Sie sind auf Seite 1von 28
AADE AADE Houston Houston Chapter Chapter Fluids Fluids Management Management Group Group Meeting Meeting October
AADE AADE Houston Houston Chapter Chapter Fluids Fluids Management Management Group Group Meeting Meeting October

AADEAADE HoustonHouston ChapterChapter FluidsFluids ManagementManagement GroupGroup MeetingMeeting

OctoberOctober 11,11, 20062006

UpdateUpdate onon FormateFormate FluidsFluids andand FieldField ApplicationsApplications

Update Update on on Formate Formate Fluids Fluids and and Field Field Applications Applications Specialty Fluids
Update Update on on Formate Formate Fluids Fluids and and Field Field Applications Applications Specialty Fluids

Specialty Fluids

MostMost abundantabundant sourcesource ofof PollucitePollucite,, cocontainingntaining aroundaround 1515 22%22% CesiumCesium OxideOxide isis foundfound atat BernicBernic Lake,Lake, Manitoba,Manitoba, CanadaCanada

Bernic Lake, Lake, Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada Canada Aerial Photo of TANCO Mine Pollucite:- Originally
Aerial Photo of TANCO Mine
Aerial Photo of TANCO Mine
Manitoba, Canada Canada Aerial Photo of TANCO Mine Pollucite:- Originally discovered : 1846 - San Piero,

Pollucite:-

Originally discovered: 1846 - San Piero, Campo, Elba, Livorno Province, Tuscany, Italy

Named after Pollux, a figure from Greek mythology, brother of Castor, for its common association with “Castorite” (petalite)

Chemical makeup:

Cs 0.7 Na 0.2 Rb 0.04 Al 0.9 Si 2.1 O 6 ·(H 2 0)

Found in many places including:

Bikita, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

Shigar Mine, Skardu, Pakistan

Varuträsk, Västerbotten, Sweden

Kunar Province, Afghanistan

Oxford, Maine, USA

Ray Mica Mine, North Carolina, USA

Sweden – Kunar Province, Afghanistan – Oxford, Maine, USA – Ray Mica Mine, North Carolina, USA
Sweden – Kunar Province, Afghanistan – Oxford, Maine, USA – Ray Mica Mine, North Carolina, USA

ConvertingConverting CesiumCesium OxideOxide toto CesiumCesium FormateFormate

4,000 Si 3,500 3,000 2,500 Cs 2,000 O Al 1,500 Cs 1,000 C Na 500
4,000
Si
3,500
3,000
2,500
Cs
2,000
O
Al
1,500
Cs
1,000
C
Na
500
Cs Cs
Cs
Cs
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Counts
Cs Cs Cs Cs 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

keV

Pollucite mineral is classified as a Pegmatite, a class of old volcanic hard rock where
Pollucite mineral is classified
as a Pegmatite, a class of old
volcanic hard rock where
specialized machinery is
used in the mining process.
Pollucite is first mined by
blasting and crushing. The
crushed pollucite is then
milled at surface.
Cesium oxide is then
extracted by digestion in
sulphuric acid to form a
cesium alum.
TheThe GiraffeGiraffe
TheThe BreakerBreaker
TheThe JumboJumbo

ConvertingConverting CesiumCesium OxideOxide toto CesiumCesium FormateFormate

Cesium Alum is used as the base

to manufacture the alkali metal salt - Cesium Formate - which has a saturation density of 2.3 Cesium Formate is a high density, thermally stable, environmentally friendly heavy fluid used for:

Drilling, completing and workovers of high pressure high temperature (HPHT) oil and gas wells

Safely overcoming the hydrostatic pressure while drilling, completing, suspending or workovers

Minimizing formation damage while drilling to optimize productivity of hydrocarbons

suspending or workovers – Minimizing formation damage while drilling to optimize productivity of hydrocarbons
suspending or workovers – Minimizing formation damage while drilling to optimize productivity of hydrocarbons
Monovalent Monovalent Ion Ion Series Series Li = Lithium Na = Sodium K = Potassium

MonovalentMonovalent IonIon SeriesSeries

Li = Lithium

Na = Sodium

K = Potassium

Rb = Rubidium

Cs = Cesium

Fr = Francium

Rb = Rubidium Cs = Cesium Fr = Francium = Hydration layer around ion N.B. hydration
Rb = Rubidium Cs = Cesium Fr = Francium = Hydration layer around ion N.B. hydration
= Hydration layer around ion N.B. hydration layer decreases with increasing atomic number of ion

= Hydration layer around ion

N.B. hydration layer decreases with increasing atomic number of ion

Fr = Francium = Hydration layer around ion N.B. hydration layer decreases with increasing atomic number

MonovalentMonovalent IonIon OrganicOrganic AlkaliAlkali MetalMetal SaltsSalts (Formate)(Formate)

H-C

Alkali Metal Metal Salts Salts (Formate) (Formate) H-C O O Cs+ / K+ / Na+ NaCOOH

O

O

Cs+ / K+ / Na+

NaCOOH KCOOH CsCOOH
NaCOOH
KCOOH
CsCOOH
(Formate) H-C O O Cs+ / K+ / Na+ NaCOOH KCOOH CsCOOH 1.0 S.G. 1.3 S.G.

1.0

S.G.

1.3 S.G.

1.0 S.G. 1.3 S.G. 1.57 S.G. 2.3 S.G.

1.57

S.G.

1.0 S.G. 1.3 S.G. 1.57 S.G. 2.3 S.G.

2.3 S.G.

8.3

ppg

8.3 ppg 10.8 ppg 13.1 ppg 19.2 ppg

10.8 ppg

13.1

ppg

19.2 ppg

KCOOH CsCOOH 1.0 S.G. 1.3 S.G. 1.57 S.G. 2.3 S.G. 8.3 ppg 10.8 ppg 13.1 ppg
KCOOH CsCOOH 1.0 S.G. 1.3 S.G. 1.57 S.G. 2.3 S.G. 8.3 ppg 10.8 ppg 13.1 ppg
KCOOH CsCOOH 1.0 S.G. 1.3 S.G. 1.57 S.G. 2.3 S.G. 8.3 ppg 10.8 ppg 13.1 ppg

Basic Properties and Attributes of Formate Fluids

Formate fluids and Cabot Specialty Fluids have an excellent HS&E record

Cabot Specialty Fl uids have an excellent HS&E record H-C O Cs/K/Na O Saturated formate fluids:
Cabot Specialty Fl uids have an excellent HS&E record H-C O Cs/K/Na O Saturated formate fluids:
Cabot Specialty Fl uids have an excellent HS&E record H-C O Cs/K/Na O Saturated formate fluids:

H-C

O Cs/K/Na

Fl uids have an excellent HS&E record H-C O Cs/K/Na O Saturated formate fluids: – Na

O

Saturated formate fluids:

Na Formate

K Formate

Cs Formate

45% 10.8 ppg

75% 13.1 ppg

80% 19.2 ppg

Saturated formate fluids are polar ionic fluids

Inherently low viscosity

Biodegradable

Environmentally benign

Non-Toxic

Non-Corrosive

Non-Damaging

Safe to handle, pH 9.0 – 10.5

Protect polymers

Reclaimable and recyclable

Non-Corrosive – Non-Damaging – Safe to handle, pH 9.0 – 10.5 – Protect polymers – Reclaimable

DifferencesDifferences inin basicbasic propertiesproperties betweenbetween FormatesFormates andand HalidesHalides

between between Formates Formates and and Halides Halides Formates – Monovalent – Organic – Bufferable –

Formates

Monovalent

Organic

Bufferable

More alkaline (pH 8 – 11)

Densities up to 19.2 ppg

Applicable to higher temperatures

Solubility of polymers

Biodegradable

Less corrosive (wider AOE)

Simple drill-in fluids

Halides

corrosive (wider AOE) – Simple drill-in fluids Halides – Divalent – Inorganic – Unbufferable – More

Divalent

Inorganic

Unbufferable

More acidic (pH 3 – 6)

Densities up to 19.2 ppg

Less applicable at higher temperatures

Polymers less soluble

Non-biodegradable

More corrosive (Lesser AOE)

Difficult to formulate drill-in fluids

Polymers less soluble – Non-biodegradable – More corrosive (Lesser AOE) – Difficult to formulate drill-in fluids

TypicalTypical formulationformulation ofof BaseBase FormateFormate FluidFluid (1.52(1.52 s.g.)s.g.) withwith OptimizationOptimization ofof CrystallizationCrystallization TemperatureTemperature andand PressurePressure

1 TCT = -1.1 °C 0.9 wt% CsF wt% KF 0.8 wt% DI water 0.7
1
TCT = -1.1 °C
0.9
wt% CsF
wt% KF
0.8
wt% DI water
0.7
0.6
0.5
TCT = -20 °C
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
12345678

Cs Formate = 2.2 s.g, K Formate = 1.57 s.g., H 2 0 = 1.0 s.g {RULE-of-THUMB for PCT: 1.0 °F per 1000 psi}

12345678 Cs Formate = 2.2 s.g, K Formate = 1.57 s.g., H 2 0 = 1.0

RheologyRheology ofof FormateFormate BaseBase FluidsFluids

Rheology of of Formate Formate Base Base Fluids Fluids Density and Viscosity vs Temperature 12 ppg

Density and Viscosity vs Temperature 12 ppg (1.44 s.g.) Na/K Formate Blend

20.7 1.45 18.7 1.44 cP g/cm3 16.7 1.43 14.7 1.42 12.7 10.7 1.41 8.7 1.40
20.7
1.45
18.7
1.44
cP
g/cm3
16.7
1.43
14.7
1.42
12.7
10.7
1.41
8.7
1.40
6.7
1.39
4.7
1.38
2.7
0.7
1.37
0
50
100
150
200
250
Viscosity (mm2/s)
Density (g/cm3)

Temperature (°F)

6.7 1.39 4.7 1.38 2.7 0.7 1.37 0 50 100 150 200 250 Viscosity (mm2/s) Density

RheologyRheology ofof FormateFormate BaseBase FluidsFluids

Rheology of of Formate Formate Base Base Fluids Fluids Viscosity & Density, s.g. (73°F) for Blends

Viscosity & Density, s.g. (73°F) for Blends of Saturated Potassium and Cesium Formate

11.00 2.40 y = -3E-05x2 - 0.0344x + 10.52 R2 = 0.9954 2.30 10.50 2.20
11.00
2.40
y = -3E-05x2 - 0.0344x + 10.52
R2 = 0.9954
2.30
10.50
2.20
10.00
2.10
9.50
Viscosity (cps)
2.00
9.00
Density S.G.
Poly. (Viscosity (cps))
1.90
Poly. (Density S.G.)
8.50
1.80
8.00
1.70
7.50
1.60
y = 3E-05x 2 + 0.0055x + 1.6032
R 2 = 0.9998
7.00
1.50
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
90.00
Viscosity (cps)
Density (s.g.)

% Cesium Formate (2.286 s.g.)

20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 Viscosity (cps) Density (s.g.) % Cesium Formate (2.286

CesiumCesium AcetateAcetate appliapplicablecable asas XHPHTXHPHT FluidFluid ??

appli cable cable as as XHPHT XHPHT Fluid Fluid ? ? Cesium Acetate behaves similarly to

Cesium Acetate behaves similarly to Cesium Formate but stable to higher temperatures.

to Cesium Formate but stable to higher temperatures. – Cesium Acetate tested to 600°F in tita

Cesium Acetate tested to 600°F in titanium cell with no degradation observed

Eutectic blending with K Acetate for saturated fluid over similar density range

Buffered pH for control and maintenance with carbonate/bicarbonate

Low solids drill-in fluids formulated with synthetic high temperature stable polymers for rheology and fluid loss

Non-damaging as completion fluid

Non-corrosive to C-276 type and titanium tubulars

Resistant to CO2 and H2S in similar manner as formate based fluids

Passivating film formation with carbon steel and CO2

High productivity as with Cesium Formate based fluids

– Passivating film formation with carbon steel and CO2 – High productivity as with Cesium Formate

AutoclaveAutoclave pressurepressure buildbuild--upup ofof CesiumCesium acetateacetate comparedcompared toto steamsteam pressurepressure

build build - - up up of of Cesium Cesium acetate acetate compared compared to to

ReducedReduced RiskRisk ofof CommonCommon DrillingDrilling HazardsHazards

of of Common Common Drilling Drilling Hazards Hazards Improved well control: Reduced Risk of Stuck Pipe

Improved well control:

Reduced Risk of Stuck Pipe - Differential and Mechanical

Barite Sag Eliminated - i.e. very low solids content

Excellent Shale Inhibition/Stabilization

Reduced Risk of Tool/ Pump Failures

Thermal Equilibrium Reached Quickly - Reduces Flow-Check Time

Easier Kick Detection and Well Kill

High Dissociation Constant gives Excellent Hydrate Inhibition

Cleaner Completions

All of the above result in Reduced Rig Spread Costs

Constant give s Excellent Hydrate Inhibition Cleaner Completions All of the above result in Reduced Rig

FormulatingFormulating aa FormateFormate--BasedBased ReservoirReservoir DrillDrill--InIn FluidFluid

Very stable fluids can be made using commonly available oilfield additives

can be made using commonly available oilfield additives Na/K Formate Drilling/Drill-In Formulation Density 10.8

Na/K Formate Drilling/Drill-In Formulation Density 10.8 ppg (Na + K Formate) Viscosifier - 1.0 lb/bbl

FL-1

FL-2

Soluble Carbonate/Bicarbonate * as pH buffer (4 - 10 lb/bbl)

CaCO 3 - 15 lb/bbl (PSD is pore throat matched to porosity)

0.5 lb/bbl

1.5 lb/bbl

Volume (%) 20 100 90 80 70 60 10 50 40 30 20 10 0
Volume (%)
20
100
90
80
70
60
10
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.1
1.0
10.0
100.0
1000.0
Particle Diameter (µm.)

*Monovalent formate fluids are alkaline buffered pH 10.0 – 10.5 to enhance fluid stability, mitigate influx of acid gases and to minimize corrosion

alkaline buffered pH 10.0 – 10.5 to enhance fluid stability, mitigate influx of acid gases and

DrillingDrilling andand CoringCoring withwith FormateFormate FluidsFluids

Coring Coring with with Formate Formate Fluids Fluids Formate fluids are easily maintained and show consistency

Formate fluids are easily maintained and show consistency with only small additions necessary over a drill-in campaign

Drilling Operational Behavior - PV, YP and 100 rpm

35.00

30.00

25.00

20.00

15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00

65 day drilling operation PV YP 100 RPM 11/23/2003 11/25/2003 11/27/2003 11/29/2003 12/1/2003 12/3/2003
65 day drilling operation
PV
YP
100 RPM
11/23/2003
11/25/2003
11/27/2003
11/29/2003
12/1/2003
12/3/2003
12/5/2003
12/7/2003
12/9/2003
12/11/2003
12/13/2003
12/15/2003
12/17/2003
12/19/2003
12/21/2003
12/23/2003
12/25/2003
12/27/2003
12/29/2003
12/31/2003
1/2/2004
1/4/2004
1/6/2004
1/8/2004
1/10/2004
1/12/2004
1/14/2004
1/16/2004
1/18/2004
1/20/2004
1/22/2004
1/24/2004

Typical Fluid Properties (Kristin)

Density s.g./ppg

2.09/17.4

MD, m.

5249

Temp. °C/°F

162/324

600

rpm

36

300

rpm

21

200

rpm

16

100

rpm

10

6

rpm

4

3

rpm

3

Gels 10s/10m

2/4

Plastic Viscosity

15

Yield Pt.

6

pH (9:1)

10.4

HPHT, ml

15.8

rpm 3 Gels 10s/10m 2/4 Plastic Viscosity 15 Yield Pt. 6 pH (9:1) 10.4 HPHT, ml
rpm 3 Gels 10s/10m 2/4 Plastic Viscosity 15 Yield Pt. 6 pH (9:1) 10.4 HPHT, ml

MinimizeMinimize DifferentialDifferential StickiStickingng andand LowerLower FormationFormation DamageDamage

Low Solids significantly reduces the risk of pore plugging

Monovalent base fluid enables drilling of calcium sensitive reservoirs without the risk of precipitation induced impairment.

Extremely low permeability filter cakes minimize filtrate invasion once formed

Extremely thin filter cakes are easily removed during back-flow

LCM pills formulated of more robust drill-in formulation on-the-fly, i.e. increase PSD of CaCO3 and polymer fluid loss additives. Also weighted solids free ‘wall building’ LCM pill

All Case Histories have reported substantial gains (up to 300 %) in well productivity compared to previous wells drilled with other fluids.

reported substa ntial gains (up to 300 %) in well productivity compared to previous wells drilled
reported substa ntial gains (up to 300 %) in well productivity compared to previous wells drilled
reported substa ntial gains (up to 300 %) in well productivity compared to previous wells drilled

ImprovedImproved HydraulicsHydraulics withwith FormateFormate FluidsFluids

Lower Surge and Swab Pressures

Faster tripping times

Lower Transient Pressure Changes

Reduced risk of hole instability or well control incidents Lower System Pressure Losses

More available power for motor - higher ROP

Lower ECDs’

Drill in narrower window between pore and fracture pressure gradients

Less chance of fracturing well and causing lost circulation

Less chance of fracturing well and causing lost circulation Low Coefficient of Fricti on of Base

Low Coefficient of Friction of Base Formate Fluid Higher Flow Rates

Higher annular velocities give better hole cleaning

of Fricti on of Base Formate Fluid Higher Flow Rates – Higher annular velocities give better

CoefficientCoefficient ofof FrictionFriction andand InheInherentrent LubricityLubricity ofof SaturatedSaturated FormateFormate FluidsFluids

Coefficient of Friction for Various Densities of Formate Fluids compared to Water at 200°F

0.60 Water 200 CsFormate 2.3 S.G. 200 0.50 KFormate 1.57 S.G. 200 Cs/K Formate 1.9
0.60
Water 200
CsFormate 2.3 S.G. 200
0.50
KFormate 1.57 S.G. 200
Cs/K Formate 1.9 S.G. 200
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
Metal-to-Metal
Metal-to-Sandstone
Metal-to-Shale
Coefficient of Friction
Metal-to-Sandstone Metal-to-Shale Coefficient of Friction The more saturated a formate fluid the lower the

The more saturated a formate fluid the lower the coefficient of friction and the better the lubricity If a more lubricious fluid is needed, such as for ER and horizontal wells, formate compatible, non-formation damaging lubricants with COF as low as 0.04 are available

ER and horizontal wells, formate compatible, non-formation dama ging lubricants with COF as low as 0.04

GreenGreen CanyonCanyon ShaleShale SwellingSwelling withwith FormateFormate FluidsFluids

Shale Swellmeter Testing GC 782 No 1 ST3 Shale Exposed to Deionized Water, 10.8, 11.5, and 12.0 lb/gal Sodium Formate/Potassium Formate Fluids

60 D.I. Water (58.6% at 96 hrs) 55 10.8 lb/gal NaF/KF (1.53% at 96 hrs)
60
D.I. Water (58.6% at 96 hrs)
55
10.8
lb/gal NaF/KF (1.53% at 96 hrs)
50
11.5
lb/gal NaF/KF (-0.31% at 96 hrs)
12.0
lb/gal NaF/KF (1.19% at 96 hrs)
45
40
35
30
25
Reconstituted Shale
Plug
20
15
10
5
0
-5
Shale Swelling, %

0

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

56

Time, Hours

60

64

68

72

76

80

84

88

92

96

100

10 5 0 -5 Shale Swelling, % 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32

WellWell ControlControl duringduring DrillDrill--InIn PhasePhase -- DiffusionDiffusion

Diffusion of methane into wellbore => trip gas, kick, degradation of mud properties, increased sag Diffusion of methane into wellbore much reduced with formates compared to OBM

Reduced diffusion rate

Reduced concentration of methane

Particularly important for horizontal and high angle HPHT wells

Solubility of methane in drilling fluids: T = 300°F (149°C), P = 10,000 psi (690 bar)

fluids: T = 300°F (149°C), P = 10,000 psi (690 bar) Fluid Oil Based Mud Water

Fluid

Oil Based Mud

Water Based Mud

Formate Fluid

Solubility (kg/m 3 )

164

4.8

1.0926

Diffusion Coefficient (m 2 /sec x 10 8 )

1.1500

2.9260

0.8072

Diffusion Flux**

(kg/m 2 s x 10 6 )

53.3000

3.9800

0.2494

**** DiffusionDiffusion fluxesfluxes varyvary moremore thanthan ddiffusioniffusion coefficientscoefficients becausbecausee theythey areare affectedaffected byby thethe increaseincrease inin solubilitysolubility formateformate >> waterwater >> oiloil

increase increase in in solubility solubility – – formate formate > > water water > >

NoNo SwappingSwapping--OutOut ofof BaseBase FluidFluid withwith FormateFormate FluidsFluids

Base Fluid Fluid with with Formate Formate Fluids Fluids Drilling/ Drilling/ Reservoir Reservoir Drill Drill -

Drilling/Drilling/ReservoirReservoir

DrillDrill--InIn FluidFluid

FormateFormate Formate FluidFluid Fluid
FormateFormate Formate FluidFluid Fluid

WellWell ControlControl duringduring CompletionCompletion

Much simpler completion operation

Very simple displacement operation

Cleanout/Sweep pills are also formate based and hence

same density and compatibility between drilling/drill-in fluid and completion fluid Run screens in fluid (fluid run over 300 – 400 mesh)

Expandable screens have been run in formate fluid

Very limited, if any, UB exposure (no UB fluids, pills

needed) High heat transfer rate extends life of tools in HT wells

Less tripping = rig-time saved = less $$$$$

needed) High heat transfer rate extends life of tools in HT wells Less tripping = rig-time

Formation Evaluation - Return Permeability

Formation Evaluation - Return Permeability 100 % % Return Permeability 50 % (S)OBM Formate Fluid Formate

100 %

% Return

Permeability

50 %

(S)OBM Formate Fluid Formate Fluid + Weak Acid 4 8 12 16 20 24
(S)OBM
Formate Fluid
Formate Fluid + Weak Acid
4
8
12
16
20
24

Time (hrs)

Difference in clean-up behavior between OBM and Formate Mud

Particle Size Distribution (PSD) optimized to permeability and pore throat size

Filtrate invasion can be higher than OBM – needed for thin filtercake deposition

Weak Acid wash can provide improved return perm (even > than 100%)

– needed for thin filtercake deposition Weak Acid wash can provide improved return perm (even >

SelectedSelected FieldField ExperienceExperience withwith FormateFormate BasedBased FluidsFluids

HPHT Field Experience with formate fluids over the past twelve years. No corrosion problems have been reported in buffered formate fluids without added corrosion inhibitor.

           

Devon

 

BP

Devon West Cameron 165 A-7, A-8

West

Walter O&G

Statoil

Kvitebjørn

Statoil

Kristin

High Island

A-5

Cameron 165 A-7, A-

Mobile Bay

862

8

No. of wells

 

7 to date

6 to date

1

1

1

1

   

Gas

Gas

Gas

Gas

Gas

Gas

Hydrocarbon

condensate

condensate

condensate

Max. temp

°C

150

171

163

149

163

216

°F

302

340

325

300

325

420

Completion

CRA

S13Cr

S13Cr

S13Cr

13Cr

13Cr

G-3

material

Liner

             

material

CRA

13Cr

S13Cr

S13Cr

13Cr

13Cr

G-3

Brine

g/cm 2

           

density

2.00 - 2.06

2.09 - 2.13

2.11

1.03

1.14

2.06

CO 2

%

2-3

3.5

5

3

3

10

H

2 S

ppm

Max 10

12 - 17

12

5

5

100

Exposure time

days

57

57

4

240 and 270

120

16

3 yrs packer

325 packer

   

Drilling

 

Well kill

   

Well kill

Application

Completion /

Screens /

Liners

Drilling

Completion

Completion

Packer

Packer

Packer

Completion

Packer

References:

Packer Packer Completion Packer References: • SPE 98391 “Taking Nondamaging Fluids to New extremes:

SPE 98391 “Taking Nondamaging Fluids to New extremes: Formate Based Drilling Fluids for High-Temperature Reservoirs in Pakistan” R.J. Oswald, Petrom SA and D.A. Knox and M.R. Monem, M-I Swaco IADC/SPE 99068 “Drilling and Completing HP/HT Wells with the Aid of Cesium Formate Brines – A Performance Review” J.D. Downs, M. Blaszczynski, J. Turner, M. Harris, Cabot Specialty Fluids

SelectedSelected FieldField ExperienceExperience withwith FormateFormate BasedBased FluidsFluids

HPHT Field Experience with formate fluids over the past twelve years. No corrosion problems have been reported in buffered formate fluids without added corrosion inhibitor.

buffered formate fluids without added corrosion inhibitor. BP Rhum Shell Marathon BP Total Statoil

BP Rhum

Shell

Marathon

BP

Total

Statoil

3/29a

Shearwater

Braemar

Devenick

Elgin/Franklin

Huldra

No. of wells

Hydrocarbon

3

6

1

1

10

6

Gas

Gas

Gas

Gas

Gas

Gas

condensate

condensate

condensate

condensate

Condensate

Condensate

Max. temp

Completion

material

Liner

M a x . t e m p Completion material L i n e r m

material

Brine

density

CO 2

H 2 S

Exposure time

°C

149

182

135

146

204

149

°F

300

360

275

295

400

300

CRA

S13Cr

25Cr

13Cr

13Cr

25Cr

S13Cr

CRA

S13Cr

25Cr

22Cr

VM110

P110

S13Cr

g/cm 2

2.00-2.20

2.05-2.20

1.80-1.85

1.60-1.65

2.10-2.20

1.85-1.95

%

5

3

6.5

3.5

4

4

ppm

5 - 10

20

2.5

5

20 – 50

10 - 14

Days

250

65

7

90

450

45

Well kill

CT

Workover

Perforation

Workover Completion CT / Well kill

Perforation

Perforation

Completion

Workover

Drilling /

Completion

Screens

Workover

Perforation

Drill

Completion

Application

Perforation Completion Workover Drilling / Completion Screens Workover Perforation Drill Completion Application

SelectedSelected 20062006 FieldField ExperienceExperience withwith FormateFormate BasedBased FluidsFluids

Workover – Total Elgin/Franklin F7 well has been suspended with 2.15 s.g. (17.92 ppg) Cesium Formate open hole at full temperature (400 °F) for 18 months – awaiting rig availability, possibly Jan 2007

– awaiting rig availability, possibly Jan 2007 – – Well is being continuously monitored for gases,

Well is being continuously monitored for gases, changes in fluid properties, none detected to-date

Plan thorough inspection and analysis of metals for corrosion and fluid for changes after project is complete (and this will be published) March 2006 Total E&P UK plc – Development well Glenelg 22/30c-G10Y Satellite from Elgin/Franklin, drilled 24,229’ Highly Deviated Inclination 16.34° -> 64°

Brought on production after completion and UB perforation through 7” liner with 1.78 s.g.(14.84 ppg) Cesium/Potassium formate

Reservoir

s.g.(14.84 ppg) Cesium /Potassium formate – Reservoir Temperature – 195 °F (383 °F) @ 5,859 m
s.g.(14.84 ppg) Cesium /Potassium formate – Reservoir Temperature – 195 °F (383 °F) @ 5,859 m
s.g.(14.84 ppg) Cesium /Potassium formate – Reservoir Temperature – 195 °F (383 °F) @ 5,859 m

Temperature – 195 °F (383 °F) @ 5,859 m TVD Pressure – 1,126 bar (16,331 psi) @ 5,539 m TVD

Total Depth – 7,383 m MD, TVD – 5,815 m TVD, Gas Condensate

Perforation Losses – 2.0 m 3 (12.58 bbl)

Production potential – 30,000 boe per day – Well test has been performed - Actual production – n/a

(12.58 bbl) – Production potential – 30,000 boe per day – Well test has been performed

PetrobrasPetrobras EnergiaEnergia ElEl CampamentoCampamento,, SantaSanta Cruz,Cruz, ArgentinaArgentina

, , Santa Santa Cruz, Cruz, Argentina Argentina Exploratory/Appraisal well - drilling with Cs/K formate
, , Santa Santa Cruz, Cruz, Argentina Argentina Exploratory/Appraisal well - drilling with Cs/K formate

Exploratory/Appraisal well - drilling with Cs/K formate Drilled a ‘gage’ hole to 3000 m Found gas in section above target zone – 575 bar (8340 psi), 1.93 s.g. (16 ppg) No indication of gas from offset P&A’d well Well being cased and cemented and then perforated through formate fluid

indication of gas fr om offset P&A’d well Well being cased and cemented and then perforated

Thank You for your attention

Thank You for your attention Specialty Fluids

Specialty Fluids

Thank You for your attention Specialty Fluids