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ORIGINS OF HUMAN CIVILISATIONS

by Prof. Mathole Motshekga B.Iuris, LLB (UNISA), LLM (Harvard), LLD (UNISA) FOUNDER DIRECTOR: Kara Heritage Institute Paper presented at 9th Annual African Renaissance Conference

Venue: ICC, Durban Date: 23-24 May 2007

Origins of human civilization (KZN)

The Time Lines of Recorded Human History The Jews and Egyptians are two ancient races which left us some account of the history of human origins and civilization which dominate the western and African world. The time lines of Jewish history are contained in the Bible itself. Calculations have shown that human history started with Adam and Eve around 4342 BCE. According to Platos hearsay evidence the history of Egypt dated back to 8000 to 9000 years B.C. But evidence gathered from citations of Manetho by other writers dates back the history of Egypt to 23,200 or 3700 BCE. Manetho (347 to 285 BCE) was commissioned by King Ptolemy II to write the history of Egypt. Manetho recorded a predynastic royal line years. He also recorded that an even earlier line of Horus Kings, predated by a dynasty of demi Gods. The combined Periods of the Horus kings and demi Gods stretched back to a further 15,150 years. Western archeologists rejected these datings apparently because they contradict the version of Adam and Eve as the first human beings. But Manethos datings found support in the Turin Papyrus, a Hermetic Manuscript dated 1400 BCE and still considered the most reliable of existing Egyptian King lists. This manuscript support Manetho claim that there were three distinct historical periods prior to the familiar Egypt of dynastic times. The first of these, the predynastic kings, is given as lasting 13,420 years which is reasonably close to Manethos figure of 13,777. The second period, that of the Horus99 Kings, is listed in the Turin Papyrus as lasting for longer than Manetho imagined 23,200 years as opposed to Manethos figure of 15,150 for the combined period of the Horus-kings and Papyrus also recognises the era of the demigods, but has been assigned to it is now missing. Manethos timescale found further support in Bishop Eusebius, a third century church historian. Bishop Eusebius reproduced the following timescale from Manetho: Dynasty of the Gods 30 544 BCE Dynasty of the Demigods 16 644 BCE First line of Kings 15 380 BCE The reign of 30 Kings 13 572 BCE The 10 Kings of Tana (Thinis) 11 782 BCE The Spiriti Mortui (the human Kings) 11432 BCE 1. Mena dynasty 5619 BCE 2. Butho (Boethos) dynasty 5319 BCE 3. Necherofo (Necherofes) dynasty 5065 BCE 4.Soris (Snofru) 1 king dynasty 4851 BCE 4. Khufu/cheops Calso known as Fura 3 kings dynasty 4829 BCE 4. Chepren/khafre/khafura 3 kings 4766 BCE 4. Merikara/myerkinos 4 kings 4700 BCE

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According to this timescale the African dynasties including the founding of Egypt, happened long before the appearance of Adam and Eve. According to the Turin Papyrus the Gods (Neteru) of the First Time (Zep Tepi) who ruled on earth are: Ptah, Ra, Shu, Geb, Osiris, Seth, Horus and then Thoth, Maat, Horus but Biblical scholars still tried to make Adam and his descendants contemporaries of the Gods of the First Time. Comparative Table Biblical Patriarchs Adam Seth Enos Cainan Mahalaleel Jared Enoch Methuselah Lamech Noah Egyptians Gods Ptah Ra Su Seb Osiris Set Hor Tut Ma Hor Chaldean kings Alorus Aloparus Almelon Ammenon Amegalarus Daonus Aedorachus Amempsinus Otiartes Xisuthros

The Western founders of Freemasonry falsified human history but not only equating human Gods with the Gods (Neteru) of the First Time (Zep Tepi) but also attributing the achievements of Lord Khem or Thoth Hermes to Tubal chain son of Lamech. The Adamic land Khemetic lineages are not the same. The Khemites are Africans and the Adamites and Semites. The Khemetic Theory of space and time The African Calendar

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The balance of evidence now available show that the three human races, Khemites/Hamites (indigenous Africans), Asians and Europeans appeared in the area of the great Lakes in Primordial times. They were dispersed by the over flooding of the Nile which saw them migrating respectively to North, East Africa (Khem/Ta Shema) Europe and Asia. The Gods (Neteru) of the First Time (Zep Tepi) joined the Khemites in North East Africa and taught them arts, sciences and philosophy which they used to built temples obelisks and pyramids. The Spread of the Khemetic Civilisation

The Early colonization of Egypt


During the middle Kingdom (2055 1650 BCE) the Hyksos (i.e. Semitic shepherd Kings) began infiltrating Lower Egypt (i.e. the delta region). They adopted many of the Egyptian ways, including dynastic titles for their rulers and the evic God set, brother of Osiris, and renamed him Sutech or Satanuka. As these Hyksos settlers gradually infiltrated they became wealthier and more established. About 1750 BCE the Hyksos XX sacked the Egyptian, but preferred to remain in their eastern strongholds where they then co-existed quite amicably with the emerging Theban seventeenth Dynasty. This Dynasty ruled over an area from Elephantine to Abydos, preserving the ancient culture and traditions. South of Elephantine lay the empire of ancient Ethiopia with the present day as its heartland. Both sides seemed content to allow the existence of the outer without too much fuss, but the Thebans (i.e. Egyptians of Ethiopian extraction were merely biding their time. Gradually, as they became more confident in their power, they began to arm themselves and rose against the Hyksos, beginning a campaign that would finally see the Hyksos expelled from the delta and wiped as thoroughly as possible from Egyptian history. The Hyksos that infiltrated Egypt included the Jewish Patriarch Abraham. It was during the Hyksos colonial rule that Joseph, son of Jacob (or Israel) became the prime minister of Egypt. When the Hyksos were expelled some of them were captured and enslaved. This group became the children of Israel who were liberated by Moses, founder of the Jewish nation, after a civil war. The Thebans of the seventeenth Egyptian dynasty liberated the Delta region and established the eighteenth dynasty, best known as the New Kingdom (1550 1069 BCE).

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The New Kingdom


The liberator of Egypt Ahmose or Amosis I was the son of Tao Seqenra and brother of Kamose. After the expulsion of the Hyksos the Thebans turned their attention southwards to Ethiopia. Here he regained Ethiopian territory up to the second Cataract, establishing a new administration with a viceroy at its head. The first one is known to have been called Djehuty Pharaoh Ahmose married his sister, Nefertiri, and had a number of children amongst whom was his successor, Amenhotep I (1525 1504 BCE), also known as Djeserkara. Pharaoh Amenhotep (Dr Djeserkara) I was succeeded by Thothmose I, also known as Akheperkara. He legitimized his claim to the throne through his marriage to the daughter of Ahmose 1. Thothmose I (1504 1492 BCE) pushed the borders of Egypt further into Ethiopia and Palestine. In Ethiopia he expanded Egyptian sovereignty beyond the fourth Cataract. In the Sinai he even crossed the Euphrates in a campaign against the Mitanni. Thutmose I remodeled the great temple at Karanaka (Greek Karnak), in honor of Amun for granting him success and victory in his military campaigns. He was succeeded by his son, Mutneferu as Thothmoses II (1492 1479 BCE). He married the daughter of his father and Queen Hatshepsut, also known as Makare (or Maatkara), a strong woman who later made her own bid for the throne. When Thothmoses II died his son inherited the throne at an early age and consequently his aunt Hatshepsut (or Maatkara) became regent. But by the seventh year Hatshepsut (1473 1458 BCE) had built up enough support from her officials and had herself declared king. She built herself a unique and magnificent Deir el-Bahari temple. This temple was dedicated to the Ethiopian God Amu. The temple also features a birth relief which shows Amun visiting her mother, implying her own immaculate birth. During this time Thothmoses III, the rightful Pharaoh was reduced to a junior co-regent and tasked with the more physically demanding civil and military expeditions she continued adding to the temple to Amun at Thebes, but also set about restoring other temples that had fallen into disrepair or suffered during the war with the Hyksos. After the death of Hatshepsut (or Maatkara) Thothmose III, also known as Menkheperra, came into his inheritance. He extended the boundaries of Egypt to Palestine, the near east and Ethiopia. His was the largest Egyptian empire. Thothmose was also a spiritual ma. He established the great Solar (Kara) society which inherited the legacy of the shamsu Hara (Greek Shemsu Hor) the ancestor of Mena (5619 BCE) the founder of Egypt. Pharaoh Thothmoses III was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep II (1427 1400 BCE), also known as Aakheperura. Pharaoh Amenhotep II was succeeded by Thothmoses IV, Menkheperura. The dream stole between the paws of the Giza sphinx tells of a dream promising kingship to him if

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he cleared away the sand surrounding Ra Harakhte (or Xpakhte). He fulfilled this dream and used it to legitimize his rule. Pharaoh Thothmoses IV was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep III. Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1390 1352 BCE), also known as Amenophis and Nubmaatra, reigned for 40 years. He was the son of Thothmose IV by one of his chief wives, Mutemwiya, daughter of the Mitanniah king. Thus, his was a Hybrid pharaoh with Egyptian and Asian blood. But he married an Ethiopian woman, Tiye mother of Amenhotep IV (later Known as Akhetaton). When Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (or Akhetaton) came to power the priesthood of Amun which headed the Great Solar (Kara) society were the king makers and they managed the affairs of the empire. Under the priesthood of Amun the Ethiopian God Amun-RaHarakhte was well established. Initially Amenhotep became the prophet of Harakhte or Xpakhte. This name consists of Xp (or known as Aton or A ) and Akhte (Greek Eichton), popularly

Pharaoh amenhotep IV adopted the Piscean God Aton (or aten), symbolised by the sun disc ( ) as the sole God of the empire. He renamed himself Akhetaton and built a new Capital city at EC Armana. The God Harakhte or Xpakhte (Greek Xpictoc), pronounced Christos later became the God of the Roman empire. Although Xpictoc (or Christos) was not a human God the Roman Imperial God gave the name Christos to Yeshua (Greek Jesus) in 325 CE. Thus Yeshua came to be known as Jesus Christ. During the reign of Pharaoh Akhetaton the Great Solar (Kara) society established two branches, namely, the Therapeutae and the Essene, also called the Nazarene society. The latter was headed by Moses, founder of the Jewish nation, who adopted the African Piscean God Eichton or Aton and renamed him Adon or Adonai. Moses was learned in all the arts, sciences and philosophy of the Egyptians. It is clear, therefore, that both Christianity and Judaism came out of the African mysteries. The religious changes of Pharaoh Akhetaton caused a great unrest within the empire which Tutankhamun his successor, abolished his Piscean (Atenist) religion and reinstated God Ptah, Amen-Ra-Harakhte and the entire African Pantheon. The gilded statue of God Ptah was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (1332 -1322 BCE).

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The Statue of Ptah

p. 16 Joann Fletcher The Egyptian Book of living & Dying. Pharaoh Tutankhamun was succeeded by Horem heb (1323 - 1295 BCE) who ushered in the Ramesside (or 19th dynasty). Pharaoh Rameses II dedicated the temple of Aba Simba (Greek Abu Simbel) to himself, Ra Harakhte, Amun, and Ptah in line with the Egyptian Pantheon restored by Pharaoh Tutankhamun. He also placed the picture of God Ra Harakhte or Xpakhte (Greek Xpictoc) above the door way with four Pharaonic figures representing the four children of Horus. Here at Abu Simbel, therefore, one finds the early evidence of mystical or Gnostic Christianity. The instability of the Ramesside dynasties opened the way for Libyans and other foreigners to settle in the Delta region. These foreigners adopted the native Egyptian culture and traditions a Libyan military commander, Shesong I allied himself to the Ramesside dynasty and legitimized his claim by marrying Maatkara, the daughter of Pharaoh Psusennes II. His strength and military expertise once more united the Egypt, and he placed his sons in key positions of power and authority. One son, Iuput, was the governor of Upper Egypt and high priest of Amun, with another brother, Djeptahaufankh, backing him up as third priest of Amun. Another son, Nimlot, was the military commander of Heraldeopolis. During the reign of Shesong I king Solomon of Judea, not only studied in Egypt but also married the daughter of this Libyan Pharaoh. In 930 BCE, with Judah and Israel in dispute following the death of Solomon, king Shesong saw his chance and invaded. He defeated both Judea and Israel in a magnificent campaign celebrated on the walls of the great temple of Amun at Thebes. During the reign of Shesong, King Solomon studied in Egypt and also married the daughter of the King. The Libyan dynasty was overthrown by the Ethiopians who established the 25th (or Ethiopian) dynasty. During the Libyan dynasty the kingdom of the lower and upper Egypt were fragment into city states. This happened at the time when Ethiopia in the South was growing in power. During the rule of the 23rd and 24th Libyan dynasties a war broke out between ancient Ethiopia and the ruling Libyan dynasties. Defeat of the Libyan army lead to the establishment of the Ethiopian (25th) dynasty which united lower and upper Egypt. The Ethiopia Dynasty

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Pharaoh Piankhi (747 76 BCE) the high priest of Amun at Gebel Barkal in Napata, led the war against the Libyans. He married the daughter of Pharaoh Alara, the seventh king of Napata, and succeeded his father-in-law upon his decease. After defeating the Libyans Piankhi allowed them to continue in their roles as city-state kings. The Libyan leader, Tefnakht (727 720 BCE) who was defeated by Piankhi was succeeded by Bakenrenef also known as Wahkara. King Piankhi allowed Wahkara to rule in Sais under his overlordship. Wahkara is the only universally recognised Pharaoh of the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. In about the twentieth year of his rule Pharaoh Piankhi moved against the coalition of Northern kings, defeating them at Herakleopolis. He then established his influence at Tape (Greek Thebes) by getting his sister adopted as the Divine wife of Amun, and instigating building and restoration work at the great temple, but he preferred to rule from Napata. Pharaoh Piankhi was buried in a Pyramid at Gebel Barkal. Pharaoh Piankhi was succeeded by Shabaka (716 702 BCE) his brother (also known as Neferkara) who continued to exert Ethiopian influence in Egypt. Proper Pharaoh Shabaka too, undertook extensive building and restoration of various religious centres, mainly Amun at Thebes but also at Dendera, Esna, Edfu, Abydos, and Memphis. During Shabakas reign the Assyrian threat continued to grow, but he managed to contained it. On his death Shabaka like Piankhi, was buried near the religious centre of Napata at Gebel Barkal. Pharaoh Shabaka was succeeded by Shebitku (702 -690 BCE) his Nephew and son of Piankhi Pharaoh Shebitku was also known as Djedkara. He had a more complicated part to play against the outside threat, making an alliance with Palestinians and Phoenicians against Assyrian overlordship, but they were soon defeated by the Assyrian King Sennacherib Taharqa (690 664 BCE), also known Nefertemkara, succeeded his brother Shebitku to the throne. The Assyrian threat faded slightly with the death of Sennacherib in 681 BCE, but soon resumed and continued throughout Taharqas rule. In 673 BCE the Assyrians were thrown back at the border, but in 671 BCE they invaded and captured the Egyptian Capital of Memphis reigning Pharaoh Taharqa fled to Thebes from where he led a brief resurgence against the Assyrians before he was beaten back again. Eventually Taharqa retreated all the way to Napata. Pharoah Taharqa built throughout Egypt and Ethiopia, restoring the temples especially at Thebes, the spiritual centre of the Napatan Priest-Kings. He appointed his oversea Mentuemhet, the mayor of Thebes and used his brothers to hold the nobility in the city in check. Tanutamun (664 656 BCE), the successor of Taharqa, was also known as Bakare. He had high hopes of liberating the whole country, but was defeated by the Assyrians and forced to flee to Napata in 656 BCE bringing Ethiopian influence in Egypt to the end. As the Assyrians pushed back the Ethiopians and sacked Thebes in 656 BCE,

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they acknowledged Nekau as king of Sais and his Son Psamtik as king of Athribis, also in the Delta region. The Ethiopian Dynasty
c. 1000-850 BC c. 785-780 BC c. 760 BC c. 747-716 BC 716-656 BC 716-702 BC 690-664 BC 664-656 BC

Rise of a chiefdom centered at Napata Chief Alara unites Upper Nubia Kashta unites all Nubia; calls himself king (son of Ra) of Upper and lower Egypt King Piye (Piankhi) establishes sovereignty over Upper Egypt Wars against the kings and princes of Lower Egypt 25th dynasty; Kushites established capital in Egypt King Shabitko (son of Piye) King Taharqa King Tanutamani Kushites expelled from Egypt by Assyrians End of control over Egypt

The Twenty Six Dynasties


After the withdrawal of the Ethiopians from Egypt the Assyrian invaders appointed Psamtik (also known as Wahibra the king of the whole country). He was given the brief of pacifying it and coming to terms with Thebes. This was achieved when Mentuemhet, the daughter of Psamtik # 1, Nitocret as the divine wife of Amun. This accommodation with Thebes allowed Psamtik 1 to turn his attention to his rivals in the Delta. He gathered a large army of Greek Mercenaries which help him to bring the Delta under control. His successor Wahibra, son of Psamtik II, was overthrown by Ahmose II (as Amasis II. Like his predecessors Amasis II gave Greeks a city, Naucratis, in the Delta and used them as Mercenaries to fight against Persians who later defeated Psamtik III (526 -525), also known as Ankhara, and ruled Egypt until they were expelled by the Greek who established the Ptolemaic Dynasty. The Greek settlement in the Delta during the reigns of Psamtik and his successors enabled Greek scholars to benefit from the renaissance which was introduced by the Ethiopian (or 25th dynasty) and continued by Pharaoh Amasis II. The Ethiopian Renaissance The first renaissance in Egypt was introduced by the Pharaoh of the new kingdom, especially Thothmoses III, who established the great Solar (Kara) society which preserved and propagated the teachings of the Shamsu Hara (i.e. the followers of Horus). These teachings were originally recorded by Lord Khem or Thoth Hermes, the scribe and messenger of the Gods (Neteru) of the First Time (Zep Tepi) when Menes

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(5619 BCE) founded the empire of Egypt with its Capital at Memphis he introduced the Khemetic or Hermetic arts, sciences and philosophy. The custodians of the Khemetic or Hermetic teachings in Memphis were the priest of God Tapa (or Pata), popularly known as Ptah the master Architect of the universe. Both Ethiopia (Atpu or Tape) and Egypt (Hakaptah) were named after Ptah. S/he was worshipped in both countries from the beginning of their histories. Ptahs central role in creation was first set down at least as early as the middle kingdom. However, the main surviving source is a copy in stone made on the orders of king Shabaka (716 702 BCE) when the original ancient papyrus scroll in the temple of Ptah was discovered to be damaged. The inscription refers to the king by his standard title of son of Ra (Sa Ra) but he is also called the son of Ptah: His majesty found this work of the ancestors to be worm-eaten and copied it anew so that it was better than before, in order that it may endure forever, as a work done by the son of Ra for his father Ptah The gilded Statuette of Ptah was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (1332 -322 BCE) in 1922. The Statue of Ptah According to the priest of Ptah, this God was responsible for the whole of creation. To stress the pre-eminence of Ptah, they combined her/him with both the masculine and feminine aspects of the waters of chaos (Nun) as Ptah Nun and Ptah Naunet, and referred to him/her as the father who bore Atum, the mother who bore Atum. In the Memphite theology inscribed on the Shabaka Stone, a remarkably sophisticated creation account recorded by the priests of Ptah at Memphis says that the universe was formed simply through the power of Ptahs heart (that is, his mind or intellect, which they believed to be located in the heart). After thinking the world and all living including the Gods into being, he then made them a reality through the simple process of uttering their names: The Gods came into being through Ptah, Atum took shape in his heart and on his tongue. For the very greatest is Ptah, who gave life to all the Gods and their Kas [souls] through his heart and his tongue, in which Horus has taken shape as Ptah, in which Thoth has taken shape as Ptah. Ptah is in the mouth of all the Gods, all humans, all cattle, all creeping things that live. The Ennead of Ptah are his teeth and lips, they are the Semen and the hands of Atum. All the gods were born and his Ennead was complete. For every word of the God came about through that which his heart thought of and his tongue summoned forth and Ptah is Tatenen [the primeval hill], who gave birth to the Gods, and from whom all things came forth. He is the mightiest of all the Gods, satisfied at what he has made.

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After creating all things, Ptah perfected them through his skills as an artisan. Thus he came to be known as the master architect or craftsman. During the reign of the Ethiopian (25th dynasty) which brought about the second Egyptian renaissance Greeks were already in touch with Egypt. For instance, from 700 BCE the Greek Island of Samos had been forging strong trading links with Egypt. The Greeks in particular had a close connection with Egypt under Pharaoh Amasis (570 BCE) who allowed them to found a special city, Naucratis, as a trading base in the Nile Delta. He even allowed them to construct their own temples all time. His father sent him to Phoenecia for his schooling later he was advised by Thales to further his studies in Egypt where he lived and studied for 22 years. During this time he learned geometry, astronomy, alchemy, hieroglyphics, and philosophy and was also, initiated into the mysteries of the Ethiopian Isis and Osiris. Thus Pythagoras became the First Greek beneficiary of his disciple, Plato, student in Egypt for 12 years and was also initiated into the mysteries. Plato bought three Hermetic manuscripts from the Pythagoreans and adapted them to produce the Timaeus, which summed up Egyptian cosmology which was adopted by Aristotle became the teacher of Alexander the great, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. After the collapse of the Graeco-Macedonian empire Alexanders generals inherited various provinces Ptolemy Maryam Soter I, a general of Egyptian extraction inherited Egypt.

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The Statue of Ptolemy

The Ptolemies were hybrid products settled in Egypt since the time of Amasis II. Thus they portrayed themselves as Egyptian and followed the culture and traditions of the country. Ptolemy II commissioned Manetho, a high priest of Sebennytos and scribe of the great Solar (Kara) society to translate the Hermetic or Khemetic books on arts, sciences and philosophy inot Greek and to write a history of Egypt. Besides, Ptolemy II requested Manetho to assist him to introduce the African Solar trinity (Osiris, Isis and Horus) as the state religion. The solar trinity, symbolised by Xp or emblem, came to be known as the religion of Usar Apa (Greek Sarapis i.e. the word of Osiris). Serapis was symbolised by the hawk Nazara (or Nazra), also known as Nasara (or Nasra) Thus the Serapean religion also came to be known as the Nazarene religion. The Ptolemaic dynasty was destroyed by the Romans during the reign of Cleopatras (51 30 BCE), when Ptolemy XII died, he left his daughter Cleopatra III the throne, on the condition that she marry her elder brother Ptolemy XIII. But the brother wanted to kill her and seize the throne Cleopatra fled to relatives in Syria and came to reclaim her kingdom before they could even fight the Romans, who were themselves involved in power struggles, appeared on the scene. Pompey sought the protection of Ptolemy III who killed him and delivered his head to Julius Caesar. Caesar sat in judgment on the case between Ptolemy III and Cleopatra III. He found in favor of Cleopatra who had fallen in love with him to save her kingdom. Julius Caesar restored her to the throne. Following the endogamous [i.e. brother and sister] marital rites of ancient Africa Cleopatra married her younger brother, Ptolemy XIV. At the same time she began an affair with Julius Caesar and bore him a son, Ptolemy XV Caesarion. When Caesar returned to Rome she was secure on her throne after his murder the Roman Empire was fought over yet again. Thus time Cleopatra backed the loser, Mark Anthony, and paid for his mistake with the loss of her kingdom. Cleopatra committed suicide rather than face humiliation at the hands of Rome. When she died Egypt lost a very clever and capable leader and the Ptolemaic Dynasty ended. The Roman Period Following the defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra Egypt lost its sovereignty and became a colony of Rome. During the reign of Octavian (who became Augustus Caesar

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and the first Emperor in 27 BCE) Egypt became the personal estate managed exclusively by and for the emperor. She became the bread-basket of Rome. The Roman emperors continued to observe the Egyptian culture and religion and some even built temples for Osiris and Isis and portrayed themselves as Egyptian Pharaohs. The Roman emperors went as far as visiting the temples of Osiris and Isis on the Island of Phalaka (Greek Philae i.e. the city of the Sun), Ethiopia, to worship. When Emperor Constantine introduced Roman Christianity during the fourth century may Serapean or Nazarean doctrines, festivals and sacraments were adopted by the new religion.

The Second Ethiopian Renaissance


The Ethiopian Pharaohs of the 25th dynasty who were forced by the Assyrians to withdraw from Egypt to Napata were also dislodged form this city and forced to settle in the Southern city of Meroe. Meroe, the capital city of Ancient Ethiopia for some 900 has ruins of temples and pyramids much older than those of Egypt, confirming that Meroe was the mother city of all Ethiopia and that Egyptian civilization came from Ethiopia. The main centres of Ancient Ethiopia were Kerma (now Nubia), Kush, Meroe and Abyssingia (or Zendj), modern Ethiopia. The Empire of Ancient Ethiopia like that of Egypt ran along the Nile. At its height its rulers controlled some 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) of the Nile River, reaching almost to the mountains of Abyssinia. Ancient Ethiopia and Egypt shared the Khemetic or Hermetic culture and traditions which originated in North East Africa (Khem or Ta Shema). These culture and traditions were inherited from the gods (Neteru) of the First Time (Zep Tepi) who came to settle with the Khemites or Hamites (i.e. indigenous Africans) in North East Africa after their arrival from Punt or Tantura (Greek Taneter i.e. land of the gods or Divine Land) also known as Afura or Afar (i.e. land of the Sun, King or God). However, the Ethiopian dynasty of Meroe formed a separate, distinct and coherent culture. The Meroitic Kings worshipped, inter alia Amun and Isis, and built Pyramids for their tombs. They wrote their formal inscriptions in hieroglyphics and also developed two other alphabets which have not been deciphered. The Pyramids of Moroe

Due to the similarities between the Meroitic and Egyptian cultures and traditions, early archeologists dismissed the former as merely an imitation of Egyptian glory. Now it is accepted that the Meroitic culture had its roots in the earlier Ethiopian civilization dating back to 2000 BC. It did not spring suddenly with the arrival of the refugees from the Ethiopian (25th) dynasty of Egypt. It had its own indigenous language and divine Kingship in which the King was the earthly representative of the God of Light

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(Kara or Hara). Thus they assumed dynastic tittles such as Karamani (or Arkakamani). Another important feature was that inheritance could take place through the female line. Hence the prominence of the Queens called Candace. The Meroitic culture of Ancient Ethiopia was destroyed by the Axumite conquest around 35o AD which led to the rise of Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia) as the successor state of Ancient Ethiopia. However, Abyssinia, now traces its roots to King Solomon rather than King Alara. Nevertheless, the culture of Ancient Ethiopia did not suddenly disappear due to the Abyssinian invasion; it was gradually transformed and became part of the regal culture of early Africa. The legacy of Africa to the West The great Solar (Kara) society established by Pharaoh Thothmoses III formed two branches, the Therapeutae and the Essene, during the reign of Pharaoh Akhetaton. The Solar (Kara) society and its two branches survived until the Ptolemaic period and played a major role in the transmission of Khemetic or Hermetic wisdom to the Graeco-Roman world. The Solar philosophy (Karaism) popularly known as Hermeticsm or Gnosticism, provided the necessary elements for the development of the Judeo Christian and Western sciences. The Early Religious Movements Three early founders of religious movements including Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, Simon Magus of Samaria, and Yeshua (Greek Jesus) the Nazarene, and Apollonius of Tyana studied in the mystery schools of Egypt. Philo Judaeus adopted the idea of the heavenly father or First Cause. The followers of Yeshua the Nazarene whose gospels were not canonized taught the same doctrine as Simon Magus and Apollonius of Tyana. These disciples include Phillip, Thomas, Mary Magdalene and Barnabas. The inner doctrines of Karaism or Hermetic Gnosis are contained in the Tablet of Ham or the Emerald Tablet of Hermes which Apollonius of Tyana inherited from the Pythagoras who had obtained it from Egypt. It will be shown later how this Tablet catalysed the development of Western Science. The Solar (Kara) religion of the early Piscean age (0 500 years) was based on the Hermetic teachings contained in the Divine Pymander which teaches of a spiritual trinity comprising the mind, thought and word which emanated from the Unknown First Cause. In the religion the Mind manifested itself and the light that issued the word known as the son of God. In Karaism, therefore, the Son of God was a spiritual not a human being. According to Clement of Alexandria St Mark, who founded the Coptic church of Egypt also taught Karaism or Hermetic Gnosticism. The early Coptic Christianity dated back to the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom notably, Akhetaton and Tutankhamun.

Statue of Tutankhamun
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Karaism or Hermetic Gnosticism found its best preservation in the lineage of Simon Magus who is suppressed by the New Testament. The students of Simon Magnus who are well known are Menander and Saturnitos. Basilides, the pupil of Menander also studied in Alexandria like all Karaites or Hermetic Gnostics, Basilides worshipped III the God of light called IAO (or JAH) Abakara or Abaraka (Greek Abraxas). This God, like the Solar (or spiritual) trinity is symbolised by the Solar emblem. The Solar Emblem

IA

In this Emblem

The spiritual father symbolised by the sun are the Orion stars The spiritual mother symbolised by the Planet Venus and Sirius star

The spiritual child symbolised by the Planet Mercury and the star Sirius B.

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The Solar Emblem ( ) was adopted by the apostiles of Yeshua the Nazarene and later by Constantine the great. It is still randomly used, with little if any understanding of its Solar origins by some modern churches. The Karaite or Gnostic teachings of Basilides and his pupil, Valentian, were rediscovered in the Gnostic or Hermetic gospels found at Nag Hammadi, Upper Egypt, in 1945. These gospels, like the Dead Sea scrolls, reveal that the original Christianity preexisted Yeshua (Greek Jesus) the Nazarene and goes back to the Egyptian New Kingdom and beyond. The Gnostic Christianity or Karaism was perverted by Constantine the great who created a new faith at the Nicene council in 325 CE. This was followed by the compilation of the Vulgate Bible by St Jerome. This Bible included the four Canonical gospels and excluded all the Hermetic or Gnostic gospels found at Nag Hammadi which were used by the Coptic churches and the Egyptian Monasteries. In 367 Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria issued a Festal latter which canonized the four gospels included in the Vulgate Bible and condemned all others as heretical Pagan literature when the Monks and Nuns in the Monasteries of St Pachomius received this letter they buried their gospels and other Hermetic literature for fear of persecution. These literatures remain hidden until they were rediscovered in 1945. In 391 BCE the Roman Emperor Theodosius appointed Theophilus as the Bishop of Alexandria. This bishop led a horde of fundamentalist Christians who destroyed the Serapeum the library of Alexandria and attacked Hermetic philosophers forcing them to flee to Athens and Harran taking some of their books with when Emperor Justinian closed the Platonic Academy in Athens Hermetic philosophers fled to Constantinople (Now Istanbul) and Bagdad where new centres of learning emerged in Bagdad Hermetic books were translated into Arabic and Hermetic learning flourished spreading to Fez in North Africa and Toledo in Spain. The Solar philosophy in Alexandria The persecution of Karaism or Hermetic Gnosticism in the Coptic Church did not affect the Solar (Kara) philosophical movement in Egypt. This movement was led by the African Sage Ammonius Sakka (162 -242 CE), who sought to reconcile all religious movement and restore the purity of ancient Hermetic wisdom. Sakka claimed that mission of Yeshua (Greek Jesus) the Nazarene was the same as his. He interacted with the Rabbis, and early Christian fathers such as Clement of Alexandria. Sakkas best known students were Plotinus (204 -270 CE) and Origen (185 254 CE), who succeeded Clement of Alexandria as the head of the Catechetical school. The apostles and early Christian fathers taught the doctrine of union of the Divine spark or God within the One or the Good.

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The best exponent of Karaism was Plotinus (204 270 CE). His Solar (Kara) philosophy was amplified by his successorsPporphyry (232 305), Iamblichus (30/5), Proclus (410 485 CE) and Dionysius the Areopagite (500 CE). The most recognisable feature of Karaism is the emphasis on the One the Good, the First Principle, which radiates love to all souls, which in turn seek mystical union with this source of all things through intellectual and Moral labour. The One transcends Being and thought and is unknowable unity with the One can only be reached through mystical experience. St Origen, student of Ammonius Sakka, exercised profound influenced on Roman Catholic theology through the so-called fourth century Cappadocian fathers (Basil the great of Caesarea, his brother Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus), whose views were crucial for John Scotus Eriugena (847 877). Proclus was a key authority for the fifth-century Solar (Karaite) philosopher Dionysius the Areopagite who introduced the Solar or Hermetic Ennead (Trinity of Trinities) came to be as the Angelic choirs. In this Solar hierarchy the universe is a living organism, with all its parts linked and connected. At the very top, of course, is the One which is also known as the Divine Mind which manifests itself as the Divine Light (i.e. the seat of ideas or eternal forms). The location of the Empyrean of God the highest part of heaven, beyond the sphere of the fixed stars. Below the stars is the Premium Mobile the sphere that is the source of the daily rotation of the heavens. Underneath this level are the spheres of the seven planets, filled with ether, and yet further, the moon and finally the earth. On the earth are to be found the four elements of water, earth, air and fire, which mixed together to form the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. Though the Empyrean heaven of the one seems distant from the earth there is a direct connection which makes life on earth possible. The Divine Mind at the very top is the source of the World Soul (Anim Mundi), which was everywhere present and is quite literally the life of the cosmic animal that is called nature. The actual link between the World Soul and the earth (i.e. the world body) is the world spirit (spiritus Mundu) The African roots of Modern Sciences The Hermetic (or Alchemical) manuscripts from Alexandria which were translated into Arabic in Bagdad and spreads to Fez and Toledo began to appear in the eighth century. Some of them were ascribed to the Ummayad Prince Khaled. In Arabic writing Alchemy or Hermetic Art was often described as the Wisdom of the temples. The Arabs derived their Hermetic art from, in particular the Emerald Tablet which they obtained from Apollonius of Tyana, a disciple of Pythagoras who studied in both Egypt and Ethiopia. The Latin translation of the Arab alchemical texts appeared in Europe as early as 1144 CE. They were translated by the same author who translated the Koran from then on, the

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Hermetic art became part of the Western tradition as well. The other sources of Karaism or Hermeticsm in Europe in Europe were the Aesclepius (Imhotep). The Latin version of the Asclepius was copied many times in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, for this was the text that attracted most interest, especially in relation to Platos Timaeus. Thomas Bradwardine (1349) was also a great student of Asclepius, as was Petrarch (1304 74), founder of the European renascent movement. At the council of Florence in 1439 the Byzantine scholar George Gemistus Plethon (1355 1452) popularised Hermeticsm. In Florence Cosimo d Medici established a Platonic Academy to resume the Legacy of the early Academy to resume the legacy of the early Academy in Athens which was closed by Justinian in 529. In 1460 Leonardo of Pistoia brought Hermetic writings from Macedonia to the Platonic Academy in Florence. Marsilio Ficino translated the Greek texts into Latin at the Bequest of Cosimo de Medici. These Hermetic texts were held as evidence that philosophy existed even before Plato and Pythagoras. Ficinos book underwent sixteen printings before the end of the sixteenth century. The Latin translation of the Emerald Tablet was first, published in 1541. From Latin it was translated into many European languages. The Tablet of Ham or Emerald Tablet of Ham contains the law of Analogy or Correspondence which says the physical is a reflection of the spiritual world and they both emanated from the one and the mother thereof is the moon (Ma) and the sun (Ra) or the union (Mara) of the two. The Birth of Modern Sciences Renascent European scholars such as Copernicus, Kepler and Newton were credited with landmark inventions without acknowledgement of their sources. It is claimed, for instance, that Copernicus invented the heliocentric (i.e. sun centred World-view. But this world-view already existed in the Bemben stone, also known as the Isaic Table which correspond with the Zodiac of Maphungubwe which was found in the Barozwi city of Matendera 10 miles out of Zimbabwe. The so-called Keplers nestle of squares or cubes within cubes also known as the Pandora box is a Hermetic sacred object dating back to the Egyptian Old kingdom found by Mena (5619 BCE), descendant of the Shamsu Hara (Greek Shemsu Hor (i.e. Followers of Horus) from ancient Ethiopia. Sir Isaac Newton, a President of the British Royal Society, studied the Hermetic art or Alchemy secretly and also translated the Corpus Hermeticum from which he learnt the unified theory of being which is also embodied in the Bemben stone or the Isaic Table. This is the theory that also informed Albert Einstein scientific theories. Albert Einstein was also a disciple of the African Sage Khem or Thoth Hermes. This emerged quite clearly in his exposition of the relationship between science and religion and the intuition as the source of truer sciences.

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The Destruction of African Civilisations The regal culture of the Ethiopians or Meroe, Napata and Thebes spread to west central and southern Africa after the colonization of these Areas by Romans, Arabs and the Axumites. The sacred rulers from these centres founded new dynasties such as the Kingdoms of Benin, Ghana, Bakongo, Bankole (Uganda), Zandj, Monomugi, Ngola, Maphungubwe, Mongale and Mwanamutapa. When the slave trade started these new kingdoms, also known as the Sudaneses (for Ethiopian) slaves were well on their way to development. Their World-View was substantially the same with that of Lord Khem or Thoth Hermes. They were also skilled in stone building and metallurgy. The essence of the world-views is contained in the cosmology of the Dogon of Mali, Chokwe of Zambia and the Barozwi of Maphungubwe whose cosmology is shared by their Bavenda and Balobedu descendants other southern African communities. The Maphungubwe Zodiac is expounded briefly below because of its relevance for the spiritual and moral regeneration and decolonization of the mind of African people. The holistic and humanist world-view embodied in this Zodiac will have South Africans and, Africans, in particular, to develop a spiritual and scientific outlook which will free them from blind faith, that is, faith without knowledge. The Maphungubwe Zodiac The sacred object called the Maphungubwe Zodiac is a wooden platter with a turtle or crocodile like figure which represent the Solar (Charaoh/Kara) principle, also known as Hamptah or Champtah (i.e. the First Cause, Spirit, Divine Mind or light) this sacred object is surrounded by our triangular slabs with two in each pair facing in opposite direction. The four triangular slabs symbolise the four elements (water, fire, earth and air) and the four light beings which preside over the four quarters of the universe. This the Solar (Kara/Charaoh) principle and the four elements of water, fire, earth and air represent the five constitutive elements of being. These, five elements are encircled by the seven outer planets (Kabiri) which correspond to the seven spheres of being which leads into the Zodiac (i.e. the 12 divisions of heaven). The Zodiac is the eighth sphere of being that leads into the Ennead (Pauti i.e. ninefold principle). Outside the Zodiac one finds the Orion, Sirius (Saba) and B which correspond to the Spiritual father, mother and the child who are symbolised respectively by the Sun (Ra), planet Venus (Mara) and Mercury (Kara). These relationships confirm the Law of correspondence which says the material is a reflection of the spiritual world.

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