spivak& Brenner, 2001). In fact, the most coherent English text book
in the classic book Standardization A new Discipline (Verman, 1973). This book, however,
lacks scientific underpinning and is simply too old to be used nowadays. So the challenge
seems to be to prepare a new version of Vermans book in which recent findings from
standardisation practice as well as standardisation research are being integrated.

Also in terms of the use of new media the materials are rather traditional the number of e-
learning modules is relatively high but most of these stem from one project, Standardisation
in Companies and Markets, and here the possibilities the medium offered are not fully used.
For instance, hardly any films and gamesare available. Development of additional materials
that appeal to students in terms of both topic and format might persuade teachers to integrate
the topic in their courses.

Some teaching materials focus on one or a few topics whereas other materials, in particular
text books, cover a large number of topics. Authors of such text books sometimes indicated
that almost all entries in our classification (see Annex A) apply. We had to accept this but of
course this creates a problem in using the classification as a search tool for the available
publications per topic.

The over-representation of mechanical engineering can partly be explained by the
background of Prof. Hesser in that field and his many contacts with German industry, and by
the cooperation between the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University with the
Delft University of Technology in developing teaching materials for that field. However,
combined with the lack of attention for ICT and services it may also indicate that current
materials focus too much on old industries and that more attention should be paid to new

A next question is: who will prepare additional materials? In Asia and recently also in
Europe, standards bodies take initiatives to stimulate standardisation education. However,
they are not the right parties to develop materials for academic education. Materials they have
developed lack awareness of scientific insights and therefore cannot form the basis for proper
academic teaching. So academic researchers should take initiatives, maybe in cooperation
with other stakeholders. One third of the current set of materials stems from the three chairs
in standardisation. This suggests that creating more chairs would be beneficial, in
combination with targeted funding like in the Asia Link project. This applies in particular for
the development of text books or other more complete sets of materials. Separate modules
maybe developed elsewhere as well and this may be stimulated by availability of funding
and, for instance, a competition for the development of teaching cases. At the end, this should
contribute to the further development of standardisation as a discipline in which teaching, in
turn, also may contribute to research (van de Kaa, 2012).


References mentioned in the text of this paper

Choi, D. G. (2010).Standardization: Fundamentals, Impact, and Business Strategy. Singapore: Asia Pacific
Economic Cooperation Secretariat. Retrieved from
Choi, D. G., &de Vries, H. J. (2011). Standardization as emerging content in technology education at all levels
of education. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 21(1), 111-132. Retrieved from
Hesser, W., &de Vries, H. J. (2011). White Paper Academic Standardisation education in Europe.Hamburg /
Rotterdam. Retrieved from
Hesser, W., Feilzer, A. J., &de Vries, H. J. (2006). Standardisation in Companies and Markets. (W. Hesser, Ed.)
(3rd ed.). Hamburg: Retrieved from
van de Kaa, G. (2012). Education on standardization as an input to research on standardization: a success story.
Proceedings ICES conference 2012.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shapiro, C., & Varian, H. R. (1999).Information Rules A Strategic Guide to the network Economy. Boston,
MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Spivak, S. M., & Brenner, F. C. (2001).Standardization Essentials. New York / Basel: Marcel Dekker.
Verman, L. C. (1973). Standardization - a new discipline. Hamden, CT: Archon Books.
de Vries, H. J., & Egyedi, T. M. (2007). Education about Standardization - Recent Findings.International
Journal for IT Standards and Standardization Research, 5(2), 1-16.

References of teaching materials included in ISO Repository

Anh, V. T. (2006). An Introduction The History of Standardisation.In W. Hesser (Ed.), Standardization in
Companies and Markets. Hamburg: Retrieved from http://pro-
Anh, V. T. (2006). Standardization Issues in Developing Countries and Countries in Transition.In W. Hesser
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Annex: Topic classification for ISO Repository
1. Terms, definitions, classifications
2. Level
2.1. Company
2.2. Inter-company
2.3. National
2.4. Regional
2.4.1. General / all regions
2.4.2. Asia
2.4.3. North America
2.4.4. South and Central America
2.4.5. Russia and former Soviet Union
2.4.6. Arab countries
2.4.7. Africa
2.4.8. Europe
2.5. International
2.6. Not applicable
3. Standards scope
3.1. All categories of standards
3.2. Products
3.3. Services
3.4. Processes
3.5. Management systems
3.5.1. Quality management
3.5.2. Environmental management
3.5.3. Occupational health and safety management
3.5.4. Other
3.6. Other systems
3.7. Other
3.8. No specific scope
4. Type of standard
4.1. All types
4.2. Terminology
4.3. Variety reduction
4.4. Compatibility
4.5. Quality
4.6. Safety
4.7. Environment
4.8. Other
4.9. Various
4.10. Not applicable
5. Business sectors
5.1. All business sectors
5.2. Mechanical engineering
5.3. Civil engineering / Construction
5.4. Architecture
5.5. Information and Communication Technology
5.6. Other technical sectors
5.7. Services
5.8. Education
5.9. Research
5.10. Other
6. Standardization processes
6.1. All processes
6.2. Process descriptions / rules
6.3. Designing standards
6.4. Decision making
6.5. Stakeholder involvement
6.6. Standards distribution
6.7. Standards selection
6.8. Battles between competing standards
6.9. Standards implementation / use
6.10. Other
7. Organizations that develop standards
7.1. Companies
7.2. Consortia
7.3. Industry association / professional societies
7.4. NGOs / societal groups
7.5. Official standardization organizations / SDOs
7.5.1. National
7.5.2. Regional CEN CENELEC ETSI Other
7.5.3. International ISO IEC ITU Other
7.6. Governmental
7.6.1. National
7.6.2. Intergovernmental
7.7. Other
8. Policy / strategy of
8.1. Company
8.2. Industry sector
8.3. Organization that develops standards
8.4. Country
8.4.1. Industrial / innovation policy
8.4.2. Protection of health, safety, environment
8.4.3. Procurement
8.4.4. Consumer protection
8.4.5. Education
8.4.6. Other
8.5. Region
8.5.1. Industrial / innovation policy
8.5.2. Removal of barriers to trade
8.5.3. Protection of health, safety, environment
8.5.4. Procurement
8.5.5. Consumer protection
8.5.6. Education
8.5.7. Other
9. Stakeholders
9.1. All stakeholders
9.2. Producing companies
9.3. Companies as customers / users
9.4. Consumers / Consumer organizations
9.5. Workers / Trade unions
9.6. NGOs
9.7. Governments
9.8. Other
10. Impact of standards on
10.1. Company
10.2. Industry sector
10.3. Society
10.4. Country
10.5. Region
10.6. Global level (e.g. international trade)
11. Economics of standardization
11.1. Standardization and Network industries
11.2. Standardization and Market failures
11.3. Standardization and Competition
11.4. Standardization and International Trade (including
11.5. Other
12. Legal issues
12.1. Copy rights and standards
12.2. Patents and standards
12.3. Standards as soft law
12.4. Reference to standards in legislation
12.5. Product liability legislation
12.6. Competition law
12.7. Legal status of standards bodies
12.8. International law and standards
12.9. Other
13. Conformity assessment
14. Metrology
15. History of standardization
16. Standardization in developing countries
17. Standardization in countries in transition
18. Standards and cultural diversity
19. Other

APEC Strategic Standards APEC Strategic Standards APEC Strategic Standards APEC Strategic Standards
Education Initiative 2005 Education Initiative 2005--2012 2012
10 1011 11
st st
May2012 May2012
Bali Indonesia Bali Indonesia Bali,Indonesia Bali,Indonesia
DonggeunChoi,RepublicofKorea DonggeunChoi,RepublicofKorea
ProjectEditor,APECSCSCEducationInitiative ProjectEditor,APECSCSCEducationInitiative
ChiefManager,InternationalStandardsTeam,KSA ChiefManager,InternationalStandardsTeam,KSA
GuestResearcher,StandardsCoordinationOffice,NIST GuestResearcher,StandardsCoordinationOffice,NIST
Overview:WhatsinAPECproject? Overview:WhatsinAPECproject?
A C d d l ( h & h ) APECEducationmodels(what&how)
APEC Education portal website APECEducationportalwebsite
Overview:APECEducationInitiative Overview:APECEducationInitiative
in2005 in20052011 2011
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3
3 projects
Phase1 Phase2 Phase3
3 projects
4 publications
7 meetings
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
07.1 08.2 09.2 11.2
05.9 Agenda
APECSCSCEducationInitiative APECSCSCEducationInitiative
ThreePhaseProjects2007 ThreePhaseProjects20072011 2011
Phase I
Phase II
Phase III
Case Study
Pilot School
Advisory Groups
and Workshops
, , J p , g p , , , ,
Case Studies
Teaching Manual
Pilot Schools
Lesson Book
PhaseI PhaseI Guide1 Guide1
CaseStudyandCurriculumModel CaseStudyandCurriculumModel
Whatwesurveyed Whatwesurveyed
ofPractices ofPractices
PostFormalEducation(P1~P8) 65cases
GeneralPromotionActivities 16cases
Summary 118cases
ProposedFramework ProposedFramework
for forStandardizationEducation StandardizationEducation
- Students
- Learning
- Contents -
- Methods
(in Annex B)
main content subsidiary c
Secondary E
Awareness Gov
Module 1
- examples
Module 2
# 3 (Korea)
# 6 (Thailand)
# 7 (Turkey)
# 8-10 (UK)
- Under-grad
Module 2
- fundamenta
Module 3
- academic
Module 4
Module 5
Module 6
Team Projec
Field Trip
#12 (China)
#27 (Korea)
#28 (Netherla
Module 1
- example
- Graduate
Module 3
- academic
Module 4
- case study
Module 6
Module 2
Module 5
Module 1
Case Study
Term Paper
#13 (China)
#17 (EC)
#18 (Egypt)
#19 (France)
# 25 (Japan)
ProposedFramework ProposedFramework
for forStandardizationEducation StandardizationEducation
- Students
- Learning
- Contents -
- Methods
(in Annex B) main content subsidiary c
s ontents
- Gov
- Executive
Module 2
- fundamenta
Module 4
- case study
Module 3
- academic
Module 1
Module 5
Module 6
Panel Discus
Skills or
Module 5
- skill-set
Module 4
Module 3
Role Paying
#48 (ISO)
#49 (ISO) Education
- Committee
- SDO staff
Skills or
- skill-set Module 3
Module 2
Module 1
Module 6
Role Paying
#49 (ISO)
# Many more,
but not listed
all here
- Engineer
- Researcher
How to use
Module 6
- standards
Module 4
Module 3
Module 2
Module 1
Module 5
Many more, b
ut not listed al
l here
PhaseI PhaseI Guide2 Guide2
SCATROutreachStrategy SCATROutreachStrategy
PhaseII PhaseII Guide3 Guide3
TextbookforHigherEducation TextbookforHigherEducation
*AccessRank:60,936times(No.1) *AccessRank:60,936times(No.1)
10 10
(21June2010 27November2011)
PhaseII PhaseII Guide3 Guide3
TextbookforHigherEducation: TextbookforHigherEducation:ToC ToC
11 11
PhaseII PhaseII Guide3 Guide3
TeachingMaterial(PPT)forLecturer TeachingMaterial(PPT)forLecturer
teachers/lectures fortheirclassteachinganddiscussion. / g
12 12
PhaseII PhaseII Guide3 Guide3
TextbookReproduction/Translation TextbookReproduction/Translation
Indonesia gotalreadypermissionforAPECinAug2010
T l d R d i TranslatedReproduction
13 13
PhaseIII PhaseIII Overview Overview
B d APEC 59 500USD K (KATS) 80 000USD Budget:APEC:59,500USD+Korea(KATS):80,000USD
Guide4Casebook LessonsLearnedfromTrialProgram(14Universities)
14 14
14 14
PhaseIII PhaseIII Guide4:Casebook Guide4:Casebook
PublishedinOct2011 PublishedinOct2011
15 15
PhaseIII PhaseIII Guide4:Casebook Guide4:Casebook
UniversitieswithMajor/Students UniversitieswithMajor/Students
Major/Dep. Ba Ma PhD Students
01.CJLU(China) Biz Management 70
02 Ch (K ) B i 5 13 02.Chungang(Korea) Business 5 13
Work experienced
03.Diponegoro(Indonesia) IndustrialEng. 32
04.EWHA(Korea) MBA 10
Work experienced
05.HUFS(Korea) IndustrialEng 6 1
06.Hanyang(Korea) Business 4 6
07.Kookmin(Korea) Open forall 39
08.KNU.Educ.(Korea) TechnologyEduc. 12 4
09.Korea Un. (Korea) Elect. & ICT Eng (3) 3 2
16 16
09.KoreaUn.(Korea) Elect.&ICTEng (3) 3 2
10.NEU(Vietnam) Business Quality 47
11.P.U.C.P(Peru) QualityInstitute 19 1
Work experienced
12.Trisakti(Indonesia) Industrial Mgt 21
Work experienced
13.Waseda(Japan) GlobalBizSchool 54 98
14.Yeonsei (Korea) InternationalMgt. 18
Total:468Studentsin14Universities 251 191 26
PhaseIII PhaseIII Guide4:Casebook Guide4:Casebook
TableofContents TableofContents
Preface iii
Chapter1.InternationalTradeandStandardization 1
Ch t 2 ITM t dSt d di ti 16 Chapter2.ITManagementandStandardization 16
Chapter3.Standardization 24
Chapter4.TechnologyInnovation,IntellectualProperty 35
Chapter5.ManagementStrategyforIndustrialSystems,witha 44
Chapter6.StrategiesofTechnologyInnovationandStandardization 53
Chapter7.FutureSocietyandStandardization 66
Chapter8.ResearchonInstructionMaterialsforTechnology 81
Chapter9.SpecialIssuesinConformityTestingandStandardization 93
Chapter10.Standardization 106
17 17 17 17
Chapter11.NationalInfrastructureofQualityandInternational 116
Chapter12.ManagementofTechnologyandInnovationStrategy 146
Chapter13.BusinessandGlobalStandardization 163
Chapter14.ElectronicCommerceandStandardization 173
Chapter15.2011JointEducationWorkshop 189
AbouttheEditorandAuthors 193
Youcanfindallofthemin: Youcanfindallofthemin: tosharerelevantdocument
18 18
APECStandardsEducation2012 APECStandardsEducation20122016 2016
UnderDiscussion:CaseStudies UnderDiscussion:CaseStudies
2013: Standardization and Innovation 2013:StandardizationandInnovation
19 19
FutureCooperation FutureCooperation
S i l k h / i Specialworkshop/seminars
20 20
Thankyou Thankyou
SeniorResearcher,KSA ,
21 21
Chair of Standardisation
Initiatives in Europe
Henk J. de Vries
from a business point of view
Initiatives in Europe
EURAS (European Academy for Standardisation)
White Paper Academic Standardisation Education in
Europe (http://wwweuras org/uploads/files/EURAS%20White%20paper%202011 08 Europe (
CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Joint Working Group on Education
about Standardization
Policy document
Model curriculum Model curriculum
Master plan
Barriers for standardisation education
1. Students: image of standardisation dull?
2. Teachers:
Afraid students dislike it Afraid students dislike it
Not able to teach
Not aware of importance
Curriculum is overloaded
3. Schools:
Unwilling to include the topic in the curriculum
Curriculum is overloaded
to barriers for standardisation education (1)
1. Students: image of standardisation dull?
Solutions Solutions
Industry expresses and communicates need
Advertising including appealing examples
Attractive teaching Word of mouth
to barriers for standardisation education (2)
2. Teachers:
Afraid students dislike it
Not able to teach Not able to teach
Not aware of importance
Curriculum is overloaded
Teach the teachers
Industry expresses and communicates need
Inclusion of standardisation in final attainment level
to barriers for standardisation education (3)
3. Schools:
Unwilling to include the topic in the curriculum
Curriculum is overloaded Curriculum is overloaded
Not allowed to include the topic in the curriculum
Industry expresses and communicates need
Inclusion of standardisation in final attainment level
To be arranged at national level
Promotion of the topic
Industry expresses and communicates need Industry expresses and communicates need
Teaching materials
Inclusion of standardisation in final attainment level
Next problem: lack of awareness
Industry does not express and communicate need
The same applies for other societal stakeholders
Government insufficiently understands importance Government insufficiently understands importance
Standards body does not see standardisation as a
profession for which professional and scientific
knowledge is needed
Lack of awareness of importance of
St d di ti it lf Standardisation itself
Education for
Job preparation
Student associations
Teacher associations
School associations
Consumer associations
Trade unions
Industry associations
Ministry of Education
Industry associations
Standards body
Standards users organisation
National steering group
Increases awareness
Policy Policy
Allocation of resources (time, money)
Actions at the national level
Top down bottom-up
Step by step big bang
Medium- to long-term
Step by step big bang
Inventory of needs for
education (who should
know what?)
(coordination of)
development of
Fund raising
Lobbying, e.g., for inclusion
of standardisation in final
attainment levels
National qualifications
Train the teachers
Network building
European steering group
Increases awareness
Policy Policy
Allocation of resources (time, money)
European standardisation education agency?
Actions at the European level
Inventory of needs for
education (who should
know what?)
Fund raising
Lobbying, e.g., for
know what?)
(coordination of)
development of
Repository of teaching
inclusion of
standardisation in final
attainment levels
European qualifications
Network building
Train the teachers
Overcoming barriers for standardisation education
1. Students: image of standardisation dull?
2 Teachers: 2. Teachers:
Afraid students dislike it
Not able to teach
Not aware of importance
Curriculum is overloaded
3. Schools:
Unwilling to include the topic in the curriculum
Curriculum is overloaded
Not allowed to include the topic in the curriculum
CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Draft Master Plan
on Education about Standardization (1)
Comit Europen de Normalisation Comit Europen de Normalisation
(European Committee on Standardization)
Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
(European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
European Telecommunication Standards Institute
CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Draft Master Plan
on education about standardization (2)
Roadmap toward implementing the policy on education
about standardisation
Objective: make Europe more competitive and sustainable
by enhancing standardisation knowledge and skills through
education and training
Formal education at different levels + post-formal education
and training
CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Draft Master Plan
on education about standardization (3)
Phase 1. 2012-2013
Involve stakeholders
Steering group Steering group
Analyse needs
Define actions
Phase 2. 2014-2015
Take actions Take actions
Phase 3. 2016-2020
Henk J. de Vries
European Academy for Standardisation (EURAS) e.V.
c/o Rotterdam School of management Erasmus University c/o Rotterdam School of management, Erasmus University
Department Management of Technology and Innovation
P.O. Box 1738
NL 3000 DR Rotterdam
The Netherlands, (+ 31 10) 408 20 02
EURAS i t d i th EURAS is represented in the
CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Joint Working Group on Education about Standardization,
UNECE project on a
model programme on standardization:
invitation for inter-agency and
academia cooperation
Serguei Kouzmine
Head, Trade Facilitation Unit
UNECE Trade and Sustainable Land Management Division
Presented for Dr. S. Kouzmine by
Wilfried Hesser
Helmut-Schmidt University
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
50 - 80 % of Wor l d Tr ade
i s bet w een UNECE Member St at es
Methodological studies and education (Rec. I)
ECE Governments should, in collaboration with
appropriate intergovernmental and other organizations and
ki i h i i i f h I i l taking into account the activities of the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the
International Electro-technical Commission (IEC),
consider the possibility of encouraging:
the introduction of the subject of standardization into the
scientific and technological curricula of educational
t bli h t establishments;
the education and training of specialists in standardization;
the further in-depth study of the methodology of
standardization supported by international collaboration.
Current situation in the UNECE
region with stand. education
- very few standard programmes (examples:
Netherlands Rotterdam School of
management, Delft University of
Technology, Germany-Helmut Schmidt
University, Switzerland-master course at y,
Geneva University)
- Programmes are different (content, time
allocation, etc.)
Differences in programmes
Basic approach: company centered (in Basic approach: company centered (in
Europe); government in the CIS region
No metrology, market surveillance,
Task of the UNECE project: to agree on what f UN C p j g
issues a graduate should know (product life
approach) and on this basis to prepare
uniform model curricula
UNECE model programme on
standardization history
2009 2010 interest in common curricula 2009-2010, interest in common curricula
autumn 2011, open-ended group of educ.
institutions (Netherlands, Germany, Russia,
Belarus and Tajikistan) established
Febr. 2012, List of stand. issues prepared , p p
April 17, 2012, List presented/supported by
representatives of int. standards setting
organizations (ISO, IEC, OIML, ILAC, etc.)
UNECE - Invitation to cooperate
List of issues to form a basis for a uniform
curricula is prepared
Comments on the list are welcomed
It as a public product (available to all free of
It is expected to be complemented by
training information and tools from
interested organizations
Future steps
October 2012 Geneva session of the UNECE October 2012, Geneva -session of the UNECE
Working Party on Regulatory Cooperation
and Standardization Policies
- revision of Recommendation I
- discussion on the Model Standardization S
Programme and on supplementary tools
Please join us for this debate
project contact person at the UNECE secretariat:
Mr. (Dr.) Serguei Kouzmine
il i k i @ e-mail:
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
New I EEE St andar ds
Educat i on Pr ogr am
Hi ghl i ght s Hi ghl i ght s
( ht t p: / / st andar dseducat i on.or g)
I CES 2012
Pr epar ed by Jenni f er McCl ai n Pr epar ed by Jenni f er McCl ai n
Pr ogr am Manager , I EEE St andar ds
Educat i on
I EEE s St andar ds Educat i on
Pr ogr am
Cont inuing t o progress work support ing our goals:
promot ing t he import ance of st andards in meet ing promot ing t he import ance of st andards in meet ing
t echnical, economic, environment al, and societ al
providing learning mat erials on t he applicat ion of
st andards in t he design and development aspect s of
educat ional programs;
act ively promot e t he int egrat ion of st andards int o
academic programs.
Today we are highlight ing t wo new resources which are freely
available t o t he worldwide audience and one ongoing
opport unit y for st udent s and educat ors.
5/10/2012 2
I EEE St andar ds Educat i on
e- Magazi ne ( eZi ne)
A quart erly publicat ion for t hose who learn, t each, use, deploy,
develop and enj oy St andards!
First published in Sept ember 2011, t he eZine cont ains cont ent such as
feat ure art icles on st andardizat ion t hemes, art icles from educat ors on
st andards in t he curriculum, and an area for St udent Applicat ion
Papers highlight ing t he use of st andards in st udent proj ect s.
The second quart er 2012 issue will focus on t he t heme of st andards
educat ion in China. ( ht t p: / / st andar dsmagazine- ieee- elear ning.or g.)
Wit h cont ribut ions from:
Mr. Zhongmin Wang, Direct or General, China Nat ional I nst it ut e of g g, ,
St andardizat ion
Ms. Wenhui Zhao, China Nat ional I nst it ut e of St andardizat ion
Yu Xiao, Professor Song Mingshun, Zhou Lij un, Zhang Yueyi from China
Jiliang Universit y
Mr. Liu Dong, Chair of I EEE 1888 Working Group and President of Bll
5/10/2012 3
Tr y St andar ds.or g
TrySt andards: Global St andards Educat ion and St andards
Search port al ( ht t p: / / t ryst andards. org/ )
Two+ year proj ect developed t o provide users wit h
descript ions and access t o all known credible programs and
courses for educat ion about st andards at t he universit y and
post - universit y ( cont inuing educat ion) levels.
Also provides a search facilit y for all t echnical st andards
maint ained by all recognized st andardizat ion bodies in I EEE' s
fields of int erest .
Call for Cont ent Call for Cont ent
We are cont inuing t o add courses t o our dat abase. I f you
know of a course at your universit y, please let us know so we
can include your program.
5/10/2012 4
St andar ds Educat i on Gr ant s
Cont inuing opport unit y for universit y st udent s worldwide t o
apply for grant s of $500 US, wit h $300 honorarium for facult y
advisors, for st udent proj ect s t hat involve t he use and
li t i f t h i l t d d applicat ion of t echnical st andards.
Those applying do not have t o be I EEE members and t he
st andards used in t he proj ect s do not have t o be I EEE
st andards.
This effort direct ly support s our goal of promot ing t he
int egrat ion of st andards int o academic programs.
Since 2009, t he I EEE St andards Educat ion Commit t ee has
approved 80 st udent grant s.
For more informat ion and t o apply visit :
ht t p: / / st andardseducat ion. org/ applicat ions.
Jennifer McClain, Program Manager, I EEE St andards Educat ion
j . mcclain@ieee. org
Thank you!
5/10/2012 5
ANSI Commi t t ee on Educat i on
Mat chmaki ng 101: Academi a, Indust ry, SDOs
Int er nat i onal Cooper at i on f or Educat i on Int er nat i onal Cooper at i on f or Educat i on
about St andar di sat i on ( ICES)
May 10, 2012
Pr esent ed by
Susan Hoyl er
Br i ef r evi ew of ongoi ng act i vi t i es of ANSI Commi t t ee
on Educat i on (COE) on Educat i on (COE)
Hi ghl i ght s of COE Ini t i at i ves f or 2012
Descr i pt i on of Uni ver si t y Engagement Pr oj ect
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 2
Part I
Hi ghl i ght s of COE
Ini t i at i ves f or 2012
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 3
2012 Leadershi p and Membershi p
Leader shi p
2012 Leader shi p
Chai r : Debor ah Pr i nce, Under wr i t er s Labor at or i es ( UL) Inc.
Co- Vi ce Chai r : Er i c Puskar , Nat i onal Inst i t ut e of St andar ds &
Technol ogy ( NIST)
Co- Vi ce Chai r : Susan Hoyl er , Qual comm
Cur r ent Rost er
Mor e t han 60 member s
Compani es (Boei ng Int el Mi cr osof t Or acl e Qual comm Rockwel l Compani es ( Boei ng, Int el , Mi cr osof t , Or acl e, Qual comm, Rockwel l
Aut omat i on, Si emens, Ot her s)
Gover nment ( DHS, DoD, NIST, FDA, Ot her s)
Hi gher Educat i on ( Ar i zona St at e Uni v. , Uni v of Pi t t sbur g , Mi chi gan
St at e, Nor t hwest er n, Pur due Uni v, San Jose St at e, Ot her s)
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 4
Ongoi ng Act i vi t i es of COE
New e- l ear ni ng cour ses
An Int r oduct i on t o St andar ds: Why, wher e and how ar e t hey
d l d? ( f f h i i i f i i l ) devel oped? ( f r ee of char ge t o uni ver si t i es f or use i n cour se cur r i cul a)
U. S. Del egat es t o Int er nat i onal Act i vi t i es: Rol es and Responsi bi l i t i es
St andar dsl ear n. or g
Fr ee and publ i cl y avai l abl e r esour ce pr ovi di ng ANSI- devel oped educat i onal
cont ent t o a br oad audi ence ( acr onym dat abase, st ds educat i on d- base)
St andar di zat i on Case St udi es
Thi r t een case st udi es have been publ i shed
Mor e t han 10, 000 new vi si t s t o t he si t e si nce Januar y 1, 2012 ( over 112K si nce
2007) 2007)
ANSI Educat i on and Tr ai ni ng Ser vi ces
Uni ver si t y Out r each Pi l ot Pr oj ect
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 5
Ongoi ng COE Act i vi t y
Uni versi t y Out reach
Uni ver si t y Out r each Pi l ot Pr oj ect
Ini t i at ed i n 2004, t he pr ogr am makes mor e t han 20, 000 ISO and IEC
t d d i f i t i d i d l i i l bl t i f i st andar ds, speci f i cat i ons and gui del i nes avai l abl e gr at i s f or use i n
uni ver si t y cl assr ooms
Par t i ci pat i on i s open t o al l di sci pl i nes i n any US- based i nst i t ut i on
In 2011:
54 school s par t i ci pat ed
223 st udent s wer e engaged
925 st andar ds wer e pr ovi ded
Thus f ar In 2012: us a 0 :
16 new school s j oi ned
68 addi t i onal st udent s ar e engaged
451 new st andar ds have been pr ovi ded
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 6
Part II
Hi ghl i ght s of COE
Ini t i at i ves f or 2012
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 7
2012 Ini t i at i ves
St udent Paper Compet i t i on
Ed t i W k h Educat i on Wor kshop
Post er Sessi on
Speaker s Bur eau
Uni ver si t y Engagement Pr oj ect
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 8
2012 Ini t i at i ves-ANSI COE
St udent Paper Compet i t i on
Theme: How St andar ds Faci l i t at e Innovat i on & Benef i t Soci et y
F d l l t d t f l l l l f hi h d t i Focused sol el y on st udent s of al l - l evel s of hi gher educat i on
i nst i t ut i ons wi t h goal of engagi ng young pr of essi onal s and t he next
gener at i on of st andar ds par t i ci pant s
Must be wr i t t en and submi t t ed by st udent ( s) ( Associ at e,
Under gr aduat e or Gr aduat e) cur r ent l y enr ol l ed dur i ng t he per i od of
Mar ch 2012 Sept ember 2012 i n a US academi c i nst i t ut e of hi gher
educat i on.
Open t o st udent s i n al l di sci pl i nes ( not j ust engi neer i ng)
Must demonst r at e why and how st andar ds spur i nnovat i on, dr i ve U. S.
compet i t i veness, and benef i t soci et y compet i t i veness, and benef i t soci et y
Launched i n Mar ch 2012
, 2
and 3
r d
pl ace wi nner s wi l l be announced dur i ng Wor l d
St andar ds Week i n Oct ober 2012
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 9
2012 Ini t i at i ves-ANSI COE
Educat i on Wor kshop
Oct ober 12, 2012 at t he Newseum i n Washi ngt on, DC
Wor kshop Theme: Educat i ng t he Next Gener at i on of St andar ds
Pr of essi onal s: Int er act i ve si mul at i on on st andar ds devel opment
and negot i at i on f or st udent s, new pr of essi onal s and new f acul t y
Focus on a st andar ds si mul at i on exer ci se ( pr ovi ded by NIST)
ent i t l ed Set t i ng St andar ds: Exer ci se i n St r at egy and Cooper at i on
i n St andar di zat i on Pr ocess.
Tar get i ng st udent and new pr of essi onal s
Li mi t ed par t i ci pat i on at 26
COE member s and ot her ANSI member s ar e wel comed t o obser ve
t he exer ci se
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 10
2012 Ini t i at i ves-ANSI COE
Post er Sessi on
In conj unct i on wi t h educat i on wor kshop In conj unct i on wi t h educat i on wor kshop
Post er sessi on/ exhi bi t ar ea wher e COE member s and ot her s ( SDOs
and uni ver si t i es) can exchange i nf or mat i on on what t hey have t o
of f er st udent s and f acul t y and st udent s and f acul t y can di scuss t hei r
r esear ch or ot her engagement i n st andar ds.
Speaker s Bur eau
Cr eat e a r el i abl e r esour ce of subj ect mat t er exper t s on st andar ds &
st andar di zat i on as a di sci pl i ne ( submi t t ed t o COE and appr oved by
Pur pose i s t o pr ovi de an easy access l i st of possi bl e guest l ect ur er s
f or uni ver si t i es i nt er est ed i n f i ndi ng speaker s f or cour ses on
st andar ds
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 11
Part III
Hi ghl i ght s of Uni ver si t y
Engagement Pr oj ect
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 12
Uni versi t y Engagement Proj ect
Ident i f y and coor di nat e exi st i ng r el at i onshi ps t hat
ANSI b ( i SDO ) many ANSI member s (compani es, SDOs, gover nment )
may have al r eady cul t i vat ed wi t h di f f er ent uni ver si t i es
Many compani es r ecr ui t f r om key uni ver si t i es
r el at ed t o i t s i ndust r i al sect or
Many SDOS have exi st i ng r el at i onshi ps wi t h
uni ver si t i es and/ or st udent chapt er s
Many gover nment agenci es wor k col l abor at i vel y
wi t h engi neer i ng school s
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 13
Uni versi t y Engagement Proj ect
awar e of each ot her s syner gi es or
r el at i onshi ps.
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 14
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a
Uni versi t y Engagement Proj ect
200 USG i / i 300 ANSI di d 200+ USG agenci es/ quasi 300+ ANSI-accr edi t ed
agenci es SDOs
500 ANSI company member s 500+ non- ANSI SDOs
164+ ISO par t i ci pant
compani es
250+ IEC par t i ci pant compani es 100+ JTC1 par t i ci pant compani es
500+ engi neer i ng uni ver si t i es/ pr ogr ams
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 16
17 COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a
Uni versi t y Engagement Proj ect
Appr ox. 35 uni ver si t i es whi ch ar e t op i n pp o . 35 u ve s t es w c a e t op
var i ous i ndust r i al sect or s i dent i f i ed
Aerospace Biological/Agricultural
Biomedical Civil
Computer Chemical
Electrical Environmental
Industrial Materials
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 18
Uni versi t y Engagement Proj ect
Uni ver si t i es i dent i f i ed i ni t i al l y*
* i l l d i h i l d b i d l * wi l l expand i n next phase t o i ncl ude busi ness and l aw ar eas
Cal i f . Inst i t ut e of Technol ogy Car negi e Mel l on
Cat hol i c Uni v. Cor nel l
Duke Geor gi a Tech
US Mi l i t ar y Academy ( West poi nt ) Iowa St at e
John Hopki ns Mi chi gan St at e Uni v.
MIT Nor t hwest er n Uni v.
Penn St at e Vi r gi ni a Pol yt ech Inst .
Pur due Rochest er Inst i t ut e of Technol ogy
San Jose St at e Uni v. St anf or d
Uni v of Cal i f - ( Ber kel ey, LA, San Di ego, Sant a Bar bar a)
Uni v. of Fl or i da, Uni v. of Col or ado, Uni v. of Mi nnesot a, Uni v. of Il l i noi s,
Ur bana, Uni v. of Mar yl and, Uni v. of Mi chi gan, Ann Ar bor , Uni v. of
Pi t t sbur g, Uni v. of Texas, Aust i n, Uni v. of Wi sconsi n- Madi son
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 19
Uni versi t y Engagement Proj ect
Compani es i dent i f i ed i ni t i al l y*
Agi l ent Amer i can Expr ess
A l B i Appl e Boei ng
Ci sco Cooper Power Syst em
Cor ni ng Deer e & Co
Del l Eat on
Exxon Gener al El ect r i c
Hubbel l Int el
Int er t ek Lexmar k
Mi cr osof t Monsant o
O l P&G Or acl e P&G
Phi l l i ps Heal t hcar e Qual comm
Rockwel l Aut omat i on Schnei der El ect r i c
Si emens USA Sony El ect r oni cs
Squar e D UL
*not exhaust i ve & not al l sect or s
i dent i f i ed
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 20
Uni versi t y Engagement Proj ect
SDOS Government
Dept . of Ener gy (DoE)
Dept . of Heal t h, Human Ser v. (HHS)
Feder al Dr ug Admi n. ( FDA)
Consumer Saf et y Pr oduct
Commi ssi on ( CPSC)
Dept . of Def ense ( DoD)
Nat l . Inst . of St ds. & Tech (NIST)
Ti t l e | Locat i on Sl i de 21
Cont act Inf ormat i on
For addi t i onal i nf or mat i on r egar di ng t he ANSI Commi t t ee on
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Emai l : Debor ah. R. Pr i nce@ul . com
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Susan Hoyl er , Vi ce- Chai r
COE Pr esent at i on t o ICES, May 10, 2012| Bal i , Indonesi a Sl i de 22
Emai l : shoyl er @qual comm. com
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1. LIUFei,China:ASTMInternationalStandardsinEducationin
2. C.Rangkuti,Indonesia:TeachingStandardtoMechanical
EngineeringStudentsatTrisakti University
3. HannaH.BachtiarIskandar,Indonesia:TheroleofAcademic
4. Riyanto,Indonesia:ImplementationofISO9001forQuality
M S d ISO 17025 f L b Q li ManagementSystemandISO17025forLaboratoryQuality
5. Ienneke Indra Dewi,EndangErnawati,Rudi:Implementationof
Academic Quality Assurance : A Case Study in Universitas Bina AcademicQualityAssurance:ACaseStudyinUniversitasBina
ASTM International Standards in Education in China
(LIU Fei, James P. Olshefsky)
At the very beginning, ASTM International was aware of the significance of standards in
the university education programs. Over the years, ASTM International has been active in
working with the universities and academies to promote the knowledge of technical
information as provided by standards, and of the standards development process itself.
ASTM educational models include the engagement of students and professors of
universities and academies in the standards development, incorporation of standards in
curricula and student graduate design, and some scholarship and awarding programs.
ASTM has further carried the models on to some campaigns including Year of the
Student in 2007, Year of the Professor in 2009 and Jumpstart Your Career in 2011. Those
activities have been undertaken not only in the educational communities in the United
States but also in the global marketplaces including the Chinese universities. The
significance of ASTM standards in education programs is to help the students and
professors better understand why it is necessary to incorporate standards into class
curricula, how standards will fit into the bigger picture of engineering practice, and where
standards are needed.
In recent years, ASTM International has been making efforts to bring the standards
knowledge to the engineering and technology universities in China. Every year, ASTM
staff and/or its committee members visit the different schools, give lectures, conduct
seminars, and sponsor some special technical projects in school courses or student
designs in many sectors. Among those programs, one project Student Competition for
School Acoustical Design can be taken below as a significant example to illustrate how
ASTM technical standards are used in teaching courses.
In 2011, Armstrong (China) Investment Co., Ltd. co-sponsored the first Student
Competition for School Acoustical Design with Tongji University in Shanghai and
Tsinghua University in Beijing with the goal of encouraging students to collaborate in
teams to design a primary/middle school with superior acoustics. This competition was
conceived by Armstrong during the application and promotion of its acoustic
technologies for buildings in China. It was targeted to undergraduates and graduates
majoring in Architecture, Engineering, Physics or other curriculums that involve building
design and/or acoustics. See announcement of competition below:

At the beginning, Armstrong (China) approached its long-term educational partners
Tongji University and Tsinghua University to raise the idea of holding a technical design
competition for students with the resulting proposal for this competition program being
formed in 2010. After receiving positive feedback from the two universities Armstrong
(China) and ASTM conducted a training session with the students from the architectural
acoustic research program of Tongji University in January 2011, as an introduction to
implementation of this competition. Armstrong then continued working with the two
universities to shape the details and process of the competition. The competition was
launched in April 2011 with team registration due by June. A total of seven teams - four
teams with 12 students from Tongji University and 3 teams with 11 students from
Tsinghua University - participated in the competition. The competition was concluded in
December of 2011 and one team from each university was awarded first place.
The Tongji University winning teams submission entitled Primary School Design used
an 8-step strategy to design the school while considering the sound absorption, vibration
and insulation for a location next to a busy highway and close to a subway station.
The Tsinghua University winning teams creation entitled Slope-School incorporated a
park next to a busy highway while locating the school under a sloped grassland or park
in accordance to local and international building standards with an emphasis on
environmentally sustainable design.
As recognition for their excellent performance, the two winning teams received an all-
expenses-paid trip to the Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and
Acoustical Society of China in Hong Kong in May 2012, where they are invited to make
a lecture style presentation of their projects in a special session on school design.
Overall, the students were given almost six months to develop their projects, which gave
them sufficient time to research the standards and learn more about acoustics. During the
design development phase, over the summer, Armstrong Senior Principle Scientist and
ASTM E33 member Dr. Kenneth Roy conducted acoustic workshops at both
universities. In most areas of the school, but especially for classrooms, good speech
intelligibility is a requirement both for teaching and learning. Designing for speech
intelligibility requires both architectural acoustic design for speech clarity, and
architectural noise control design to limit the intrusion of noise so that the speech can be
understood. Both the Chinese GB standards and worldwide standards address these
issues with maximum acceptable reverberation time and background noise. These
factors are considered performance requirements, and these are in-turn specified by
material and system choices. In the design of these schools, the students had to consider
the sound absorptive treatments used on the ceiling and walls of the rooms as specified
for sound absorption per ASTM C423. This standard provides a measure of the random
incidence sound absorption performance of any material where a value of NRC = 0.0 is
full reflective and 1.00 is fully absorptive. The students considered the noise intrusion
between the building exterior or adjacent spaces such as corridors, into the classrooms
according to the wall STC per ASTM E90. In this case an STC = 35 is a poor performing
wall system, and 55-60 is a high performance wall system.

Figure 1 The materials chosen by author, Figure 2 The comparison between before
and after treatment to the classroom

In the end, a panel of judges including one professor from each universitys Architecture
Department and two senior designers from leading architecture firms in Shanghai and
Beijing made the final decision and announced the award winners in December 2011.
Appropriate use of ASTM International standards for building acoustics was one of eight
aspects used as criteria to judge the submissions. This student design competition, as the
first of its kind for Armstrong (China) Investment Co., Ltd.s education campaign with
the university students in China, not only enhanced the understanding of various ASTM
standards, but it also has encouraged the students to incorporate standards in their future
projects that Armstrong (China) is planning to continue in the coming years.

ASTM International supports Armstrong (China)s initiatives to succeed in training
students about ASTM standards and Armstrongs acoustic technology in the Chinese
universities. The success of this first competition emphasized to the participating
students the need to prepare for their future engineering careers and also pioneered the
activities of standards in education for other companies and universities. As one professor
put it, In so doing, we lay open the profession of engineering to students and provide
them with a vision of their future so they can better plan for it.

ASTM International will continue the support to the global efforts of its member
companies in standards education with universities. ASTM also welcomes and
encourages the industries and universities based in China to join the efforts of promoting
standards used in education. For further information about ASTM standards in education,
please feel free to contact ASTM staff: Liu Fei at in China; and Jim
Olshefsky at at the Head Office.

ASTM International is one of the largest international standards development and
delivery systems in the world. ASTM International meets the World Trade Organization
(WTO) principles for the development of international standards: coherence, consensus,
development dimension, effectiveness, impartiality, openness, relevance and
transparency. ASTM standards are accepted and used in research and development,
product testing, quality systems and commercial transactions.

ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Teaching Standard to Mechanical Engineering
Students at Trisakti University
C Rangkuti,
Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia,
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Campus A
Jl. Kiai Tapa
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Abstract: Abstract:
This paper focuses on current teaching about standard and
standardization in the Mechanical Engineering Department,
Trisakti University and explore the future actions to be taken
to strengthen the academic course and training on standard
Current Status
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Mechanical Engineering Department is under Faculty of
Industrial Engineering, Trisakti University. The Department
having 144 Credit Unit Courses, divided into 8 (Eight)
Semester Curricula.
At the moment no standalone Standard and Standardization
Course offered.
The course on standard and standardization are incorporated
in various courses in its Curriculum.
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Namely it is covered in the courses (as published):
1. IMG 201, Engineering Drawing and Computer Aided Design I, 2
Credit Units
2. IMG 202, Engineering Drawing and Computer Aided Design II, 2
Credit Units
3. IMO 336 CNC Machines Programming 3 Credit Units
4. IMU 400 Final Project, 4 Credit units
IMG 201, Engineering Drawing and Computer Aided Design 1, 2 Credit Units
Objective: At the end of the course, the student must understand the Engineering Concept
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
and its function, as a communication engineering language. They also must know,
understand and be able to apply the using of Normalization and standardization, lines
of drawing, sizes of drawing paper, the use of drawing equipments, projections,
measurement dimensions, sectioning (cross and longitudinal), and all of these should
in accordance to ISO Standard.
1. Sugiarto N.H. (ITB Bandung),Sato G. Takeshi (Keio University), 2008,
Menggambar Mesin Menurut Standar ISO (Mechanical Engineering Drawing Using Menggambar Mesin Menurut Standar ISO (Mechanical Engineering Drawing Using
ISO Standard), P.T. Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta, 14 edt.
2. Heij, J. LA, de Bruijn L.A, 2009, Ilmu Menggambar Bangunan Mesin (Mechanical
Construction Drawing), P.T. Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta, 4 edt.
3. ISO Standard Handbook, 12, Technical Drawing, 2000, ISO, Switzerland.
4. Clarks, Thomas E.F, 2002, Engineering Drawing and Graphis Technology, McGraw
Hill, New York
IMG 202, Engineering Drawing and Computer Aided Design II, 2 Credit Units
Objective: At the end of the course the students must be able to read all drawing codes
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Objective: At the end of the course the students must be able to read all drawing codes,
and apply it to working object components using direct measurements method, using
calipers, rules and other measurement tools. Applying the surface configuration codes,
dimensions and tolerances and put them into CAD-Inventor as a drawing media with
computer base practical work in Engineering Drawing and CAD Studio. The students
must understand the concept of cuttings and sections. Using Auto Cad and CATIA
softwares they also should be able to draw and design engineering objects and parts.
1 Sugiarto N H (ITB Bandung) Sato G Takeshi (Keio University) 2008 1. Sugiarto N.H. (ITB Bandung),Sato G. Takeshi (Keio University), 2008,
Menggambar Mesin Menurut Standar ISO (Mechanical Engineering Drawing Using
ISO Standard), P.T. Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta, 14 edt.
2. Heij, J. LA, de Bruijn L.A, 2009, Ilmu Menggambar Bangunan Mesin (Mechanical
Engineering Construction Drawing), P.T. Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta, 4 edt.
3. ISO Standard Handbook, 12, Technical Drawing, 2000, ISO, Switzerland.
4. Clarks, Thomas E.F, 2002, Engineering Drawing and Graphics Technology,
McGraw Hill, New York
IMO 336, CNC Machine Programming, 3 Credit Units
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Objective: At the end of the course the students should be able to develop a
computer program for machining using CNC machines. All the codes to
use ISO Standard.
IMU 400, Final Project, 4 credit units
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Final Project topic should be in line with the Optional Courses
attended. The students should choose 3 three) courses out of 4 (four)
Courses of Interest offered, namely:
- Machine Constructions
- Energy Conversions
- Materials
- Manufacturing Processes
The final project usually related to produce or must decide the The final project, usually related to produce or must decide the
materials, process, measurements etc. to be applied. and used. The
student should include in their thesis the standard and
standardization to be applied accordingly. For example when it has to
decide what materials to be used in his project, he has to use the
standardized materials by ASTM, JIS, DIN, BSI, and other accredited
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
ABET Requirement
In 2000, ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc.)
bli h d h f ll i i f i i d d established the following requirement for engineering standards:
The curriculum must prepare students for engineering practice
culminating in a major design experience based on the knowledge and skills
acquired in earlier coursework and incorporating engineering standards and
realistic constraints that include most of the following considerations: economic,
environmental, sustainability, manufacturability, ethical, health and safety, social,
and political.
Although our program is not accredited by ABET our curriculumis in line with Although our program is not accredited by ABET, our curriculum is in line with
ABET requirement, although more actions has to be taken to strengthen the
academic course and training on standard.
BAN Accreditation
In addition, our Department is accredited with A category by BAN (Badan
Akreditasi Nasional National Accreditation Board) of the Republic of Indonesia.
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Way Forward:
1. Develop suitable modules to be incorporated in courses deemed necessary for
standard and standardization in other courses such as: Machine Elements I II,
and III; Mechanical Design I and II etc.
2. Adjunct Lectures on Standard and Standardization to all students, probably with
the help from BSN (Badan Standardisasi Nasional National Standardization
3 Training current and future teachers and professors of technical courses to 3. Training current and future teachers and professors of technical courses to
recognize the importance of standards to their students.
4. Develop a web based course on standardization promoted to existing teachers of
technical curriculum, and the students.
5. To apply ISO 9000 Standard for the Department program to ensure a better
delivery of the courses offered to students
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Concluding Remarks:
Our curriculum already incorporated some module of standard and
standardization in many courses offered, and this is inline with ABET
Some action are required to be implemented for the betterment and
strengthen the standard and standardization modules in our
We received an A category accreditation by BAN as a recognition of
our good program and we would like to be stay as it is
ISO 9000 standard need to be implemented for better teaching and
education process in our Mechanical Engineering Department
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
Reformasi Monument
at Campus A, Trisakti
ICES Conference 2012
Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 May 2012
The Role of Academic Standardisation in Quality Assurance
at Universitas Indonesia

Hanna H. Bachtiar-Iskandar*
(Professor, Head of Universitas Indonesia Academic Quality Assurance Board)

Quality Assurance and Standardisation
Quality assurance in education or academic affairs in general, especially at higher
education, is the most important criteria for a university to be aknowledged. Nowadays,
society intends to increase awareness and knowledge about standards and standardisation
in education. The goal of the academic quality assurance are to achieve the high
standards and continuous improvement of the units and programs academic quality,
including process evaluation, documentation and communication of the academic quality
assurance evaluation results
One of the Universitas Indonesia (UI) mission is to become the world class university.
These past five years had shown a considerable change in quality assurance at UI.
Universitas Indonesia ensured that all academic units and programs are subject to The
University Academic Quality Internal Assurance Policy (SPMI-UI), as well as the
standards set at the national level, to furthermore developing and improving the units and
programs quality to meet the regional and international standards.
Baseline 10 % Programs in 2007
100 % in 2012
0 in 2007 10 in 2012
Quality Status
World Class rank: 200 in 2012
Increase in
in gaining
Research Fund
Credit Transfer

UI Academic Quality Assurance Target of 2012


To achieve the goals, the Universitas Indonesia Academic Quality Assurance Board
(BPMA-UI) as the unit responsible in academic quality assurance, works based on the
major principles as follows: ensures that the members of the University community are
collectively responsible for maintaining, enhancing and improving the quality of its
academic programs, and, that judgements about the quality of the academic programs will
be based on review by academic and professional peers based on a collection of
evidence, not only on any single piece of evidence.

Academic Quality Assurance Standard and Process at UI
QualityAassurance (QA) has become progressively a matter of public concern with an
emphasis on quality improvement, based on standardisation and accountability.
Indonesia had set a minimum standarisation policy at the national level for higher
education. The National Higher Education Quality Assurance System (SPM-PT)
aims to ensure the good quality of higher education in Indonesia, through the
implementation of the higher education Tridharma in order to realize the vision and
meet the needs of internal and external stakeholders. Quality of higher
education institutions at least had to fit with the minimum National Education Standards
(SNP), as well as standards set by the institutions themselves that based on
the vision and the needs of their stakeholders. The implementation of SPM PT had to be
internally driven. Thus, the role of the higher education directorate is to
help, inspire,encourage, and facilitate the implementation of the SPM PT by the higher
education institutions/unversities. Apart from defining its vision through the
implementation of its mission, it is important that to be ackmowledged as a high quality
institution, Universitas Indonesia had outlined the vision and mission into a set of
standards, and then developing the standards to meet the stakeholders satisfaction. The
academic quality assurance system at UI consists of a set of values, principles and
activities that intertwine each other, to form a complete and continuous cycle of academic
quality improvement.


HBIBPMAUI rev 2011 Desember
#Proffesional society

Quality Assurance Process At UI

Universitas Indonesia as one of the leading Universities in this country has achieved far
above the minimum national standard set by the government. This will not be possible if
UI had not had a holistic system in academic quality assurance that includes highest
standards and continuous improvement in its goal. The strategy sets as a systematic,
consistent, thorough, step by step, and continuous quality improvement. At the
individual level, the lecturer were assessed by the students, and the teaching-learning
process along with all processes attached to that, were also evaluated periodically.

The internal evaluation process for each program as part of the Quality Assurance
System, conducted in each semester, yearly, before the national external quality, and
before the regional/international assessment. UI provides a range of relevant approved
standard instruments, together with a systematic process for the monitoring, evaluation
and continuous enhancement of program/faculty and university quality, within a
semester, yearly and evaluation of self assessment report for the national accreditation
prpgram every 3-4 year cycle. At the regional/international level, UI had a certain
criterias to encourage the programs that considered eligible to be assessed by the
international board. Facing this international accreditation, BPMA UI had already
prepared the internal assessors to review the self assessment reports before submitting the
report to the international accreditation board, and until the year 2010, six programs in


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of program or dean of faculty, had to give endorsement as well oversees the program
progress, give some comments on the area to be improved or problem to be solved that
detected in the instrument, before being submitted to the higher level of management that
in UI, to the vice rector. This is to give the higher level management to also recognise the
areas to be improved, or problems to be solved, then could decide the policy to follow up
this results. The yearly evaluation conducted after two semesters and will undergone the
same process.

The Internal Assessment in Preparing the External Accreditation
The external accreditation or assessment by an institution or body outside the university,
either national or international level, is part of The National Higher Education Quality
Assurance System (SPM-PT) as mentioned before. At the national level, the external
quality assurance should be done by an institution or board that have been approved by
the government, and for now is the BAN PT. UI had set the target to have 100%
programs accredited with the good or best rank according to BAN PT. To meet this
target, BPMA UI had provided a program to help the faculty/program in preparing their
portfolio to be accredited by BAN PT. The pertfolio prepared were then evaluated by
the UI internal assessors before submitted to BAN PT. This way had helped the programs
submits the well prepared portfolio to gain the highest rank from BAN PT.

The programs/faculties that met certain criterias, then encouraged to be assessed by the
international board. Since UI had become the Asean University Network, the programs
considered eligible will prepare the Self Evaluation Report (SAR) to be assessed by the
AUN QA model. The SAR portfolio were also being internally assessed by UI internal
assessors that already trained with this model. From 2008-2010 6 programs had been
assessed by AUN QA, to get comments and suggestions concerning the SAR to be
submitted before the actual assessment.

Evaluation of SNP Implementation at Units and Program level
Based on the government regulation on National Education Standards, UI had regularly
evaluates and develops the implementation of the standards. This evaluation conducts
yearly to ensure that all units and programs involved in Tridharma of the higher
education had met with the government regulation and the UI standards. Some units and
programs had shown the evidence as the best practice in certain standards. The results
were then evaluated, and feed back given to the unit/program, so that they could be aware
of their where being in the standards set in connection with quality..
The minimum National Education Standard consists of eight points that had to be
fulfilled by each and every higher education institution. The more they could get beyond
the standards, show that the institution/university had already developped better than
expected. The IT standards, the student and alumni standards, the standards in
cooperation, standards of research,publication & public service, standards of academic
atmosphere are the standards being developped by UI beyond the minimum national

Minimum requirement in SNP and UI achievements

1. Content
2. Process
3. Graduate competence
4. Lecturer and employee
5. Infrastructure
6. Funding
7. Governance
8. Educational evaluation
The 8 Minimum
National Education
+ 6: student and alumni, IT,
cooperation, research-
publication & public service,
academic atmosphere,
student recruitment
Endeavor an
To achieve th
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Board of tr
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Programs with
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national accreditatio
al students


Ienneke Indra Dewi
Endang Ernawati

Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta,
Kampus Syahdan, Jl. KH Syahdan No. 9


Quality has become one of the most influence aspects for the parents and students to choose the
university. ISO 9001:2008 as one of the quality management system help BINUS University in
maintaining the quality of the process. Integrating the academic into ISO 9001:2008, BINUS University
implemented the Peer Review and Sit In as a tool to monitor and evaluate the content of the teaching. The
SIT IN is used as the monitoring tools, to assure the academic quality within the class, and PEER
REVIEW is used as the evaluation tools, to assure the academic quality has been maintained. Three
aspects of the peer review and sit in are curriculum, teaching learning process and assessment. The
result of the implementation of peer review is subject to be audited by internal auditors and also reported
to the management.

Keywords:Peer Review, Sit In, Evaluation, Monitoring, Academic Quality Assurance, ISO 9001:2008


The ability of graduates to compete in the global area
can be considered as one of the aspects that describe
the quality of the higher education institution. Aware
that learning has important aspect, therefore BINUS
University puts the graduates as one of the strategic

Many factors affect the quality of graduates such as
teaching and learning process, curriculum, and
assessment. Using the ISO 9000 as the requirement
on Clause 8.2.3 Monitoring and measurement of
process, in which stated:

The organization shall apply suitable methods
for monitoring and, where applicable,
measurement of the quality management system
processes. These methods shall demonstrate the
ability of the processes to achieve planned results.
When planned results are not achieved, correction
and corrective action shall be taken, as

BINUS University implements the Peer Reviewand
Sit Inmethods as monitoring and evaluation tool,
combined with other monitoring and evaluation that
already implemented such as student feedback and
lecturer feedback.

The Peer Review and Sit In will focus on curriculum,
teaching and learning process and assessment which
can not be capture from previous monitoring and
evaluation method. Assigned faculty member will be
responsible for this Peer Review and Sit In

This paper will present the process of BINUS
Universitys Peer Review and Sit In, result of those
activities that provide us to do continuous
improvement in our teaching and learning process.


The North Carolina University made the definition of
peer review is as follows:
Peer Review is assessment, by colleagues or
peers, of all teaching related activitiesfor either
formative (for development) or summative (for
personnel decision) purposes. Components may
include preparation and presentation of course
subject matter (including syllabi, course content, and
assignments); student evaluations; interactions with
students; documentation of teaching philosophy,
expectations, style, and reflections (teacher self-
evaluation); peer observation of classroom teaching;
and other activities which may be appropriate to a

Another explanation of the peer review is taken from
Sell G.:
Peer review of teaching is not intended to
replace student evaluations. Experts indicate that
although students are the most appropriate judges of
day-to-day teacher behaviors and attitudes in the
classroom, they are not the most appropriate judges
of the accuracy of course content, use of acceptable
teaching strategies in the discipline, and the like. For
these kinds of judgments, peers are the most
appropriate source of information.


1. The Process
en thelecturerswho teachthe same subjectsorthe same
concentration.Withinthisgroup, lecturers are expected
to join theprocess ofSit In andsharingexperiences.

Fig1. Peer Review and Sit-In Process

2. The Aspects of Peer Review and Sit-In
Aspects of Peer Review and Sit In including the
following activities:
- Curriculum including CourseOutline, Textbook,
and Online Resources
- Teaching and LearningProcessincludingPlanning
and Organizing, Method/Approach, Content,
Student Participation, Use appropriate learning
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FormativeAssessment, SummativeAssessmentand


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C. Evaluation of Peer Review and Sit In Process
In order to evaluate the process of peer review and sit
in, questionnaire has been developed. The results are
as follows:
1. Interest of the lecturers in the peer review
and sit in. Most of the lecturers are
interested in peer review and sit in activity.
This can be seen in Figure 3 and Figure 4.

Interest of the group member on the discussion
Fig3. Peer Review Report
Interest of group member on Sit In activity

Fig4. Sit In Report

2. Discussion material and provided forms also
considered clear and easy to understand by
lecturers. This can be seen in Figure 5 and
Figure 6.
Discussion material: Curriculum, Teaching and
Learning Process, Assessment

Fig5: Discussion Material

Forms that is provided during the discussion
Fig6. Forms

3. Lecturers also found that these activities are
Does this Peer Review and Sit In useful?

Fig7. Useful

Peer Review and Sit-In result has helped faculty
and study programs to evaluate and improve their
teaching and learning process.
The Peer Review and Sit In are considered useful
by the lecturers and the interest of the lecturers
also high, this can be used by the departments to
forms more Quality Control groups.
[1] ISO 9001:2008, Quality Management System
[2] Brent, Rebecca, and Felder, Richard M. A
Protocol for Peer Review of Teaching.Education
Designs, Inc. North Carolina State University,
Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for
Engineering Education Annual Conference &
Exposition Copyright 2004, American Society
for Engineering Education
[3] North Carolina State University [homepage on the
Internet] Raleigh: Peer review of teaching
program. Available from:
[4] UNC Intercampus Dialogue on Peer Review of
Teaching Results & Recommendations
[5] Sell G,Chism N. Assessing teaching effectiveness
for promotion and tenure: a compendium of
reference materials. Columbus Ohio State
University Center for Teaching Excellence; 1988



Nandang Sutrisno
and Riyanto

Vice Rector of Academics Affairs, Islamic University of Indonesia
Head of Chemistry Study Program, Islamic University of Indonesia
Jalan Kaliurang KM 14,5, Sleman Yogyakarta, 55584

In this paper describe an implementation of the ISO 9001 and ISO 17025 for quality
assurance at Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) Yogyakarta. Currently the
universities are situated at competitive environment. It is the principal reason why
they have to identify as the organizations providing the services that satisfy their
customers. To lead and operate an organization successfully, it is necessary to
manage it in a systematic and visible manner. The implementation of quality
management system (QMS), as inherent part of university management, is the way
how to reach this aim. ISO/IEC 17025 is the global quality standard for testing and
calibration laboratories. The liberalization of economies and the globalization of
markets have intensified international competition. This has brought particular
challenges to companies in developing countries. University quality management
system, started by UII on 1999, has been achieved ISO 9001:2008 certificate on
2009. UII has been achieved ISO 17025:2005 certificate on 2010 for Integrated
Laboratory and Environmental Quality Laboratory. The implemented QMS for
university and laboratory brings the benefits both to customers of the university
(students, employers, society, industry and researcher) and to university itself.

Quality Assurance Agency for the Islamic University of Indonesia was
established on March 1, 1999 with the name Quality Control Board and the
Development of Education (BKMPP). BKMPP has primary responsibility include
the manufacture, application and development of the quality management system and
development of concepts and design education at the Islamic University of Indonesia
(UII) in Yogyakarta. During its development, BKMPP on September 20, 2003 split
into two the agency Board of Quality Assurance and Academic Development
Agency and the establishment with the name Quality Control Board (BKM). Based
on the regulation No. 03 of 2006 from PYBW UII, in 2006, implement
organizational restructuring, quality assurance unit change to Quality Assurance
The process of obtaining ISO 9001 certification starts with the external audit
of TUV Rheinland Cert GmbH, on December 16, 2009, thus starting that date all the
faculties, rectorate and the board in the UII obtain ISO 9001:2008 certification. UII
has been achieved ISO 9001:2008 certificate with scope Quality Management
System of Higher Education Services in the Faculty of Law, Faculty of Civil
Engineering and Planning, Faculty of Economics, Faculty of Industrial Technology,
Faculty of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Faculty of
Psychology and Social Cultural Science, Faculty of Medicine, Directorates and

Boards. Figure 1 shown of the organizational structure of Quality Assurance

Agency of UII.

Figure 1. The organizational structure of Quality Assurance Agency of UII

This ISO 9001 requirement covers the methods and equipment used
measuring and testing of student knowledge/abilities, methods applied to ensure that
programs/courses conform to the specified requirements, as well as the measuring
and testing equipment used in research activities.
ISO/IEC 17025 is the global quality standard for testing and calibration
laboratories. The liberalization of economies and the globalization of markets have
intensified international competition. This has brought particular challenges to
companies in developing countries. Testing laboratories in developing countries face
major problems, however, in that their measurements and product certificates are
often not accepted in other countries [1].
Quality management has become increasingly present in the life of
organizations. Their survival is mainly linked to the quality of their activities. The
way in which each organization focuses on quality issues may vary according to the
sectors and the environment where it carries out its activities and of course, the
organizations own strategies. There are various ways of focusing on quality and one
of the options is to approach the quality management system using the standard ISO
9001 [4-5].
Since its initial publication in 1987, the number of implementations of ISO
9000 quality systems has increased year after year in the business context and it has
led to a growing number of business information services being managed using these
standards. The first review of this series of standards was carried out in 1994, and the
second review and the publication of the edition in force took place in 2000. The ISO
Head of Quality
Head of
training and
Head of
statistics and
Head of
quality control
Head of
Quality Audit
Head of
quality control

9000 series includes several standards but, at present, the only one that is certifiable
is the ISO 9001.
The ISO 9001 standard is also slowly being adopted in public institutions,
where still there are few information services and libraries that have opted to manage
their quality system with ISO 9001:2000. The standard ISO 9001 is based on
management by processes. As processes are cross-functional within institutions, this
means that at the time of certification, it is very important to establish the scope of
the quality system to be certified [4].
Implementation of ISO 9001 and 17025 can to improve graduate and analysis
product the suitability with market needs. Taking products to marker for quality
improvement shown at Figure 2.

Figure 2. Quality improvement for product

Competitiveness is activities under this heading are oriented towards the
removal of supply-side constraints, the promotion of the manufacture of products
with high export potential and the provision of assistance. Conformity is activities
under this heading are oriented towards promoting conformity with market
requirements and securing a larger share in export markets. Connectivity is activities
under this heading are carried out in cooperation with other agencies and oriented
towards supporting developing countries in their efforts to acquire the technological
and institutional capacities they need to implement WTO agreements and participate
fully in the new rules-based trading system [2].
After the allocation and deployment of adequate resources, the delivery of
programs and research is soon to follow. In general, the teaching, learning and
researching processes are addressed by this requirement. The objective is to ensure
proper identification and planning of these processes, and to ensure that they are
carried out under controlled conditions. Controlled conditions include: documents
defining the manner in which the processes are carried out, such as course/research
project plans and procedures; use of a suitable equipment and a suitable working
environment; compliance with reference course and research project quality plans;
monitoring and control of product quality characteristics and suitable process
parameters; preventive/corrective maintenance of equipment used for teaching,
learning and research. It is important to note that the control of the learning process
and its product, namely student knowledge is also focused by the inspection and

testing element of ISO 9001. This element covers the student-based control of
individual learning, via student presentations, seminars and design projects. Process
control activities may be categorized into four groups:
1. Process control design
2. Control of resources
3. Process control implementation
4. Process control improvement

Laboratory Accreditation
Accreditation of laboratories is generally performed by national accreditation bodies.
The primary function of such bodies is, of course, to provide assessment of
laboratories in their respective countries against ISO 17025. However, they will also
often respond to requests to carry out assessments in other countries, especially if the
requesting laboratory is in a country without its own national accreditation body.
Where there is a national accreditation body in the country and a laboratory seeks to
use a body from another country, the incoming accreditation body will normally, as a
matter of courtesy, seek approval from the resident body before operating in the
country. A laboratory may prefer to use an accreditation body other than its domestic
organization when the latter has either no international recognition or where it lacks
recognition in parts of the world relevant to the laboratorys operations.
Formal recognition of the competence of a laboratory by an accreditation
body in accordance with international criteria has many advantages [2]:
1. Better control of laboratory operations due to the existence of an in-built quality
assurance system and technically competent manpower.
2. Increased confidence in testing and calibration data and personnel performing the
3. Savings in terms of time and money due to reduction or elimination of the need
for re-testing of products, which is a technical barrier to international trade.
4. Users of accredited laboratories will enjoy greater access for their products, in
both domestic and international markets, when those products have been tested by
accredited laboratories, thus facilitating overcoming technical barriers to trade.
Accreditation of a laboratory is granted in two broad areas. These are fields
of testing and fields of calibration (or measurement). Examples of fields of testing
are chemical testing, electrical testing, mechanical testing, non-destructive testing,
optical, photometric and radiometric testing, thermal testing, clinical testing and food
testing. Examples of fields of calibration are dimensional calibrations, pressure
calibrations, force calibrations, electrical calibrations, thermal calibrations, acoustic
calibrations and accelerometry calibration. There could be more fields. All of the
above fields may have subcategories for their applications in various technical sub-
disciplines. ISO/IEC 17025 specifies a total of 24 requirements, grouped under
management requirements and technical requirements. The management
requirements include 14 elements, while the technical requirements include 10
elements [8].
The organizational structure of an Integrated Laboratory UII consists of top
managers, quality managers, technical managers, supervisor, analysts and
administrative staff. Figure 3 shown is the organizational structure of an Integrated
Laboratory UII.


Figure 3. The organizational structure of an Integrated Laboratory UII

Relationship between ISO 17025 and ISO 9001
As discussed above, ISO 9001 is the general standard which specifies the
requirements for a quality management system. Laboratories which meet the
requirements of ISO 17025 also operate in accordance with the requirements of ISO
9001 that are relevant to calibration and testing activities. What this means in
practice is that an organization which holds ISO 9001 certification may use a
laboratory accredited against ISO 17025 as a supplier of test data without the need to
carry out its own audit of the laboratorys quality system. The question often arises
of whether laboratories should be accredited/certified to ISO 9001 or to ISO 17025.
In general it is agreed that the appropriate accreditation for commercial testing and
calibration laboratories is to ISO 17025. As a result of agreements with laboratory
accreditation bodies many ISO 9001 certification bodies will not allow their
certification to be cited by commercial testing or calibration laboratories in support
of their services [8-9].
What this means in reality is that if you are an ISO 9001 certified
organization with an in house laboratory which forms part of your quality control
system, the laboratory will be included in the ISO 9001 external audit. However, if
you then want to sell the services of that laboratory to outsiders as a testing service
you cannot advertise it as an ISO 9001 accredited/certified laboratory. You would
need to obtain accreditation to ISO 17025. It is not uncommon, however, for
organizations with laboratories used purely for internal quality control purposes to
seek to accredit the laboratory to ISO 17025. This is generally done to enhance the
laboratorys, and hence the overall quality control systems, credibility or as part of
the application of an ISO 9001-compliant system. ISO 9001 external auditors will
not usually do a detailed audit of such an internal laboratory if it holds a current ISO
17025 compliant accreditation. The quality system in the laboratory is largely taken
for granted for ISO 9001 purposes. Since laboratory accreditation procedures leading

to ISO 17025accreditation are explicitly designed for laboratories, they can be easier
to interpret for the laboratory as opposed to the rather more diffuse requirements of
ISO 9001, which are designed for a more general context. The other advantage of
accrediting an internal quality control laboratory is that it will generally reduce the
number of audits by customers and this is often a key reason for seeking
accreditation. Frequent audits by a range of customers can be disruptive to operations
There are certainly a number of significant omissions from ISO 9001 as
compared to ISO 17025 although, as already discussed, there is a general ISO move
to bring the standards closer together. The additional requirements in ISO 17025, as
opposed to ISO 9001, include participation in proficiency testing, adherence to
documented, validated, methodology and specification of technical competence,
especially on the part of senior laboratory personnel. There is also a difference in the
method of scrutiny of laboratories under ISO 9001 as compared to ISO 17025
assessments. ISO 17025 assessment bodies will always use technical assessors who
are specialists and who carry out a peer review of the methods being used by the
laboratory and the way in which those methods are applied. An ISO 9001 external
audit to determine suitability for certification does not include this peer review of
technical aspects and the auditors are not required to be technical specialists. They
confine their attention to the quality management system [8-9].
From the point of view of a laboratorys clients, laboratories meeting the
requirements of ISO 17025 fulfill all the relevant requirements of ISO 9001 when
acting as subcontractors. The practical effect of this is that if an organization which is
certified to ISO 9001 is using an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory as a sub-
contractor, it can treat it as an ISO 9001 certified sub-contractor for any work within
the laboratorys scope of ISO 17025 accreditation. There will, for example, be no
necessity to carry out quality audits of the sub-contractor [8-9].

Experiences from Implementation of Quality Management System
The implementation of a quality system based on ISO 9001 and its subsequent
certification is not a trivial process, as it involves resources and commitment [4].
Rectors are highly appreciative of the level of support and commitment of their
institutions during the implementation of the quality system in the university. Firstly,
the decision to implement QMS into university management is the strategic decision.
It is the change of university management. Such the change has to be leaded by the
top management of the university. Without his active approach the proper
functionality of implemented QMS could not be reached. Secondly, the internal
audits were found as the very effective tool. Not only as the tool for identification of
issues (nonconformities) and possibilities for improvement, but also as the means
which helps to the dissemination of information and awareness about QMS both at
faculty and university level. Internal auditors act the role of promoters. They spread
the best practices in the informal way from audited area to the departments they
come from. It is probably the best way how to involve the abilities of people at all
level to be used for organizations benefit.


Control Process Implementations quality management system using Internal

Quality Audit and Management Audit

One of the most important objectives of an internal quality audit is measuring the
effectiveness of an organizations quality management system.
Internal Quality Audit
Quality systems control the mechanisms that develop and deliver product and
services to customer. If we rely on customer to tell us of the effectiveness of the
controls, it may be too late and we will not retain their custom. An effective quality
system will contain constant checks, tests and systems for corrective action (because
things will go wrong). However, all of these need the support of independent checks
of the organization from within the organization. These independent checks are
internal quality audits [3].
The purpose of the Internal Quality Audit System (IQAS) is to monitor
conformance, to both the documented quality system in operation and subsequently,
to the requirements of any standard upon which the system is based. The IQAS
provides the mechanism for discovering non-conformances within the operating
quality management system by ensuring that appropriate corrective action is planned,
ensuring that appropriate corrective action is implemented and monitoring the
effectiveness of the action. Internal audit records form part of the quality records
maintained by the organization. From these records trends, critical problems,
persistent problems and so on, can be identified. Third party assessors will examine
these records. They will be looking to satisfy themselves that the non conformances
identified during internal audits have been cleared and that the internal audits
themselves are operating effectively [3].
The internal audit function is the mechanism through which the operation of
the quality management system is formally monitored and conformance with the
documented quality system is assured. Audits are carried out by auditors selected
from within the company but who are independent of the area, function or procedure
being audited. Internal audits are the mechanism through which information about
the effectiveness of the quality system is gathered. The purpose of the audit function
is verify, or otherwise, conformance of practice with the documented quality system
and with the requirements of the standard [3].
In the internal audit UII there are two types of AMI Performance Unit and
AMI Academic. Total auditee as many as 174 units consisting of five groups of
participants audit the Rectorate, Dean, Division, Faculty, Directorate/Agency and
Program Studies. For Study Program audit activities carried out to Unit and
Academic Performance.
The implementation phase of audit is desk evaluation of the data that has
been filled and visitation. AMI performance unit evaluation is based on six
performance indicators and additional indicators that are specific. Common
performance indicators are achievement target quality, achievement of work
program, availability and implementations procedure work, list note quality,
evaluation discipline work, control and evaluation complaint customer.
Specific performance indicators Directorate of Academic units are new
admissions process and the process of academic administration. Indicators of
infrastructure directorate are the process of planning, implementing procurement
system. AMI Academic indicators are process preparation learning, process

implementation learning, process test, achievement academic student, process

practice work field, process test thesis, lecturer and graduate.
The scoring systems used to classify the results of audit according to four
categories. The four categories are appropriate, observation, minor and major.
Categories of appropriate with score of 4, observation with score 3, for minor were
score 2 and 1, and the mayor were score 0. Table 1 shown of the performance
report of the achievements of the unit and Figure 4 shown of the availability Unit
Lecture Event (SAP) at Study Program [6-7].

Table 1. AMI achievements in 2010

No Unit
2008 2009
1 BPA 2.23 3.61
2 BPM 0.00 2.67
3 BSI 1.96 2.88
4 DA 2.78 3.81
5 DKA 2.07 3.42
6 DBMKM 1.47 3.16
7 DOSDM 2.21 3.18
8 PKA 1.80 2.98
9 Library 2.84 3.12
10 DPPAI 2.91 3.31
11 DPPM 2.98 3.67
12 DSP 1.71 2.16
Average performance index 2.27 3.25

Fig. 4. AMI results of % availability SAP at Study Program at UII performance

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22





Management Audit
Evaluation of each process is carried out by Internal Quality Audit (Audit
Mutu Internal/AMI), External Audit and Management Audit. Management audit
conducted annually for all units. Management audit is conducted by Audit
Institutions of the Institute of Management Foundation Board Audit Agency
Endowments (PYBW-UII). Main objectives of this Management Audit are first to
obtain evidence of compliance with the implementation of strategic plans, both to
implement a mechanism for continuous improvement.
Scope Management Audit includes the correspondence between the
university strategic plan with the strategic plan of the faculty in the UII, the
suitability budget between the University Strategic Plan with the Annual Work Plan
and Budget at the University of units, the suitability of the Faculty Strategic Plan
with the Annual Work Plan and Budget in units of the Faculty, as well as the
implementation of Work Plan and the annual budget of the University, Faculty and
Study Program in the UII. Auditee at the University Rector and Vice Rector is
assisted by the Director. As for the faculty auditee consists of the Dean, Vice Dean,
Head of Study Program, and Secretary of the Program and is assisted by the Head of
Auditors to evaluate are document strategic plan and annual work plan and
budget at both the University and Faculty level. From the results of the evaluation
document followed a visit to each unit. These activities propose of compliance and
confirmation to the formulation of strategic plans and annual work plan and budget
contained in the written document. Moreover, it also saw the form of
implementation of annual work plan and budget that has been implemented
according to the audit period.
At the audit activity in each unit of work done by covering the opening of the
lead auditor, inspection/audit, preparation of discovery documents, findings and
improvement plan approval by the auditee and then closing. Before reporting results
audit, ensuring all documents from auditor and audit reports are complete and correct
and validated by the lead auditor. Next, document the findings of the auditor
reported to the Audit Institutions-PYBW.
In the audit, there are three activity are a form of activity programs, when
programs are implemented and document evidence of program implementation.
These three things are inseparable unity with one another, so that the inference the
work program is really concrete and can be proven that documentation and
legalization. Form of real work activity program is not just argumentative. It is
necessary to understand and be understood by the auditor. Audit Management form
PYBW with lead auditor summarizing all audit result. Primarily to ensure the
classification audit result, accordingly, recommended and not appropriate. Summary
of audit result are then reported to management and submitted to PYBW for further
Quality Audit at Laboratory
Quality managers manage internal audits. They verify conformance to the ISO/IEC
17025 requirements and also to company policies, processes and procedures. Internal
audits are also quite useful in preparation for external audits. External auditors can
come from clients or from accreditation bodies. They verify that the laboratory is
operating in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025. There should be procedures for staff
responsibilities before, during, and after internal and external audits. Overall owners

should be defined, and all employees who may be affected by the audit should be
trained. To make best use of internal audits, they should be designed, executed, and
followed up very much in the same way as expected external audits. The
recommendations for audit preparation, performance, documentation, and follow-up
are written for the audited departments, not for the auditors [8-9].
Internal quality audit is activity to check the implementation of the
management and technical requirement. Internal quality audit is performed by
internal auditors. ISO/IEC 17025 requires that a laboratory shall periodically and in
accordance with a predetermined schedule and procedure conduct internal audits of
its activities to verify that operations continue to comply with the requirements of the
quality system and this standard [10]. Steps to perform a internal quality audit are
define the purpose of the audit, define the scope, determine the audit team resource,
identify the performance standards, develop a technical understanding of the
processes, contact those to be auditor, perform an initial evaluation and develop
written checklist of the data needs.

The advantages and Benefits of Implementing QMS in the University
Another objective of the study was to highlight the main benefits provided by the
implementation of ISO 9001:2000 in academic process [4]. The time from the
beginning of implementation QMS at UII is rather short to fully evaluate the effect of
adopting ISO 9000 approach on the quality of university products. However we
recognize the improvement of university culture in areas:
1. Increased level of managing processes in the university. It is the main asset. In
the past the most of standard situation were solved ad-hoc. QMS defines the
accurate rules.
2. Better set-up of activities inside the university, accurate definition of authority
and responsibility. The process approach enables to define the activities and their
relation inside university with corresponded authority and responsibility in the
simple way
3. Forcing the university to identify and satisfy the actual needs and expectation of
their customers. In some situations in the past the university offers what their
staff recognized important. Actual needs and expectation of their customer could
be different. QMS forces the university to identify and satisfy the actual needs of
their customers.
4. Saving of operating expenses. The proper set-up of activities inside the university
together with accurate definition of authority and responsibility leads to
elimination of wasted effort and it brinks saving of operating expenses
5. Improvement of the educational processes. The identification of actual needs and
expectation of university customers, evaluation of customer satisfaction, better
set-up of activities inside the university leads to improvement of the educational
6. Improvement of competitive ability of university. ISO 9000 registration is a
competitive advantage. It is the evidence the university is properly managed, the
needs of their customers are identified and the environment to satisfy them is
7. Increased proactive behavior of employees. The existence of defined procedures
for problem solving (control of nonconforming product, corrective action, and

preventive action) and tools for independent assessment of any designed process
or activity (internal audit) leads the employees to proactive behavior.

Implementing ISO/IEC 17025 as part of laboratory quality initiatives provides both
laboratory and business benefits such as:
1. Having access to more contracts for testing and/or calibration. Some public and
private organizations only give contracts to accredited laboratories. Accreditation
will also help to get more contracts from organizations that dont mandate
accreditation, but do give preference to accredited laboratories in competitive
2. Improved national and global reputation and image of the laboratory.
3. Continually improving data quality and laboratory effectiveness.
4. Having a basis for most other quality systems related to laboratories, such as
Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices.

The general view to be taken of these various guides and standards is that ISO 9001
is the overall standard for quality management systems and ISO 17025 provides
specific guidance on the application of the ISO 9001 principles to laboratories. This
correspondence is becoming increasingly apparent with the development of both
standards, especially as the language and terminology is converging. When seeking
to select or establish an accreditation body for laboratories, the key standard is ISO
17025 which is the basis on which international acceptance of an accreditation body,
and hence its client laboratories, is achieved. The implemented QMS for university
and laboratory brings the benefits both to customers of the university (students,
employers, society, industry and researcher) and to university itself.


[1] Anonymous, 2009, Complying with ISO 17025, A practical guidebook for
meeting the requirements of laboratory accreditation schemes based on ISO
17025:2005 or equivalent national standards, United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO), Vienna.

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