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2nd period folk and pop clothing: Karen Ding, Aditya Kulkarni, Ruiqi Wang, Chirag Kashyap Jeans

have become one of the greatest popular culture icons in the world now. Jeans had very humble beginnings, however, becoming popular among manual laborers. The jeans as we know were created by Levi Strauss in the 1850s during the California Gold Rush. The prospectors who had come to California to mine had extreme difficulties finding a pant that would last for a long time, so Strauss started making pants twilled cotton from France, also known as denim. This material was strong enough to withstand the physical lives of the miners yet comfortable to use daily. In 1873, Levi Strauss and Co. began a pocket stitch design and started putting rivets on the pants for extra strength. Jeans began becoming widely popular in the 20th century mostly through hierarchical diffusion. In the 1930s and 1940s Hollywood began making many cowboy western films which displayed denim waist overalls. Also, jeans became a huge hit among the young people in the 1950s due to the film Rebel Without a Cause and the iconic James Dean who starred in that movie. In the 1960s jeans became a symbol of western decadence and were very hard to get in other parts of the world. However, in the 1970s people began wearing jeans throughout the world because they became a little cheaper and a lot of jeans began being manufactured out of the US. Jeans were originally used because of their tough material for people who would be doing a great deal of manual labor such as the miners in the Gold Rush or farmers. However, jeans transitioned from a practical purpose to a symbol of independence in the mid 20th century. People, especially young adults, started wearing jeans in Western countries as a sign of rebels to the normal culture of formal attire. The physical geography has not played much of a role in the expansion of jeans because jeans can be seen in basically every region of the world now. For a period of time, jeans were rare in less developed countries because of their cost and transporting them quickly but as technology has rapidly increased replica jeans can be made very cheaply and swiftly in poorer countries. Also, main brand stores, such as Levis, have opened up in many non Western countries such as India even though there are great physical barriers. Jeans have had a huge influence on traditional values of clothing especially in non-Western countries. In India, for example, there is a huge transition among young men and women from wearing traditional types of clothing, such as saris for women, to jeans and t-shirts. This transition can be seen throughout many regions of the world that are just starting to modernize because the people in these countries look up to Western ways of life, including clothing styles.

Works cited Ament, Phil. "Blue Jeans History - Invention of Blue Jeans." The Great Idea Finder Celebrating the Spirit of Innovation. Vaunt Design Group, 28 July 2006. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/bluejeans.htm>. "The History of Jeans." Chevalier College Library. June 1998. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://library.chevalier.nsw.edu.au/ni/easier-english/Garment/jhistory.html>. Pictures: Miner pic: Routte County Photo Album. Digital image. Cogenweb.com. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://cogenweb.com/routt/DPL/miners1.jpg>. Levis cords image : Levis Cords, Vintage Jeans Advert, 1960s. Digital image. Vinmag.com. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.vinmag.com/online/media/gbu0/prodlg/BP080-levis-cords-1960s.jpg>. James Dean pic: James Dean. Digital image. The Macaroni. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://igaratihthemacaroni.blogspot.com/p/james-dean.html>. Picture of jeans: Jeans For Men. Digital image. Blogspot.com. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-cQliyDsJfl4/Te_VEXwGHmI/AAAAAAAABc0/Y2pzoShAhs/s1600/levis+jeans++%25289%2529.jpg>.

Kroje Origin: The kroje is a folk costume that originated in Moravia, which is a region in the eastern Czech Republic. There is no major hearth for the kroje, but historians believe that the kroje started off as just simply work clothing. As people within Moravia became richer, they were able to use more expensive materials, and more time was spent decorating the clothing, thus turning it the kroje into a festive dress. Diffusion: The kroje was able to extend its influence to neighboring territories, primarily due to migration. Today, elements of the kroje can also be seen in Bohemia, a region in the western Czech Republic, and Slovakia, a country borders the Czech Republic to the east. Like Moravia, as the people became richer and the economic gap widened, the material the kroje is made of and the extent of the decorations became a symbol of social status. Elements: Within the regions themselves, the kroje can vary from village to village. Outside influence also play a part of how the kroje can look. Krojes that have fine pleats and laced collars usually have Renaissance elements within them. Skirts also may include oriental patterns, most likely due to the influence from the Turkish during the Ottoman Empire. As stated before, the kroje can also give indication to the socio-economic status of the Czech people. Some people had less money and more time, so they used less expensive fabrics, more embroidery and handwork and brighter colors, giving a lavish look. Those with wealth and nobility had krojes made with more expensive material, such as silk, and typically used softer colors. Environmental Interaction/Influence: The kroje does not really reflect any environmental influences in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. However, the physical location does. An expert at krojes can usually guess which village or area in a region a particular kroje is from by looking at the designs and patterns embroidered in the costume. Taboos: No taboos are seen in the kroje. Folk Example Questions > How does your example reflect traditional culture and values?

The kroje reflects traditional culture and values because each clothing contains a sense of place. While the typical American may not notice, a Czech or Slovakia citizen can find his or her identity by wearing a type of kroje that is unique to a particular area or village. Also, the influence of the kroje is limited to the Czech Republic and part of Slovakia, which represents traditional values because it stays in a fairly homogenous area.

Works Cited "Folk costumes (Kroje)." Czech and Slovak Heritage. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct 2011. "Kroje (Folk Costumes) --Links to the Past." Angelfire. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct 2011. Underwood, Sue. "Kroje - Folk Costumes." Nebraska Czechs. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct 2011.

Korean Folk Culture: Hanbok The Hanbok is the traditional clothing of Korea. Its origin is from nomadic clothing in Northern Asia, designed to facilitate ease of movement and the basic structure and the design is unchanged. Diffusion of this element was through expansion diffusion and more specifically hierarchical diffusion because this was more extravagantly and frequently worn by aristocrats and nobles. The Basic elements are Jeogori, which is the top part that also covers the arms. The chima is the womens skirt. Baji are the pants for the males. Supposed to be an elegant style because of the many layers mix of bright colors. The physical geography of the region has not influenced it too much, but of course they used different fabrics and materials during different seasons, warmer ones in fall and winter and light ones in spring and summer. The straight line of Hanbok and the curved line form perfect harmony and balance. It is also supposed to provide beauty. There is a reason why the Hanbok covers almost the whole body because Confucianism has ruled Korean minds for much of the countrys history. The Hanbok reflects their traditional values and various types of Hanboks reflect social position and/or age of the wearers. Basically the male hanbok was originally all a shade of blue. According to oriental philosophy, men belong to the east and color of the east is blue. Generally, people wear Hanboks during New Years Day or Chuseok celebrates the Lunar New Year.

Works Cited Hanbok (Traditional Korean Clothing). Digital image. Visit Korea. Korea Tourism Organization. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://visitkorea.or.kr/enu/CU/CU_EN_8_1_2.jsp>. Kim Soeun. Digital image. Hanbok. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://ashtoh.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/photodaily_090121_09.jpg>. Traditional Hanbok. Digital image. Eirene. Wordpress. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://mayk12.wordpress.com/hanbok/>. Wedding Hanbok. Digital image. Flickr. Gypsycrystal. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/gypsycrystal/154137244/>. "Meaning of Hanbok." HAN STYLE. Web. 13 Oct. 2011.

"Hanbok: The Official Site For Korean Tourism." Visitkorea :The Official Korea Tourism Guide Site. Web. 13 Oct. 2011.

Inca Clothing Men wore a simple rectangular tunic. Women wore a rectangular one-piece dress, which was bounded at the waist. Both the men and women could also wear cloaks and headbands. Women sometimes wore a large piece of folded cloth on their heads, while some men wore headdresses. Also both men and women wore sandals made from llama hide. The Incas wore warmer clothes in the highlands compared to the clothes worn in the coastal areas. Women usually made the clothes from llama, alpaca, or vicuna wool. Because the government controlled the production and allotment of clothes, they could allot the softest cloth for the elites, while the peasants got the coarsest cloth. The peasants also got the simplest textiles, with no colors, images, or styles. On the other hand, the elites got clothes with dyes, and various images made from geometrical shapes. There is evidence that the geometrical shapes are a style of writing, but it hasnt been proven yet. Also the government gave most people only two sets of clothes, one for everyday use and another for special events and functions. One taboo was that you couldnt alter your clothes or wear different clothes, because the government was very strict. Because of this, clothes in Inca society dictated ones power and importance to society. The Incas started as the Kingdom of Cuzco. As they conquered more and more tribes and villages, they became the Incan Empire around the 15th century. Through hierarchical diffusion, the Incas imposed their style and system of clothing on the conquered population.

Works Cited "Ancient Inca Clothing." Inside Peru. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.inside-peru.com/ancient-incaclothing.html>. "File:All-tocapu-sin-BV.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:All-tocapu-sin-BV.png>. "File:Inca-expansion.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Inca-expansion.png>. "File:Llama Lying Down.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Llama_lying_down.jpg>. "File:Tupa-inca-tunic.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tupa-inca-tunic.png>. "The Inca Chosen Women." Pre-Columbian Women. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.precolumbianwomen.com/>. "The Inca Civilisation." Educatus. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://educatus.com/main/samples/default.asp?lid=800271>. "Inca Clothing : A Brief on Ancient Inca Clothing." Machu Picchu, Inca's Lost City -The Ancient World. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.machupicchu-inca.com/inca-clothing.html>. "Inca Clothing." Inca Clothing. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://incaclothing.net/>. "Inca Social Classes." Sociedad. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://usuarios.multimania.es/historiadelperu/resume2.html>. "Machu Picchu." Destination: Machu Picchu. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.peru-machu-

picchu.com/>. "Shackled in Time...(Part 2)." Cuff Mate. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://cuffmate.blogspot.com/2010/03/shackled-in-timepart-2.html>.