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0 Calculation of Torque in Shafts Torque is a moment about the axis of a member (for example a power transmission shaft) and may be denoted by a curved arrow, or a double-headed arrow according to the right-hand rule. In calculating internal torques in a shaft it is important to follow a sign convention. One of the following may be used:

Figure 4.1 This may be simply shown in 2-D as in the following figure.

## Convention 1 Figure 4.2

Convention 2

Either convention would be acceptable. Convention 1 will be used in the following examples, unless stated otherwise. Also, it is not necessary to show both the double headed arrows and the curved arrows. Either one would be sufficient. For the shaft in Figure 4.3, determine the torque and sketch its variation along the axis, as a torque diagram. Case 1: Shaft subject to several concentrated torques
20 Nm 100 Nm

90 Nm

260 Nm

Figure 4.3

## The reaction may be found by writing the overall equation of equilibrium.

TA A 20 Nm B C 90 Nm D 260 Nm 100 Nm E

Figure 4.4 For the overall freebody in Figure 4.4, T = 0 gives: -TA -20 - 90 +260 -100 = 0 TA = 50 Nm. Internal torques TCD may be found T 20 Nm 90 Nm 100 Nm A by considering the equilibrium A C B D E of segments of the shaft. For TCD 260 Nm example, making an Figure 4.5 imaginary cut between C and D and considering the right-handside freebody gives T = T CD -260 + 100 =0 TCD = 160 Nm The same result would be obtained by taking a free-body left of the cut. Similarly the torque at various sections may be calculated using the method of sections. This results in the torque diagram in Figure 4.6.
160 Nm 50 Nm A B 70 Nm C D -100 Nm E

Figure 4.6

TA A B 3m Figure 4.7 200 Nm/m C

5m

drilling shaft shown in Figure 4.7 which is subject to a torsional loading of 200 Nm/m between B and C and is driven at end A. For equilibrium, TA = 200 (N/m) (3 m) = 600 Nm. The torque distribution may be found my applying the method section. Making a cut at distance x from A where x > 5 m yields the free-body diagram in Figure 4.8 T = -TBC + =0 TBC = 20 Nm/m At x = 5 m, TBC = TBC At x = 8 m, TBC =
C

(8-x) m

Figure 4.8
600 Nm

## Figure 4.9 Torque Diagram

4.1 Torsion of circular shafts Shafts are skeletal structural members subject to torsional loadings. It is important to determine the stress distribution and angle of twist in designing shafts. Rotating shafts are made of circular cross section (either hollow, or solid) and this is the category of section we will first consider. Assumptions: During twisting, radii remain straight and plane sections remain plane. Stresses and strains are within the elastic, and proportional limit. Material is homogeneous, and isotropic. Consider an infinitesimal shaft segment subject to an induced torque T (see chapter 1 for calculation of induced torque). Let us now cut out a typical disk element of radius r from this element. Since the distortions are small, the circumferential length AA" = Denoting distance OA by r, AA" = Using these equations, = (/x) r As the distances are infinitesimal, this B' may be written as: = (1)

r R x

B B" A A'

B'

B'' A

B O r

Recalling the A' A" A'' assumption that the x radii remain x straight, the ratio (d/dx) is a constant. This implies that the shear strain increases linearly with the radius. At the centre, the strain is zero, and it is maximum at the surface of the shaft. A" From Hooke's law in shear, = (2) Combining equations (1) and (2) we get, = (3) This means the shear stress and shear strain vary linearly with r.
4

r
O

The maximum shear strain and stress occur near the surface (when r = R), and may be denoted by m and m respectively. Therefore, m = G m (4) ) ) )r ) (5) (6)

m, m

## Substituting for dF we get, T = ( Using equation (3), T = G(d/dx)r2( From this, T =

F A

This integral is referred to as the ____________________________________ and is denoted by the letter _________ Hence equation (6) may be written as, where J = r2 dA (7a) Eliminating T = GJ d dx (7)

d from equations (3) and (7) and rearranging to make the dx subject gives: = Tr J (8) d dx

## From equation (7),

Integrating gives: 2 - 1 =

x2
1

T dx (9a) GJ

For uniform shaft segment made of homogeneous material, subject to constant induced torque, this reduces to: 2 - 1 = T( x 2 x1 ) GJ (9b)

Example: The power loading on a uniform shaft of solid circular cross section is shown in the figure below. The speed of the shaft is 900 rpm. The shear modulus (G) of steel may be taken as 80 GPa. If the allowable shear stress is 60 MPa, find the minimum shaft diameter. For this diameter, what would be the angle of twist
1.2 m 0.9 m 0.8 m 2 kW C TC D TD

5 kW A TA TB MOTOR B

7 kW

between A and D? Shaft speed = 900 rpm = 900/60 =15 Hz = 30 rad/s = 94.25 rad/s Hence the torque loading on the shaft would be as follows: At A, T A = 5000/94.25 = 53.1 Nm; Similarly, At C, T C =74.3 Nm, and at D, TD =21.2 Nm The torque at B (input) may be found from the overall equilibrium equation: TB 53.1-21.2-74.3=0 gives TB = 148.6 Nm Torque diagram may be obtained by using method of sections. For this case, the torque diagram is given below. Note this would correspond to the sign convention given below. The opposite convention would give opposite results. In the past exam solutions, the opposite convention has been used.
53.1 Nm

## Torque Diagram -21.2 Nm -95.5 Nm

Sign convention

Maximum shear stress = 95.5(R)/J = 2(95.5)/( R3) 60106 which gives R 10.04 mm. Use R = 11 mm. or diameter = 22 mm. This gives J = (11)4/2 mm4 =22.998 10-9 m4, and G = 80109 Pa. ( 53.1)(1.2) + ( 95.5)( 0.9) + ( 21.2)(0.8) D-A = (D- C) + ( C-B) +( B-A)= (80 10 9 )( 22.998 10 9 ) =-0.021 radians = -1.22 (negative sign indicates D rotates in a clockwise direction relative to A).

Shear Stress due to torque in thin-walled tubes Shear Flow Longitudinal force on AB = Longitudinal force on DC = For longitudinal equilibrium, these forces must be equal and opposite giving:
A B C D

Shear flow due to torque is constant. Shear flow - torque relationship We have, q = ( )(t) = a constant ....(1) Now consider the torque due to shear flow acting over an infinitesimal length L as shown. If the thickness of the wall is t, and the shear stress is , then the torque about an arbitrary point O is given by: T = .....(2)
C 2 1 A

D 2 L

1 B

where a the perpendicular distance between O and the line of action of the shear stress. Using equation (1), this equation may be written in terms of shear flow q as: T = q( L)(a) .....(3)
A

This may be expressed in terms of the area bounded by the triangle OAA' which has a base length L and height a. Since OAA' = (1/2)(a)( L) Thus, infinitesimal torque T = 2 q (OAA') ....(4) By integration, T =2q( Therefore = ) ..(5)

a O

## q T = ..(6) t 2A t The torque-twist relationship may be shown to be given by:

d T ds = 2 t where the integral 1/t is computed along the centerline of the dx 4A G

wall for the full length of the perimeter. For a uniform shaft subject to constant torque this gives: ( 2 1 ) =
T( x 2 x 1 ) ds 4A 2 G t 7

..(7)

Torsion of Non-Circular Members/Rectangular Sections: The determination of shear stress and strain distribution in non-circular sections subject to torsion is beyond the scope of this course except for some remarks on the specific case of rectangular sections for which results are readily available. For a rectangular bar of length L and cross sectional dimensions a, b, the maximum shear stress is given by the formula
max T = c 1ab 2 TL Gc 2 ab 3 T

T L b a

and the angle of twist between the two ends is given by: 2 1 =

in which the coefficients c1 and c2 depend on the aspect ratio of the cross section (a/b) and are tabulated in text books. a/b c1 c2 1.0 0.208 0.1406 1.5 0.231 0.1661 2.0 0.246 0.229 3.0 0.267 0.263 4.0 0.282 0.281 (1-0.63 b/a)/3 (1-0.63 b/a)/3 5.0 1/3 1/3 Note that thin walled open sections may be treated as rectangular members with an aspect ratio of infinity to find the maximum stress and angle of twist (see figure on the right)
a a

3T ab 2 3TL and the relative angle of twist would be given by: 2 1 = Gab 3

## In such cases the maximum stress would be given by max =

For example the maximum stress in a rectangular tube with and without a crack may be found as follows: Without a crack: =
T 2abt 3T 2(a + b) t 2 8 t a

## and with a crack max =

Examples: Calculate the shear stress distribution in the following thin walled tubes subject to a torque T. Take the wall thickness t as uniform. All shapes have a total circumferencial length L, thus making use of same amount of material. Which shape is most efficient, and which is the worst?

Torsional Loading 1. For the torsional loading examples in Chapter 1, determine the minimum shaft diameter for a solid shaft if the allowable stress in shear is 60 MPa. Calculate the angle of twist between the two ends if the shear modulus is 80 GPa.
39 mm

2. Determine the maximum torque that can be induced in the following thin-walled section, if the allowable shear stress is 50 MPa. The wall thickness is 4 mm. The dimensions given are measured along the centreline of the wall. For this torque, what is the angle of twist between the ends of a segment having 5 m length? Take G as 70 GPa.

15 mm 39 mm

3. The torque diagram for a 2 m long shaft of circular hollow cross section is shown below. It is subject to a constant torque for a distance of 0.8 m, and a linearly varying torque for the remainder. If its outer diameter is 40 mm and inner diameter is 35 mm, what is 40 Nm the maximum stress induced? What is the angle of twist between the two Torque Diagram ends if G = 80 GPa. - 60 Nm
-200 Nm 4. A uniform shaft of solid circular cross section is fixed at both ends, and is subject to a 180 Nm torque of 180 Nm applied 2L/3 L/3 at one third of its span. If the maximum shear stress in the shorter segment is 30 MPa, determine the diameter of the shaft.

5. A compound shaft consists of a 20 mm diameter solid steel shaft and an aluminium tubing of 25 mm inner diameter and 30 mm outer diameter. One end of this compound shaft is fixed and the other end is subject to a torque through a pin. Find the maximum torque that may be applied to this shaft if the allowable shear stresses in steel and aluminium are 110 MPa and 80 MPa respectively. The shear moduli are, 80 GPa for steel and 27 GPa for aluminium.

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## Solution to Tutorials in Torsion

Please check carefully and report any errors or steps that are not clear. 1. Case 1: |Tmax| = 160 Nm (from the torque diagram). allowable = 60 MPa 160 R 60 10 6 gives, R 0.0119 m ( R 4 / 2) Let R = 12 mm J=R4 /2 = 32572 mm4 = 33.57210-9 m4 G= 80 GPa = 80109 Pa GJ = 2606 Nm2 Lengths of the members are: LAB = 0.5 m; LAB = 0.5 m; LBC = 1.0m; LCD = 1.2 m; LDE = 0.8 m; ( 50 0.5) + (70 1.0) + (160 1.2 ) + ( 100 0.8) E A = radians = 0.079 radians = 2606 4.55 Case 2: |Tmax| = 600 Nm (from the torque diagram). allowable = 60 MPa 600 R 60 10 6 gives, R 0.0185 m 4 ( R / 2) Let R = 19 mm J=R4 /2 = 102354 mm4 = 102.410-9 m4 G= 80 GPa = 80109 Pa GJ = 8188 Nm2 ( 600 5)) radians 8188 TCB( average ) ( 3) ( 300 3)) 8T 8 600(8 x ) C B = CB dx = dx = = radians = 5 GJ 5 (8188)( 3) 8188 8188 C - A = ( B - A) + ( C - A) = 0.476 radians = 27.3 B A = 2. From Pythagoras' theorem, h = (39 2 15 2 ) =36 mm; Area of the triangle = (1/2)(h)(30) = 540 mm2 and the area of the semicircle is (1/2)(15)2 = 353.4 mm2 Total enclosed area A = 893.4 mm2 . If the allowable shear stress is 50 MPa and the wall thickness is 4 mm, T = 50106 gives: T 357 Nm 6 3 2(893.4 10 )( 4 10 ) 39 mm 15 mm h 39 mm

## ds =(239+15)/4=31.28; t 357 5 ( 2 1 ) = 31.28 radians = 0.25 radians 4 (893.4 10 6 ) 2 70 109

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|Tmax| = 200 Nm ( R 4 R 4 ) O i J= 2 = 104103 mm4 = 10410-9 m4 T R max = max O J ( 200)( 20 10 3 ) = Pa = 38.5 MPa. 104 10 9 Since G = 80 GPa, GJ = 8320 Nm2 c A = ( c B ) + ( B A ) =

## 40 Nm C A Torque Diagram - 60 Nm -200 Nm B

( 40)( 0.8) ( 130)(1.2) + = 0.0149 radians = -0.85 8320 8320 C turns in a clockwise direction relative to A. 3. Let the reactions at the B A C ends A and C be TA and TC 180 Nm respectively. For overall 2L/3 L/3 equilibrium, 180 - TA - TC = 0 (1) This is the only equation from statics, and since TC TA there are two unknowns the 180 Nm problem is statically 180-TC indeterminate. This may be done in two ways. Method 1: The internal torques may be found by method of -TC sections, in terms of either of the two unknown reactions. Working in terms of TC, the internal torques are: TAB = 180-TC .(2) and TBC = -TC .(3) ( TC )( 2 L / 3) (180 TC )( L / 3) (180 3TC ) L C A = (C B ) + (B A ) = + = GJ GJ 3GJ .(4) But since both ends are fixed, for compatibility, C - A = 0 .(5) Substituting equation (4) into equation (5) gives, 180-3TC = 0 giving TC = 60 Nm. From equation (1) TA = 120 Nm. (this is not actually required) The induced torques may be found by putting T = 60 Nm into equations (2) and (3) C which give the following induced torques: T = 120 Nm and T = -60 Nm. Shear AB BC stress in the shorter segment (AB) is given as 30 MPa. (120)( R ) Therefore AB = = 30 10 6 Pa. Solving for R we get, R = 13.66 mm, d = 27.3 4 ( R / 2) mm. Method 2: Releasing the constraint at one end and reapplying it to enforce compatibility gives the same results.

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4. Let the torques induced in the steel and aluminium shafts be TSt and TAl respectively. For equilibrium, TSt +TAl = T (1) For compatibility the angle of twist between the two ends must be the same in both shafts. St = Al (2) where St is the relative angle of twist between T the two ends. The constitutive equations are: T L TAl TSt St = St (3a) and G St J St T L Al = Alt (3b) G Al J Alt Substituting these into equation (2) gives: G J TAl = TSt Al Al (4) G St J St 4 JAl = (15 -12.54 )/2 = 41172 mm4 and J St = (104 )/2 = 15708 mm4 GSt = 80 GPa and GAl = 27 GPa. Substituting these into equation (4) gives: TAl = 0.8846 TSt (5) Using (1) and (5) we get, TSt = 0.531 T (6a); and TAl = 0.469 T (6b) For ensuring that the stress in the steel shaft remains allowable, St 110 MPa Using the stress-torque relationship, TSt R St 110 10 6 Pa. J St TSt (1570810-12 )(110106 )/(1010-3 ) = 172.8 Nm From equation (6a) T 172.8/0.531 = 325.4 Nm (7a) Similarly for ensuring that the stress in the aluminium pipe remains allowable, Al 80 MPa Using the stress-torque relationship, TAl R O , Al 80 10 6 Pa. J Alt TAl (4117210-12 )(80106 )/(1510-3 ) = 219.6 Nm From equation (6b) T 1219.6/0.469 = 468.2 Nm (7b) Condition (7a) is more restrictive. Therefore T 325.4 Nm.

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