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Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET) Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Course Title Power Electronics

Sessional Course No.-EEE484 Experiment no.5: Thyristor Three-Phase Rectifier/Inverter

OBJECTIVE To study the operation of the three-phase, three-pulse rectifier/inverter. To plot the static transfer function of the three-phase, three-pulse rectifier/inverter, and compare this with the theoretical curve.

THEORY Three-phase, three-pulse rectifier If the diodes in a three-phase, three-pulse rectifier are replaced by thyristors, as shown in Figure 1(a), the advantage of being able to vary the rectified voltage E0 is obtained. When thyristor triggering is delayed, the average output voltage is reduced in proportion to the delay. This delay corresponds to the thyristor firing angle. As shown in Figure 1(b), it is measured from the point where two line voltages are simultaneously at the same level. The following equation gives the value of the average output voltage E0 as a function of the firing angle. This equation is valid only when conduction is continuous, that is, when the on-time of the thyristors corresponds to 120. E0 = 0.675 ES cos Where ES is the line-to-line voltage of the three-phase source is the tiring angle in degrees. `This is the static transfer function of a three-phase, three-pulse bridge. Changing the firing angle shifts the phase of the line current with respect to the line voltages. This results in a reactive power demand on the voltage source.

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Figure-1: A three phase, three pulse rectifier circuit using thyristors

Rectifier and inverter modes The majority of line-commutated inverters used in industry operate on three-phase networks. Although their operation is more complex than single-phase inverters, they posses certain advantages: greater power transfer capacity, the output current ripple is reduced. The three-phase, three-pulse circuit can be used both as a rectifier and as an inverter. Figure 2 shows a battery charging circuit which operates as a rectifier. The inductor is large enough to ensure continuous conduction at a wide range of firing angles. The power supplied to the battery is P0 = I x ED, where ED is the average dc voltage at the output of the bridge. If the firing angle is greater than 90, ED becomes negative. In this case, current will only flow if the polarity of the battery voltage is reversed, so that ED is still higher than EB. This is illustrated
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in Figure 3. The power supplied to the battery is still P0 = I x ED. However, since the voltage ED is negative, this power is negative, showing that power is actually transferred from the battery to the ac source. The circuit is now operating as a line-commutated inverter, converting dc power to ac,

Figure-2: Three phase, three pulse circuit with active dc load

Figure-3: Waveforms for Three phase, three pulse circuit in inverter mode (=1500)

Procedure summary In the first part of this exercise, you will set up the equipment. In the second part of this exercise, you will observe the operation of a three-phase, three-pulse rectifier supplying a passive load. In the third part, you will operate the circuit in both the rectifier and the inverter modes. The reversible dc power supply circuit will be used to simulate a battery,

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EQUIPMENT REQUIRED 1. Mobile Workstation 2. DC Motor/Generator 3. Four-pole Squirrel-Cage induction Motor 4. Resistive Load 5. Smoothing Inductors 6. DC voltmeter/Ammeter 7. Three phase Wattmeter/Varmeter 8. Tandem Rheostats 9. Power Supply 10. Enclosure/Power Supply 11. Power Thyristor 12. Timing Belt 13. Connection Leads & Accessories 14. Thyristor Firing Unit 15. Current/Voltage Isolator

PROCEDURE CAUTION! High voltages are present in this laboratory exercise! Do not make or modify any banana lack connections with the power on unless otherwise specified! Setting up the equipment 1. Install the Power Supply, the Enclosure / Power Supply, the DC Motor/Generator, the Four-Pole Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor, the Resistive Load, the Smoothing Inductors, the DC Voltmeter/Ammeter, the Three-Phase Wattmeter/Varmeter, the Tandem Rheostats, and the Power Thyristors modules in the Mobile Workstation.

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Note: Align the brushes of the DC Motor/ Generator in the neutral position by centring the metal tab on the red mark (on the casing). 2. Install the Thyristor Firing Unit and the Current/Voltage Isolators in the Enclosure! Power Supply. Note: Before installing the Thyristor firing Unit, make sure that switches SW1 and SW2 (located on the printed circuit board) are in the O position. 3. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the O (OFF) position. Set the voltage control knob to O. Connect the Power Supply to a three-phase wall receptacle. 4. Plug the Enclosure/ Power Supply line cord into a wall receptacle. Set the rocker switch of the Enclosure / Power Supply to the l (ON) position. 5. On the Power Supply, set the 24-V ac power switch to the I(ON) position. 6. Make sure that the toggle switches on the Power Thyristors and the Resistive Load modules are all set to the O (open) position. Three-phase, three-pulse rectifier
7. Set up the circuit of Figure 4 using a resistive load Z1 (a).

8. Make the following settings: On the Power Supply Voltage Selector ....................................................... 4-5 On the Thyristor Firing Unit ANGLE CONTROL COMPLEMENT ....................O ANGLE CONTROL ARC COSINE ................... O FIRI NG CONTROL MODE ....................................3~ DC SOURCE ...................MIN. On the Oscilloscope Channel-1 Sensitivity ..5 V/DIV. (DC coupled) Channel-2 Sensitivity ..1 V/DIV. (DC coupled) Time Base ........2 ms/DIV. Trigger .....LINE 9. On the Power Supply, set the main power switch to l (ON), and set the voltage control knob to 90(%). Vary the firing angle and observe the waveforms on the oscilloscope.

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On the Thyristor Firing Unit, set the FIRING ANGLE to 45. Sketch the voltage and current waveforms in Figure 5.

Figure-4: Three phase, three pulse rectifier supplying a passive load Fill in the first row of Table-1

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Table-1: Measurements for three phase, three pulse rectifier circuit (=450) On the Power Supply, set the voltage control knob to O then set the main power switch to O (OFF).

Figure 5: Voltage & current waveforms (=450)

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10. Change the load in the circuit to the inductive load Z1 (b). On the Power Supply, set the

main power switch to l (ON), and set the voltage control knob so that the voltage indicated by the Power Supply voltmeter is equal to 90 % of the nominal line-to-line voltage. Sketch the voltage and current waveforms in Figure 5. Fill in the second row of Table 1. On the Power Supply, set the voltage control knob to 0 then set the main power switch to O (OFF). Why is the conduction angle greater with an inductive load than with a purely resistive load? What effect does the inductive load have on the average output voltage and current?

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