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By: Banjar Y Laban The Principles of Nature Conservation: Keep continuing the ecological process of living. Keep preservation of flora fauna genetic resources, Keep benefit sustainability of flora fauna resources and its ecosystem for people welfare. The principles of nature conservation mention above were formulation of global commitment from the world environmental conference in Stockholm 1972. For the first time, the principles were became a basic of world conservation strategy, but there was a war of targeting related to space and nature resources, then the principles more getting marginalized. In Indonesia, more getting down to remote land such as the area called original ecosystem representation. The area was very silent from crying of baby, laughing of children, happy love of couple and murmur of the old mans praying. An area without human, because human was positioned as not part of ecosystem, but as a part of threat. Human as a threat, I remembered when I worked in Bogor early 1980s, how the community of WWF was threatened by GOI for swept from Indonesia, when the book of WWF product about The management plan of Siberut Nat. Park, purpose human means indigenous people involve naturally in its management. The reason was no humanity as second of five state principles. Civilized by resettlement was only one choice at last time, in the era full with projects and centralized policy. May be the standardize of life for civilization was village or candidate of town. Why was the principles marginalized by state, including hidden from local community presentation? Answer that question, I remembered when worked in Yogyakarta last 1980,s. I was surprised by a smallest ecosystem presentation maybe in the world. Called Gunung Gamping Nature Reserve (GGNR), not more than 0,0018 Hectares. The human presentation on the area is not possible, thus the area without human looked like humanity. The time was going on, until we were surprised by GOI launching of Nature Biodiversity Conservation Act, Act No. 5 / 1990. The Act detailed principles of nature conservation on the item of public regulation for spreading nature conservation as a part of power, but narrow application for human, especially custom or local community presentation on management. Meanwhile prohibited items grew up rapidly in the progress of technical regulation; in the similar of time GOI s ideas for declaring new nature conservation areas contributed ecosystem presentation in large area. The area like GGNR should be kept in the ministry desk forever. Declaration for large area could be two time like Morowali Nature

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Reserve (MNR), 225,000 hectares in 1986 and 2000, although this area content a phenomenal regress of ecosystem without human, because more than 8,000 customs people of Suku Wana or Tau Taa live there more than 100 years. The effort of local millionaire, Murad Husain, for resettled these peoples outside the area get failure task. One of the impacts maybe no socialized for adaptation programmed. According to GGNR and MNR that contradiction in the phenomenal of humanity and custom or local community presentation could be threat total changeable policy for nature conservation act in Indonesia, but it means a strengthening for the principles of nature conservation and opportunity like a freedom progress from a cage of state power. Making process of the principles from the state regulation, look like a fish tries to get a freedom from the claw of eagle. It means to need struggle times, because the principles that belong and understanding to peoples over the world, now still kept by power thats studying democracy. Get the principles of nature conservation back to people, could be a hopeless solution when delete role of learning process that related to historical, phenomena of local culture and the present of social condition. Timber estate chain saw that culturing more than 30 years in West Borneo, actually had grounded the customary wisdom of Dayak to Nature Conservation that live more than 100 years before. Gunung Palung National Park had been threatened after nature forest a round was exploited and left by HPH (Timber Estate Corporation). In the short-term period plotted through approachment culture aspect, I think it is a hopeless. Maybe we need a long-term approachment for digging up again the true of local principles on nature conservation as a part of Dayak wisdom. The real example mention above is illustration how the learning process necessary present. Learning process could be a local activity or kampung workshop for remembering one and each other. Awareness side by side for consolidation like a heritage society, and dialog for agreement. What the principles of nature conservation could be understood and be done by people? Birch Howard, a Canadian ex jungle guardian that as volunteer now in Tanah Merdeka Foundation Palu for facilitate community mapping, had ever given me a book The glimpses of National Parks in USA. When I watch to portraits of Nat park sequences in it, finally I pull a conclusion that USA Nat Parks no damage by need of human life, because the area look like killing field for human being. Hot stone and sandy nature dominated the area. Those condition very deference if compare to a lot of Nat Parks in tropical land like Indonesia. In the tropical land such of Nat Park look like cracker bread, means fragile but delicate.

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The condition actually could be accepted that before, in to after Christ so many human races born in side grew up and integrated to the actual community as a part of tropical nature and the fragile size. In fact of exploration about local knowledge and activities that relate to their philosophy or cosmology, actually their still life in good security, although the outsider intervention try to catch up intensively to the delicate nature contents. A lot of community makes agreement together for struggling and positioned all of outsider intervention as enemy, because they still need the fragile size sustainability. Interesting for study anthropology about ethnic and sub ethnic groups in Sulawesi, especially Central Sulawesi. The temperate expression that I salute for them is their proudly as a freedom community, symbolized by the name of ethnic that means no way, for example: To Daa, Tau Taa. No way is articulate of freedom value, they didnt want to be tied, occupation and regulated by outsider. These altitudes are general actions of ethnic or sub ethnic in the world. But, intervention in the name of power is very strong and the dam of no way is broken successfully. Now, No way is not their heart again, but there clothe. To Daa. They had land tenure system on the mountainous customary area near closely to Palu valley as a provincial capitol regional development. The aggressive development blew their asset upon the programmed of resettlement. They resettled to the other side of state nature forest so far from the capitol. The meaning of this programmed was Palu got a freedom from threatened of landslide, erosion and flood. Tragic maybe? how could they do ? The no way could be an object or a tool. The otherwise of Tau Taa in Dataran Bulan (YMPP information). They did not care whats the meaning of civilization card, although they more care to their land and its environmental as a central of catchments area. Until now the function of catchments area is still good, especially for three Kabupaten regions. These are Luwuk, Morowali and Poso. Taa expression (no way) has to be appreciated as an action to timber estate activities in their customary area. The asset of agathis trees for gum production, a lot of trees had been cut by timber estate. They did not know a policy of government for establish their area as limited forest product area concession. This policy was opportunity for intervention and exploit forest on the name development. Understanding on the altitudes of two special ethnic no way mention above, remain me to patriotic phenomenal. A patriot is a principle man. Struggling of patriot will be failed when outsider had influenced his principle. How else defending principle that is struggling too.

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Katu community, a long of their history always threatened for cutting off with their customary area. One of their assets for defending is principle, so they must defend too. The basic of Katu principle for defend their customary asset is manage their forest and the distribution of biodiversity in it. They manage asset based on principles of nature conservation, through their understanding about a strengthening of nature limited for succession to climax. Their terminology to climax nature forest as pandulu, not so far different with their treatment to catchments area. River, fresh water, according to their understanding is essential of buffer to human being life. Fact in the field, exposed that pandulu area is perfect succession forest climax and largest of Katu customary area (90%). Pandulu around flat of catchments area, behalf to eternity of gods, their customary belief, could be opened for bonde (rice field) and hinoe (ladang). Bonde could be a permanent rice field if get permanent irrigation access. Organic agriculture pattern that depend on the process of nitrification and circulation of wild life forest nature ecosystem was applicated in Katu. This application caused permanent hinoe land tenure system, in time cycles or locate rotation not more than 200 hectares for daily life of 70-host hold or not more than 400 peoples of Katu. The first hinoe will be back managed after lopotua (forest nature habitat succession above 20 years) or lopolehe (forest nature habitat succession above 10 years). Recognition of Lore Lindu National Park Management on the customary land of Kato (1178 hectares) for collaborative management, give a new initiative for conserve lopotua as an habitat of rattan traditional management that not so far from the central settlement of Katu. Maybe rotation of land tenure system is shorted, harmonize on the goal of intensification and efficiencies of land benefit for ethno botanic specify of Katu, i.e. more than 20 variety of local rice species were collected and planted by Katu community. Enhancing for added value, specially local product including rattan, market access struggling that making get more welfare quality and educate for Katu generation are a part of learning process, that is not finishing yet. Local knowledge, strengthening or weakening to principles of nature conservation? Lindu customary community inherited local knowledge that the application of their land use-mapping looks like zonation on the National Park Management. According to catchments area, elevation, sloping and the cover of forest function, supernatural local belief, they divided customary area to wana and suaka. Wana is an absolutely protected nature dense forest, usually laid on the deep slope, on the hill or top of mountainous high and around of catchments area before the river stream get down to the lake of lindu. Meanwhile suaka is a region that regulate on participative beneficiary. In the suaka content specific suakas based benefit and honorable function, for communal importance and individual needs. Suaka for communal that still honorable to blue blood heritage called suaka maradika. In this suaka ground customary people of lindu may do farm, gardening and settle like a kampong behalf to permit from heritage of maradika. The pattern of sharing product to be cleared here. Community of non-maradika but people of lindu have suaka too that means Suaka ngata. The function of suaka

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ngata similar to suaka maradika, but no pattern of sharing product, all is managed together. Continuously, in the production suaka above, actually not all area of suaka be managed for production in communal system, there is founded such area for maradika individual effort, especially in suaka maradika side of lake for fishing, called suaka parabata. Interesting suaka for nature conservation called suaka viata, the large part of this suaka as a dense forest, high diversity of flora and fauna, laid as a habitat on the platform of Lindu Lake. Lindu community believes that gods of cosmology hosted in suaka viata. The other suaka rather nearest to conservation area called suaka kembara. This suaka has two function, those are grazing ground for cattle and wild life reserve, especially water birds species and Sulawesi eagle. Two conservation suaka above, lie down and distribute to suaka ngata and suaka maradika. Regionalize of local knowledge application in the suaka system, based on conditional area will strengthen principles of nature conservation and the function of Lore Lindu National Park, but the border mark of Nat Park had been discredited area of lindu customary to formal judgment in the form of enclave. The understanding of enclave as an introduction meaning caused a role sharing system and authority moved to government. The authority that easy going to has a high temperate for authority power belonging. The impact of the authority came slowly but feeling to lindu community, especially in the era of reformation euphoria in Indonesia. Awareness came more transparence, the meaning of state land in free condition for using that applicated on the land and lindu lake are: legal new comer status, lake fish species introduction, nationalize of appropriate rice, appropriate potatoes, manufacture fertilizer, herbicide and insecticide introduction, Electrical of water energy planning, resettlement and promising of car road construction project. Local knowledge that is weakened by outsiders intervention will directly compare to weakening process of principles of nature conservation and the function of Lore Lindu National Park. Local government recommended legal comer, had been doing a lot of activities on the customary land of lindu. In fact, this is a beginning of destruction a lot of suaka. Tragic! What is the people able to keep principles of nature conservation in pure and consequently? Ngata Toro, a local customary people in the other site of Lore lindu Nat Park, when young generation of Alisi and Abram still strong hunted anoas and trade buffaloes across jungle from Toro Katu Besoa, maybe did not think about space and the potential of jungle where their two professional peoples habit would be changed status to National park. If they knew and factually was National Park, I sure really, Toro people did not surprise like Tau Taa in Dataran Bulan that a lot of their agathis trees cut by Timber Forest Concession. Clearly, Toro or Tau Taa lost something, habit right and prospect right.

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Toro community said that our customary area as a line of history and ancestor habit occupied by National Park. What is animal of Nat Park? When I explored to Old generation of Toro about National Park, they said that National Park is Protection forest and men cloth green military are PPA, then protection forest means prohibited to entrance, need permission letter from PPA, including herd buffaloes on clearly track of trade to Katu and Besoa. Based on The principles of nature conservation, the result of interactive dialog, then follow community mapping and customary understanding, actually proved that long time before Stockholm flagship, Toro community had local conservation flagship. The color of flag very variety like zoning system performance on their community mapping. From more or less of 22,000 hectares of their customary land, 20,000 hectares overlaid on Lore Lindu Nat Park, divided to their core zone called wanakiki 4,000 hectares, wilderness zone called wana 14,000 hectares and traditional zone like forest garden 2,000 hectares. The recognition of Lore lindu Nat Park Management on the Toro customary zoning for collaborative management, I found an under estimate that this recognition will recover temperate of community from aphetically type and wisdom crisis to strengthening process of enlightment and responsibility. Progress of strengthening proven in the area, i.e. catch outsider as illegal logger, stop rattan exploitation for 5 years then prepare location and rotation of traditional rattan harvesting, regulate and control traditional hunting system, especially wild boar target. They make agreement for themselves no hunting again to anoas, babirusas and the other protected wild. In the agriculture sector, they interest to develop organic system, especially local rice product. Is formulation of policy to the future? Whats the matter that I had explained, I think it is not a short story, but factually happen. Actuality that need strengthening in reality. Strengthening is a learning process. Standardize system based responsive and negotiative hold closely to the equity principles; I am sure that principles absolutely need for the beginning of approachment. Get the principles of nature conservation back to people is a sample appeal, because of deferent situation. The formulations are: Conflict solution will be happy ending if start on the similar of principles, Understanding to a principle need a learning process step by step, Learning process is Education school without wall for life practice without hall.........BE AUTONOMOUS! Palu, March 8th 2001

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