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1:250000 Geological Map

17

Geology of the Fiordland Area

I. M. Turnbull A. H. Allibone R. Jongens (compilers)

International Middle Late (Guadalupian) (Lopingian) D'Urville

New Zealand Makarewan Waiitian Puruhauan Flettian Aparima


YDm YDw YDp YAf

Pliocene

Late

260.4

Gelasian Piacenzian Zanclean Messinian

Nukumaruan Mangapanian Waipipian Opoitian Kapitean

Wn Wm Wp Wo Tk

Capitanian Wordian Roadian Kungurian Artinskian

6 200 300 400 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Permian

270.6

Barrettian Mangapirian Telfordian

YAr

5.3
YAm YAt

Early

3.6

Early (Cisuralian)

Late

Taranaki

NEOGENE

Sakmarian Asselian Gzhelian

Tortonian

Tongaporutuan

Tt

500 600 700 800

299.0

11.2

Waiauan

Pennsylvanian

Miocene

Sw

Kasimovian Moscovian Bashkirian

CENOZOIC

Middle

Serravallian

Southland

Lillburnian Clifdenian

Sl Sc Pl Po Lw Ld Lwh Ar Ak Ab Dp Dh Dm Dw

900 1000

Langhian Pareora

Carboniferous

318.1

16.4
Serpukhovian
F

Early

Burdigalian

Altonian

Otaian Aquitanian Waitakian Landon Duntroonian


Whaingaroan Runangan Kaiatan

Mississippian

Oligocene Early Late

Visean

23.8 28.5

Chattian Rupelian

PALEOGENE

Eocene

Middle

Arnold

33.7 37.0
Tournasian

Late

Priabonian Bartonian Lutetian Ypresian Thanetian Selandian


Danian

Bortonian Porangan Heretaungan Mangaorapan Waipawan

Early

Late

Famennian Frasnian Givetian


JM

Paleocene

JU

55.5

385.3

Early Late

Dannevirke

359.2

49.0

Middle

61.0 65.0

Teurian

Dt

PALE O Z O I C

397.5

Devonian

Eifelian Emsian

Maastrichtian Mata

Jem
Campanian

Haumurian

Mh

Early

Late

Pragian

Jpr

Santonian
Coniacian
Raukumara

Piripauan Teratan

Mp Rt
Rm

Cretaceous

Lochkovian

Jlo

Turonian

Mangaotanean Arowhanan
Ngaterian Motuan Urutawan

Ra Cn
Cm Cu

417.2

Cenomanian
Clarence

Pridoli

Epr Elu Ewe

99.6

Silurian

Ludlow Wenlock Llandovery

Albian

423.5

Korangan Aptian
Early Barremian

Uk

443.2

Taitai

Ela

Hirnantian Bolindan
Vbo

Hauterivian
Valanginian

Undifferentiated Taitai Series

Late

Stage 6

Upper

Eastonian Gisbornian

Vea Vgi Vda Vya Vca Vch Vbe

Berriasian

Oteke

145.5

Puaroan

Op

MESOZOIC

Middle

Middle

460.5

Ordovician

Stage 5 Darriwilian Stage 3

Tithonian

472.0

Darriwilian Yapeenian Castlemainian Chewtonian Bendigonian

Late

Ohauan

Ko

Kimmeridgian
Oxfordian Callovian Heterian Kawhia Kh

157.0

Stage 2 Lower

Jurassic

Middle

Early

Bathonian

Lancefieldian

Vla

Temaikan

Kt

Bajocian
Aalenian Toarcian

Tremadocian

490.0

Stage 6

Paibian

Stage 4

Xbo Xun Xfl

Early

501

pre-Lancefieldian Datsonian Payntonian Iverian Idamean Mindyallan Boomerangian Undillan Floran

Vpl Xda Xpa Xiv Xid Xmi

175.6

Pliensbachian
Sinemurian Hettangian

Herangi

Late

Ururoan

Hu

Aratauran Otapirian Balfour


Warepan Otamitan

Ha Bo Bw Bm Br Gk

Middle

Cambrian

Stage 3 Stage 2

199.6

Rhaetian Late
Norian

Stage 1

Ordian/Lower Templetonian

Xor

Triassic

510

Oretian Carnian
Middle Kaihikuan

Early

XL

237.0

Gore

Ladinian
Anisian

Etalian

Ge Gm Gn

542
Precambrian
Z

Early

245.0 251.0

Malakovian Olenekian Induan


Nelsonian

New Zealand geological time scale (after Cooper 2004).

Castlecliffian

Ypt

Haweran

Wuchiapingian

Wanganui

Holocene Pleistocene

Quaternary

251.0

Changhsingian

Age (Ma) 0.01

International

New Zealand Haweran Castlecliffian Wq Wc

Age Oxygen New (ka) isotope Zealand events stages 0 100 12 3 4 5

1.8

Geology of the Fiordland Area


Scale 1:250 000

I. M. TURNBULL A. H. ALLIBONE R. JONGENS


(COMPILERS)

Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences 1:250 000 Geological Map 17

GNS Science Lower Hutt, New Zealand 2010

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCE
Turnbull, I.M.; Allibone, A.H.; Jongens, R. (compilers) 2010: Geology of the Fiordland area. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences 1:250 000 geological map 17. 1 sheet + 97p. Lower Hutt, New Zealand. GNS Science.

Edited, designed and prepared for publication by P.J. Forsyth, J.J. Aitken, P.A. Carthew, P.L. Murray, B. Smith Lyttle and D.W. Heron Printed by Graphic Press and Packaging Ltd, Levin

ISBN 978-0-478-19670-2

Copyright Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited 2010

FRONT COVER
Breaksea Island at the entrance to Breaksea Sound (Te Puaitaha) on the outer coast of Fiordland. The smaller islands beyond are smooth and rounded, having been over-ridden by the former Breaksea Glacier. In contrast, the steep, furrowed shoreline of Breaksea Island is being actively eroded by westerly swells from the Tasman Sea. The island, and the slopes north of the sound, are formed of the granulitic to eclogitic Breaksea Orthogneiss, the highest grade metamorphic rocks known from New Zealand. The mountains beyond Breaksea Sound (top left) and Acheron Passage (upper right centre) are formed of Cretaceous granulite facies Malaspina Pluton, part of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss. Resolution Island, to the right, comprises Paleozoic metasedimentary gneisses and the hornblende granulite facies Cretaceous Resolution Orthogneiss. These are separated by the gently dipping Resolution Island Shear Zone, lying just above the white beach of Disappointment Cove (upper right). Breaksea Island is predator-free, and is home to several endangered bird species including tieke (South Island saddleback) and mohua (yellowhead). Breaksea and the tiny Hawea and Wairaki islands (right centre) support populations of endangered insects and the Fiordland skink. Resolution Island is also free of predators, and will eventually be home to endangered wildlife species. Photo CN 48361/A: D.L. Homer

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CONTENTS
ABSTRACT .................................................................. vi Keywords ....................................................................... vii INTRODUCTION...........................................................1 THE QMAP SERIES ........................................................1 The QMAP Geographic Information System ..................1 Data sources ......................................................................2 Reliability..........................................................................2 REGIONAL SETTING.....................................................2 GEOMORPHOLOGY .....................................................5 Glacial valleys and ranges ................................................5 Southwest Fiordland terraces............................................9 Te Anau and Waiau basins ..............................................10 South Westland ...............................................................14 Offshore physiography....................................................14 Solander Island (Hautere) ...............................................14 STRATIGRAPHY.........................................................15 CAMBRIAN TO DEVONIAN METASEDIMENTARY AND METAVOLCANIC ROCKS..15 Takaka terrane ................................................................15 Middle to Late Cambrian metasedimentary rocks ..........15 Cambrian to Ordovician metasedimentary rocks............18 Buller terrane..................................................................23 Ordovician metasedimentary rocks.................................23 Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of uncertain afnity.........26 Permian metasedimentary rocks .....................................26 Undifferentiated metamorphic rocks of unknown afnity in eastern Fiordland .........................................26 Anita Shear Zone protolith rocks....................................26 PERMIAN TO JURASSIC SEDIMENTARY AND VOLCANIC ROCKS .........................................28 Brook Street terrane ........................................................28 Dun Mountain-Maitai terrane ........................................28 CAMBRIAN TO MID-CRETACEOUS PLUTONIC ROCKS OF THE MEDIAN BATHOLITH .................28 Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician plutonic rocks ........28 Late Devonian to Carboniferous plutonic rocks .............30 Paringa Suite ..................................................................30 Ridge Suite ......................................................................30 Karamea Suite.................................................................32 Foulwind Suite ................................................................32 Tobin Suite.......................................................................33 Late Devonian-Carboniferous plutonic rocks with no assigned suite afnity ..............................................33 Late Triassic to Cretaceous plutonic rocks .....................34 Darran Suite....................................................................34 Rahu Suite .......................................................................36 Western Fiordland Orthogneiss ......................................37 Separation Point Suite ....................................................39 Triassic to Cretaceous plutons with no assigned suite afnity ..................................................................40 Plutonic rocks of uncertain age and suite afnity...........40 Paleozoic to Mesozoic plutonic rocks of the Arthur River Complex .............................................................42 Dikes ...............................................................................43 Jurassic to Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary rocks associated with the Median Batholith ................43 CRETACEOUS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS ...................43 EOCENE TO PLIOCENE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS...44 Te Anau Basin .................................................................44 Waiau Basin ....................................................................50 Solander Basin ................................................................53 Balleny Basin ..................................................................53 Plio-Pleistocene non-marine and marine sedimentary rocks ........................................................55 South Westland ...............................................................55 QUATERNARY .............................................................56 Early Quaternary deposits...............................................57 Kisbee Formation............................................................57 Middle Quaternary deposits............................................57 Solander Island Volcanics ...............................................57 Late Quaternary deposits ................................................59 Glacial deposits ..............................................................59 Alluvial terraces and fans ...............................................61 Landslide deposits...........................................................61 Scree................................................................................61 Peat ................................................................................61 Shoreline deposits ...........................................................61 Marine terrace deposits ...................................................61 OFFSHORE GEOLOGY ...............................................62 TECTONIC HISTORY ................................................64 PALEOZOIC GONDWANA MARGIN .........................64 Permian-Triassic quiescence...........................................64 MESOZOIC GONDWANA MARGIN ..........................64 LATE MESOZOIC TO CENOZOIC TECTONICS .......70 MODERN TECTONIC SETTING.................................71

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GEOLOGICAL RESOURCES....................................72 METALLIC MINERALS ...............................................72 Alluvial gold ...................................................................72 Hard-rock gold ................................................................72 Other metallic minerals...................................................72 NON-METALLIC RESOURCES...................................73 Peat..................................................................................73 Coal ................................................................................73 Hydrocarbons..................................................................74 Limestone........................................................................75 Aggregate........................................................................75 Mineral sands ..................................................................75 Building stone and riprap................................................75 Thermal springs ..............................................................75 Groundwater ...................................................................75 Other materials................................................................75 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY ......................................76

Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous rocks...............................76 Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks..................76 Quaternary sediments......................................................76 GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS ........................................78 Earthquakes.....................................................................78 Landslides .......................................................................81 Tsunami...........................................................................82 Flooding, sedimentation and avalanche..........................84 Volcanic eruptions...........................................................84 AVAILABILITY OF QMAP DATA.............................85 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................86 REFERENCES..............................................................87 APPENDIX 1 Lithostratigraphic nomenclature in the Buller and Takaka terranes, southwest Fiordland ......................................................................97

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Frontispiece A pekapeka (neck pendant) of takiwai (tangiwai/bowenite), with traces of red sealing wax in the eyes. Takiwai is a translucent variety of serpentine that is not as tough as pounamu (nephrite). Maori obtained it from the Milford Sound area and used it mainly for ornamental items. Pekapeka refers to both species of native bat, and to amulets made in this form. Maker unknown; gift of Robert Coddington, 2007 Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (ME023849)

ABSTRACT
The Fiordland 1:250 000 geological map covers the rugged southwestern part of the South Island of New Zealand, and includes Solander and Little Solander islands in Foveaux Strait. The map area lies immediately east of the Alpine Fault, the main active structure within an east-dipping oblique subduction zone that forms the boundary between the Australian and Pacic plates. Fiordland topography is dominated by bush-clad and deeply glaciated mountains. Fiords, many studded with islands, indent the western coast. Eastern Fiordland is also indented by the ord-like arms of lakes Te Anau and Manapouri, and the smaller lakes Monowai, Hauroko and Poteriteri further south. Extensive raised marine terraces typify the southern and southwestern coastlines. The Solander Islands are the eroded remnants of a volcano. The map area covers a wide range of Paleozoic to Mesozoic rocks that form parts of at least four tectonostratigraphic terranes. Southwestern Fiordland has a basement of Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of New Zealands Western Province, including the Cambrian to Ordovician Buller and Takaka terranes. Similar rocks extend as far north as Caswell and George sounds in western and central Fiordland, although their terrane afnities are uncertain. Most of these Western Province rocks have been deformed and metamorphosed to amphibolite facies during at least two events. A small area of Buller terrane is also mapped west of the Alpine Fault. Fault-bounded slivers of Permian to Triassic Brook Street and Dun Mountain-Maitai terrane volcaniclastic rocks of the Eastern Province occur in the Hollyford valley. Volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Mesozoic Loch Burn Formation and Largs Group are intercalated with Carboniferous to Cretaceous plutons in eastern Fiordland. Much of Fiordland is underlain by Cambrian to Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Median Batholith. The western (inboard) part of the batholith intrudes Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Western Province, but these metasedimentary rocks are not recorded from the eastern (outboard) part of the batholith. The eastern margin of the batholith intruded the Eastern Province Brook Street terrane, but the contact is now largely obscured by Cenozoic faults. The oldest plutonic rocks within the batholith are small dioritic and granitoid intrusions of Cambrian and Devonian age. Carboniferous plutonic rocks are more abundant, and include Ridge and Karamea Suite S-type granitoids, Foulwind Suite A/I type dioritic and granitoid rocks, and Paringa Suite I-type gabbroic to granitoid rocks. These Carboniferous plutons form an extensive belt through the centre of Fiordland in the western part of the Median Batholith. Carboniferous Tobin Suite I-type granitoid plutons also occur within the eastern part of the batholith. The next known plutonic activity is 100 million years younger, in the Triassic, when dioritic plutons were emplaced in northeastern Fiordland. During the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, much larger volumes of heterogeneous Darran Suite gabbroic to granodioritic rocks were intruded into both outboard and inboard parts of the Median Batholith. Minor Early Cretaceous Rahu Suite granitoid rocks were emplaced in southwest Fiordland. Early Cretaceous plutonism continued with the emplacement of the granitoid Separation Point Suite and dioritic Western Fiordland Orthogneiss, the former extending throughout Fiordland. Granulite and eclogite facies metamorphism overprinted some Western Fiordland orthogneisses at depths of 5080 km. Intrusive contacts between Western Fiordland Orthogneiss plutons and adjacent metasedimentary rocks were locally disrupted by extensional shear zones in the later Early Cretaceous. In eastern and southern Fiordland, and in western Foveaux Strait, basement rocks are unconformably overlain by midCretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks that were deposited in the fault-controlled Balleny, Solander, Waiau and Te Anau basins. The sedimentary rocks are subdivided into the Puysegur, Balleny, Annick and Waiau groups, and form sequences of non-marine and marine clastic sedimentary rocks up to 8 km thick. A thinner sandstone and limestone shelf sequence extends discontinuously along the eastern margin of Fiordland. Marine sedimentation ended in the Late Miocene, with the uplift of Fiordland and the lling of the Te Anau Basin by thick non-marine conglomerates. Cenozoic rocks also occur on Resolution Island, west of the Alpine Fault, and offshore. Quaternary glaciation in western Fiordland has left few deposits apart from high-level moraines west of the Kaipo River, south of Dusky Sound, and at Chalky and Preservation inlets. Moraine and outwash deposits are more common in southern and eastern Fiordland. Extensive uplifted marine erosion surfaces, some carrying marine gravel deposits, occur in the south and southwest. An unusual mid-Quaternary marine ord deposit is preserved within a gorge near Puysegur Point. Areas of scree, valley alluvium, cirque terminal moraines and peat occupy most valleys. Landslides are widespread throughout Fiordland, with several very large and innumerable smaller deposits. Over 500 kg of gold was produced from alluvial and hardrock mines at Preservation Inlet. Auriferous quartz vein systems are mostly within Ordovician metasedimentary rocks, but some cut adjacent Cretaceous granitic intrusions. Iron, titanium and vanadium occur in layered Paleozoic and Jurassic mac intrusions, particularly at Mt George. Non-metallic mineral resources include marble, limestone, aggregate, peat and sub-bituminous coal. The offshore Balleny and Solander sedimentary basins have hydrocarbon resource potential.

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Fiordlands proximity to the active plate boundary means it is subject to a severe seismic hazard. Earthquakes occur within the subduction zone, on the Alpine Fault, and on active faults of the Moonlight and Hollyford fault systems. Associated landsliding, ground rupture, earthquake shaking, liquefaction, tsunami, and delta collapse pose

consequent hazards. Very large earthquakes may initiate major landslides of catastrophic proportions. Landslides associated with rainstorms are a minor but ongoing hazard. Flooding, erosion, sedimentation and avalanches are localised hazards that affect nearly all the valleys of Fiordland.

Keywords
Fiordland; Southland; Westland; Milford Sound; Foveaux Strait; Solander Island; 1:250 000 geological maps; geographic information systems; digital data; bathymetry; Buller terrane; Takaka terrane; Fanny Bay Group; Cameron Group; Edgecumbe Group; Deep Cove Gneiss; metasedimentary rocks; metamorphic facies; eclogite; granulite; deformation; shear zones; Median Batholith; Karamea Suite; Paringa Suite; Ridge Suite; Tobin Suite; Foulwind Suite; Rahu Suite; Darran Suite; Separation Point Suite; Western Fiordland Orthogneiss; Arthur River Complex; plutons; Brook Street terrane; Dun Mountain-Maitai terrane; Loch Burn Formation; Largs Group; Puysegur Group; Balleny Group; Annick Group; Waiau Group; Clifden Subgroup; Kisbee Formation; Five Fingers Peninsula; terraces; alluvial fans; moraines; till; outwash; landslides; peat swamps; sand dunes; Alpine Fault; Hauroko Fault; Blackmount Fault; Dusky Fault; mylonite; Quaternary tectonics; subduction; active faults; economic geology; gold; titanium; marble; peat; garnet; limestone; groundwater; hydrocarbons; engineering geology; natural hazards; sandies; seismotectonic hazard; landsliding; volcanic eruptions; oods; sedimentation; tsunami.

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170 E

175 E

Ne

35 S

Ca

le

do

ni

20

Kaitaia

35 S
Whangarei

Ba

00

200

sin
Auckland

Waikato

Rotorua Raukumara Hawkes Bay

Challenger Plateau
40 S

Taranaki Basin
Taranaki

47 mm/yr

Australian Plate
20 00
Greymouth

Nelson

Wellington

Wairarapa

H
F
Haast

ik

a ur

ng

o Tr i

h ug

40 S

l au

Kaikoura

41 mm/yr

38 mm/yr
Christchurch

Pacific Plate

QMAP Fiordland

p Al

e in

Aoraki

Chatham Rise
45 S

45 S

Wakatipu

Waitaki

Tren ch

37 mm/y

r
Dunedin

Murihiku

Bounty Trough
2000
0 100 Kilometres 200

Puys egur

Campbell Plateau
170 E 175 E

165 E

180 E

Figure 1 Regional setting of New Zealand, showing the location of the Fiordland geological map and other QMAP sheets, active faults and major offshore features (illustrated by the 2000 m isobath), and most known active faults. Arrows show the rate and direction of Pacic Plate movement relative to the Australian Plate, with oblique subduction along the Puysegur Trench.

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INTRODUCTION
THE QMAP SERIES This geological map of Fiordland is one of a national series known as QMAP (Quarter-million MAP; Nathan 1993; Fig. 1), and supersedes earlier 1:250 000 geological maps of the area published in the 1960s (Wood 1960a, 1962, 1966). These early maps were signicant achievements, given the limited resources available and logistical difculties at the time: a lack of topographic base maps for much of Fiordland, and no helicopter access. These 4-mile maps provided impetus for several University of Otago PhD theses in the 1970s and 1980s. Environmental assessment for, and construction of, the nationally signicant Manapouri hydroelectric power scheme in the 1970s required detailed geological information. Apart from those studies, which concentrated on the older plutonic and metamorphic rocks, and geological mapping of the younger sedimentary rocks by government geologists, much of Fiordland remained geologically unknown until the QMAP Fiordland programme began in 2002. The tourism industry is focussed on Fiordland, which is a World Heritage Site, and is absorbing geological information for publicity and education. Further impetus for new mapping comes from hydrocarbon exploration in both onshore and offshore areas marginal to Fiordland. Although most of the map area is within Fiordland National Park and therefore unavailable for mining, there has been some reconnaissance mineral exploration. Fiordland is also the centre of many earthquakes, several of which have been quite destructive. Knowledge of its internal structure contributes to mitigating the hazards arising from earthquakes, such as ground shaking, delta collapse, tsunami and landsliding. The rocks of much of western Fiordland were formed exceptionally deep in the Earths crust, and have been the focus of several New Zealand and overseas university research programmes. Fiordland is a topographic and geological entity that extends northeast onto the QMAP Wakatipu map sheet area (Turnbull 2000). Since the publication of that map, new work in northern Fiordland has been published by Sydney, Macquarie and Vermont university workers, and parts of the Wakatipu QMAP sheet require updating. Following recommendations from an international workshop on Fiordland geology (Turnbull 2002), the present map has been extended to cover the entire Fiordland geological massif and include this new work. The geology shown on the map has been generalised for presentation at 1:250 000 scale. Rock types are shown primarily in terms of their age of intrusion, eruption or deposition. The colour of the units on the map face thus reects their age, with overprints used to differentiate some lithologies. Letter symbols (in upper case, with a lower case prex to indicate early, middle or late if appropriate) indicate the predominant age of the unit. Metamorphic rocks are mapped in terms of age, and terrane afnity of the parent rock where known, with overprints reecting the degree of metamorphism and deformation. The last lower case letter (or letters) indicates either a lithostratigraphic unit or the predominant lithology. Plutonic rocks are mapped in terms of age, with the second letter indicating their petrogenetic suite, and the third for named plutons (where feasible). Where volumetrically subordinate, dikes and layers of plutonic rock within areas of older sedimentary rock are not distinguished separately. Younger sedimentary rocks are labelled according to their inferred age and lithostratigraphic group or formation, and by lithology where feasible. Existing formalised lithostratigraphic names have been adopted wherever possible. The geological time scale inside the front cover shows correlations between international and local time scales, and ages in millions of years (Ma) or thousands of years (ka), but does not incorporate recent modications to the age of the PliocenePleistocene boundary. This accompanying text is not an exhaustive description or review of the various rock units mapped. For more detailed information on individual rock units, specic areas, natural hazards or minerals, see the references cited throughout the text. The QMAP Geographic Information System The QMAP series uses computer methods to store, manipulate and present geological and topographical information. The maps are drawn from data stored in the QMAP Geographic Information System (GIS), a database built and maintained by GNS Science. The primary software used is ARC/INFO, although the data are compatible with most other GIS software. The QMAP database is complementary to other digital data sets maintained by GNS Science, such as gravity and magnetic surveys, mineral resources and localities, fossil localities, active faults and petrological samples. Background 1:250 000-scale digital topographic data comes from Land Information New Zealand, and offshore bathymetry from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). The QMAP series is based on detailed geological information plotted at 1:50 000 on NZMS 260 series topographic base maps. These record sheets are available for consultation at GNS Science ofces. The detailed geology has been simplied for digitising, with linework smoothed and geological units amalgamated to a standard national system based on age and lithology. All point data (such as dips and strikes) are stored in the GIS, but only representative structural observations are shown on the map. The procedures for map compilation, and data storage and manipulation, are given by Rattenbury & Heron (1997).

Data sources This geological map includes data from numerous sources, including published geological maps and papers, unpublished data from university theses, unpublished GNS Science technical and map les, mining and oil company reports, the New Zealand Fossil Record File (FRED), and GNS Science digital databases of geological resources and petrological samples (GERM, PETLAB). Field mapping of poorly known areas, undertaken over six eld seasons between 2002 and 2008, ensured consistent data coverage over the map area. Landslides were mapped from air photos and eld-checked in many cases. Offshore data were obtained from published and unpublished surveys by NIWA and GNS Science. Data sources used for map compilation are shown in Fig. 2, and identied by an asterisk in the reference list. Reliability This 1:250 000 map is a regional scale map, and should not be used alone for land use planning, designing and planning of engineering projects, natural hazard assessments, or other work for which detailed site investigations are necessary. As much of Fiordland is covered in dense forest and/or is very steep, the positions of contacts and faults shown within forested areas are approximate in places. Some data from sources older than the 1970s may be poorly located due to the absence of reliable contemporary topographic maps. In many places, plutonic rocks have complex intrusive relationships on scales from metres to hundreds of metres, and with further eldwork, more detailed subdivision may be feasible. REGIONAL SETTING The Fiordland geological map extends from the eastern Tasman Sea to the Hollyford valley in the north, the Te Anau and Waiau basins in the east, and western Foveaux Strait in the south. There are tourist facilities at Te Anau Downs, and Milford and Doubtful sounds. The towns of Te Anau and Manapouri support farming and tourist activities, and the Manapouri power scheme, but otherwise Fiordland lacks permanent inhabitants. Road access is limited to SH94 from Te Anau to Milford; across the Borland Saddle and Wilmot Pass; and to Lake Hauroko. Elsewhere, visitors must y, sail, or walk to reach the interior, the ords and the outer coast. Most of Fiordland is underlain by plutonic rocks, which were intruded into metamorphosed Early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of New Zealands Western Province. Plutonism took place during Late Cambrian, Devonian, Carboniferous and

Triassic-Early Cretaceous times, in response to repeated phases of subduction along the margin of Gondwana. All the geographically contiguous plutonic rocks of Fiordland are part of the regionally extensive Median Batholith (Mortimer et al. 1999b; Allibone et al. 2009a; Fig. 3). Several major intra-batholith shear zones were active during and immediately after plutonism. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic accreted terranes of the Eastern Province form a small portion of the map area in the northeast, and are separated from the Median Batholith by Mesozoic shear zones that were reactivated in the Cenozoic (Mortimer et al. 1999a). Since separating from Gondwana in the middle to Late Cretaceous, Fiordland has been part of the now largely submerged microcontinent of Zealandia. When the Australian-Pacic plate boundary propagated through Zealandia in the mid-Cenozoic, fault-bounded basins developed along the southern and eastern margins of Fiordland (Norris et al. 1978). These sedimentary basins continued to develop into the late Cenozoic, and expanded across much of Fiordland. Latest Cenozoic erosion has since removed most of these sedimentary cover rocks, which are now only preserved in basin remnants along the southern and eastern margins of Fiordland (see Fig. 46). Rapid changes in sedimentary facies within the basins reect changing motion on the developing plate boundary, particularly the beginning of subduction beneath Fiordland in the Miocene, and the inception of strike-slip movement on the Alpine Fault (Walcott 1998; Lebrun et al. 2003; Sutherland et al. 2006a). Fiordland moved northward during the late Cenozoic, compressing the area around the Hollyford valley and excising most of the Paleozoic Eastern Province terranes and overlying Cenozoic sediments (Beggs & Ghisetti 2006). This deformation also uplifted the Fiordland massif, particularly on its northern and eastern sides (House et al. 2005). Present-day plate boundary motion is distributed across a wide zone of thrusting and strike-slip deformation above a steeply east-dipping to vertical Wadati-Benioff Zone (Reyners et al. 1991, 2003; Eberhart-Phillips & Reyners 2001). Plate motion changes from predominantly strikeslip in the north to more oblique convergence in the south (Sutherland 1995a; Barnes et al. 2002). Some 6090% of the strike-slip movement is accommodated on the Alpine Fault (Barnes et al. 2005; Sutherland et al. 2006a). The obliquely convergent component continues to uplift Fiordland (House et al. 2002), as shown by ights of uplifted marine terraces on the southern coast. The subductive component of plate movement has also given rise to the Solander volcanic eld in Foveaux Strait (Reay & Parkinson 1997; Sutherland et al. 2006b).

Theses Published papers


29 33

62

45 38 34 51

47 23

Published maps Unpublished material


41 39 52 54 26 6 2 2 2 35 2 26 40 25 26 9 5 60 66 22 17 21 12 15 11 56 20 49
Student theses 1 Bowman 1974 2 Bradshaw 1985 3 Brodie 1979 4 Clarke 1978 5 Codling 1977 6 Degeling 1997 7 Dockrill 2000 8 Gibson 1979 9 Harnmeijer 2001 10 Higgins 1975 11 Jamieson 1979 12 King 1984 13 Ladley 1998 14 Landis 1969 15 Manville 1994 16 Morrison 1973 17 O'Neill 1998 18 Oliver 1976 19 Powell 2006 20 Ryder-Turner 1980 21 Scott 2004 22 Sise 1976 23 Sutherland 1995 24 Ward 1984 Published papers 25 Barnes et al. 2001 26 Barnes et al. 2005 27 Benson & Keble 1935 28 Benson 1934 29 Bruun et al. 1955 30 Carter & Lindqvist 1975 31 Carter & Norris 2005 32 Claypool et al. 2002 33 Cook 1988 34 Cooper & Norris 1990 35 Daczko et al. 2002 36 Hancox & Perrin 1994 37 Harrington & Wood 1958 38 Healey 1938 39 Hill 1995a 40 King et al. 2008 41 Klepeis et al. 1999 42 Klepeis et al. 2004 43 Koons 1978 44 Marcotte et al. 2005 45 Nathan 1978 46 Pocknall & Lindqvist 1988 47 Sutherland & Norris 1995 48 Turnbull & Uruski 1993 49 Turnbull 1991 50 Turnbull et al. 1985 51 Wellman & Wilson 1964 52 Wood 1972 Published maps 53 Bishop 1986 54 Bishop et al. 1990 55 Cutress et al. 1999 56 McKellar 1973a 57 Turnbull & Uruski 1995 58 Turnbull 1985 59 Wood 1960a 60 Wood 1962 61 Wood 1966 Unpublished 62 Berryman et al. 1986 63 Hull 1981 64 Turnbull 1986b 65 Wood 1953 66 Wood 1968

32 7 44 43

63

14

42

16

58

64

18 8 19 50

4
10 36 31

3 24 28 27 65 13

30 46 55

59 53 57 61

37 48

Figure 2 Major sources of data used in compiling the Fiordland geological map. These data sources are identied in the references by an asterisk. Unpublished maps are held in the map archive of GNS Science, or in university libraries and geology departments.

SEDIMENTARY AND VOLCANIC ROCKS


Northland and East Coast allochthons
Waipapa composite terrane (western North Island)
Morrinsville Hunua

Torlesse composite terrane (eastern NZ)


(Waioeka petrofacies) Kaweka Pahau Rakaia

Northland Allochthon

Eastern

Caples terrane Dun Mountain - Maitai terrane Murihiku terrane Brook Street terrane

Province

Takaka terrane Buller terrane

East Coast Allochthon

Western Province

PLUTONIC ROCKS
Median Batholith Karamea Batholith Paparoa Batholith Hohonu Batholith

REGIONAL TECTONICMETAMORPHIC OVERPRINTS


h
Esk Head Belt and deformed zones in the Pahau terrane

Gneiss
N

Hik

ura

ngi

200 km
U FA
NE

LT

AL

PI

Pu

ys

eg

ur

Tr e

Figure 3 Basement rocks of New Zealand, subdivided into terranes and batholiths. The Fiordland map area is highlighted, and major Cenozoic allochthons are also shown. After Mortimer (2004) and Adams et al. (2007).

nc

Fiordland

Tr o

Haast Schist

ug

GEOMORPHOLOGY The uplifted Fiordland massif has been deeply eroded by Quaternary glaciers, which formed the present-day drainage system. Steep-sided mountain ranges, deep ords1, and abundant lakes and tarns dominate the landscape (Fig. 4). In spite of the classic glacial geomorphology, few glacial deposits are preserved within Fiordland itself. Only in the Waiau and Te Anau basins to the east (Fig. 5) are large areas of depositional glacial landforms preserved on land, with moraines and outwash terraces largely covering the underlying Cenozoic rocks. The Fiordland massif rises towards the northeast, reaching its highest point at Mt Tutoko (2723 m). A generalised contour map of mountain summits shows that the eastern side is higher (Fig. 6). This summit accordance, rst recognised by Benson et al. (1934) but dismissed by Wood (1960), was attributed by Ward (1988) to uplift of a postulated marine planation surface over the last 1.5 million years. Northern and central Fiordland, however, had been uplifted and were contributing debris to the uvial Prospect Formation by 3 million years ago (Manville 1996). Faulting within Fiordland may also have locally disrupted the summit accordance by several hundreds of metres (House et al. 2005; Fig. 6).

Glacial valleys and ranges Pleistocene glaciers probably developed along pre-existing river valleys radiating from local topographic highs (Augustinus 1992). Few valleys are fault-controlled (Fig. 6). In some areas, tributary glaciers perpendicular to major ice streams have produced a second-order rectilinear pattern. A piedmont glacier occupied much of the Te Anau Basin during major ice advances (McKellar & Soons 1992), and was fed from the Te Anau and Manapouri glaciers. Glacial over-deepening is typical of most ords and lakes; Lake Hauroko, the deepest in New Zealand, has its oor eroded to 462 m below sea level (Irwin 1979). The major features of the Fiordland landscape were developed during successive advances of Quaternary valley glaciers, with each ice advance progressively deepening and widening the valleys, lakes and ords. Textbook examples of glacial geomorphology occur throughout Fiordland (Fig. 7). Erosional features include narrow artes, glacial horns, armchair cirques with or without tarns, U-shaped and U-in-U valleys, ords (and sounds), glacial striations, roches moutones and hanging valleys. Most smaller scale glacial features are relatively young, dating from 11 000

Figure 4 A typical glaciated landscape in the Merrie Range. The mammillated surfaces in the foreground have been overridden by ice, and many tarns and glacial lakes dot the landscape. The Dusky Track climbs out of the bush-covered glacial valley of the Hauroko Burn (right), and heads toward the camera, passing to the right (west) of Lake Horizon, the largest lake in the foreground. Photo CN47944B: D.L. Homer.
1

The deeply eroded glacial valleys of the Fiordland coast, now ooded by the Tasman Sea, are known as sounds but are more correctly termed ords. The side valleys of Lake Te Anau are known as ords (except for the Worsley and north and south arms of Middle Fiord); and the side valleys of Lake Manapouri are termed arms.

Te Anau Basin

NF
Waiau Basin

CF
Southwest terraces

WF EF

Solander Island

SWF

Figure 5 Shaded relief model of Fiordland, illuminated from the northwest. The model has been generated from digital terrain data derived from 20-m contours and spot heights supplied by LINZ (on land), and from 100-m isobaths supplied by NIWA (offshore). Signicant physiographic regions are labelled. Informal geographic regions of Fiordland are shown on the inset: NF, northern; WF, western; CF, central; EF, eastern; and SWF, southwest Fiordland.

Tributary glaciers Trunk glaciers Merged glaciers Piedmont glaciers


M

Quaternary deposits Major faults

Diffluent tongues

10

D
20
12

18
16

20

B
13

15

10

15

16

13

14
13

12

16 16

14
15
8 10

13

12

Contours on concordant s ummit s (in hundreds of metres)

Figure 6 Derivative map of Fiordland, showing glacial drainage patterns and major faults. Very few of the large valley systems have demonstrable fault control. A second-order rectilinear ice drainage pattern is well developed in the Milford (M), Dagg (D), and Breaksea (B) catchments. The inset shows the Fiordland summit accordance, contoured at 200 m intervals (based on Augustinus 1992). Low points coincide with west-trending arms of the Cenozoic Te Anau sedimentary basin.

Figure 7 Examples of glacial erosion. A: Classical U-shaped glacial valleys at Milford Sound, with Mitre Peak in the centre. Sinbad Gully, once a refuge for the endangered kakapo and now home to endangered geckos, is the shadowy valley to the left of Mitre Peak. Mt Pembroke (2015 m), with its remnant cirque glacier, is the high peak to the right of the sound. The oor of the sound has been glacially overdeepened to 287 m below sea Photo CN6201: D.L. Homer. level. B: Coronation Peak (1769 m) in the Museum Range, composed of Cretaceous Misty Pluton diorite, is a glacial horn formed by several cirque glaciers (one of which remains) eroding back to a single point and leaving intervening sharp ridges. The high peak beyond is Mt Photo CN48315B: D.L. Homer. Irene (1859 m). C: Horizontal glacial striations on a bluff of Devonian Deas Cove Granite on the northeastern shore of Thompson Sound. These were eroded by rock debris entrained in ice that owed from right to left. The dark vertical lines are from running water.

to 14 000 years BP, when the major glaciers had retreated but smaller alpine glaciers occupied high cirques. Some such cirque glaciers remain, the largest being in the Darran Mountains. Small lateral and terminal moraine loops from cirque glaciers are preserved in many high basins (Fig. 8). Although most major westward-draining glaciers reached sea level and may have been aoat (Augustinus 1992; Turnbull et al. 2007), some may not have reached the sea during the last glacial maximum. Instead, terminal lakes were developed, as in Preservation Inlet (Pickrill et al.1992). Some ords may only have become fully marine during post-glacial sea level rise about 9000 years ago, when the rock or moraine barriers at their entrances were over-topped and the over-deepened valleys behind were ooded by the Tasman Sea. Southwest Fiordland terraces Spectacular ights of uplifted marine terraces occur along the south coast from Te Waewae Bay west to Puysegur Point, and north past West Cape to Resolution Island (Fig. 9). They result from the complex interplay between marine erosion, changes in sea level between interglacial

and glacial periods, and tectonic uplift. During periods of high interglacial sea level, marine erosion created extensive wave-cut platforms across both relatively soft Cenozoic rocks, and the harder plutonic and metamorphic rocks. Sea levels fell during glacial periods, and ongoing tectonic uplift raised the platforms out of reach of the next interglacial wave-cutting event. The oldest terraces are probably 0.5 Ma or older (Ward 1988; Bishop 1991; Kim & Sutherland 2004). The younger (lower) terraces preserve fossil coastal stacks and arches (Fig. 10). Gravels are more commonly preserved on terraces cut across Cenozoic rocks than on harder basement rocks, where generally only a wave-cut surface remains. The terraces around Puysegur Point and West Cape are incised by deep gorges, some of which pre-date the formation of the surrounding terraces (Turnbull et al. 2007). Younger glaciers re-occupied some gorges; for example, a glacier in the upper Newton River valley terminated at Lake Fraser. Large areas of glacial till with prominent lateral moraine ridges border the marine terraces north and south of Preservation and Chalky inlets, showing that oating ice tongues occupied these major valleys during glacial intervals between terrace formation.

Figure 8 On the eastern side of Mt Titiroa (1710 m), south of Lake Manapouri, a small alpine glacier created the parallel lateral moraine ridges seen beneath the forest cover in the foreground. The glacier originated in a cirque (in shadow) southeast of the summit (upper right). Another smaller cirque glacier occupied the shallow basin below and slightly to the right of the summit, and formed another set of lateral moraines. The bare white slopes on the high ridges of Mt Titiroa are covered in sand derived from weathering of Cretaceous Titiroa Granodiorite. Photo CN47993B: D.L. Homer.

Te Anau and Waiau basins The eastern part of the Fiordland map area includes the western parts of the Waiau and Te Anau basins. Both these topographic depressions are partly lled with Cenozoic sedimentary rocks (Turnbull 1985; Turnbull et al. 1993; Turnbull & Uruski 1995; Carter & Norris 2005). Sandstone and limestone units form prominent strike ridges within the basins. Hump Ridge is an uplifted horst of Cenozoic sandstone, high enough to have supported small cirque glaciers during the Quaternary (Fig. 11). Sandstone tors are prominent on southern Hump Ridge. Tor landscapes are also developed on the granodiorites of eastern Fiordland at Mt Titiroa and Paddock Hill, and in the eastern Murchison Mountains (Fig. 12; Lindqvist & Turnbull 1989). Caves are another geomorphic feature of the Cenozoic rocks, most famously the Te Ana-Au cave system west of Lake Te

Anau (Williams 1996). Cave systems are also developed at Mt Luxmore (Sanford 1977), east of Mt Titiroa, and near Helmet Hill where moa bones occur in several caves (T. Cross, pers. comm.). The Cenozoic rocks are overlain by extensive ights of Quaternary outwash terraces, deposited by the proto-Waiau River draining from the Te Anau-Manapouri piedmont glacier and other eastern Fiordland glaciers. Lateral and terminal moraines and kame terraces, with accompanying down-stream outwash plains and channels, are widespread in the main basins (Fitzharris 1967; McKellar 1973a; Turnbull 1985; McKellar & Soons 1992; Williams 1996; Carter & Norris 2005), and are also preserved beneath obscuring forest cover south of lakes Hauroko and Poteriteri (Turnbull & Uruski 1995). Terminal moraine ridges are well developed beside many lake outlets (Fig. 13).

Figure 9 Raised marine terraces at Cape Providence (foreground) extend along the outer Fiordland coast to West Cape (centre distance). The main surface is about 120 000130 000 years old. Fossil sea cliffs form a step behind this surface in the middle distance, parallel to the modern coastline. The narrow, raised, wave-cut platform surface just above sea level and below the main sea cliff in the foreground is c. 6000 years old. During the Last Glacial Maximum (OI stage 2), a difuent tongue of the glacier draining Chalky Inlet (off to right) created a terminal moraine loop in Landing Bay (centre right). Erratic boulders on the moraine form an intertidal reef that just breaks the surface. The outer coast north from Cape Providence is the type locality for the Ordovician Preservation Formation of the Fanny Bay Group. Photo CN48188A: D.L. Homer.

10

Figure 10 A fossil marine arch, eroded into the cliffs west of the 120 000-year-old marine bench south of the Newton River near West Cape, was left stranded when sea level fell some 6000 years ago. The arch, and the wave-cut platform beyond, are formed of Carboniferous granite of the Newton River Pluton.

Figure 11 During the last glaciation, cirque glaciers occupied small basins on the lee side (right) of Hump Ridge. Tors on the ridge are formed in calcareous sandstone of the Late Eocene Hump Ridge Formation. Beyond the Wairaurahiri valley in the middle distance, the Hauroko Fault runs from Lake Poteriteri (top left) to Lake Hauroko (top right). Caroline Peak (1722 m) is the prominent summit in the Princess Mountains of southern Fiordland in the distance. Boardwalks of the Hump Ridge Track are visible on the ridge crest; the Okaka Hut nestles in the cirque basin just right of centre. Photo CN48000B: D.L. Homer.

11

Figure 12 Tors formed in Cretaceous Takahe Granodiorite, in the eastern Murchison Mountains above South Fiord of Lake Te Anau. The Hidden Lakes lie among the bush-clad, mammillated landscape in the background. Photo CN48171A: D.L. Homer.

Figure 13 The Upukerora River delta (foreground) has built out into Lake Te Anau in the last 6000 years. The lake is impounded behind a terminal moraine loop (arrowed), and the lake outlet lies at the edge of the forest (centre right). Outwash plains extend down the Waiau valley to the south. The distant hills are Paddock Hill (centre, bush-covered) and Photo CN48176A: D.L. Homer. Mt Titiroa (right).

12

Figure 14 The northern Fiordland coastline, looking south from Yates Point (centre right) to the entrance to Milford Sound. From the John OGroats River (centre left), the Alpine Fault passes offshore toward the southwest, beneath the Tasman Sea. Brig Rock, formed of Eocene Jackson Limestone, breaks the surface beyond Yates Point. The smooth ridge running out to the point is one of several lateral moraines from the Milford glacier, transported north by strike-slip movement on the Alpine Fault. The low, bush-covered hills south of Milford Sound are within relatively soft rocks of the Anita Shear Zone, between the Pembroke and Alpine faults. The Fiordland summit accordance is apparent on the distant skyline. Photo CN6301B: D.L. Homer.

Figure 15 Solander Island and Little Solander (upper left) are the remnants of a large Quaternary volcano, the only emergent example of several volcanic centres in western Foveaux Strait. The mountains of southernmost Fiordland are faintly visible in the far right distance. Much of the main island is formed of volcanic agglomerate, with intercalated lava ows. Steeply dipping dikes control many of the main ridges or form headlands, such as in the foreground. Photo: Andris Apse.

13

South Westland At the northern end of the map area, the Alpine and Pembroke faults separate the Fiordland mountains from low hills and swamps between Poison Bay and Martins Bay. The hills are partly mantled by moraine and uvioglacial outwash. In the Transit River catchment, magnesium-rich ultramac rocks form infertile soils that inhibit vegetation growth, resulting in conspicuous bare ridges. Resistant Cenozoic limestone forms Yates Point and the offshore Brig Rock, and protects the coastline from the Wolff River north to Martins Bay. Behind Yates Point, lateral moraine ridges were formed by glaciers that owed offshore from Fiordland (Fig. 14). The moraines are now displaced northward from their associated glacial valleys (Milford Sound, in the case of Yates Point) by lateral movement on the Alpine Fault (Sutherland & Norris 1995; Turnbull 2000). Swamps are ponded behind sand dunes at Transit Beach, and behind fault scarps in the John OGroats valley (Cooper & Norris 1990). Offshore physiography Foveaux Strait from Te Waewae Bay west to Puysegur Point is a shallow seaway with a relatively at oor. In southern Te Waewae Bay, the sea bed is interrupted by bedrock upfaulted to near sea level at Mid Bay Reef (Bishop et al. 1992). Further west, the sea oor is eroded into underlying Cenozoic rocks with well-developed strike ridges (Turnbull & Uruski 1995). At the western entrance to Foveaux Strait, the sea remains shallow over the Puysegur Bank before deepening rapidly into the Puysegur Trench. The sea bed south of Fiordland is cut by the Hauroko Fault, which is active and has a Late Quaternary trace (Grant

1985; Anderson et al. 1993; Sutherland et al. 2006b). On its upthrown side are two volcanic centres of Pliocene to Quaternary age, which disrupt the sea oor. The Solander volcano lies further east, above the southern end of the Solander Fault (Turnbull et al. 1993; Sutherland et al. 2006b). The submarine topography west of Fiordland has been described and interpreted by numerous authors (e.g. Cutress et al. 1999; Sutherland et al. 2000; Wood et al. 2000; Lebrun et al. 2003). The steep western slopes of Fiordland overlook a narrow continental shelf which ranges from 10 to 3 km in width, or even narrower between Thompson and Charles sounds. Beyond the shelf, the sea oor drops dramatically to depths of 4000 m in the Fiordland Trench (Fig. 5). Numerous canyons cut the continental slope, and submarine fans are developed in several places (Barnes et al. 2005). Where the shelf is wider, north of Sutherland Sound, lateral and terminal moraine ridges are preserved off the mouths of the glacial valleys, and are commonly displaced northwards from their sources by movement on the Alpine Fault (Barnes 2009). Solander Island (Hautere) Solander Island (Hautere, 330 m) and Little Solander (148 m) and their neighbouring stacks, rocks and reefs are the emergent remnants of a Late Pliocene to Quaternary volcano situated in the stormy waters of western Foveaux Strait (Harrington & Wood 1958; Reay 1986; Mortimer et al. 2008) (Fig. 15). The Solander islands rise above a wide shallow area, which may be a drowned wave-cut platform truncating most of the volcano (Fig. 5).

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STRATIGRAPHY
Paleozoic metasedimentary and meta olcanic rocks are widely but discontinuously exposed in southern, central and western Fiordland. They are intruded by plutonic rocks of the Paleozoic to esozoic edian atholith, which comprise most of the Fiordland massif (Allibone et al. 2007; Allibone et al. 2009a,c). Younger sedimentary rocks unconformably o erlie both metasedimentary and plutonic rocks in southwest and eastern Fiordland, and are in turn unconformably o erlain by glacial sediments. The rocks and deposits of the Fiordland map area are described below under headings based on age and lithology: Cambrian to De onian metasedimentary and meta olcanic rocks Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of uncertain afnity Permian to urassic sedimentary and olcanic rocks Cambrian to Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the edian atholith urassic to Cretaceous olcanic and sedimentary rocks Cretaceous sedimentary rocks Eocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks Quaternary deposits CAM RIAN TO DE ONIAN METASEDIMENTARY AND META OLCANIC ROC S etamorphosed sedimentary and olcanic rocks of known or inferred Early Paleozoic age are widespread throughout the western two-thirds of Fiordland and represent the Western Pro ince (Fig. 16). These rocks include some of the oldest in New ealand (Rattenbury et al. 1998), and were deposited on or near the Early Paleozoic margin of ondwana before the formation of the ealandia microcontinent. At least some of these Fiordland rocks are considered to be correlati es of the uller and Takaka terranes of Westland and Nelson (Ward 1980; Cooper 1989; Rattenbury et al. 1998). The lithologically di erse Cameron and Edgecumbe groups are assigned to the Takaka terrane, and the quartzose Fanny ay roup to the uller terrane (Ward 1984; Cooper Tulloch 1992; Powell 2006; see Appendix 1). The two terranes are in fault contact, or separated by edian atholith intrusions (Fig. 16). Some Fanny ay roup rocks contain fossils, and the group is thought to be of Cambrian to Ordo ician age. The Edgecumbe roup is inferred to be iddle to Late Cambrian in age, based on lithological, geochemical and detrital zircon correlations with Takaka terrane rocks in northwest Nelson (Ward 1984; Simpson 2006). The Cameron roup (Powell 2006) is undated. t is thought to be faulted against the Edgecumbe roup, but may also stratigraphically underlie it. Di erse metasedimentary and meta olcanic schists and gneisses in central and western Fiordland may also be of Takaka terrane afnity (Tulloch et al. 2009; Fig. 16). These are mapped as Deep Co e neiss ( ibson 1982), rene Complex (Scott Cooper 2006), or are undifferentiated. inor igneous lithologies within these units are described together with their enclosing rocks. Takaka terrane Middle to Late Cambrian metasedimentary roc s The Edgecumbe Group, restricted to east of Fanny ay on Dusky Sound, is the most con incing lithological correlati e of the Takaka terrane of northwest Nelson (Ward 1984; Cooper Tulloch 1992). Although the metamorphic grade is high temperature-low pressure amphibolite facies (Ward 1984) and the Edgecumbe roup rocks dip steeply, they are only weakly deformed with primary lithologic layering preser ed. The few facing directions found are toward the east, although bedding and foliation are folded around southwest-plunging axes. Edgecumbe roup is unfossiliferous, and its age is inferred from correlation with similar lithologies in Nelson. A minimum age is pro ided by the cross-cutting Late De onian ount Solitary ranodiorite (Da ids 1999). The Edgecumbe roup is subdi ided into three formations (Fig. 17, Appendix 1). The westernmost is the False Edgecumbe Formation ($ef), which includes strongly sheared marble beside the (inferred) Old Quarry Fault (Fig 17A), lying west of massi e to well-bedded pebble to cobble metaconglomerate with minor metasandstone. etaconglomerates were probably emplaced as debris ows (Fig. 17B). Clasts are stretched, and predominantly sedimentary and olcanic in origin, with minor plutonic material in a quartz-rich matrix. The metaconglomerate is conformably o erlain by pillowed and massi e basalt with subordinate olcanic breccia, which is in turn o erlain conformably by ner grained metaconglomerate and metasandstone (Ward 1984, 1986). False Edgecumbe Formation is o erlain by well-bedded quartzofeldspathic metasandstone and metamudstone with rare metaconglomerate of the Middle Stream Formation ($es) (Ward 1984, 1986; Powell 2006). etaconglomerate clast compositions are similar to those of False Edgecumbe Formation. iddle Stream Formation is o erlain by Mi e River Formation ($e ) which comprises a lithologically di erse sequence of thin-bedded psammite (Fig. 17C,D), pelite and metavolcanics derived from basaltic ows, tuff, breccia, and andesitic to felsic olcanic rocks. Calc-silicate, marble and metaconglomerate are rare (Ward 1984; Powell 2006). Rhyolitic and dacitic sills occur toward the contact with iddle Stream Formation.

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Terminology for Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks and their metamorphic equivalents
n iordland Paleo oi ro s of sedimentar and ol ani ori in ran e from ndeformed litholo ies in hi h ori inal depositional feat res (e. . ross eddin ) are learl isi le thro h a metamorphi and deformational spe tr m to ompletel re onstit ted and re r stallised s hists and neisses here depositional feat res and ol ani te t res are destro ed metamorphi fa ri s dominate and parent litholo ies an onl e inferred. he terminolo applied to these ro s in orporates oth ori inal litholo here possi le and the pro ressi e han es a sed deformation and metamorphism. he terms e e i e and e i are applied in a eneral sense to sedimentar and ol ani ro s that displa e iden e of an de ree of metamorphism. e u e e e e g er e e u e i e. In these terms the prex metadenotes metamorphism of the orrespondin ro t pe in ol in an de ree of partial to omplete re onstit tion and recrystallisation of the rock. The pre-metamorphic character of these rocks can be inferred condently from any combination of petrographic, chemical, or eld data. e i e is a metam dstone enerall f ll re onstit ted ith an al mino s omposition indi ated a ariet of al minosili ate minerals impl in deri ation from a m dstone ri h in la minerals. he al minosili ate minerals ma in l de some of the lassi indi ators of pro ressi e metamorphism (e. . iotite sta rolite sillimanite). here s histose fa ri is de eloped these ro s are termed e i i i . i e is a f ll re onstit ted metasandstone dominated art and feldspar (i.e. art ofeldspathi ). he term may be qualied where other minerals are abundant for example, i i e i e. here s histose or neissi fa ri is de eloped these ro s are termed ii i or g ei . A i i e in l des al i minerals s h as lino oisite or epidote al i amphi ole and diopside. e i e i e is a metasediment enerall f ll re onstit ted hose mineralo indi ates it is ompositionall intermediate et een psammite and pelite. emi pelites are inferred to e deri ed from either siltstone a sand m d mi t re (e. . a sand m dstone) or m dstone ith a lo la mineral ontent. r e is a metamorphosed limestone and onsists almost entirel of re r stallised ar onate minerals al ite. C enerall

ii e r is a metamorphosed sedimentar ro sometimes ith a s histose or neissi te t re hose mineralo is onsistent ith deri ation from a mi t re of al areo s and sili eo s material s h as a hert limestone or a al areo s sandstone. pi al mineralo in l des al ite diopside oisite lino oisite ollastonite al i amphi ole art and pla io lase. nli e al i psammite art and feldspar are not the dominant minerals. here a s histose or neissi fa ri is de eloped these ro s are termed ii e i or g ei . u r i e is a partiall or ompletel metamorphosed sandstone e tremel ri h in art ( 90 ).

he terms i and g ei are ommonl sed in this map te t ith sedimentar para (e. . peliti ) or i neo s ortho- (e.g. granitic) origin qualiers. However, they can also be used with mineral qualiers (e.g. quartzofeldspathic neiss iotite pla io lase horn lende s hist) that more sef ll des ri e the main metamorphi mineral assem la e hen the ori inal parenta e is less lear. A i i e and i i i g ei are metamorphi ro s essentiall omposed of amphi ole and feldspar minerals, derived from either basaltic volcanic rocks, mac intrusions, or possibly decarbonated marl. Field relationships and petro raph ma distin ish et een these ori ins.

16

Major faults: G Grebe Fault, (mylonite zone) O Old Quarry Fault BS K Dark Cloud Fault H Hay River Fault D Dusky, Lake Fraser faults
U LT

A P DMM
FA IN E

A Glade-Darran Fault P Pembroke Fault


A

W Wilmot Fault T Te Anau Fault

LP

BS

Quaternary, Cenozoic and Cretaceous cover Median Batholith (Loch Burn, Largs volcanic rocks) George Sound Paragneiss PERMIAN to JURASSIC

D O K D H

Brook Street terrane (BS) Dun Mountain-Maitai terrane (DMM) Buller terrane
(Greenland Group) ORDOVICIAN

Buller terrane G
LT

(Fanny Bay Group)

Takaka terrane
(Edgecumbe Group) CAMBRIAN

FA

? Takaka terrane
(Cameron Group)

? Takaka terrane
(Deep Cove Gneiss, Irene Complex; undifferentiated metasediments) PALEOZOIC

? Buller terrane
(Anita Shear Zone)

km

30

Figure 16 Distribution of Paleozoic and Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks in Fiordland, subdivided into terranes and or lithostratigraphic groups. Major terrane boundaries and other faults are also shown. Cretaceous-Cenozoic strata are uncoloured.

17

B C
Figure 17 dgecumbe Group formations. A: Mylonitised marble at the western contact of the False dgecumbe Formation, beside the Old Quarry Fault northeast of Fanny Bay. The marble is completely recrystallised and early calcite veins are refolded (top right). B: Conglomerate of the False dgecumbe Formation in a stream north of Mt dgecumbe. Clasts are mostly porphyritic volcanics, with minor pale granitoids. The hammer rests on a sandstone bed. Photo: .M. ott. C: Recrystallised dacite (right) and psammite of the Mike River Formation, south of Mt Solitary. D: ell-bedded quartzose psammite and semi-pelite of the Mike River Formation, south of Mt Solitary.

Cambrian to Ordovician metasedimentary roc s Metasedimentary rocks of the Heath and Cameron mountains The Cameron Group ($cu) is a thick metasedimentary sequence that forms most of the eastern Heath and Cameron mountains (Powell 2006). Rocks west of ig Ri er, separated from Cameron roup by a major fault (Fig. 16) and pre iously mapped as Fanny ay roup ( uller terrane; Allibone et al. 2007), may also be Cameron roup. Near Dusky Sound, the Cameron and Edgecumbe groups are in contact across the inferred Dark Cloud Fault (Powell 2006). The Hay Ri er Fault bounds Cameron roup to the

east. Elsewhere the group is bounded by intrusi e rocks. t is disrupted by intrusions in many places, and rafts of Cameron roup occur within se eral adjacent plutons. No fossils ha e been found, and attempts at dating using detrital or olcanic zircon ha e been unsuccessful. A Cambrian age is inferred for the group, with the minimum age constrained by the cross-cutting Late De onian ount Solitary ranodiorite (Da ids 1999). Although metamorphic sillimanite, -feldspar and cordierite indicate low-pressure, upper amphibolite facies metamorphism (Powell 2006), Cameron roup is only weakly foliated with little metamorphic segregation. Original lithologic layering is generally preser ed, and is deformed by open to tight southwest-plunging mesoscopic folds.

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Cameron Group includes ve formations (Powell 2006; Fig. 18, Appendix 1). The oldest is the athryn Metavolcanics ($c ), comprising mac volcaniclastic metasediments, possibly in part metatuffs, interbedded with psammite, rare marble and metaconglomerate, and acidic meta olcanics. Amphibolitic bands may be metamorphosed basic la a ows. A distinctive 80-m-thick band of massive to schistose, porphyritic metadacite or ignimbrite ($c ) is traceable throughout the northern Cameron ountains (Powell 2006; see also Wood 1960a; rindley et al. 1959). Sea iew Psammite ($cs) is dominated by regularly cmto dm-bedded psammite or psammitic schist (Fig. 18A), locally interbedded with graphitic pelitic schist. Sea iew

Psammite outcrops produce distincti e and extensi e scree deposits. inor lithologies include thinly laminated quartzites ($c ), thin horizons of marble and calc-silicate, and a mac-rich band ($cv) (possibly pillow la a; Powell 2006). Foliation is parallel to primary lithologic layering, but other sedimentary structures ha e been destroyed. The o erlying Para iore Pelite ($ce) comprises distincti e, thinly laminated, pelitic schist interbedded with psammite, minor quartzite and quartzofeldspathic schist. Quartzose psammite may form prominent strike ridges. any outcrops show mesoscopic folds, and migmatitic leucosomes are widespread (Fig. 18 ). Long Sound Calc silicate ($cl) comprises cm-banded calc-silicate, calcic psammite and

Figure 18 Cameron Group formations. A: Relict bedding enhanced by foliation in the Sea View Psammite, south of Sea View Peak in the Cameron Mountains. B: Mesoscopic folds in transposed and metamorphically enhanced lamination in the Parakiore Pelite, south of Sea View Peak in the Cameron Mountains. C: Tightly folded calc-silicate, marble and amphibolite of the Long Sound Calc-silicate on the southern shore of Lake idgeon, above Long Sound. The yellow rope is 5 mm in diameter. D: Pure quartzite (white) and laminated, quartzose psammite of the Prong Lake Formation, west of the Long Burn. The quartzite bed is 200 mm thick.

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thin marble (Fig. 18C), with interbedded subordinate pelitic schist and amphibolite. arble bands rarely exceed 1m in thickness, although thicker blocks occur in oat, and rafts of marble up to 100 m thick ($cm) occur within the nearby Houseroof Pluton. The uppermost Prong La e Formation ($cp) comprises thin-bedded to massi e biotite psammite, o erlain by porphyroblastic pelitic schist, and then by pure marble up to 50 m thick ($cp), which can be traced laterally for se eral kilometres. The upper part of the formation consists of thinly to thickly bedded, ariably calcareous and biotite-rich psammite and quartzite (Fig. 18D). Calcsilicate occurs near contacts with marble. ndifferentiated Cameron roup metasediments ($cu) generally form large rafts in adjacent plutons and consist

of interlayered psammitic, pelitic, calc-silicate and meta olcanic rocks, with minor quartzite and conglomerate. igmatitic eins are locally de eloped in sillimaniteand -feldspar-bearing pelitic layers, indicating upper amphibolite facies metamorphic grade. The area west of ig Ri er that is tentati ely included in Cameron roup is dominated by quartz-rich psammite with some pelite containing sillimanite, -feldspar and migmatites; it has only rare meta olcanic material and lacks both calc-silicate rocks and conglomerate. East of Long Sound and the lower Long urn, Cameron roup is dominated by thinly interbedded biotite psammite and pelite, with rare marble. etasandstone, metamudstone and calc-silicate west of Lake Poteriteri (Turnbull ruski 1995) are tentati ely included in the Cameron roup.

A B
Figure 19 Deep Cove Gneiss metasedimentary lithologies. A: Thinly banded amphibolitic and psammitic metasedimentary rocks at Oke Island, et Jacket Arm. Some amphibolite bands are boudinaged (e.g. beside the hammer). B: Interlayered marble and biotite-rich amphibolite at Chatham Point, Vancouver Arm, Breaksea Sound. This marble-rich association commonly occurs close to intrusive contacts between Deep Cove Gneiss and estern Fiordland Orthogneiss plutons, and is deformed or mylonitised in many places.

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Metasedimentary rocks between Wilmot Pass, and Dusky and Doubtful sounds West from Wilmot Pass, between Doubtful Sound and Dusky Sound, largely metasedimentary rocks are mapped as Deep Cove Gneiss (&dc; Oli er 1980; ibson 1982). The dominant lithologies are massi e to banded, quartzofeldspathic, biotite- and hornblende-bearing gneiss (Fig. 19A). These may be interlayered, on scales up to se eral metres, with more quartzose gneiss, or thinly laminated pelitic schist. Deep Co e neiss also includes marble bands (&tm; Oli er 1980; Fig. 19 ), associated calc-silicate rocks, and quartzites (&t ). ntercalated granitic and rare dioritic orthogneisses range from less than a metre to se eral tens of metres thick. Small bodies of metamorphosed ultramac rocks (&tu) occur within Deep Co e neiss in the roughton Arm of reaksea Sound. Ward (1984) di ided metasedimentary rocks along-strike from the Deep Co e neiss between Wet acket Arm and Dusky Sound into se eral lithological units. Areas of psammitic gneiss (&ts) are dominated by ariably calcic biotite gneiss, lacking hornblende, with minor amphibolite and rare pelitic schist. Similar rocks, with the addition of garnet, form eastern Long sland in Dusky Sound. etaconglomerate and feldspar-poor amphibolite occur within the psammitic gneisses. Large areas, including parts of Cooper sland, are underlain by laminated and banded, ne-grained quartzofeldspathic gneiss, containing hornblende, garnet, and or biotite. arble, quartzite and pelitic schist are minor lithologies (&ts). Amphibolite gneisses (&tv) are dominated by massi e to banded, hornblende-plagioclase garnet gneiss, with minor biotite gneiss and rare quartzite. Ward (1984) described metaigneous rocks, including ultramacs (&tu), associated with metatuffs north of Dusky Sound. n addition to the Deep Co e neiss, ibson (1979, 1982) mapped se eral metasedimentary formations around Wilmot Pass, in the Townley and Dingwall mountains and near t eorge. These rocks are amphibolite facies schists and gneisses, with transposed lithologic layering still isible in many places, although sedimentary structures ha e been destroyed. Stella Psammite (&tt) only occurs northeast of the Wilmot Fault, and is dominated by micaceous psammitic schist and marble. neissic calc-silicate, quartzite and pelitic schist are minor lithologies. Lyvia Gneiss (&ty), found only southwest of the Wilmot Fault, includes massi e to weakly foliated amphibolite, garnet-hornblende-biotite gneiss, and quartzofeldspathic gneiss, with rare calcsilicate gneiss and graphitic psammite. t encloses layerparallel tonalitic orthogneiss bands (&o; ibson 1982). The Townley Calc silicate ($tt) is a thin (120 m) but continuous unit of bedded psammite and calc-silicate with subordinate calc-schist, mac hornblende-biotite schist and gneiss, and minor thin marble ( ibson 1982). This unit is mapped from the northern Townley ountains, across strands of the Spey- ica urn Fault System to west of Wilmot Pass. Mac en ie Schist (&t ) also crosses the Spey- ica urn Fault System, and comprises pelitic and semi-pelitic schist, with minor intercalated psammitic schist,

Figure 20 Tightly folded psammite and calc-silicate schist within the Mount Barber Gneiss near Mt Fannin, west of the Freeman Burn. A vein of est Arm Leucogranite cuts the outcrop.

B
Figure 21 Central Fiordland metasedimentary rocks. A: Banded hornblende-plagioclase-biotite-epidote amphibolite at the head of the north branch of Jaquiery Stream, Merrie Range. B: Russet Formation psammitic schist on the Merrie Range.

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quartzofeldspathic biotite gneiss, gneissic calc-silicate and quartzite. Mount arber Gneiss (&tb) is restricted to northeast of Wilmot Pass, and extends northward into the western epler ountains. t includes biotite, hornblende and quartzofeldspathic gneisses, with subordinate pelitic and psammitic schist and gneiss; marble and calc-silicate are rare. Lithological variants of mac biotite-plagioclasehornblende schist (&tb), pelitic schist (&tp), and psammitic and calc-silicate schist (&ta; Fig. 20) are distinguished within the ount arber neiss. agmatic zircon from interbedded metatuff in the Townley Calc-silicate constrains the depositional age of this formation to less than ca. 502 a ( ibson reland 1996). The formation is cut by Early Ordo ician granite orthogneiss (481482 a; ibson reland 1996), and Carboniferous lack iants Anorthosite (ca. 349 a; ibson reland 1999). Consequently, these inferred Takaka terrane rocks around Wilmot Pass are inferred to range from Late Cambrian to Early Ordo ician. SHR P dating of monazite from metasedimentary units around Wilmot Pass indicates peak metamorphism to sillimanite grade at ca. 360 a, with a later, higher-pressure, kyanite grade e ent at 340330 a ( reland ibson 1998).

Metasedimentary rocks of western and central Fiordland Large areas of Paleozoic metasedimentary and meta olcanic rocks (&t) are mapped north of Doubtful Sound in western Fiordland, and in central Fiordland (Fig. 5). Se eral lithologic associations and two formations are recognised within these rocks, and more detailed work may result in further subdi ision. As with the Deep Co e neiss, granitic and rare dioritic orthogneiss layers from less than a metre to o er a kilometre thick occur within the metasediments (back co er). These bodies may be part of the edian atholith, and two of the thickest, the aquiery ranitoid neiss and Pandora Orthogneiss, are mapped separately (see below). Small rafts and sli ers of undifferentiated metasedimentary rocks (&t) within edian atholith plutons are also mapped throughout western and central Fiordland. etween the Hay Ri er Fault and the rebe ylonite one2 in south-central Fiordland, metasedimentary rocks (&t) ha e been described from different areas by rodie (1979), Ladley (1998), Powell (2006), and Scott et al. (2009a). A splay of the Spey- ica urn Fault System separates these rocks from named formations at Wilmot Pass ( ibson 1982; see abo e). These rocks are generally

Figure 22 Mt Irene in the western Murchison Mountains is the type area for the Irene Comple . The lower slopes (foreground) are underlain by Robin Gneiss, cut by pale granitoid dikes. Robin Gneiss is separated from the overlying Paleozoic Irene Complex metasediments by the westward-dipping Mt Irene Shear Zone, which is concealed by the ice eld and the scree slopes to the right. The pale bands crossing the steep face are marble, intercalated with psammitic gneiss and thin granitoid orthogneiss. Photo CN48160A: D.L. Homer.
2

Note that the Grebe Mylonite Zone sens Scott (2008) and Scott et al. (2009a) replaces the terms Grebe Fault (Powell 2006) and Grebe Shear Zone (Ladley 1998). South of Lake Hauroko, the mylonite zone becomes a narrow ductile fault (Grebe Fault of Turnbull Uruski 1995).

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more strongly foliated than those of the Cameron and Edgecumbe groups, with widespread schistose and gneissic textures. Foliation and lithologic layering are folded about open, gently northeast- or southwest-plunging axes. The metamorphic grade is upper amphibolite facies, with sillimanite, -feldspar, cordierite, and some migmatisation. Psammitic (&ts), pelitic (&tl), quartzofeldspathic (&t ) and amphibolitic (&tv) lithologic associations are differentiated (Fig. 21A). Less common lithologies include minor calcsilicate and rare marble and quartzite. The age of these rocks is constrained, at Lake Roe, by detrital zircons that are all older than 480 a, and by metamorphic monazite dated at ca. 370360 a ( ibson reland 1996; reland ibson 1998). Further to the southwest, as far as Chalky nlet, small rafts and bands of metasedimentary rocks within edian atholith plutons that cannot be correlated (by age, lithology or position) with named units are mapped as undifferentiated metasediments (&t). They may be correlati es of either Takaka or uller terrane. The easternmost metasedimentary rocks in central Fiordland, between the errie Range and Lake Hauroko, are mapped as Russet Formation (&tr; Scott et al. 2009a). This formation is dominated by schistose biotite psammite and semi-pelite (Fig. 21 ), with minor amphibolite and quartzite, and marble and calc-silicate horizons (&tm). Around Lake Hauroko, Russet Formation has a higher textural grade and is commonly gneissic (Ladley 1998). The age is constrained between latest iddle Cambrian and earliest Ordo ician, by ca. 501 10 a detrital zircons and the cross-cutting aquiery ranitoid neiss, emplaced ca. 493 10 a (Allibone et al. 2009a). North of Doubtful Sound, in central and western Fiordland, the dominant metasedimentary lithology is massi e to banded, quartzofeldspathic, biotite gneiss and amphibolite. These gneisses are locally interlayered, on scales up to se eral metres, with quartz-rich gneiss and thinly laminated biotite musco ite schist. On Secretary sland and east of Thompson Sound, psammite with interlayered pelite is predominant (&ts). Rare quartzite (&t ) and mac to ultramac rocks (&tu) occur east of Thompson Sound. Hornblende-epidote gneiss and biotite-bearing amphibolite (&tv) occur on eastern Secretary sland ( ing 2005; ing et al. 2008), and between the Elizabeth and Camelot ri ers, respecti ely. arble (&tm) is a minor but distincti e lithology, ranging from massi e pure layers up to 100 m thick, to thinly laminated marble interbanded with calcsilicate gneiss, mica schist and or granitic orthogneiss. An area of undifferentiated paragneiss (&t) occurs within Arthur Ri er Complex near ilford Sound (Hollis et al. 2003). Southwest of ilford Sound, marble and quartzite xenoliths occur within the ilford Orthogneiss ( lattner 2001). Rare lithologies include quartz-diopside-pyrite schist, garnetiferous pelitic schist, and quartz-feldsparkyanite schist. etween the western urchison ountains and the Stillwater Ri er catchment, metasedimentary rocks include biotite-hornblende gneiss, amphibolite, minor pelitic schist, marble, and associated calc-silicate gneisses, with

rare quartzite and intercalated metaplutonic rocks. These are mapped as the Irene Comple (&ti). Scott Cooper (2006) used this name for metasediments with associated granitic rocks o erlying the gently dipping t rene Shear one (Fig. 22). The metasediments are laterally continuous into similar rocks mapped by ing (1984) around Lake Wapiti, where unusually thick bands (up to at least 400 m) of marble and calc-silicate gneiss are differentiated (&tm). rene Complex metasedimentary rocks are in aded by layer-parallel biotite granite orthogneiss sills, se eral generations of cross-cutting granite and tonalite dikes, and quartzofeldspathic veins. Metadioritic and ultramac xenoliths occur within the granitic orthogneisses and, rarely, within the metasediments ( ing 1984; Scott 2006). West of Lake Te Au, metasediments form rafts within, or are interlayered with, larger granite and orthogneiss bodies of the edian atholith, including the Robin neiss (see below). The easternmost outcrops of schist are less recrystallised, with bedding still recognisable (&to). n northern Fiordland, metasedimentary rafts and xenoliths are probably Paleozoic, by analogy with similar xenoliths in granitoids near eorge Sound that are dated at ca. 341 a ( radshaw imbrough 1991). Paragneiss near ilford Sound is cut by 346 a (Early Carboniferous) migmatitic orthogneiss (Hollis et al. 2003). Detrital zircons from Doubtful Sound ( ibson reland 1996; Hollis et al. 2004) and Caswell Sound (Ste enson 2002) ha e -Pb age spectra consistent with these rocks being typical Early Paleozoic ondwana margin metasedimentary rocks. The youngest zircons require the protoliths to ha e been deposited after 499490 a. Younger cross-cutting orthogneisses were emplaced at ca. 480 a ( ellard Point; ibson reland 1996) and ca. 500 a (Pandora Orthogneiss; Allibone et al. 2009c). etamorphism occurred during Carboniferous time (360340 a and 316 a) and in the Cretaceous (e.g. ibson et al. 1988; ibson 1990; Cha ez et al. 2007; Scott et al. 2009a). Amphibolite facies assemblages, locally containing kyanite, are characteristic. Buller terrane Ordovician metasedimentary roc s The Fanny ay Group (f) in southwest Fiordland is a correlati e of the reenland and olden ay groups of Westland and Nelson. t consists of pelitic and psammitic metasediments, quartzite and rare calcareous metasedimentary rocks, divided into ve formations (Appendix 1). The group is mapped between Dusky Sound and the southwestern coast of Fiordland ( enson eble 1935; ishop 1986; Ward 1984; Allibone et al. 2007). Lumaluma Formation (), the oldest unit, extends from Dusky Sound to Edwardson and Cunaris sounds. t consists of well-bedded to massi e, ariably foliated, quartz-rich metasandstone with interbedded metamudstone, and is interpreted as a turbidite sequence. inor quartzite (fq) and pelite also occur. Subordinate marble and calc-silicate (fm) toward the top of the formation are tentati ely included (Ward 1984). Despite metamorphic

23

B
Figure 23 Ordovician Fanny Bay Group formations. A: Graded metasandstone and metamudstone of the Preservation Formation on the southern Fiordland coast near the iwi Burn. The metasandstone preserves ripple cross-lamination (below scale) the sequence youngs to the left. Black spots are metamorphic cordierite, formed preferentially in mudstone, within the contact aureole of the Cretaceous Revolver Pluton. B: Strike ridges of quartzite within the Burnett Formation east of Glen Alpin Pass, south of Dusky Sound. The widest bed (centre) is c. 50 m thick. Bedding has been accentuated by glacial erosion. Bare hills beyond are in Jurassic Lake Mike Granite. Photo CN48256B: D.L. Homer. C: ell-bedded to millimetre-laminated pelite and semi-pelite of the Fanny Formation at the type locality in Fanny Bay, Dusky Sound.

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recrystallisation, sedimentary structures are commonly well preser ed. Preservation Formation (fp), mapped between Chalky nlet and the south coast, and at Cape Pro idence, o erlies Lumaluma Formation. t is dominated by quartz-rich metasandstone and graphitic metamudstone, with more quartzite than the Lumaluma Formation. raptolitic, graphitic metamudstone is present at Cape Pro idence and around Preser ation nlet ( enson eble 1935), where rare brachiopods are also reported (Chapman 1934). Autoclastic breccia is common on the south coast and at Preser ation nlet ( ishop 1986). Sedimentary structures are often clearly isible (Fig. 23A), especially around Cape Pro idence. The unit is internally folded and commonly eined with quartz. Also o erlying Lumaluma Formation is the urnett Formation (fb), inferred to be a lateral equi alent of Preser ation Formation. urnett Formation is characterised by well-bedded to massi e quartzites, a eraging 50 m but up to 150 m thick, interbedded with graphitic metamudstone (Ward 1984). Rare laminated marble and calc-silicate are included (Ward 1984). rading and rare cross-lamination are locally preser ed. The quartzites form spectacular strike ridges and folds (Figs 23 , 42). ndifferentiated quartziterich Fanny ay roup rocks (f) in the Dark Cloud Range resemble urnett Formation, although psammite rather than metamudstone separates the distincti e quartzites, and the metamorphic grade is higher. Two younger formations are recognised around Fanny ay. Fanny Formation (ff) comprises well-bedded pelite, semi-pelite and quartzite (Fig. 23C), with arying amounts of graphite. Delicate sedimentary structures are preser ed in some outcrops. The o erlying Green Steam Formation (fg) is predominantly very ne-grained, massive to nely laminated, graphitic metamudstone (Ward 1984, 1986). etamorphic grade within Fanny ay roup increases eastward, from greenschist to low-pressure upper amphibolite facies. Toward the east in the Dark Cloud Range, the rocks are recrystallised to amphibolite facies schist, with abundant sillimanite. Hornfels assemblages and textures on the margins of the Lake ike ranite, t E ans Pluton and Re ol er Pluton o erprint the regional greenschist and amphibolite facies assemblages (Ward

1984). Rare altered dolerite sills and dikes (v) occur within Fanny ay roup rocks in Preser ation and Chalky inlets and on the south coast ( enson artrum 1935; ishop 1986). The Preser ation Formation is the only unit of Fanny ay roup to be accurately dated. raptolites at Cape Pro idence and Preser ation nlet indicate an Early to iddle Ordo ician depositional age (Cooper 1989). rachiopods from the orning Star mine in Preser ation nlet are less age-diagnostic (Chapman 1934). n west Nelson, lithological correlati es of Fanny ay roup extend from possibly the latest Cambrian, certainly the earliest Early Ordo ician, into the Late Ordo ician. Fanny ay roup is intruded by De onian to Carboniferous plutons (Allibone et al. 2007). Two small outliers of metasedimentary rocks (f) are mapped north of Dusky Sound. Weakly foliated to massi e, ne- to medium-grained quartzose sandstone with minor mudstone interbeds is infaulted between Deep Co e neiss and the alaspina Pluton north of Wet acket Arm. Schistose, ne-grained sandstone and mudstone at the northeast end of Fi e Fingers Peninsula (Fig. 24) are probably infaulted along the Two Fingers Fault (Turnbull et al. 1985). The quartzose nature of the sandstone may indicate Buller terrane (Fanny Bay Group) afnity for both inliers. Northwest of the Alpine Fault, Greenland Group (g) rocks of the uller terrane underlie the Wolff Ri er tableland north of Yates Point. They consist of quartz-musco itebiotite schist, schistose quartz-rich metasandstone, and black slaty metamudstone, with local hornfels. ink folding and quartz eins are widespread. The rocks are metamorphosed to textural zone , and biotite zone, greenschist facies (see Turnbull 2000). Rb-Sr and -Ar ages from reenland roup at artins ay, and further north, suggest that Late Ordo ician regional metamorphism was followed by thermal o erprinting from intruding granites (Adams et al. 1975; Adams 2004). reenland roup or uller terrane rocks are inferred to underlie the subsea region west of the Alpine Fault (R. Sutherland, pers. comm. 2009; cross section A-A).

Figure 24 Mudstone (dark grey) and ne-grained sandstone (green-grey to greenish yellow) in a boulder on Five Fingers Peninsula near Goose Cove. The boulder is derived from an infaulted sliver of metasedimentary rocks (te tural grade t.z. IIB). The original thin beds have been transposed during folding, and later faulted on a small scale.

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Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of uncertain afnity Permian metasedimentary roc s n eorge Sound, radshaw (1985, 1990) mapped rafts of metasedimentary rock within the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss as the George Sound Paragneiss (Ygs). These rocks include pelitic and semi-pelitic schist and gneiss, with quartzofeldspathic and amphibolitic gneisses predominant in some rafts. Calc-silicate gneiss is rare. The paragneisses are metamorphosed to amphibolite facies, and contain kyanite, garnet, musco ite and biotite, with local sillimanite and staurolite. igmatite is commonly de eloped ( radshaw 1990), particularly adjacent to intercalated granitic orthogneiss bodies and to the c err ntrusi es. radshaw imbrough (1991) obtained a mid-Paleozoic age from granitic orthogneiss within the eorge Sound Paragneiss, and cCulloch et al. (1987) inferred a Proterozoic pro enance for the paragneiss from Sm-Nd isotopes. Howe er, Ste enson (2002), Hollis et al. (2004) and Clarke et al. (2009) report Permo-Triassic detrital zircons from some eorge Sound paragneisses, which are signicantly younger than most other Fiordland metasediments. Undifferentiated metamorphic roc s of un nown afnity in eastern Fiordland n eastern Fiordland, small areas of metasedimentary rocks that cannot be correlated by age, lithology, or position with any other units are mapped as undifferentiated metasediments (&t). East of the rebe ylonite one at Lake Hauroko, they include coarse, biotite-bearing quartzose paragneiss with quartzofeldspathic and minor calc-silicate

and metabasic rocks (&t ; Ladley 1998). ndifferentiated biotite-musco ite-garnet quartzofeldspathic schists of unknown age in the Princess and aherekoau mountains (&t; Wood 1969; Turnbull ruski 1995) may be related to urassic paragneiss in the south orland urn (Scott et al. 2009a), or to the Loch urn Formation (see below). Partially migmatised, pelitic, quartz-biotite schist and gneiss and minor calc-silicate of the Christina Gneiss (&c) form xenoliths within the Triassic istake Diorite in the eastern Darran ountains ( lattner 1978). The Christina neiss has a poorly constrained Rb-Sr age of 365 90 a ( lattner raham 2000). Mt Crescent Formation (&mc; Scott et al. 2009a) comprises a fault-bounded, ertically dipping sequence in the northern Hunter ountains (Fig. 25). The formation includes interlayered and banded, hornblende-biotite and calc-silicate gneiss, marble, and garnet-bearing pelitic and psammitic gneiss. etadiorite sills and dikes of the Hunter ntrusi es cut the formation. nlike other central Fiordland metasediments, the t Crescent Formation has a detrital zircon suite with a single Carboniferous population, and none of the older zircons typical of uller and Takaka terrane metasediments. A separate pro enance is implied. The depositional age of the unit must be younger than ca. 342 a, and older than an inferred Late urassic-Early Cretaceous age of metamorphism (Scott et al. 2009a). Anita Shear one protolith roc s A zone of highly deformed and locally mylonitic rocks, the Anita Shear one, occurs in northern Fiordland from ligh Sound to the aipo Ri er, between the Alpine and Pembroke faults ( lattner 1978) and related faults. The NNE-striking,

Figure 25 The type locality of Mt Crescent Formation, at the head of the Middle Branch of the Borland Burn (Hunter Mountains). The rusty-weathering psammitic gneiss is faulted against Hunter Intrusives diorite on the east (arrowed, right), and against diorite cut by granite dikes on the west (centre). Another brittle fault (arrowed, left) lies just to the left of the western paragneiss contact. Photo: .M. ott.

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steeply dipping shear zone fabrics (Fig. 26A) o erprint both metasedimentary and meta-igneous protoliths of Paleozoic and Cretaceous age (Wood 1972). The youngest foliation o erprints Worsley Pluton and Arthur Ri er Complex to the southeast, to produce a distincti e unit named the agged neiss ( ; radshaw 1990). The Anita Ultramates (&a) are predominantly mylonites derived from dunite and harzburgite. The ultramac rocks ha e typical stunted bush co er and form red-weathering outcrops (Fig. 14). Thurso Formation (&u) is predominantly amphibolite facies mylonite or gneiss, deri ed from metadiorite and metagabbro. Calc-silicate bands, marble lenses, psammitic schist and rare granitic mylonites are minor lithologies. Distincti e, porphyroblastic, gabbroic

mylonite includes rotated hornblende crystals up to 10 mm across in a mylonitic matrix. The St Anne Formation (&s) comprises ariably mylonitised, quartzofeldspathic to pelitic schist and gneiss (Fig. 26B). Minor lithologies include mac hornblende-biotite gneiss, granitic mylonite sheets, marble, and conglomerate (Wood 1972, lepeis et al. 1999). The western boundary of the Anita Shear one occurs within the St Anne Formation. Northwest of the shear zone, relict bedding may be isible. etamorphic assemblages in the St Anne Formation include biotite, musco ite, garnet, and local kyanite (Wood 1972). ircons from St Anne Formation show a strong metamorphic o erprint at 360320 a. Early Paleozoic detrital populations ha e ages between 417 and 549 a, with other zircons as old as 1040 a, typical of uller terrane metasediments (Ste enson 2002).

A
Figure 26 Anita Shear Zone lithologies. A: Steeply eastward-dipping mylonites (Jagged Gneiss) within the Anita Shear Zone at Flat Point, south of Bligh Sound. At this locality the protolith is inferred to be orsley Pluton foliated metadiorite. The pale dots (e.g. below the gures) are fragments of granitic and pegmatitic dikes. Younger mylonitic foliation has overprinted both the earlier foliation and the dikes. A darker block of ultramac rock (right of gures), rotated along the mylonitic fabric, may have been a hornblendite pod within the orsley Pluton. Photo: H. Haazen. B: Pelitic and psammitic mylonitic schist of the St Anne Formation, north of Bell Point. The palest bands may have been granite dikes. The dominant mylonitic foliation, dipping to the right, is cut by a sub-vertical crenulation cleavage associated with younger mesoscopic folds. At the top is a rotated block of diorite, which is either a conglomerate clast or part of a dismembered older intrusion.

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PERMIAN TO URASSIC SEDIMENTARY AND OLCANIC ROC S Brook Street terrane edian atholith plutonic rocks in northeastern Fiordland, west of the Eglinton and Hollyford alleys, are faulted against olcanic and olcaniclastic rocks of the Permian rook Street terrane (Turnbull 2000) by major faults of the Hollyford Fault System ( ishop et al. 1990; Williams 1978; Turnbull 1986a; ortimer et al. 1999a). n the map area the rook Street terrane is restricted to small infaulted sli ers of se eral formations from the Skippers and Eglinton subgroups. ndifferentiated olcanic rocks of the S ippers Subgroup (Yb) are shown on cross sections. The Early Permian Mantle olcanics Formation (Ybm) in the Hollyford alley is composed of pyroclastic breccia and conglomerate, crystal-lithic tuff, lava ows, and minor siltstone and sandstone, intruded by mac dikes and sills (Turnbull 2000). ndifferentiated Eglinton Subgroup (Ybe) olcaniclastic sandstone, breccia, tuff, and subordinate andesitic ows and dikes, are poorly exposed west of the Hollyford alley. n the northern Eglinton alley the subgroup includes se eral of the units mapped by Williams (1978). Gondor Formation (Yb ) includes pyroclastic breccia, agglomerate, tuff and olcaniclastic sandstone enclosing the Melita Limestone member (Ybl), which contains macrofossils of Early Permian age ( ishop et al. 1990). t is o erlain by bedded sandstone and siltstone of the Consolation Formation (Ybc). eophysical data (Anderson 1981; Schacht 1984; Three-D ra ity nc. 1984; Hutson Smith 1987) suggest that undifferentiated rook Street terrane rocks (Yb) underlie large parts of the Te Anau asin (cross section A-A). rook Street terrane may also underlie the central Waiau asin (cross section C-C), although the geophysical data could equally well indicate mac rocks of the outboard edian atholith. Dun Mountain-Maitai terrane A sli er of aitai roup sedimentary rocks of the Dun ountain- aitai terrane is faulted against the eastern side of the rook Street terrane, west of the Hollyford alley at the foot of the Darran ountains. These rocks belong to the Triassic Little en Sandstone (Tml), which is dominated by hard, green, ne- to coarse-grained volcaniclastic sandstone containing characteristic yellow-green mudstone chips, and minor siltstone and breccia units (Landis 1974). CAM RIAN TO MID CRETACEOUS PLUTONIC ROC S OF THE MEDIAN ATHOLITH Some 75% of Fiordland is underlain by plutonic rocks of the edian atholith. This non-genetic term is gi en to the large contiguous area of plutonic rocks in western ealandia comprising many indi idual plutons of different ages that belong to se eral petrogenetic suites ( ortimer

et al. 1999b; see also Allibone et al. 2009a). The edian atholith was emplaced between the latest Cambrian (ca. 500 a) and mid-Cretaceous (ca. 105 a) along the paleo-Pacic margin of Gondwana during several major subduction-related episodes of plutonism (Fig. 27; Tulloch 1983, 1988; uir et al. 1998; ortimer et al. 1999b; Tulloch imbrough 2003; Tulloch et al. 2009a; Allibone et al. 2007, 2009a,c). The batholith in Fiordland is informally di ided into western and eastern parts, which lie inboard and outboard, respecti ely, of the ondwana continental margin (Allibone et al. 2009a). The inboard part intrudes Early Paleozoic metasedimentary basement rocks of the Western Pro ince, whereas only Late Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks ( t Crescent Formation) are known in the eastern (outboard) part. efore ca. 120 a, inboard and outboard parts of the edian atholith were probably in intrusi e contact west of Lake Te Anau (Allibone et al. 2009b,c). Elsewhere they are separated by major shear zones ( arcotte et al. 2005; Scott 2008; Scott et al. 2009a). After ca. 120 a, younger plutons stitched the inboard and outboard parts of the batholith together. any plutonic rocks of the edian atholith are grouped into petrogenetic suites ( -type, S-type and A-type; Fig. 27), which are related to regional tectonic and magmatic en ironments during their formation (Tulloch et al. 2003, 2009a; see Tectonic History, below). Each suite comprises a number of indi idual plutons which represent either a single intrusion, or se eral closely related intrusions. Some plutons comprise a single lithology, whereas others include a range of lithologies. Some plutons ha e been dismembered by the intrusion of younger bodies, or by faulting. Where numerous smaller intrusions are intimately mixed with each other and or their host rocks, they are mapped as intrusi es or complexes (Allibone et al. 2007, 2009a,c). ost Fiordland plutons ha e now been radiometrically dated using a ariety of techniques. Radiometric ages of indi idual plutons are gi en by imbrough et al. (1994), uir et al. (1998), Hollis et al. (2004), Scott Palin (2008), Tulloch et al. (2009a), Allibone et al. (2007, 2009a,c), and references therein. Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician plutonic roc s Strongly foliated, Cambro-Ordo ician, granitic and subordinate dioritic intrusions that cut Takaka terrane metasedimentary rocks are the oldest plutonic rocks yet found in New ealand ( ibson reland 1996; Allibone et al. 2009a). The 492 9 a a uiery Granitoid Gneiss ($u ) in acquiery and Florence streams in central Fiordland (Fig. 28), and the ca. 500 a Pandora Orthogneiss ($up) between Thompson and Nancy sounds, are the largest of these Early Paleozoic intrusions. oth are dominated by variably foliated, ne- to medium-grained, gneissic biotite granodiorite and tonalite. The undated Straight River Granite(&sr; Oli er 1980) comprises small bodies of coarse, biotite musco ite granite and granodiorite with minor tonalite, strained and recrystallised into a mylonitic fabric, along the Straight Ri er Shear one (Oli er 1980; ing et al. 2008). ylonitised granites on correlati e shear zones around reaksea Sound are tentati ely included. Although

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Approximate boundary between inboard and outboard Median Batholith

MESOZOIC PLUTONIC ROCKS Arthur River Complex (Darran Suite) Syenogranite: I/A-type SUITES Separation Point: I-type, HiSY Rahu: I-type Darran: I-type, LoSY (volcanics) Western Fiordland Orthogneiss: I-type, HiSY

Unassigned: LoSY

PALEOZOIC PLUTONIC ROCKS 'Houseroof': S/A-type


Mid Bay Reef Solander-1

Unassigned Latest Cambrian orthogneisses

SUITES Tobin: I-type, LoSY Foulwind: A/I-type Ridge: S-type Karamea: S-type Paringa: I-type, HiSY

Parara-1

km

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Figure 27 Distribution of Paleozoic and Mesozoic plutonic rocks of the Median Batholith in Fiordland, subdivided into petrogenetic suites (see te t for details). Samples from offshore drillhole and reef localities are Darran Suite. The Indecision Creek Comple and Harrison Gneiss, between Lake Te Anau and Milford Sound, are shown as Darran Suite, but include Separation Point Suite rocks. Arthur River Comple rocks have not been assigned to any particular suite. est of Lake Te Anau, the boundary between outboard and inboard parts of the batholith is probably intrusive.

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Figure 28 Latest Cambrian to earliest Ordovician Jaquiery Granitoid Gneiss in the head of Florence Stream, Merrie Range. Insert shows the strong gneissic foliation.

Straight Ri er ranite remains undated, geochemical data suggest a correlation with either the Cambro-Ordo ician Pandora Orthogneiss and aquiery ranitoid neiss, or the Carboniferous Ridge Suite (Allibone et al. 2009c, cf. Allibone et al. 2007; see below). Numerous small bodies of dioritic and granitoid orthogneiss (&o) are intercalated with Takaka terrane metasedimentary rocks in western Fiordland. The largest mapped body, comprising banded mac and felsic orthogneisses, is in the errie Range ( owman 1974), but generally they are too small to show. Some were emplaced during the Early Ordo ician ( ibson reland 1996). Late Devonian to Carboniferous plutonic roc s n the mid-Paleozoic, se eral distinct suites of plutonic rocks were emplaced into Fiordland (Tulloch imbrough 2003; Allibone et al. 2007, 2009a,c; Tulloch et al. 2009a). Late De onian to Carboniferous plutons form a belt through central Fiordland in the western (inboard) part of the edian atholith. inor Carboniferous diorite and granitoid plutons also occur in the eastern (outboard) part of the batholith, separated by oluminous esozoic plutonic rocks. The Paleozoic plutonic rocks comprise the -type Paringa and Tobin suites; the S-type aramea and Ridge suites; the A-type Foulwind Suite; and S A-type granitoids of south-central Fiordland typied by the Houseroof Pluton. These rocks represent a new phase of magmatism in the Fiordland segment of the Western Pro ince. Paringa Suite The two Paringa Suite plutons mapped in Fiordland lie immediately south of Dusky Sound. The 374 3 a Mt Solitary granodiorite (Dps) (informal; Ward 1984; Da ids 1999; Powell 2006) comprises massi e to foliated, medium-grained biotite leucogranodiorite and minor tonalite. t Solitary granodiorite intrudes Cameron and Edgecumbe roup rocks, which are locally hornfelsed near

the contact. The adjacent but younger Dolphin Intrusive Comple (Dpd; Ward 1984; Da ids 1999, Tulloch et al. 2009a), dated at 360.7 2.1 a, consists of hornblendebiotite diorite, quartz diorite, biotite granodiorite, tonalite, and granite, with peridotite and hornblende xenoliths in the southern part. Some Arthur Ri er Complex rocks in northern Fiordland may ha e Paringa Suite protoliths (Tulloch et al. 2009c; see below). Paringa Suite rocks are distinguished from other De onian-Carboniferous suites by their wide compositional range, high Sr Y (HiSY) ratios, and -type mineralogy and geochemistry (Tulloch et al. 2009a). Ridge Suite The Ridge Suite is the most extensi e Paleozoic plutonic suite in Fiordland (Fig. 27). t is widespread in southern Fiordland, intruding both uller and Takaka terranes. Some strongly deformed, poorly known granitic rocks within the Arthur Ri er Complex (Tulloch et al. 2009c) may also be part of this suite. Ridge Suite dikes and plugs extend as far east as the rebe Fault in the Princess ountains, but ha e not been found in the outboard part of the edian atholith. Numerous indi idual plutons are mapped, including the ig (Crb), Widgeon (Drw) and eanie (Dr ) plutons, the Horatio (Crh) and intail (Cr ) orthogneisses, the All Round (Cra) and Staircase tonalites (&rs), and the Gardner urn (&rg), Hauro o (Drh) and Merrie (&rm) granites ( ibson 1982; Ward 1984; Ladley 1998; Allibone et al. 2007; Tulloch et al. 2009a; Allibone et al. 2009a,c). Ridge Suite plutons comprise biotite musco ite garnet tonalite, granodiorite, granite and monzogranite. Titanite and rare magmatic epidote occur in some more mac tonalites and granodiorites. Most Ridge Suite plutons are medium-grained, equigranular, massi e or only weakly foliated, and cut penetrati e structures in adjacent metasediments (Allibone et al. 2007, 2009a). Foliation is locally more strongly de eloped, for example, within the intail Orthogneiss abo e the Dusky Track, and within the All Round Tonalite on Secretary sland. An extensi e zone of cataclasis o erprints ig Pluton on the south coast.

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Figure 29 Granite of the idgeon Pluton (Devonian-Carboniferous, Ridge Suite) in the Dark Cloud Range has a weak foliation (dipping to the right). The granite encloses numerous darker, preferentially weathering sheets of metasedimentary gneiss (Paleozoic, Buller terrane) parallel to the foliation (arrowed, and in the foreground).

Figure 30 A 20-cm-long boulder of Newton River Pluton biotite granite, of Carboniferous age, beside the Newton River. The coarse texture and large K-feldspar crystals are characteristic. Pebbles of granite, and ne-grained dark grey pebbles of Fanny Bay Group metamudstone, rest on pillars of unconsolidated sand above the boulder. The pebbles have protected the soft sand from eroding during heavy rain.

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etasedimentary xenoliths are common in many Ridge Suite plutons (Fig. 29). n places they coalesce into intrusion breccias many square kilometres in extent, which in turn grade into dike swarms that extend se eral kilometres into the adjacent metasedimentary rocks. Ridge Suite S-type magmas formed during partial melting of older metasedimentary material (Tulloch et al. 2009a). Ridge Suite plutonism in Fiordland began with emplacement of the errie ranite at 363.8 0.2 a (Allibone et al. 2009a), and peaked with emplacement of the ig, eanie and Widgeon plutons, and the Horatio and intail orthogneisses, between ca. 356 and 351 a. The ca. 349 a All Round Tonalite is the youngest member of the suite in Fiordland (Allibone et al. 2009c). Karamea Suite A fault-bounded sli er of sheared and altered musco ite granite and pegmatite (D g), correlated with the aramea Suite, lies along the Alpine Fault in the aipo Ri er (Turnbull 2000). Other aramea Suite plutons are restricted to southwest Fiordland (Allibone et al. 2007; Tulloch et al. 2009a). The 351 1 a Newton River Pluton (C n) is composed of biotite granodiorite and granite with conspicuous coarse -feldspar (Fig. 30). Foliation is only de eloped in the southern part of the pluton, which is bounded by faults except where cut by younger intrusions. The 349.6 1.2 a Mt Evans Pluton (C e) comprises massi e to weakly foliated, equigranular, biotite musco ite rare garnet tonalite, granodiorite and granite. t includes a kilometre-scale raft of ariably foliated hornblende gabbro, diorite and quartz diorite (C e). The t E ans Pluton intrudes Fanny ay roup rocks and undifferentiated metasedimentary rocks (Allibone et al. 2007). Although correlated with the aramea Suite by Allibone et al. (2007), the Newton Ri er and t E ans plutons are ca. 2117 million years younger than plutons of this suite in the aramea atholith of northwest Nelson (Tulloch et al. 2009a). They are interpreted as a late reju enation of aramea Suite plutonism in southwest Fiordland, coe al with the more extensi e Ridge and Foulwind suite plutonism further to the east. An S-type petrogenesis has been inferred for the Newton Ri er and t E ans plutons,

but their source is different from that which produced the nearby S-type Ridge Suite (Tulloch et al. 2009a). Foulwind Suite Foulwind Suite plutons in Fiordland are largely restricted to the central area, between eorge Sound and Lake Poteriteri, and intrude Takaka terrane metasedimentary rocks. They include the Tower Intrusives (Cft; ca. 351 a), Alice Diorite (Cfa; 340.9 0.6 a), and the Large (C; 348.5 9.9 a), Co ette (Cfc; 340 a), Poteriteri (Cfp; 329 2 a) and E pedition (Cf ; 318 7 a) plutons (Allibone et al. 2009a,c; Tulloch et al. 2009a). The Late De onian-Early Carboniferous Deas Cove Granite (Dfd) in outer Thompson Sound and Secretary sland in western Fiordland is the oldest member of the suite (Wood 1960a; Oli er 1980; Allibone et al. 2009c). Poorly known and unmapped gneissic rocks within the Arthur Ri er Complex of northern Fiordland (Tulloch et al. 2009c) and some of the small diorite and gabbro (&di) bodies in southwestern Fiordland are tentati ely correlated with the Foulwind Suite. An undated gneissic syenogranite (&g) intercalated with eorge Sound Paragneiss also has Foulwind Suite characteristics (Allibone et al. 2009c). Foulwind Suite includes a wide ariety of rocks with compositions ranging from ultramac, gabbroic and dioritic rocks (Tower ntrusi es), through diorite and quartz diorite (Alice Diorite), to biotite-bearing monzonite, quartz monzonite, granite and syenogranite (Expedition Pluton), and leucocratic syenogranite and alkali feldspar granite (Deas Co e ranite, Large, Cozette, Poteriteri and Expedition plutons) (Allibone et al. 2007; Allibone et al. 2009a,c). inor musco ite and garnet are commonly present in the more leucocratic granitic rocks. The larger mac bodies preserve primary magmatic layering. Most Foulwind Suite plutons are moderately to strongly foliated. Exceptions are the Poteriteri Pluton and Alice Diorite, which are only foliated along their eastern margins where affected by the rebe ylonite one. Older plutons are coe al with nearby Ridge Suite plutons, but ha e more potassic syenogranite compositions, and ha e greater high eld strength and incompatible trace element contents, suggesti e of an A-type rather than an S-type petrogenesis (Allibone et al. 2009a,c; Tulloch et al. 2009a).

Figure 31 Sills of tonalite at the margin of the Carboniferous Houseroof Pluton west of Lake Monk, intruding psammitic and calc-silicate rocks of the Cameron Group. The calc-silicate rocks weather preferentially to form pits, whereas the psammitic rocks (lower right) are more massive.

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Tobin Suite Two plutons of the Carboniferous Tobin Suite are mapped in the outboard edian atholith in eastern Fiordland. The 344 4 a La e Ro burgh Tonalite (Ctr) between Middle and North ords of Lake Te Anau comprises foliated, medium- to coarse-grained, equigranular biotite tonalite and minor granodiorite widely affected by chloritic alteration ( ing 1984; imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 1998; Allibone et al. 2009a). Lake Roxburgh Tonalite has been included in the Tobin Suite by Tulloch et al. (2009a), although some aspects of its chemistry differ from other plutons of this suite (Allibone et al. 2009a). The 342.3 1.5 a William Granite (Ctw) is a massi e to weakly foliated, medium-grained biotite granite in the eastern urchison ountains, where it unconformably underlies the Loch urn Formation (Scott et al. 2008). Late Devonian-Carboniferous plutonic rocks with no assigned suite afnity The ariably foliated ca. 349 a Houseroof (Chh) and La e (Dhl) plutons, the Thundercleft Quart Diorite (Cht), and the Aubrey Orthogneiss (Cha) comprise quartz diorite, tonalite, granodiorite and rare granite ( ibson 1982; Powell 2006; Allibone et al. 2007; Allibone et al. 2009a; Tulloch et al. 2009a). Their distincti e accessory mineral assemblage (hornblende, garnet, musco ite, rare clinopyroxene in more mac rocks, and particularly coarsegrained and common zircon) distinguishes these plutons from otherwise similar Ridge Suite intrusions (Allibone et al. 2007, 2009a). The presence of trace amounts of hornblende in the massi e ane La e Granite (&r )

implies its correlation with these four plutons, rather than with the Ridge Suite. The calcic, alkali-poor and zirconiumrich S A-type chemistry of these plutons, and their similar age and distribution to the Ridge Suite, suggest that they represent a second, higher temperature magma, deri ed from the same source as the Ridge Suite ( ollan 2006; Allibone et al. 2007). Houseroof and Lake 773 plutons host numerous marble and calc-silicate rafts (Fig. 31). Se eral gabbroic and dioritic plutons and numerous smaller plugs in south and central Fiordland are of Late De onian-Carboniferous age but their petrogenetic afnities are uncertain. They include the Pleasant Pluton (&up), lac Giants Anorthosite (Cub; 349 5 a; Fig. 32), Warren Diorite (Cuw) and La e Roe Gabbro (Cur; 334.9 5.8 a), and the informal Seal La e gabbro (&ul) ( rodie 1979; Ward 1984; Da ids 1999; ibson reland 1999; Powell 2006; Allibone et al. 2009a). These plutons comprise hornblende clinopyroxene diorite, layered gabbronorite, anorthosite, gabbro and norite, with minor quartz diorite and tonalite. All intrude Takaka terrane metasedimentary rocks or older plutons. The Marguerite Amphibolite (&ma; Scott et al. 2009c, after ing 1984), southeast of eorge Sound, is a dismembered, layered, mac pluton that originally consisted of hornblende gabbro and gabbronorite, with some troctolite, dunite and harzburgite. ost of the unit now comprises kyaniteand corundum-bearing amphibolite, with xenoliths of pelitic schist. These xenoliths were metamorphosed at 340.2 2.2 a and constrain the age of the arguerite Amphibolite to Early Carboniferous or older.

Figure 32 Layered Black Giants Anorthosite (Carboniferous) forms the ridge running west from the Black Giants, the jagged peaks at left. The tectonic basal contact over Townley Calc-silicate dips gently east, below the remnant snoweld (see Gibson 1992, g. 5). The Black Giants are Lyvia Gneiss, which overlies the anorthosite. The view is toward the southeast into the Seaforth River catchment. Photo CN48068: D.L. Homer.

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Late Triassic to Cretaceous plutonic roc s No plutons of Permian, Early Triassic or iddle Triassic age are known from Fiordland. Plutonic acti ity in the Late Triassic ( imbrough et al. 1994; ortimer et al. 1999a) continued into Early Cretaceous time ( uir et al. 1998; Tulloch imbrough 2003; Scott Palin 2008) (see Fig. 64). Fi e distinct suites of plutonic rocks (Fig. 27) were emplaced during this 140-million- year period (Allibone et al. 2007; Allibone et al. 2009a,c). Darran Suite Darran Suite rocks form a major NNE-trending belt that extends the length of Fiordland, 1015 km wide and largely within the outboard part of the edian atholith. West of Lake Te Anau, the belt extends into the inboard part of the batholith. solated Darran Suite plutons also occur in central and western Fiordland, near Dusky Sound, and west of Lake anapouri. The suite comprises calcalkaline -type, low Sr Y (LoSY) gabbros and diorites with subordinate granitoids and minor ultramac rocks, typical of Phanerozoic con ergent margin magmatic arcs ( uir et al. 1998; Tulloch imbrough 2003; Allibone et al. 2009a). The oldest Darran Suite plutons were emplaced between ca. 230 and 170 a, but most are aged between 170 and 128 a ( imbrough et al 1994; ortimer Tulloch 1996; uir et al. 1998; Tulloch imbrough 2003;

Scott Palin 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a). The Darran Suite includes numerous indi idual plutons mappable at 1:250 000 scale, as well as large areas mapped as intrusi es or complexes , which comprise many smaller intrusions that cannot be differentiated at 1:250 000 scale. Triassic and Early Jurassic Late Triassic and Early urassic plutons in Fiordland are restricted to the Eglinton and Hollyford areas. The Triassic rocks are dominated by the 226 3 a Mista e Diorite (Tdm), which consists of massi e medium- to coarsegrained quartz diorite and hornblende-bearing granite (Williams Harper 1978). Younger Ar-Ar ages probably reect partial resetting during later alteration and Darran Suite plutonism ( ortimer et al. 1999a). The istake Diorite was reported as intruding rook Street terrane (Eglinton Subgroup) and Largs roup (Williams Harper 1978), but ortimer et al. (1999a) interpret the contacts as faulted, or possibly unconformable. The Hut Leucogranite (Tdh) (Hut Plutonic Suite of Williams Harper 1978) includes granite, leucogranite and quartz diorite ( lattner raham 2000, lattner 2006). West of the lower Hollyford alley, ariably foliated diorite, leucodiorite, trondhjemite and granitic orthogneiss of the Mac ay Intrusives (Tgo) e lattner raham (2000) and lattner (2006), are intruded by Darran Leucogabbro ( ishop et al. 1990; Turnbull 2000).

Figure 33 Mount George Gabbro of Cretaceous age at Mount George (the nearer rocky peak at left). Primary magmatic layering, including bands rich in magnetite and ilmenite, runs diagonally across the tussock face toward the lake (centre right) and dips to the west (left). The prominent scree ledge with a small tarn (centre left) follows a young brittle fault (possibly Late Quaternary in age) and separates the mineralised gabbro from overlying diorite. The entrance to Doubtful Sound lies at the far upper left, directly above Mt George. Photo CN48264B: D.L. Homer.

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Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Within the inboard edian atholith, gneissic hornblende diorite and quartz diorite comprise the Selwyn Cree Gneiss ( dy; 154.4 3.6 a) and the younger Supper Cove Orthogneiss ( dc; 128 1 a) (Ward 1984; Da ids 1999; Claypool et al. 2002; Tulloch imbrough 2003; arcotte et al. 2005; Allibone et al. 2009a). The Supper Co e Orthogneiss locally includes banded amphibolite orthogneiss and minor metagabbro ( dc) (Ward 1984). The more felsic Mid Poteriteri Pluton ( di; Allibone et al. 2007) consists of massi e biotite granite and granodiorite, with numerous dikes intruding adjacent plutons. n northern Fiordland, the Mt Edgar Diorite ( ae; 128.8 2.4 a) comprises foliated diorite with subordinate gabbro and minor ultramac rocks (Hollis et al. 2003; arcotte et al. 2005), and may also be a Darran Suite correlati e. The Mt Anau Comple ( sa) and Mt George Gabbro ( dm; ca. 126 a) (Codling 1977; ibson 1982; Fig. 33) consist of layered gabbro, gabbronorite and minor ultramac rocks. The Mt Anau Complex (Bradshaw 1990) also contains numerous felsic dikes and is ariably foliated to mylonitic. The La e Han inson Comple ( d ) consists of heterogeneous diorite, quartz diorite, tonalite and granodiorite bodies, ranging from a few metres to o er 1 km across. t is foliated and lineated throughout (Fig. 34). Indecision Cree Comple ( si) is ariably foliated, and formed of similar rock types as well as gabbro and granite, in a sheeted intrusi e complex ( radshaw 1990). In the outboard Median Batholith, particularly mac plutons include the eehive Diorite ( db), Howitt Pea s ( do) and Halfway Pea ( dh; 146.0 2.2 a) hornblende gabbros, West epler Gabbro ( dw) and Lu more Mac Complex ( d ; 158.8 2.3 a) (Turner 1937, 1938; orrison 1973; Sise 1976; ing 1984; imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 1998; Scott et al. 2009b; Allibone et al. 2009a). These plutons comprise gabbro, gabbronorite and hornblende gabbro, with subordinate anorthosite, troctolite, peridotite and two-pyroxene diorite. Compositional layering is locally developed in the most mac lithologies.

Plutons of ariably foliated biotite tonalite, granodiorite and monzogranite occur throughout the Darran Suite in the outboard part of the edian atholith south of iddle Fiord, Lake Te Anau. They include the Albert Edward Granite ( de; 153 3 a), Cleughearn Pluton ( dc; 154 3 a) (pre iously mapped as reen Lake ranodiorite; Higgins awachi 1977; Turnbull ruski 1995), Dana Tonalite ( dt), Hanging alley Granitoid Intrusives ( dv), and the Plateau ( dp) and Fowler plutons ( df; ca. 127 a) ( imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a). ost of these granitoid rocks are medium-grained and equigranular, although the Albert Edward and Fowler granites are foliated and contain -feldspar megacrysts. Dana Tonalite is ariably foliated and distincti ely altered. Further Darran Suite rocks of iddle urassic to Early Cretaceous age include the Hunter ( du) and Murchison ( dn) intrusives, and Glade ( dg) and Nurse ( dn) plutonic suites. These intrusi e complexes comprise

Figure 34 (above) Strongly foliated and segregated orthogneisses of the Jurassic to Cretaceous Lake Hankinson Comple in the Stillwater Valley. The pencil lies just above a sliver of amphibolite within older orthogneiss. Below the amphibolite, a pale granitic orthogneiss band cuts across older layering in quartz dioritic gneiss. Figure 35 Pale, foliated, leucodioritic gneiss of the Jurassic Hunter Intrusives is cut by darker, and less strongly foliated, hornblende diorite (above and right of the hammer handle). This outcrop, west of the North Branch of the Borland Burn, is also cut by younger dikes of Cretaceous Titiroa Granodiorite. The pale granodiorite dike directly below the hammer head cuts another hornblende diorite band.

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heterogeneous, metre- to kilometre-scale bodies of diorite, quartz diorite, tonalite and granodiorite with minor granite and gabbro (Williams Harper 1978; ing 1984; radshaw 1990; Turnbull 2000; Allibone et al. 2009a). Central and northern parts of the Hunter ntrusi es are dominated by diorite and quartz diorite (Fig. 35), whereas tonalite and granodiorite ( du) are predominant around Lake Hauroko. Within the urchison ntrusi es, a large body of gabbro ( da) forms t Lyall in the urchison ountains, and an area dominated by granitoids occurs east of the Chester urn ( dg). The Darran Leucogabbro ( dd) in northern Fiordland comprises leucogabbro, which is altered to hornblende diorite toward the west, with subordinate anorthosite, troctolite and peridotite ( dd), and dikes of quartz diorite and trondhjemite (Williams Harper 1978; lattner 1978; ishop et al. 1990; Wandres et al. 1998; Turnbull 2000). t is considered to be a northern extension of the Hunter Intrusives, albeit with a more mac composition. Small areas of diorite and gabbro ( d) in the western Waiau asin, on southern Hump Ridge, and offshore at id ay Reef ( ishop et al. 1992; Turnbull ruski 1995) may be correlati es of the Hunter ntrusi es. The Hunter and urchison intrusi es and Darran Leucogabbro show marked ariations in foliation de elopment, from massi e unfoliated rocks to strongly foliated and lineated orthogneisses. The contact between the urchison ntrusi es and Lake Hankinson Complex is marked by increasingly intense foliation de elopment westward across a zone ca. 2 km wide; Lake Hankinson Complex is also distinguished by its metasedimentary encla es (Allibone et al. 2009a). The urchison and Hunter intrusi es are separated by faults and or a narrow belt of Loch urn Formation olcaniclastic rocks (Scott et al. 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a). A wide zone of cataclasis within Hunter ntrusi es marks the t Cuthbert Fault at the orland Saddle. -Pb ages from the Hunter and urchison intrusi es, the Lake Hankinson Complex, and the Darran Leucogabbro generally range from 168 to 134 a ( imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 1998; Scott Palin 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a). Howe er, two rocks included within Hunter ntrusi es at Lake anapouri ha e Carboniferous ages

( uir et al. 1998). About 10% of samples from the Hunter and urchison intrusi es and Lake Hankinson Complex elsewhere ha e chemistries similar to the Carboniferous samples (Allibone et al. 2009a). At least one larger Carboniferous encla e occurs within the Lake Hankinson Complex ( arguerite Amphibolite; Scott et al. 2009c), conrming that some small bodies within these three units are not part of the Darran Suite. The ndecision Creek Complex comprises at least four intrusi e phases emplaced between ca. 135 and 123 a ( radshaw 1990), but it too includes a minor Paleozoic component, with one sample dated at 365 11 a ( lepeis et al. 2004). Those parts of the ndecision Creek Complex emplaced between ca. 135 and 128 a are probably correlati es of the Darran Suite, whereas younger parts are correlati es of the Separation Point Suite (see below). Rahu Suite ranitoid plutons with some characteristics in common with the S-type Rahu Suite of Nelson and northern Westland (Tulloch rathwaite 1986; Tulloch imbrough 2003) are restricted to the inboard part of the edian atholith in southwest Fiordland (Allibone et al. 2007). These plutons are mostly biotite granite with minor granodiorite and leucogranite, and include the Revolver ( re; 140 4 a), North Port ( rp; 128.7 0.3 a), La e Mon ( ro) and Indian Island ( ri; ca. 128 a) granites, and the Treble Mountain ( rt; 127.4 0.1 a) and and rothers ( rb; 120.8 0.1 a) plutons (Allibone et al. 2007). The Red Head Pluton ( rh; ca. 121 a) also includes minor hornblende-bearing quartz monzodiorite ( ishop 1986). The North Port and Lake onk granites and parts of the ndian sland Pluton are particularly leucocratic. -feldspar phenocrysts are present in many parts of these plutons (Fig. 36), except in the North Port ranite. Parts of the rothers Pluton are o erprinted by mylonitic or cataclastic fabrics. Rahu Suite plutons in Westland and Nelson were emplaced between ca. 120 and 105 a (Tulloch et al. 2003), but Rahu Suite correlati es in southwest Fiordland are as old as 140 a. Either Rahu Suite plutonism began earlier in Fiordland (Allibone et al. 2007), or these older plutons, though petrogenetically similar, are part of a separate suite ( ollan 2006).

Figure 36 Massive Brothers Pluton granite (Cretaceous, Rahu Suite) with characteristic -feldspar megacrysts, north of Mt Bradshaw above Cascade Cove, Dusky Sound.

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Western Fiordland Orthogneiss The term Western Fiordland Orthogneiss was coined by radshaw (1985, 1989b) for the ariably foliated diorite, monzodiorite and monzonite orthogneisses, locally with spectacular garnet reaction zones, that occur throughout western Fiordland. This regionally extensi e unit is subdi ided into se eral discrete plutons (Allibone et al. 2009c), broadly coe al with the Separation Point Suite (see below), and emplaced between ca. 125 and 114 a during the nal stages of Mesozoic plutonism. All these intrusions are characterised by Sr Y ratios higher than those of the older Darran Suite (Tulloch imbrough 2003; Allibone et al. 2009c). Some 35% of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss has been o erprinted by highpressure metamorphic assemblages of the garnet granulite, omphacite granulite and eclogite facies. These rocks were emplaced in, or later buried to, the deepest parts of the crust (4080 km) and ha e attracted the attention of many authors (see summaries in lepeis et al. 2007, Allibone et al. 2009c, and De Paoli et al. 2009). rea sea Orthogneiss ( wb; 124122 a; L. ilan, pers. comm. 2009) occurs between Coal Ri er and northern Resolution sland, and comprises interlayered omphacite granulite and darker green to red omphacite garnet eclogite (Fig. 37A). The omphacite granulite is deri ed from dioritic protoliths (ranging from syenite to monzodiorite), and the eclogite from gabbronorite (Allibone et al. 2005; De Paoli et al. 2009). inor lithologies include hornblendite and rare pyroxenite and harzburgite. reaksea Orthogneiss is cut by rare dikes of garnet-bearing diorite similar to the nearby alaspina Pluton. The Resolution Orthogneiss ( wr; 124 a) in northern Resolution sland comprises homogeneous, foliated, hornblende-plagioclase dioritic and gabbroic orthogneiss (Fig. 37 ) with minor clinopyroxene and garnet, metamorphosed under hornblende granulite conditions. Resolution Orthogneiss contains rafts of reaksea Orthogneiss eclogite and omphacite granulite. Faults of arious ages separate the reaksea and Resolution orthogneisses from adjacent rocks (Allibone et al. 2005; lepeis et al. 2007; De Paoli et al. 2009). The Worsley ( ww; 124122 a) and Misty ( wi; 116114 a) plutons between Doubtful and Sutherland sounds ha e cores of feldspathic two-pyroxene diorite and monzodiorite (Fig. 38A). The cores are surrounded by darker hornblende-pyroxene diorite and hornblendeclinozoisite-biotite diorite ( radshaw 1989b, 1990), some of which may be c err ntrusi es (Allibone et al. 2009c), and by amphibolite (indicated by o erprints). arnet granulite facies metamorphic assemblages are restricted to narrow reaction zones adjacent to trondhjemite eins, which are present in approximately 10% of both plutons. ntrusi e relationships with adjacent rocks are widely preser ed, despite local shearing along some contacts ( radshaw 1990; Daczko et al. 2002a; Allibone et al. 2009c). Thermobarometric studies indicate that both plutons were buried to depths of ca. 40 km following emplacement at depths between 20 and 35 km (Allibone et al. 2009c and references therein).

B
Figure 37 Breaksea and Resolution orthogneisses of the estern Fiordland Orthogneiss. A: Banded omphacite-plagioclase-garnet granulite with darker layers of omphacite-orthopyro ene-garnet eclogite, in a boulder of Breaksea Orthogneiss near the mouth of the Shag River on Resolution Island. The granulite is studded with large garnets, but garnet in the eclogite is ner grained. B: Sub-horizontal foliation in leucogabbroic and dioritic Resolution Orthogneiss, on the northwest coast of Resolution Island.

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The Malaspina Pluton ( wm; 117114 a) between Doubtful Sound and Resolution sland comprises ariably foliated diorite and monzodiorite (Fig. 38 ) (Oli er 1980; Da ids 1999; Tulloch imbrough 2003; Hollis et al. 2004; Allibone et al. 2009c). arnet-bearing high-pressure granulite facies assemblages are de eloped in about 70% of the alaspina Pluton (Fig. 38C). Two-pyroxene garnet diorite in the pluton core is partly retrogressed to hornblende diorite and completely retrogressed to amphibolite near some pluton margins (shown by o erprints). ntrusi e contacts and a metamorphic aureole within the adjacent Deep Co e neiss (Takaka terrane) and Supper Co e Orthogneiss (Darran Suite) are preser ed around the southern end of the pluton. The Doubtful Sound Shear one is localised along an original intrusi e contact at the northern end ( radshaw 1985; Hollis et al. 2004; Allibone et al. 2009b,c). Thermobarometry from the southern aureole indicates that the alaspina Pluton was emplaced and then metamorphosed at ca. 40 km depth (Allibone et al. 2009b).

Elongate pods and foliation-parallel bands of hornblendite and minor pyroxenite and peridotite ( wu), up to 2 km long, are dispersed throughout the Worsley, isty and alaspina plutons (Oli er 1980; radshaw 1990). The largest hornblendite body, south of Hawes Head (Fig. 38D), is probably a cumulate formed within the enclosing isty Pluton (Emami 2008). Oma i Orthogneiss ( wa; ca. 125 a) consists of weakly foliated to strongly banded and gneissic hornblende-biotite diorite, quartz monzodiorite, granodiorite, and granite orthogneiss with distincti e coarse titanite. The Omaki Orthogneiss is either faulted against metasediments, or intruded by West Arm Leucogranite (Allibone et al. 2009a). The undated La e Wade Diorite ( wl) in the Stuart ountains ( ing 1984, Allibone et al. 2009c) comprises ariably foliated and recrystallised medium- to coarse-grained hornblende diorite. ts chemistry implies correlation with the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss. Small heterogeneous diorite, quartz diorite, tonalite, granodiorite

C
Figure 38 Malaspina and Misty plutons of the estern Fiordland Orthogneiss. A: Intercalated multiple intrusions, some with hornblende-rich selvages, of two-pyro ene diorite and hornblende diorite in the Misty Pluton east of Command Peak, north of Nancy Sound. B: Garnet granulite facies, dioritic Malaspina Pluton southwest of Mt Clerke on Resolution Island. Gneissic foliation (right, with conspicuous disseminated red garnet) is progressively deformed toward the left by a younger ductile shear fabric of the Straight River Shear Zone. Dark bands are hornblende gabbro layers. C: A pale trondhjemite vein (lower) and its associated alteration zone containing prominent euhedral garnets, in garnet granulite facies monzodiorite of the Malaspina Pluton, northwest of Mt Lyall, Resolution Island. Opthalmitic leucosomes surround additional garnet grains, suggesting that these garnets grew during partial melting of the host monzodiorite. D: Hornblendite rafts in troctolite within an ultramac cumulate body in the Misty Pluton, south of Hawes Head, Charles Sound, on the outer Fiordland coast.

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and hornblende gabbro bodies in southwest Fiordland, the Only Islands Diorite ( wo; 122 1 a), ald Pea s Pluton ( wd; 122 1 a) and Trevaccoon Diorite ( wt; 128.4 0.9 a) ( ollan 2006; Allibone et al. 2007) ha e petrographic and chemical characteristics transitional between those of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss and the Separation Point Suite. The Mc err Intrusives ( w ; ca. 121116 a), between Charles and eorge sounds, comprise two separate parts (Allibone et al. 2009c). The eastern part is dominated by ariably foliated hornblende pyroxene diorite ( w ), with locally preser ed igneous layering (Hollis et al. 2004; Clarke et al. 2009). The western part is undeformed and more heterogeneous, and includes quartz monzodiorite, quartz diorite, hornblende diorite with rare pyroxene, and tonalite ( radshaw 1985; lepeis et al. 2004; Allibone et al. 2009c; Fig. 39). Contacts between the two parts are gradational. The c err ntrusi es lack granulite facies assemblages, e en though the eastern part was buried to ca. 40 km after being emplaced at a depth of ca. 25 km (Clarke et al. 2009). Separation Point Suite Separation Point Suite plutons in Fiordland were emplaced in both the inboard and outboard parts of the edian atholith (Fig. 27) between ca. 123 and 116 a ( imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 1998; Scott Palin 2008; Allibone et al. 2007; Allibone et al. 2009a,c). They are broadly the same age as the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss, but are distinguishable by their more siliceous and leucocratic compositions, higher Sr Y and lower Rb Sr ratios, and higher Na and Al contents. n eastern Fiordland, Separation Point Suite plutons include the biotite-bearing Titiroa ( st; 121 2 a) and Ta ahe ( se; 123 2 a) granodiorites and the North Fiord Granite ( sn; 123.7 1.8 a) ( ing 1984; imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 1998; Allibone et al. 2009a). All three units are dominated by granodiorite with subordinate granite and leucogranite. -feldspar megacrysts occur widely in the Titiroa ranodiorite (Higgins awachi 1977). These three bodies may represent apophyses of a single pluton, more than 100 km long and partly co ered by Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. n central Fiordland, the 120.7 1.1 a Refrigerator Orthogneiss ( ss) comprises more mac, hornblende-biotite bearing, foliated tonalite, quartz diorite, and granodiorite orthogneiss (Fig. 40) (Scott 2008; Scott Palin 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a,c). The slightly younger, massi e, biotite hornblende tonalite, granodiorite and granite of the Mouat ( sm), Caroline ( sc) and Pute ete e ( s ) plutons, between lakes anapouri and Poteriteri, were emplaced at 121119 a, slightly later than foliation de elopment in the Refrigerator Orthogneiss (Scott 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a). These three plutons are indistinguishable, and may also be apophyses of a single 100-km-long intrusion. A third phase of Separation Point Suite plutonism in central and southern Fiordland is represented by ner grained, massive, biotite granodiorite,
Figure 40 Coarse- and ne-grained, tonalitic and quartz dioritic phases of Cretaceous Refrigerator Orthogneiss are cut by veins of est Arm Leucogranite, at the mouth of the Oonah Burn in est Arm, Lake Manapouri.

Figure 39 Heterogeneous Mc err Intrusives (Cretaceous, part of estern Fiordland Orthogneiss), east of Looking Glass Bay, north of Caswell Sound. Foliated, hornblendequartz dioritic gneiss is cut by younger biotite leucodiorite, and both are cut by planar veins from a nearby Separation Point Suite granodiorite.

Figure 41 Intrusion breccia formed of pale, massive, Cretaceous est Arm Leucogranite, invading the darker Omaki Orthogneiss ( arly Cretaceous) in the upper Freeman Burn, south of Mt Scott.

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granite, leucogranite and tonalite of the Spot ( so) and Prices ( sp) plutons and West Arm Leucogranite ( sw; 116.3 1.2 a) (Scott Palin 2008; Allibone et al. 2007; Allibone et al. 2009a). nnumerable leucogranite dikes and a wide zone of intrusion breccia ( sw) mark the contacts between West Arm Leucogranite and adjacent gneisses north of Lake anapouri (Fig. 41). Small plugs of leucocratic biotite granitoid ( ut) and composite pegmatite-apliteleucogranite dikes occur throughout central Fiordland, and granodiorite and tonalite ( ug) are present in eastern Fiordland; they are probably also related to this latest phase of Separation Point Suite plutonism. n western Fiordland, Separation Point Suite plutonism is represented by the 118.4 0.7 a Five Fingers ( sg) and Fannin ( sf) plutons on western Resolution sland and south of Dusky Sound respecti ely (Allibone et al. 2007). The Fi e Fingers Pluton comprises ariably foliated biotite hornblende tonalite, quartz diorite, diorite and granodiorite, in places choked with metasedimentary xenoliths. The Fannin Pluton is composed of massi e, leucocratic, biotite granodiorite and granite. Further north, Separation Point Suite granodiorite and monzogranite intrusions ( ut) cut the c err ntrusi es west of eorge Sound, and north of Caswell Sound (Allibone et al. 2009c). Triassic to Cretaceous plutons with no assigned suite afnity The Pomona Island ( yp), Clar Hut ( yc) and ac son Pea s ( y ) granites occur in eastern Fiordland between the rebe alley and epler ountains. They comprise distincti e pink, medium- to coarse-grained, equigranular biotite garnet leucocratic syenogranite with minor leucogranite and monzogranite (Turner 1937; uir et al. 1998; Scott 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a). Dikes of similar compositions cut the urchison and Hunter intrusi es in the urchison ountains. All three plutons contain conspicuous, coarse, perthitic feldspar, not seen in other granitoids in Fiordland. They are also characterised by high Na, K, and high eld strength elements, and low Sr, different from other esozoic plutons (Allibone et al. 2009a). This implies that these three plutons form a distinct suite of A-type granitoids in the eastern edian atholith. Strong foliation and mineral elongation lineation are locally de eloped in the Pomona sland and ackson Peaks granites. The Clark Hut ranite is undeformed, except along its western margin where it is o erprinted by the rebe ylonite one. Outcrops of the Pomona sland ranite adjacent to Cenozoic faults are per asi ely fractured. -Pb zircon dating of the ackson Peaks ranite indicates an emplacement age of 162 3 a ( uir et al. 1998). Samples of Pomona sland ranite ha e yielded -Pb zircon ages of 305.1 3.9 a, 291.5 4.6 a, 155 2 a and 145.6 2.6 a ( imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 1998). Detailed eld work implies that all samples of Pomona Island Granite are from a single body that cuts across Hunter ntrusi es, and a urassic, rather than Carboniferous, emplacement age is preferred (Scott 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a). The Clark

Hut ranite contains zircon dated at ca. 350 a, although it too cuts Hunter ntrusi es. The Carboniferous zircons in the Pomona sland and Clark Hut granites are interpreted as inherited xenocrysts (Allibone et al. 2009a). The 138 2 a Lugar urn Quart Mon onite ( yl) is a small pluton of porphyritic quartz monzonite and biotite granite with abundant dioritic encla es in North Fiord ( ing 1984; uir et al. 1998). The quartz monzonite composition implies a correlation with the Clark Hut, Pomona sland and ackson Peaks granites. The Electric Granite ( ye) at Lake onowai is a small pluton of quartz monzonite, syenogranite and quartz syenite with aegirine, arf edsonite and minor biotite (Tulloch 1992; Turnbull ruski 1995), emplaced at 135 1 a ( imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 1998). The pluton has been extensi ely recrystallised and has a strong southwest-plunging lineation. Although its mineralogy and alkaline chemistry are unique in Fiordland, the quartz monzonite to quartz syenite compositions imply afnity with the Pomona Island, Jackson Peaks, Clark Hut, and Lugar urn plutons. n southwest Fiordland, the 164 1.1 a La e Mi e Granite ( um) forms a large pluton, characteristically de oid of egetation abo e the bushline (Lee et al. 1991; Fig. 42). t comprises coarse-grained, homogeneous, leucocratic biotite granite with minor granodiorite (Ward 1984; Allibone et al. 2007). No other granites with this age or geochemistry are known in western Fiordland. A small area of feldspar porphyry ( uy) at Sand Hill Point on the south coast (Turnbull ruski 1995) is undated, but may be of Cretaceous age as it intrudes adjacent Hunter ntrusi es diorite. t comprises phenocrysts of plagioclase feldspar and rare biotite in a ne-grained, altered matrix. Correlation with the Richards Point Porphyry on Stewart sland (Allibone 1991; Allibone Tulloch 2004) is possible. Plutonic rocks of uncertain age and suite afnity A complex of at least three intermingled generations of plutonic rocks, inseparable at map scale and sometimes at outcrop, extends from western Resolution sland south through the islands of outer Dusky Sound to Chalky nlet. These rocks are mapped as Anchor Island Intrusives (&ua) (Allibone et al. 2007). The oldest and most widespread generation (No ) consists of ariably foliated, medium-grained, equigranular hornblende-biotite quartz monzodiorite, diorite and tonalite of unknown age. These rocks are cut by less mac, biotite-muscovite granite and leucogranite plugs and dikes of generation No , probably generated during partial melting of pelitic country rocks at ca. 115 a (Allibone et al. 2007). A third generation (No ) comprises biotite granodiorite and granite dikes that may be related to the adjacent Fannin Pluton. Rafts and xenoliths of metasedimentary country rocks (Deep Co e neiss) occur throughout the Anchor sland ntrusi es. Further east in Dusky Sound, the Cascade Pluton (&cp) extends from Cascade Co e to western Long sland

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Figure 42 The Jurassic Lake Mike Granite forms characteristic bare tops (upper left) over much of the Dark Cloud Range east of Oho Creek, at the head of dwardson Sound (upper right). The spectacular fold in the foreground is in Burnett Formation (Fanny Bay Group) quartzite. Lake Purser (centre) is dammed by a landslide. Photo CN48270A: D.L. Homer.

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and comprises weakly foliated, locally banded, quartz monzodiorite with subordinate quartz diorite, diorite and granodiorite (Allibone et al. 2007). Conspicuous chlorite and epidote alteration is widespread. Dikes of the Cretaceous rothers and ndian sland plutons cut the Cascade Pluton, but otherwise its age is unconstrained. Some isolated dikes and plugs of diorite and uart diorite (&di) within rothers and other plutons in southwest Fiordland may be related to relatively young mac intrusions such as Tre accoon Diorite (Allibone et al. 2007). n the western urchison ountains, Robin Gneiss ( ur) comprises intercalated amphibolite facies hornblende, biotite and hornblende-biotite gneisses of dioritic composition. t contains xenoliths of hornblendite, gabbro and calc-silicate gneiss, and is intruded by sills of tonalitic orthogneiss and many granitic and tonalitic dikes. Robin neiss underlies the t rene Shear one at t rene (Scott Cooper 2006), but to the north and south is intercalated with Paleozoic metasediments and granitic orthogneisses. Robin neiss contains garnet-bearing leucosomes (Fig. 43), indicating a metamorphic grade higher than in the metasediments abo e the t rene Shear one (Scott 2004; Scott Cooper 2006). Robin neiss was correlated with the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss by Scott (2004) and Scott Cooper (2006), but aspects of its geochemistry suggest it has a different protolith (Allibone et al. 2009c). The unit is undated, and could be as old as Paleozoic. Paleo oic to Meso oic plutonic roc s of the Arthur River Comple neissic plutonic rocks described by lattner (1976, 1978) from northern Fiordland, adjacent to ilford Sound and west of the Arthur Ri er, were named Arthur River Comple by radshaw (1985, 1990). They ha e since been in estigated by Clarke et al. (2000), Tulloch et al. (2000, 2009c), Daczko et al. (2001a,b), Claypool et al. (2002), Hollis et al. (2003), and arcotte et al. (2005). The name is now widely but loosely applied to Paleozoic

and esozoic dioritic, gabbroic and minor granitic orthogneisses, metamorphosed in the Cretaceous to highpressure amphibolite and granulite facies. solated rafts of Paleozoic metasedimentary rock within the complex indicate that it is located in the inboard part of the edian atholith. The complex is intruded by the Worsley Pluton to the south ( radshaw 1990; Daczko et al. 2002b) and separated from the Darran Leucogabbro to the east by the aipo Fault ( lattner 1991), the Selwyn Creek neiss, and the ndecision Creek Shear one ( arcotte et al. 2005). ts western margin is marked by the Anita Shear one (Hill 1995a,b; lepeis et al. 1999). A Cretaceous intrusion age for much of the Arthur Ri er Complex has been postulated from -Pb dating of zircons (e.g. Hollis et al. 2003). Howe er, there are discrete Paleozoic (ca. 356 a) and Cretaceous (130 a) zircon populations, and younger metamorphic o ergrowths on both. A Paleozoic protolith age is considered likely (Tulloch et al. 2000, 2009c), although some parts are probably Cretaceous. The complex is subdi ided into se eral units. The Pembro e Granulite (Cab) north of ilford Sound is an isolated lens of less-deformed, two-pyroxene hornblende granulite facies metadiorite, cut by numerous higher pressure, garnet-clinopyroxene granulite facies reaction zones ( radshaw 1989a; lattner 1976, 2005; Clarke et al. 2000, 2005; Daczko et al. 2001a). Pembroke ranulite is geochemically similar to the enclosing ilford Orthogneiss, but distinct from the younger Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (Clarke et al. 2000; Claypool et al. 2002; Hollis et al. 2003; lattner 2006; Tulloch et al. 2009c). Milford Orthogneiss ( am) contains banded gabbroic, dioritic and quartz dioritic orthogneisses, with subordinate ultramac orthogneiss bodies (Wood 1972; lattner 1991; Tulloch et al. 2000; Hollis et al. 2003; arcotte et al. 2005). The Paleozoic protolith may ha e been part of the Paringa Suite (Tulloch et al. 2009c). Harrison Gneiss ( ah) consists of tightly folded, banded dioritic, tonalitic, quartz dioritic and minor plagioclase-rich gneisses, intercalated with ilford Orthogneiss ( lattner 1991) and cut by numerous leucocratic dikes.

Figure 43 Garnet-bearing leucosomes in quartzofeldspathic Robin Gneiss, east of Mt Irene. They resemble opthalmitic garnetiferous leucosomes in parts of the Arthur River Comple , and within parts of the estern Fiordland Orthogneiss, and the metasedimentary rocks in its contact aureole.

Figure 44 An altered, basaltic Post Ofce Dike in the Anita Shear Zone at Bell Point, north of Sutherland Sound. Mylonitic foliation in the host St Anne Formation dips gently to the right. Large white clasts are individual feldspars, probably from pegmatite dikes.

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Di es Dikes are ubiquitous in the basement rocks of Fiordland and form extensi e swarms around many Paleozoic and Mesozoic plutons. They comprise a signicant part of some heterogeneous units such as the Hunter ntrusi es. Some pegmatite dikes in Doubtful Sound are the youngest edian atholith intrusions in Fiordland, dated between 102.1 1.8 and 88.4 1.2 a ( lepeis et al. 2007; ing et al. 2008). The dikes shown on the map are differentiated only by lithology, although age ranges of indi idual dikes are a ailable from the S database. Dikes are mapped only where they are particularly prominent, or where they o erwhelm metasedimentary country rocks. A swarm of altered but undeformed basalt and andesite dikes cuts the Fi e Fingers Pluton (Lindq ist 1984), and rare examples occur further east in Dusky Sound. These dikes may be related to the basaltic Post Ofce Dikes (Fig. 44) that intrude the Anita Shear one in northern Fiordland (Wood 1972). Neither dike swarm has been dated, but they are probably Late Cretaceous or early Cenozoic in age. Mac dikes that cut basement rocks at Sand Hill Point (Turnbull ruski 1995) are also undated. At present, none of these dikes are included in the edian atholith. urassic to Cretaceous volcano sedimentary roc s associated with the Median atholith Two units of olcanic, olcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks in Eastern Fiordland are inferred to be extrusi e equi alents of Darran Suite plutons. Although petrogenetically related to the edian atholith, they are described here separately. Loch urn Formation ( lb) comprises olcanic, olcaniclastic, and related sedimentary rocks intermittently exposed in eastern Fiordland. This unit unconformably o erlies Carboniferous William ranite in the urchison ountains, and is locally intruded by rocks of the Hunter ntrusi es (Scott et al. 2008). Other contacts are faulted, and the formation is unconformably o erlain by Eocene sedimentary rocks. Loch urn Formation comprises variably foliated andesitic, dacitic and rhyolitic lava ows and dikes, tuff, ignimbrite, olcaniclastic sandstone and conglomerate, and minor mudstone ( ing 1984; Turnbull 1985; Smith 1993; Turnbull ruski 1995; Turnbull 2000; Ewing et al. 2007; Scott et al. 2008). Subordinate conglomeratic units ( lb) are dominated by olcanic clasts but locally include conspicuous granite clasts, commonly spherical and up to boulder size. The matrix is predominantly schistose sandstone or, less commonly, mudstone. The age of the unit extends from 195 a ( imbrough et al. 1994) at North Fiord, to 148 a in the Stuart ountains (Ewing et al. 2007). etamorphic grade ranges from greenschist to amphibolite facies (Scott et al. 2008). n the Earl ountains, andesitic breccia and olcaniclastic sediments, andesitic to dacitic and rhyolitic ows, and hypabyssal andesitic intrusions are mapped as the Largs Group. The group is unfoliated, but o erprinted by prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies metamorphism.

Largs roup is largely subaerial in origin, and has been subdi ided into se eral formations (Williams 1978). Waterfall Tuffs and reccias ( lw) comprise o er half the Largs roup and include andesitic to dacitic pyroclastic rocks, lapilli tuffs, tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone, ne- to coarse-grained volcanic breccia, and andesitic dikes. Nurse Formation ( ln), which comprises felsic pyroclastic rocks and dacitic ows, occupies the crest of the Earl ountains. randywine Andesites ( lb) include feldspar-phyric and aphyric andesite ows, and minor olcaniclastic rocks. Similar andesitic rocks, together with andesitic breccia, form the Murcott urn Andesites ( lm). Pillow la a and amygdaloidal rocks are absent. The urcott urn Andesites may be hypabyssal intrusions, and are Early Cretaceous (140 2 a; ortimer et al. 1999a). enoliths and rafts of microdiorite, metamorphosed to hornblende and pyroxene hornfels facies, occur within istake Diorite in the eastern Darran ountains ( ishop et al. 1990) and are thought to be deri ed from Largs Group ( l) on the basis of oxygen isotope data ( lattner Williams 1991; lattner raham 2000). Alternati ely, they may be correlati es of the nearby Paleozoic Christina neiss xenoliths. Ewing (2003) and Ewing et al. (2007) inferred, on the basis of geochemical similarities, that Largs roup and Loch urn Formation represent the effusi e and eroded olcanic-sedimentary equi alents of Darran Suite plutonic rocks. n the Hunter ountains south of the orland urn, Scott (2008) and Scott et al. (2009a) described a sli er of amphibolite facies, biotite-musco ite-garnet schist and quartzofeldspathic biotite schist a few metres thick. The outcrop, not mappable at 1:250 000 scale, contains detrital zircons ranging from Cambrian to Early urassic in age, with rare older grains. any detrital zircons ha e Late urassic to Early Cretaceous metamorphic rims, constraining the depositional age of these schists between 176 and 145 a ( iddle to Late urassic). CRETACEOUS SEDIMENTARY ROC S Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Puysegur Group ( p) are mapped around Preser ation nlet, at the northern margin of the mainly offshore alleny asin (Lindq ist 1975; ishop 1986; Turnbull et al. 1993). The Puysegur roup has been described and interpreted in detail by Carter Lindq ist (1975) and Pocknall Lindq ist (1988). t is of latest Early Cretaceous age, and unconformably o erlies Paleozoic and Early Cretaceous basement rocks. A thick basal conglomerate (Seek Co e Formation) around Welcome ay in Preser ation nlet is dominated by clasts of porphyritic olcanics with rare ignimbrite (Pocknall Lindq ist 1988). The o erlying Windsor Formation extends between ulches Head, Puysegur Point (Fig. 45) and ates Harbour. t is dominated by graded sandstone and siltstone beds, with subordinate mudstone and rare conglomerate. Cross-bedded, feldspathic sandstone occurs at Coal sland, and sparse coalied wood fragments and trace fossils occur throughout. Puysegur roup was deposited in deltaic and lacustrine en ironments. Seismic data show that Cretaceous

43

sedimentary rocks extend offshore to the Puysegur ank and the deeper parts of the alleny asin (Turnbull et al. 1993; Sutherland et al. 2006b; Fig. 46). Cretaceous sedimentary rocks may ha e extended o er southeast Fiordland before mid-Cenozoic uplift, as recycled Late Cretaceous pollen occurs in westerly-deri ed, latest Eocene sandstone at Lake onowai (Pocknall Turnbull 1992). EOCENE TO PLIOCENE SEDIMENTARY ROC S n iddle Eocene time, thick sequences of non-marine and marine rocks began accumulating in sedimentary basins on the eastern and southern margins of Fiordland. Late Cenozoic faulting has since disrupted and offset these basins along major faults such as the oonlight and Hollyford fault systems (Norris et al. 1978; Turnbull et al. 1993; Sutherland elhuish 2000; Lebrun et al. 2003). Eocene to iocene sedimentary rocks are also present in South Westland and northwest of the Alpine Fault in northern Fiordland, and an infaulted Pliocene sequence occurs on Fi e Fingers Peninsula (Wellman 1954; Turnbull et al. 1985). Se eral groups and many formations are mapped within the Cenozoic sedimentary basins (Fig. 46), with the marine units in particular ha ing complex lateral and ertical relationships. There are numerous folds within the Cenozoic rocks, and basin margins are often complexly faulted. oth local and regional unconformities are known. Eocene to iocene rocks in the Te Anau and northern Waiau basins ha e been buried to as deep as 8 km, and

contain metamorphic zeolites (Landis 1974; Watters Turnbull 1996; an ille 1997). Te Anau asin The Te Anau asin sedimentary sequence comprises two groups: the largely non-marine, Eocene Annick roup, and the marine, Oligocene to iocene Waiau roup. The latter is o erlain by the non-marine Late iocene to Pliocene Prospect Formation. Only part of the Te Anau asin lies within the Fiordland map area. Te Anau Basin Eocene sedimentary rocks n northern Fiordland, undifferentiated Annic Group (Ea) conglomerate, sandstone, carbonaceous mudstone and rare coal are locally infaulted along the Hollyford Fault System. n the northern Te Anau asin, the iddle to Late Eocene Sandy Formation (Eas; Turnbull 1985) includes uvial, pebbly to bouldery conglomerate and breccia (Fig. 47A), with rare coalied logs. This locally derived basal sequence lls paleo-relief on basement or abuts syn-depositional fault scarps, and shows rapid lateral thickness changes. O erlying deltaic and shallow marine conglomerate, cross-bedded sandstone, and graded marine sandstone and mudstone sequences containing boulder breccia olistostromes, locally reach 3000 m in thickness (Turnbull 1991, 1992). A thinner sequence, recording rapid changes from bouldery scree to alluvial channel then ood

Figure 45 Southeast-dipping graded lacustrine sandstones of the mid-Cretaceous Puysegur Group at the type locality of Puysegur Point, southwest Fiordland. The prominent at surface is an uplifted 120 000-year-old marine terrace, with older, higher terraces behind. The outcrops in the middle distance are of ocene Macnamara Formation of the Balleny Group, with indsor Point in the far right distance. Photo: .L. rn ll.

44

WESTLAND BASIN
mMt Tititira Fmn Oa Awarua Fmn Oj Jackson Fmn
mMt Oa MARTINS BAY Oj

^p

TE ANAU BASIN
^p Oww Owt Ows Eaa Eas Prospect Fmn Waicoe Fmn Turret Pks Fmn Stuart Fmn Earl Mtns Sandstone Sandfly Fmn

E IN P LT L A AU F

Oww Owt Ows NORTH FIORD Eaa Eas

MID

DL FA E FIO UL R T D

Eastern Fiordland shelf


M

b MONOWAI RIVER p w L MANAPOURI ^p Mwd Mwm

MONOWAI SUB-BASIN
O

Mwb Oww lOw Owp Owh Owa

Borland Fmn Waicoe Fmn Tunnel Burn Fmn Point Burn Fmn Hope Arm Fmn Kaherekoau Fmn
lO w

Oww

h O w

Mwb

^p Mwd Mwm Mwb Oww lOw Owa

Prospect Fmn Duncraigen Fmn Monowai Fmn Borland Fmn Waicoe Fmn Tunnel Burn Fmn Kaherekoau Fmn

p L HAUROKO O w

K O R LT U A U H FA

lOw

Owa

WAIAU BASIN
^wt Mwa Mwh Mwp Mwc Mwv Oww Owb Owu Eh Es Te Waewae Fmn Rowallan Sandstone Goldie Hill Fmn Port Craig Fmn Clifden Subgroup McIvor Fmn Waicoe Fmn Blackmount Fmn Hauroko Fmn Hump Ridge Fmn Sand Hill Point Fmn

Owb

Oww HILL

C BLA

U MO

NT

FA

ULT
^wt Mwh

Mwa Oww Mwc

HUMP RIDGE

Mwv Oww Owu

PUYSEGUR POINT

Obc

Obg

^w HELMET

Eb Ebm Kp

RIVER

K O R T U UL A H FA

ES T FA HU UL MP T

WESTLAND BASIN

YFOR HOLL

Eh

Es

Mwp
PI N E U FA LT

ULT D FA

^wr

AL

Mwg Own WAIRAURAHIRI Mwo Oww Mwk


M RD O FI E LT DL U ID FA

BALLENY BASIN
Obc Obg Ebm Eb Kp Chalky Island Fmn Green Islets breccia Macnamara Fmn Balleny Gp (undifferentiated) Puysegur Gp

Owa

TE ANAU BASIN

SOLANDER BASIN
(WAITUTU SUB-BASIN) ^wr Mwg Mwo Mwk Oww Own (Owa Wairaurahiri Fmn Crombie Conglomerate Waikakapo Fmn Kokopu Limestone Waicoe Fmn Knife & Steel Fmn Kaherekoau Fmn)
S DU KY U FA LT

MONOWAI SUB-BASIN

Eastern Fiordland shelf sequence WAITUTU SUB-BASIN Major Cenozoic faults east of the Alpine Fault BALLENY BASIN
O K

UN O M CK LT A U BL FA

WAIAU BASIN

WE ST

FA U

Unconformities

LT

Colours indicate groups: Waiau Balleny Annick Puysegur ungrouped units

Volcanic centres
H A

SOLANDER BASIN HAUTERE SUB-BASIN

HU MP

LT

LT FA U

Figure 46 Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, sub-basins, and lithostratigraphic nomenclature in the Fiordland area. Colours correspond to units shown on the map face the formations are also keyed to groups by colour. After rn ll r s i 1995.

LO

FA

45

B B
Figure 47 ocene sedimentary rocks in the Te Anau Basin. A: Westward-dipping Sandy Formation forms a cuesta, or sloping mesa (centre) in the southern Earl Mountains. Zeolitised sandstone forms a hard cap over loose lithic conglomerate which is eroding away to form the cliffs (in shadow). The conglomerate rests unconformably on arly Cretaceous Largs Group volcanic rocks. Clasts weathered out from arl Mountains Sandstone conglomerate litter the foreground. In the background is the orsley Arm of Lake Te Anau. Photo CN4720B: D.L. Homer. B: Cross-laminated carbonaceous sandstone typical of the arl Mountains Sandstone, between the Loch Burn and Mid Burn, Stuart Mountains. The sandstone is erosively truncated by sandy conglomerate (arrowed, top). The dark band below the arrows is carbonaceous siltstone. Photo: G.H. Browne.

46

B
Figure 48 astern Fiordland shelf sequence rocks A: This eastward-dipping, locally derived quartzose sandstone with large granodiorite clasts is a fossil scree deposit within the Oligocene Point Burn Formation. Dark bands are paleosols. The scree lies unconformably over Titiroa Granodiorite, west of Mt Titiroa. This face is about 50 m high. B: Bluffs of Tunnel Burn Formation bioclastic limestone above the South Branch of the Borland Burn, seen from the Borland Road. The bluffs are about 100 m high. In the upper right distance, granodiorite tors protrude above the bush on the western slopes of Mt Titiroa.

47

Figure 49 Oligocene sedimentary rocks in eastern Fiordland. A: Massive, carbonaceous mudstone of the Oligocene Stuart Formation on the Lake Te Anau shoreline south of the Billy Burn. The yellow staining is associated with a sulphurous spring. The hydrocarbon-bearing mudstone is a potential source rock deeper in the Te Anau Basin. B: Graded sandstone of the Oligocene Turret Peaks Formation ( aiau Group) forms the high bluffs of the eastern Stuart Mountains (upper left). Trough cross-bedded sandstone of the Stuart Formation ( aiau Group) forms the lower, nearer ridge (left). ocene arl Mountains Sandstone (Annick Group) underlies the partly shadowed slopes at lower right and forms the foreground outcrops. These three formations are condensed from several thousand metres in thickness to only a few hundred metres on the islands in Middle Fiord of Lake Te Anau beyond, and are absent further south, across the Middle Fiord Fault. Late Oligocene Tunnel Burn Formation ( aiau Group) forms the smooth left-dipping bush-clad skyline on the distant Murchison Mountains (centre), where it rests on Takahe Granodiorite. Photo CN4730: D.L. Homer.

B
plain and shallow marine en ironments, is preser ed on islands in iddle Fiord. The basin-wide, Late Eocene Earl Mountains Sandstone (Eaa; Turnbull 1985,1986a) conformably overlies Sandy Formation or rests on basement. t is dominated by crossbedded (Fig. 47B) and channel-lling sandstone, and includes subordinate carbonaceous mudstone and rare coal seams. Channels lled by coarse conglomerate (Eaa) are also mapped. Earl ountains Sandstone detritus includes locally deri ed granite, exotic granites with no known correlati es in Fiordland, and metasedimentary rocks including slate and quartzite. Paleocurrent data suggest deri ation from the north to northwest, possibly from west of the Alpine Fault in north Westland. Earl ountains Sandstone reects regional subsidence and formation of an extensive uvial system extending from north of Fiordland, southward across the Te Anau asin (Turnbull et al. 1993; ink 2000).

48

n the onowai Sub-basin, a southward extension of the main Te Anau asin, the Late Eocene to earliest Oligocene Hope Arm Formation (Owh) at Lake anapouri is a correlati e of the Earl ountains Sandstone (Clarke 1978; Turnbull et al. 1993; ink 2000; ink Norris 2004), although slightly younger. asal conglomerate is well exposed around the anapouri shoreline, unconformably o erlying Hunter ntrusi es. Clasts are mostly granite deri ed from the west, with some boulders up to 5 m in diameter; gabbroic clasts predominate north of the lake. The conglomerate is o erlain by sandstone and minor carbonaceous mudstone (Owh). Thin coal seams with t tree stumps occur in the ris urn. Hope Arm Formation accumulated in proximal alluvial fan and uvial en ironments, in a paleo- alley in the northwest part of the onowai Sub-basin. Te Anau Basin Oligocene to Pliocene marine sedimentary rocks The Waiau roup conformably o erlies Annick roup in the northern and central Te Anau asin, and extends south into the onowai Sub-basin (Fig. 46). Waiau roup rocks represent two depositional settings: a shallow marine shelf over eastern Fiordland, on the western ank of the basin; and submarine fans and fan deltas inlling the main basin. A background, deep-water facies of massi e, calcareous mudstone, the Waicoe Formation (Oww), occurs throughout. It overlies and interngers with submarine fan sandstone deposits. Waicoe Formation ranges in age from Oligocene at the basin margins, to iddle iocene in the central Te Anau asin. The eastern Fiordland shelf sequence rests unconformably on basement rocks. The oldest rocks are thin and discontinuous breccia, conglomerate and sandstone of the Point urn Formation (Owp; Fig. 48A). The formation is locally much thicker in deep paleo- alleys, such as west of the north orland urn. Point urn Formation becomes more calcareous upward and grades into the o erlying Tunnel urn Formation (lOw) (Fig. 48 ). This unit comprises a massi e to cross-bedded, bioclastic limestone blanket, extending discontinuously from iddle Fiord of Lake Te Anau south to western Lake Hauroko, where it is hard and recrystallised. Where Point urn Formation is absent, Tunnel urn limestone rests on basement o er paleo-highs such as t Luxmore (Lee et al. 1983). The upper contact with Waicoe Formation is conformable, except where a local Late Oligocene unconformity inter enes (Carter et al. 1982). Northwest of Lake Te Anau, the Stuart Formation (Ows) rests conformably on Annick roup, and consists of massi e, marine mudstone (Fig. 49A), and cross-bedded and graded sandstone. The mudstone is carbonaceous and locally hydrocarbon-bearing (Turnbull et al. 1993; ink 2000). The conformably o erlying Oligocene to iddle iocene Turret Pea s Formation (Owt; Fig. 49 ) comprises massi e to graded sandstone, which becomes thinner bedded and muddier upward to grade into background Waicoe Formation. Rare conglomerate

and trough cross-bedded sandstone members are mapped in the Stuart and Earl mountains. The formation represents a single southward-building submarine fan with Fiordland pro enance (Turnbull 1985; ink 2000). n the onowai Sub-basin, the Early Oligocene ahere oau Formation (Owa) consists of Fiordlandderi ed breccia and coarse conglomerate, o erlain by massi e to graded sandstone, which is in turn o erlain gradationally by Waicoe Formation mudstone. The formation is interpreted as a large submarine fan complex (Turnbull et al. 1989). The sandstone locally laps onto upstanding buried reefs of diorite ( d; see Turnbull Uruski 1995, g. 36). The upper Kaherekoau Formation locally includes sandy, graded, bioclastic limestone (Owa) (Fig. 46), possibly an eastern, redeposited equi alent of the Tunnel urn Formation (Turnbull ruski 1995; Carter Norris 2005). The distincti e hea y minerals aegerine and arf edsonite indicate local deri ation from the Electric ranite at Lake onowai (Constantine 1988). West of the Hauroko Fault at Lake Hauroko, the formation apparently lls a large paleo-valley eroded into basement rocks, and is o erlain by partly recrystallised limestone, probably Tunnel urn Formation (Turnbull ruski 1995). Higher in the onowai Sub-basin sequence, the iocene orland Formation (Mwb) is another submarine fan sequence consisting of northerly- and westerly-deri ed,

Figure 50 Parallel-laminated to cross-bedded Hump Ridge Formation sandstone forms tors on southern Hump Ridge. The sandstone is quartzofeldspathic and macrofossiliferous.

49

graded sandstone and mudstone (Carter Norris 1977a, 2005). t is o erlain by iddle iocene conglomerate and pebbly mudstone, sandy conglomerate, and interbedded sandstone and mudstone of the Monowai Formation (Mwm). onowai Formation is largely deri ed from Caples terrane rocks lying northeast of the Te Anau asin, and is interpreted as a shallow marine delta-top and deltaslope deposit, with signicant redeposition by submarine slumping (Carter Norris 1977b). n the later iddle iocene the Duncraigen Formation (Mwd), another submarine fan sequence of graded and commonly slumpfolded, thin-bedded sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and rare conglomerate, was deposited in the deepening onowai Sub-basin. Te Anau Basin Late Miocene to Pliocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks n the Te Anau asin, the Waiau roup marine sequence is truncated by the widespread Late iocene to Early Pliocene Prospect Formation (^p; c ellar 1973a; an ille 1996; Turnbull 2000). Within the Fiordland map area, the formation erosi ely o erlies Duncraigen Formation with low-amplitude channels cutting laminated siltstone.

The channels are lled by cross-bedded sandstone, in turn erosi ely o erlain by massi e to thick-bedded, sandy conglomerate (see Manville 1996, g. 6) with rare lignite. Fiordland-deri ed clasts predominate o er Caples terrane material, reecting the uplift and erosion of Fiordland west of the Te Anau asin in the Late iocene to Pliocene. Waiau asin n the Fiordland map area, the Waiau asin includes nonmarine (Eocene) and marine (Oligocene to Pliocene) sedimentary sequences of the Waiau roup. Eocene rocks are time-equi alent to the Nightcaps Group (En) of the eastern Waiau asin (Wood 1969; Turnbull et al. 1993; Turnbull Allibone 2003). This group, shown only on cross section C-C, comprises quartzofeldspathic sandstone with minor carbonaceous mudstone and thin coal seams, o erlain by non-marine carbonaceous mudstone. The o erlying, marine Waiau roup sequence is interrupted by se eral unconformities. Although the Waiau asin sequence is up to 8 km thick adjacent to the lackmount Fault, zeolitisation is less apparent than in the Te Anau asin.

Figure 51 Limestone and sandstone of the Middle Miocene Clifden Subgroup form the scarp of Helmet Hill, east of Hump Ridge. Strike ridges beyond (toward upper left) are formed in Pliocene Te aewae Formation mudstone, sandstone and shellbeds. Photo CN26902/22: D.L. Homer.

50

Waiau Basin Eocene sedimentary rocks Eocene sedimentary rocks are mapped on Hump Ridge in the western Waiau asin. The oldest are red-weathering breccia, conglomerate and rare sandstone of the Sand Hill Point Formation (Es) at the southern end of the ridge (Wood 1969; Turnbull ruski 1995). This unit is interpreted as a locally derived scree to proximal uvial deposit. Clasts include schist and olcanic rocks, possibly from the underlying Loch urn Formation (Turnbull ruski 1995; Scott et al. 2008), as well as diorite and granite. Sand Hill Point Formation is conformably o erlain by Hump Ridge Formation (Eh), which includes conglomerate with granitic clasts, o erlain by planar and cross-bedded, pebbly, quartzofeldspathic sandstone with macrofossil fragments (Fig. 50), and by further conglomerate. On the west ank of Hump Ridge, the fossiliferous sandstone grades laterally into sandy limestone (Eh). The formation represents a uvial environment, grading upward into

deltaic then shallow marine conditions. t is largely deri ed from Fiordland, although a minor component of dacitic olcanic clasts has no known source. Waiau Basin Oligocene to Pliocene marine sedimentary rocks Within the map area, the Waiau asin is dominated by deepwater Waicoe Formation mudstone (Oww). This massi e, calcareous mudstone is locally concretionary, and encloses isolated graded sandstone bodies. n the northeast it o erlies a fault-bounded sli er of westerly-deri ed graded sandstone and mudstone of the Oligocene lac mount Formation (Owb), a submarine fan sequence which probably extends at depth south towards Lake Hauroko (Turnbull et al. 2003; Carter Norris 2005). The Hauro o Formation (Owu) underlies most of eastern and northern Hump Ridge, and rests on Hump Ridge Formation in the south. Hauroko Formation mainly comprises a ning-upward submarine fan

Figure 52 Bivalves, sparse brachiopods, and barnacles (larger grey fossils) in a Late Miocene Port Craig Formation shellbed on the shoreline north of Port Craig, Te aewae Bay.

Figure 53 A coastal arch eroded into interbedded sandstone and mudstone of the Late Miocene nife and Steel Formation, near Long Point on the south coast. The formation is truncated by a Late Quaternary marine erosion surface which is overlain by gravel, sand and peat. The dark vertical streaks at right are stained by peaty groundwater.

51

sequence of Oligocene graded sandstone and mudstone, with conglomerate in large channels. t includes a non-marine to shallow marine sequence of bouldery conglomerate, pebbly sandstone, rare carbonaceous mudstone and coal, and bioturbated laminated sandstone on the Lake Hauroko shoreline (see Turnbull & Uruski 1995, gs 20 and 21). Hauroko Formation is conformably o erlain by Waicoe Formation in the north, but towards Port Craig in the south it is progressi ely more uplifted, eroded and truncated by a late iddle iocene unconformity (Wood 1969; Turnbull ruski 1995; c urtrie 1996). Northeast from Lake Hauroko, graded bioclastic limestone and interbedded calcareous mudstone are mapped as the iocene McIvor Formation (Mwv), which is isolated within Waicoe Formation mudstone. c or Formation is the down-basin extension of a large submarine fan that originated from a shallow shelf in the eastern Waiau asin (Carter Norris 1977a; Turnbull et al. 1993; Turnbull Allibone 2003; Carter Norris 2005). n the Late Oligocene to iddle iocene, this shelf extended southwestward across the Waiau asin as far as Helmet Hill (Fig. 51) where sandstone and o erlying sandy bioclastic limestone are mapped as Clifden Subgroup (Mwc). The limestone is truncated by an unconformity and is o erlain either by slightly younger (late iddle iocene) graded, sandy to pebbly limestone and siltstone of the Goldie Hill Formation (Mwh), or by the ery shallow marine Pliocene Te Waewae Formation (see below).

assi e sandstone with minor shellbeds of the Late iocene Rowallan Sandstone (Mwa) is a lateral equi alent of oldie Hill Formation to the southwest (Turnbull ruski 1995). Rowallan Sandstone may also be laterally equi alent to the Port Craig Formation (Mwp), mapped from Port Craig north to the Waikoau Ri er. At Port Craig, this unit rests on Hunter ntrusi es gabbro and consists of conglomerate, bioclastic pebbly limestone and sandy shellbeds (Fig. 52). Port Craig Formation becomes sandier and extends northeastward, abo e the unconformity o er Hauroko Formation, toward the Waikoau Ri er where it rests on Waicoe Formation. Port Craig Formation is in turn conformably o erlain by Te Waewae Formation (^wt), which also o erlies Rowallan Sandstone, with local unconformity (Wood 1969; Turnbull et al. 1993). Te Waewae Formation comprises thinly interbedded, laminated siltstone and sandstone, locally cross-bedded and containing shellbeds and conglomerate. t co ers much of the Rowallan urn catchment and forms the cliffs backing Te Waewae ay. The Late iocene to Pliocene part of the Waiau roup was deposited in relati ely sheltered shallow marine conditions, perhaps protected by Hump Ridge to the southwest (Turnbull et al. 1993). Hump Ridge began rising in the iddle iocene, creating an erosion surface which successi ely truncated Waicoe, Hauroko and Hump Ridge formations. Port Craig Formation rests upon the resulting unconformity.
Figure 54 (Left) Coarse conglomerate with large, rounded granite clasts at the base of the ocene Macnamara Formation forms an offshore stack at Long Reef, southwestern Fiordland. Note gure for scale.

Figure 55 (right) Chalky Island lies at the entrance to Chalky Inlet. Folded, marly limestone of the Oligocene Chalky Island Formation, Balleny Group, forms the prominent white cliffs at right. Older Oligocene Balleny Group sandstone and conglomerate form the offshore stacks in the foreground, and the peninsula on the left, where they rest on Cretaceous Red Head Pluton granite. The at top of the island is a raised marine erosion surface. Gulches Head, formed of Cretaceous Puysegur Group conglomerate, is at upper left. Photo CN48072: D.L. Homer.

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Solander Basin This basin lies mostly offshore, and is divided by the central Solander Ridge into the Waitutu and Hautere sub-basins (Turnbull et al. 1993). Only the Waitutu Subbasin extends onshore, where it contains an Oligocene to Pliocene sequence different from the Monowai Sub-basin and Waiau and Balleny basins (Turnbull et al. 1989, 1993; Turnbull & Uruski 1995; Fig. 46). The oldest onshore rocks, southwest of Lake Poteriteri, are tentatively correlated with the Kaherekoau Formation (Owa). They comprise sandy, pebble to cobble conglomerate with rare carbonaceous mudstone and coalied wood. In addition to plutonic and gneissic clasts, pebbles of dacitic volcanic rocks with unknown provenance are present. The overlying Knife and Steel Formation (Own) consists of characteristic pebbly to bouldery mudstone, massive mudstone, and interbedded graded sandstone and mudstone units up to 30 m thick. Clasts in bouldery mudstone include both Fiordland-derived plutonic rocks and locally derived mudstone blocks; the sandstone packets are often slumpfolded. Recrystallised, pebbly to sandy, graded bioclastic limestone with Fiordland-derived clasts (Owl) occurs at Lake Poteriteri and beside the Hauroko Fault on the south coast (Bishop 1986; Turnbull & Uruski 1995; Fig. 53). Knife and Steel Formation, of Late Oligocene to Late Miocene age, is interpreted as largely redeposited on a deep marine, east-facing slope. It grades eastward, under the Waitutu Forest, into predominantly massive, calcareous mudstone of the Waicoe Formation (Oww), which forms a continuous 3000-m-thick section, exposed in the banks of the Wairaurahiri River (Turnbull 1992). Waicoe Formation mudstone in the Waitutu Sub-basin is Early to Late Miocene in age and is interpreted as a deep marine basin deposit. Waicoe Formation encloses several graded sandstone sequences, interpreted as submarine fan units, and a large channel ll. The Kokopu Limestone (Mwk) of latest Oligocene to Early Miocene age, includes sandstone, sandy limestone and rare breccia-bearing limestone. Sedimentary structures and locally derived clasts of Loch Burn

Formation lithologies in the breccia indicate an eastern source, perhaps from a southern extension of Hump Ridge (Turnbull & Uruski 1995). Waikakapo Formation (Mwo; Turnbull & Uruski 1995) comprises graded sandstone and mudstone, distinctive ridge-forming conglomerate, and lenses of breccia-conglomerate. Clasts include rare schist and volcanic rocks, and Fiordland-derived granite, mac gneiss, quartzite and hornfels. Another submarine fan is mapped as graded sandstone and mudstone (Oww). The Middle Miocene Crombie Conglomerate (Mwg) is enclosed within the Waicoe and Knife and Steel formations in the central Waitutu Sub-basin. It consists of sandy, pebble to cobble conglomerate and pebbly sandstone, and lls a channel eroded into mudstone (Turnbull & Uruski 1995). The clasts are distinctively coloured sandstone, derived from the Caples terrane. A possible correlative was intersected in the offshore exploration well Solander-1 (Renton 1986; Turnbull et al. 1993). The Crombie Conglomerate may be a distal equivalent of the Monowai Formation. The youngest rocks in the onshore Waitutu Sub-basin are Late Miocene to Pliocene, fossiliferous siltstone, pebbly mudstone, conglomerate, sandstone, and rare shellbeds that are mapped as Wairaurahiri Formation (^wr; Turnbull & Uruski 1995). Clasts are entirely derived from the west (Fiordland). Well-sorted, unconsolidated, bioturbated sand, with macrofossils characteristic of shallow marine conditions, occurs toward the top of the unit. The formation underlies the upper reaches of the Wairaurahiri valley between Lake Hauroko and Lake Poteriteri, and rests unconformably on granite between strands of the Hauroko Fault. It is overlain unconformably by Quaternary deposits. Wairaurahiri Formation represents depositional environments ranging from bathyal basin ll, through steep slopes with debris ows on proximal submarine fans, to intertidal shelf. Balleny Basin The Balleny Basin includes Eocene to Oligocene, nonmarine and marine sedimentary rocks of the Balleny

53

roup, and is restricted to the area west of the Hauroko Fault in southern Fiordland. The youngest onshore alleny roup rocks are latest Early Oligocene (Lindq ist 1990), but the group is younger offshore (Turnbull et al. 1993). alleny roup rocks are gently folded and interrupted by numerous faults. Balleny Basin Eocene sedimentary rocks Eocene alleny roup rocks rest unconformably on either Puysegur roup (Lindq ist Ritchie 1982), or Paleozoic and esozoic granites and metasediments, from Chalky sland eastward. Macnamara Formation (Ebm) comprises basal conglomerate (Fig. 54) and pebbly sandstone, o erlain by sandstone, carbonaceous mudstone and rare coal, and an upper unit of carbonaceous mudstone and sandstone (Ebm; ishop 1986; Lindq ist Turnbull 1987; Lindq ist 1990). The formation represents a transition from allu ial fan, through allu ial plain to shallow marine near-

shore en ironments (Lindq ist 1990). t is unconformably o erlain by the Chalky sland Formation (see below) as far east as ig Ri er. Balleny Basin Oligocene sedimentary rocks At Chalky sland (Fig. 55), a complex sequence that is indi isible at 1:250 000 scale is mapped as undifferentiated alleny Group (Eb). This sequence includes acnamara Formation and se eral other formations of granitic breccia, channelised sandstone, and mudstone, o erlain by graded sandstone (Carter Lindq ist 1975; Lindq ist 1975, 1990). These rocks represent submarine channel en ironments, marginal to the deep marine basin represented by the o erlying Chal y Island Formation (Obc; Lindq ist 1990). Chalky sland Formation consists of thin-bedded, ne-grained, nannofossil limestone or marl, with rare thin cherts. ntercalated channel sandstone deposits occur at ates Harbour and ig Ri er (Lindq ist Turnbull 1987).

Figure 56 Steeply southward-dipping marly limestone of Chalky Island Formation (right) forms a wave-cut platform west of Green Islets Peninsula. It contains thin beds of diorite breccia, precursors to the massive inux of coarse Early Oligocene breccia that forms the cliff.

Figure 57 Locally derived clasts of granite, diorite, granulitic gneiss and schist, and rip-up clasts of carbonaceous mudstone, in Pliocene conglomerate at Five Fingers Peninsula.

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At reen slets, a submarine landslide is intercalated with Chalky sland Formation (Fig. 56). This breccia deposit (Obg) consists of blocks, up to 2 m across, of locally deri ed granite, diorite, hornfels, mac gneiss and amphibolite in a marly matrix reworked from Chalky sland Formation ( ishop Howell 1985). Plio Pleistocene non marine and marine sedimentary roc s An infaulted sli er of sedimentary rocks (^wf) occurs at Fi e Fingers Peninsula on Resolution sland (Wellman 1954). This isolated outlier, largely obscured by a landslide, consists of conglomerate (Fig. 57), carbonaceous mudstone, and lignite, o erlain by well-sorted, soft, fossiliferous sandstone and mudstone (Turnbull et al. 1985). The rocks are Late Pliocene to early Pleistocene in age, and indicate rapid subsidence from uvial through beach to shallow marine shelf conditions along the Fi e Fingers and Two Fingers faults. Clast composition and sandstone petrography (Reed Wellman 1954) indicate local deri ation from the Fi e Fingers Pluton and intercalated schist, and from Resolution Orthogneiss. South Westland Northwest of the Alpine Fault in South Westland, the Late Eocene to Late Oligocene ac son Formation (O ) consists of sheared, calcareous mudstone and micritic limestone

with stylolitic foliation parallel to bedding (see Turnbull 2000, g. 26A), and abundant secondary calcite veins. The limestone forms headlands and reefs from rig Rock to artins ay (Fig. 14). ackson Formation was emplaced both into and abo e the iddle to Late iocene Tititira Formation as allochthons, olistoliths, or fault repetitions, in late Cenozoic time (Sutherland et al. 1996). Late Oligocene to Early iocene Awarua Limestone (Oa), a hard, bioclastic to micritic, bryozoan limestone with a basal conglomeratic and or sandy facies, rests unconformably on reenland roup at the base of a westward-dipping homoclinal sequence (Nathan 1978; Sutherland et al. 1996). The limestone is unconformably o erlain by the iddle to Late iocene Tititira Formation (mMt), comprising mudstone o erlain by graded sandstone and mudstone, and conglomerate interbedded with sandstone. Tititira Formation is deri ed from reenland roup and granitic rocks, with some debris from east of the Alpine Fault (Sutherland 1995b). n the aipo alley, an infaulted sli er of Tititira Formation includes olcanic rocks. arine erosion in Pliocene time truncated Awarua Limestone, Titirira Formation, the structurally o erlying but older ackson Formation, and the reenland roup beneath (Nathan 1978; Sutherland 1994; Sutherland et al. 1995). The resulting unconformity is now uplifted and preser ed beneath gently tilted Quaternary deposits in the Wolff Ri er catchment (Turnbull 2000).

Figure 58 Fossiliferous siltstone of the Middle Quaternary isbee Formation, in the ilson River, comprises interbedded massive and laminated units. The dropstones are locally derived Revolver Pluton granite, and some bear glacial striations.

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QUATERNARY Extensi e Quaternary deposits are present in the Waiau and Te Anau basins and southern Fiordland, but elsewhere Quaternary deposits are largely restricted to valley oors. Earlier workers differentiated and named formations and terrace le els (e.g. Wood 1960a, 1966; c ellar 1973a; ishop 1986; Turnbull ruski 1995), but here Quaternary deposits are subdi ided in terms of age and depositional en ironment, and labelled in terms of their interpreted Oxygen Isotope (OI) stage prexed by Q, with a letter code and or o erprint for en ironment. Quaternary deposits rest unconformably on older rocks, and direct age control is limited. ased on -Th dating of speleothems in the Aurora Ca e system, Williams (1996) assigned ages to some glacial ad ances and deposits of the Te Anau asin. Some 14C age determinations are a ailable for younger post-glacial deposits (e.g. Pickrill et al. 1992). Ages of deposits elsewhere ha e been assigned from geomorphic correlation with the Te Anau asin sequence, from degree of weathering and preser ation of landforms,

and by counting back through glacial e ents. Although deposits are assigned a specic OI stage (e.g. Q4a) on the map face, the ages recorded in the GIS database reect their uncertainty (e.g. Q26). ndifferentiated deposits of inferred iddle Quaternary (mQ) and Early Quaternary (eQ) age are also mapped. Early Quaternary deposits Till (eQt) of inferred Early Quaternary age is mapped south of Lake Poteriteri, on Treble ountain near Dusky Sound, and more extensi ely west of the Alpine Fault on the Wolff Ri er tableland (Fig. 14). The Poteriteri till comprises Fiordland-deri ed bouldery sand and sandy gra el with distorted bedding and rare carbonaceous silt (Turnbull & Uruski 1995). It retains modied lateral moraine topography but is generally poorly exposed. Dissected, weakly weathered outwash gra el deposits (eQa) occur immediately to the south. The Wolff Ri er tills, which include locally deri ed reenland roup clasts as well as Fiordland-derived gneiss and rare Anita Ultramates,

Figure 59 A prominent lateral moraine ridge marks the southern margin of a Quaternary advance of the Dusky glacier in Dusky Sound, seen here looking east toward Cascade Cove (upper centre, partly concealed) and the akapo Range. The moraine ridge curves around to the south (right), where a difuent tongue of the glacier diverged into Cascade Cove. The pale ground at right, with tussock areas, is an old and degraded Quaternary raised marine terrace. The Dusky Fault follows Dusky Sound into the upper left distance. Photo CN48355A: D.L. Homer.

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o erlie Pleistocene marine fossiliferous silt (eQm) with dropstones (Turnbull 2000). These tills may be as young as mid-Quaternary, although a greater age is likely if uplift rates are lower toward the coast (Sutherland Norris 1995; Sutherland et al. 1995). Kisbee Formation The isbee Formation (eQi) consists of fossiliferous mudstone, gra el and till in the Wilson Ri er gorge east of Puysegur Point (Turnbull et al. 2007). The formation o erlies a rugged surface on Preser ation Formation within the gorge, and probably once extended further down the Wilson Ri er. t was deposited within a preexisting submarine alley during a glacial period when the Puysegur area was still below sea le el. Dropstones in the mudstone (Fig. 58) indicate the presence of oating ice abo e. acrofossil and nannofossil faunas suggest deep, quiet, and ery cold water conditions, and an age between 1.2 and 0.5 million years. Middle Quaternary deposits Scattered, high-le el till remnants, composed of Fiordlandderi ed, fresh to weakly weathered, sandy to bouldery gra el (Q t, Q t) are tentati ely assigned to se eral isotope stages and are mapped from Lake anapouri to Lake Hauroko. Terrace remnants of similar or slightly older age (mQa, Q a), underlain by outwash gra els of Fiordland-deri ed rocks, are mapped downstream of Lake onowai and the eastern arm of Lake Hauroko (Fitzharris

1967; Turnbull ruski 1995; Turnbull Allibone 2003; Carter Norris 2005). Terrace remnants on Paddock Hill, southeast of anapouri, consists of weathered, clayey sand and gra el (Q a). Larger areas of till (mQt), assigned to the iddle Quaternary and retaining well-preser ed lateral moraine morphology, co er the western foothills of the Dark Cloud and akapo ranges abo e Dusky Sound and Preser ation nlet (Fig. 59). The ages of these coastal glacial deposits are unknown. The height, extent and morphology of the highest deposits suggest that ice extended well beyond the present coastline, and that their outer limits were eroded during formation of the oldest (500 ka) marine terraces. They may be Early Quaternary in age. Some lower deposits ha e well-preser ed lateral moraine topography and rest on a marine terrace 65 m abo e sea le el (ASL), dated at 120 000130 000 years (O stage 56) by im Sutherland (2004). Solander Island olcanics The Solander islands are formed of Solander Island olcanics (mQv), which comprise porphyritic plagioclasehornblende andesite ows, agglomerate and tuff, with minor dikes (Harrington Wood 1958; Reay 1986; Reay Parkinson (1997) (Fig. 15). There are rare intercalated lignites, and gabbroic, gneissic and dioritic xenoliths in some ows. Possible raised boulder beach deposits and minor landslides fringe the main island. Dips from olcaniclastic beds suggest that the olcano was once considerably

Figure 60 Hydroplastic folding of post-glacial (OI stage 1 or late OI stage 2) silt in the upper Florence Stream. The fold implies a minor advance during general glacial retreat, when pro-glacial lake sediments were over-ridden and deformed under an advancing ice tongue.

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Earthquake epicentres 2009 2003


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! !

Landslides associated with 2009 Dusky Sound earthquake Landslides associated with 2003 Fiordland earthquake

Green Lake Landslide Other landslides

Roads

km

30

Figure 61 Large landslides in Fiordland, from Hanco Perrin (199 ) with additional data from current mapping. These large landslides range from comple rock slides to rock falls and rock avalanches. The Green Lake Landslide (marked) is a large rock slide. The many landslides (mostly debris ows and debris avalanches) that occurred during the 2003 Fiordland and 2009 Dusky Sound earthquakes are shown in red and green, respectively, together with their epicentres. After Hancox et al. 2003 and Cox & Jongens (2009).

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larger, with an erupti e centre southwest of the present-day islands (Harrington Wood 1958). ortimer et al. (2008) report re ised palynological and new Ar-Ar ages that show the Solander olcano to be only 400 000 to 150 000 years old. The islands, together with numerous other olcanic centres seen on seismic proles and on bathymetry, are the products of adakitic olcanism generated by oblique subduction of the Australian Plate beneath the Pacic Plate south of Fiordland (Reay Parkinson 1997; Sutherland elhuish 2000). Late Quaternary deposits Glacial deposits Tills and associated outwash gra els of O stage 4 (Q t, Q a) are largely restricted to the drainage systems of lakes onowai, Hauroko and Poteriteri (Fitzharris 1967; c ellar 1973a; Turnbull ruski 1995). Degradational surfaces ha e been cut into many of the outwash gra el terraces during younger glacial and interglacial periods. These Fiordland-deri ed till and outwash deposits are fresh and unconsolidated. Terrace remnants inferred to be of this age in the orland catchment ha e no known associated

till deposits. Outwash gra el (Q a) in the undert Back alley represents a former outlet of Lake anapouri. Outwash gra els of similar age in the Waikoau Ri er catchment are related to a pre ious outlet of the Hauroko glacier that drained into this undert valley. Laminated and cross-bedded sand and silt in the upper Waiau Ri er (Q a) probably represent a sand plain associated with a pro-glacial stream system which has been o er-ridden by younger outwash and till ( c ellar 1973). Tills of O stage 2 (Q t) form terminal and lateral moraines around the larger lakes of eastern Fiordland (Fig. 13), with extensi e outwash gra els (Q a) further downstream underlying both aggradational and degradational terraces. Tills south of Lake anapouri are entirely deri ed from Fiordland, but till and outwash gra els east of Lake Te Anau also include material deri ed from rook Street, Dun ountain and Caples terranes, which was transported ia the Eglinton and pukerora alleys. any of the smaller, shallower alleys of the western coast such as Poison ay ha e thin lateral moraine remnants of probable O stage 2 age in their outer reaches. The lower Transit alley, in particular, has prominent lateral moraine ledges on its northern side, sloping seaward and truncated

Figure 62 The Green Lake Landslide in the Grebe valley north of Lake Monowai (upper right). The landslide deposit (outlined in grey) forms a hummocky bush-clad area, with several lakes and open depressions. The dotted red line above Green Lake (top centre) marks the top of the head scarp of the slide. The peat-lled ats of the meandering Grebe River are ponded behind a second landslide (lower left). Pylons of the Manapouri power scheme transmission line (left) are sited on granitic and dioritic basement rocks. Cretaceous Puteketeke Pluton granite forms the tops in the foreground, west of the Grebe Mylonite Zone. Photo CN48043A: D.L. Homer.

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by the present-day coast. The ice le el in these alleys was higher than in other, deeper, ords where ice at the Q2 maximum may not ha e reached the more distant open coast (Pickrill et al. 1992). The Transit moraine has been offset by some 450 m along the Alpine Fault ( arnes et al. 2005). A terminal moraine loop from a difuent tongue of the Chalky nlet glacier lies within Landing ay near Cape Pro idence (Fig. 9). Cirque morphology is almost ubiquitous in the Fiordland mountains, where nearly e ery alley ends in a steepsided cirque headwall (Figs 7, 32). Some cirques lack

moraine topography or till deposits, while others ha e well-preser ed terminal moraine loops. Till deposits (Q t) in these moraines are generally gra elly to bouldery, often with large ca ities between boulders. Slightly older till deposits, with terminal moraine or chaotic hummocky topography, also occur well below cirque headwalls in many catchments, including ilford Sound (Wardle c ellar 1978). Outwash gra els and pro-glacial lake sediments may be associated with these alley moraines (Fig. 60). The deposits are mapped as O stage 1, although some may date from minor ad ances or still-stands during retreat of O stage 2 glaciers.

Marine terrace outlines


Resolution Island

Hauroko Fault

Moraine ridges

Marine terrace deposits:

Glacial deposits: Outwash gravels

Q5b

Q7b

Till deposits

Q9 and older

Kisbee Formation

Dusky Sound
Paleozoic metasediments Median Batholith plutonic rocks Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks

West Cape

Preservation Inlet

au

ro

ko

Fa

ul

Puysegur Point

Te Waewae Bay Big River

km

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Figure 63 Derivative map showing the e tent of raised marine terraces and glacial deposits around the southwest coast of Fiordland. rosional surfaces, shown by outlines, are widely preserved west of the Hauroko Fault on harder Paleozoic metasedimentary and Median Batholith plutonic rocks. ast of the fault, on softer Cenozoic rocks, the surfaces are mostly underlain by gravels (Q5b, Q7b, Q9 ). Quaternary till and outwash deposits are also more widely distributed east of the Hauroko Fault. Lateral moraine deposits between Dusky Sound and Preservation Inlet date from older glaciations. Note that erosion surfaces cut across the arly Quaternary isbee Formation.

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Alluvial terraces and fans Young, post-glacial allu ium (Q a) lls most valley oors and underlies modern oodplains; it consists of locally deri ed, unconsolidated, bouldery gra el, sand and mud. Thin peat and carbonaceous mud bands may be interbedded, and buried logs are common. Se eral older, higher terrace le els, underlain by similar allu ial deposits (Q a, Q a), may be present. Allu ial fans (Q a, Q a, Q a) with clearly dened radial drainage and steeper slopes grade downstream onto atter alluvial terraces. Fans are composed of locally deri ed, commonly angular, gra el; some include reworked material from older adjacent glacial deposits. They may include poorly sorted, bouldery debris ow and avalanche deposits as well as better sorted gra el and sand. any allu ial terrace deposits grade into fan deposits that are too small to depict. At the head of Deep Co e in Doubtful Sound, and at the West Arm of Lake anapouri, post-glacial allu ium has been buried by rock exca ated from the anapouri power house, tailraces and access tunnels. Landslide deposits Landslide deposits (uQl, Q l) are common throughout Fiordland (Fig. 61; see also eological Hazards section). Only those deposits o er 1 km2 are mapped. ntense glacial erosion in Fiordland has remo ed nearly all landslide deposits older than ca. 15 00018 000 years. Landslide mechanisms range from small debris ows, through rock falls and rock a alanches from ery steep faces, to complex rock slides. The innumerable small debris ows that occur throughout Fiordland comprise soil and rock material, mixed with trees or other egetation. The 27 km3 reen Lake Landslide (Fig. 62) occurred some 12 00013 000 years ago, on a low-angle fault undercut by the rebe glacier (Hancox Perrin 2009). The debris ranges from enormous blocks of semi-intact gneiss, to chaotic bouldery and gra elly material. Rock fall and rock a alanche debris is also very coarse and angular, interspersed with ner grained material deri ed from smashed boulders. Scree appable scree and slopewash deposits (Q s) ha e relati ely limited distribution. They are present in steep glacial alleys, where there are no clear side streams to form indi idual allu ial fans, and where mass wastage from upper slopes forms an apron along the alley sides. Small screes are generally found in gullies below fault notches, fed by shattered rocks. Peat

and a smaller landslide downstream (Fig. 62). Peat deposits range from ne-grained, dark, clean and generally brous peat with ery little extraneous sand or mud, to sandy or muddy peat interbedded with sand, gra el and mud from nearby streams. ost soils throughout Fiordland are extremely peaty, and may reach se eral metres in thickness (Wright iller 1952), both beneath forest co er and abo e the tree line. Large peat mires ha e accumulated on poorly drained swampy outwash terraces east of lakes anapouri, onowai and Hauroko, and commonly form mounds well abo e the adjacent surfaces. All are inferred to be of post-glacial age. Shoreline deposits each deposits (Q b) occur along the outer Fiordland coast in most bays and at ri er mouths, but only the largest are mapped. any ha e been described by Downes et al. (2005). They are dominated by gra el, which may be bouldery on more exposed coasts and shorelines, but sandy beaches are also present. Dune elds (Q d) occur behind se eral bays on the outer coast, in particular at artins ay, Transit and Coal ri ers, and Spit each in Preser ation nlet. Smaller dunes are mapped at the mouths of ig Ri er and the Kiwi Burn. Dune elds at Transit Beach and Coal Ri er ha e unusually high concentrations of the hea y minerals garnet and hornblende, respecti ely. obile dunes (indicated by a red o erprint) are mapped at artins ay and Coal Ri er. Older dunes date from shoreline retreat following a post-glacial sea le el rise of about 2 m abo e modern sea le el ( ibb 1986). This sea le el rise con erted some bays into ords. At that time, Martins Bay reached to the head of Lake c errow, and marine silt (Q m) in this former ord contains shell material dated by 14C as between 4240 and 7500 yrs P ( ishop et al. 1990; Sutherland Norris 1995). Similar silt deposits se eral kilometres up the Transit Ri er include sub-fossil bi al e species typical of estuarine and open marine en ironments (A. . eu, pers. comm. 2000). Sand and gra el beach deposits are found around many Fiordland lakes, but only the largest are mapped (Q b). each ridges are common in bay heads exposed to strong northwesterly winds. eaches around lakes anapouri and Te Anau were in estigated during construction of the anapouri power scheme, as beach slumping caused by lowering of lake levels was perceived as a signicant detrimental en ironmental impact ( c ellar 1973b; Pickrill 1978, 1985). Lakes anapouri and Te Anau both ha e benches representing higher lake le els ( c ellar 1973a) at 216 m ASL and 183 m ASL respecti ely. each gra el and delta deposits are discontinuously preser ed along these benches. Marine terrace deposits

Peat swamp deposits (Q a) occur in many Fiordland alleys, where glacial moraine, landslide, or allu ial fan deposits ha e created temporary barriers. The largest such swamp is in the rebe alley, between the reen Lake Landslide

plifted marine terrace surfaces (Fig. 63) extend from Resolution sland south to Puysegur Point, and east to Te Waewae ay. Smaller terrace surfaces are preser ed near

61

eorge Sound, and remnants of well-rounded boulder deposits occur on some offshore stacks and on narrow ledges along the outer coast as far north as Poison ay. The terrace surfaces may be wa e-cut rocky erosion platforms, or may be o erlain by shallow marine or terrestrial deposits. ost surfaces are also draped by peaty soils (e.g. Wright iller 1952; Wardle et al. 1973). p to 13 surfaces ha e been mapped (Ward 1988), although the highest are difcult to identify. The terraces range in width from a few metres to kilometres. This difference is most marked in the icinity of ig Ri er, where surfaces on hard basement rocks expand eastward across the Hauroko Fault onto softer Cenozoic mudstones. Howe er, some narrow surfaces become much wider toward the west (Fig. 63), perhaps reecting more intense marine erosion on the outer coast. t has not always been possible to map terrace deposits consistently because of thick egetation co er and poor outcrop. Only where there is reasonable e idence are gra els shown on the map. The oldest, highest surfaces generally lack associated deposits except in the Waitutu Forest, where large rounded boulders, and gra els mixed with peaty soils (eQb), o erlie wa e-cut platforms in places. On lower terraces, deposits range from bouldery sands to well-rounded and better sorted gra els that may be beach deposits (Q b, Q b, Q b, Q b, Q b). Two terrace le els are locally differentiated within Q5 deposits, and are tentati ely assigned to O stages Q5c and Q5e. n the Waitutu Forest and Te Waewae ay, the lower and more extensi e Q5 and Q7 terraces are clearly wa e-cut platforms eroded into Cenozoic rocks and o erlain by shallow marine gra els, rarely with macrofossils (Ward 1988; ishop 1991; Turnbull ruski 1995; Fig. 53). The gra el clasts are mainly fresh, well-rounded, Fiordland-deri ed, plutonic and high-grade metamorphic rocks, except east of Hump Ridge where Cenozoic sedimentary clasts and olcanic pebbles deri ed from rook Street terrane also occur. n the Waitutu Forest and Te Waewae ay, marine surfaces are interspersed with glacial outwash gra els (Ward 1988; Turnbull et al. 2007; Fig. 63). Rare large granite boulders (35 m across) on some surfaces may represent completely degraded till deposits. The ages of most marine terraces are poorly constrained. Absolute age control comes from 14C dates on the youngest surface (6000 yrs P; ishop 1985, 1991) and from cosmogenic dating of terraces at West Cape. There, a prominent 65 8 m terrace is dated, using 10 e and 26 Al isotopes, at ca. 120130 ka (O stages 56; im Sutherland 2004). This age gi es an inferred uplift rate of 0.52 0.08 mm yr for the terraces, similar to rates calculated by Ward (1988), and by Turnbull et al. (2007) for terraces west of the Hauroko Fault. plift rates may be different east of the Hauroko Fault, where there is ongoing Late Cenozoic deformation (Ward 1988; Turnbull ruski 1995). The highest marine surfaces may be older than 565 ka (Turnbull et al. 2007).

OFFSHORE GEOLOGY Since the 1970s, offshore exploration for oil and gas has pro ided much information on the area south of Fiordland. There ha e been se eral seismic sur eys, and two exploration wells ha e been drilled (Parara-1 and Solander-1; H PCO 1976; Renton 1986). Limited sidescan sonar and shallow seismic data co er Te Waewae ay ( ishop et al. 1992; Turnbull ruski 1995). The basement geology of western Fo eaux Strait can be inferred from regional geophysical data (Woodward 1976; rant 1985) and the two wells, both of which reached basement. eological interpretations of the offshore Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequence are gi en by Norris Carter (1980), Turnbull et al. (1993), Sutherland elhuish (2000), and Sutherland et al. (2006b). West of Fiordland, plate margin tectonic studies ha e also produced detailed data (e.g. Cutress et al. 1999; Wood et al. 2000; arnes et al. 2002, 2005). Numerous samples ha e been dredged from the sea oor around Fiordland (Sutherland et al. 2004), and there are se eral studies of the sediments beneath the waters of the ords (Fleming 1951; Bruun et al. 1955; lasby 1978; Pickrill et al. 1992; Pickrill 1993). The onshore Waiau asin sequence extends offshore into Te Waewae Bay (Fig.46). Te Waewae Bay is oored by a thin eneer of gra el and sand (Cullen ibb 1965), o erlying Pliocene silt that is correlated with Te Waewae Formation (Turnbull ruski 1995). iddle iocene uplift of the southwestern Waiau asin resulted in erosion of most of the Cenozoic sequence and brought basement gabbro close to sea le el at id ay Reef in Te Waewae ay. asement and possibly Eocene rocks are also exposed on the sea bed just south of Hump Ridge, and mark the southern limit of the onshore Waiau asin Cenozoic sequence. etween the northwest-trending Hump Ridge-Stewart sland Fault System and the northeast-trending Hauroko Fault, a thick Eocene to Quaternary sequence is preser ed in the Solander asin and its constituent Waitutu and Hautere sub-basins (see abo e; Fig. 46). Further west in the Solander asin, the northeast-trending Solander and Long faults (see Fig. 67) control the now-buried Solander Ridge or horst, where sediments as young as Quaternary lap onto basement rocks. Solander-1, drilled on the ridge, intersected Early Oligocene to Late iocene sedimentary rocks o erlying altered microdiorite (Renton 1986; Watters 1986). Younger sediments ha e been remo ed by marine erosion, and north-trending strike ridges in tilted iocene sediments are obvious on side-scan sonar proles north of the well site. The sediments draped o er Solander Ridge are folded and the equi alent anticline onshore may still be deforming, as an O stage 5 marine erosion surface o erlying it is also gently folded (Turnbull ruski 1995).

62

The Waitutu Sub-basin contains a thick Eocene to Pliocene sequence that accumulated on the eastern, downthrown side of the normal Hauroko Fault. o ement on this fault re ersed in the Pliocene to Quaternary, and the fault now has an east-side-up, 25-m-high scarp on the sea bed ( rant 1985; Sutherland et al. 2006b, g. 10), with a growing anticline on the upthrown side. Solander olcano has erupted through the southern end of the Solander Ridge, and other Pliocene to Quaternary olcanoes ha e erupted at the southern end of the Hauroko Fault (Sutherland et al. 2006b). The alleny asin lies west of the Hauroko Fault and contains the offshore extensions of the Puysegur and alleny groups in a local depocentre north of the Puysegur ank (Pro idence Sub-basin of Turnbull et al. 1993). In the northern alleny asin, seismic data and a dredge sample (Sutherland et al. 2004) indicate that Early Miocene mudstone was uplifted to the sea oor and eroded from the iddle to Late iocene onward, probably coincident with the beginning of uplift recorded by onshore terraces. Puysegur ank is underlain by an eastward-tilted Eocene to iocene sequence (Turnbull et al. 1993; ortimer 1994; Sutherland elhuish 2000; Sutherland et al. 2006b) that has been cannibalised as the source for younger sediments on the eastern side of the bank. Eocene rocks are also present; they are thin or absent o er a local high and thicker on the southwestern side of the Puysegur ank, where a Cretaceous sequence is inferred from seismic data. Puysegur ank is underlain by Fiordland continental crust in the north ( rant 1985; Lebrun et al. 2003) and by midoceanic Macquarie Ridge mac volcanic rocks further south (Mortimer 1994).

West from Fiordland, offshore geology is controlled by the Australian-Pacic plate boundary, manifested as the Alpine Fault, which inherits its position from pre-existing structures (Sutherland et al. 2000). The fault runs southwest from ilford Sound, trending further offshore to the south (see Fig. 67). An eastern branch close to the coast (Cutress et al. 1999; Lebrun et al. 2000), may be less continuous and is probably inacti e; it partly corresponds to the Chalky Fault one of arnes et al. (2005). The upper continental slope east of the Alpine Fault and the Chalky Fault one is formed of Fiordland basement rocks, o erlain by westward-thickening Pleistocene to Holocene sediments in canyons and fans. Quaternary sediments reach 1000 m in thickness in small, pull-apart sedimentary basins, and are continuously being deposited and deformed along the western Fiordland margin ( arnes et al. 2001, 2002, 2005). The shallow area between the Puysegur Bank and Chalky Inlet is also underlain by Cenozoic sediments (Sutherland et al. 2004), which are seen onshore in a small graben at Chalky Island. West of the Alpine Fault, the continental slope and basins at the foot of the slope are underlain by Cretaceous to iocene rocks (Wood et al. 2000) with younger sediments on upfaulted ridges (Barnes et al. 2005). A thick (4 km or more) accretionary wedge of iocene to Quaternary sediments ( arnes et al. 2002) is exposed on the sea bed near ilford Sound ( ruun et al. 1955) and, in part, on land as the Titirira Formation. The wedge o erlies obliquely subducting oceanic and continental crust of the Australian Plate (Cutress et al. 1999; Lebrun et al. 2000), the latter seen on-land as the Greenland Group (cross section A-A). Close to shore near ilford Sound, canyon heads and glacial moraines are displaced from their on-land equi alents by mo ement on the Alpine Fault ( arnes et al. 2005; Barnes 2009).

63

TECTONIC HISTORY
Fiordland has a long and aried tectonic history. Early Paleozoic Western Province island arc volcanism and ondwana-deri ed sedimentation were followed by midPaleozoic continental margin plutonism, deformation and metamorphism, and then by late Paleozoic passive margin sedimentation. In the Triassic to Early Cretaceous, oluminous arc-related plutonism and accompanying olcanism were succeeded by metamorphism and deformation, and then by accretion of Eastern Pro ince terranes. Late Cretaceous rifting and sedimentation were followed by early Cenozoic uplift, mid-Cenozoic rifting and sedimentation, and nally by late Cenozoic plate boundary de elopment. This history is con eniently discussed in terms of these episodes (Fig. 64). PALEO OIC GONDWANA MARGIN Correlations with northwest Nelson suggest that the oldest rocks of Fiordland, the lithologically di erse Takaka terrane (Cameron and Edgecumbe groups), probably originated within a complex olcanic island arc ( nker & Crawford 2000). The other rocks in Fiordland that are tentati ely correlated with Takaka terrane (Deep Co e neiss, undifferentiated metasediments in central and western Fiordland) contain detrital zircons derived from Cambrian-Precambrian ondwana continental sources (Gibson & Ireland 1996; Ireland & Gibson 1998; Hollis et al. 2004; Scott et al. 2009a). Many of these potential Takaka terrane correlati es may thus ha e been deposited in close proximity to the ondwana margin, possibly in the back-arc basin inferred to ha e separated the Takaka terrane olcanic arc from the Australian-Antarctic section of ondwana ( nker Crawford 2000; utjahr et al. 2006; radshaw et al. 2009). The slightly younger and more quartzose rocks of the Ordovician Buller terrane (Fanny Bay Group) were deposited adjacent to a continental landmass, probably the Australian-Antarctic section of ondwana (Cooper 1989; Cooper Tulloch 1992; Roser et al. 1996). The granitic Pandora and aquiery ranitoid neiss plutons were emplaced in the latest Cambrian to earliest Ordo ician, soon after deposition of their host Takaka terrane rocks (Fig. 65), although their tectonic signicance is unknown. The uller and Takaka terranes were amalgamated some time after deposition of the youngest sediments of the Takaka terrane (Early De onian, by correlation with northwest Nelson). Before and during terrane amalgamation, Early Paleozoic sediments underwent contractional deformation, accompanied and outlasted by greenschist to low-pressure upper amphibolite facies metamorphism that peaked at ca. 360 Ma (Ward 1984; Ireland & Gibson 1998; Powell 2006; Allibone et al. 2007; Fig. 66). The terrane suture, now represented by the Old Quarry Fault (Fig.16), is intruded by Carboniferous Ridge Suite plutons. Other major faults, such as the inferred Dark Cloud Fault (Powell 2006), a fault in Big River, and the proto-Dusky Fault (Allibone et al. 2007) were also active at this time (Fig. 67). Only minor plutonism accompanied this deformation and metamorphism, but the larger plutons that stitch the uller and Takaka terranes together represent an increase in plutonic acti ity between ca. 355 and 345 a (Allibone et al. 2007; Fig. 65). Subsequent metamorphism to higher pressure, mid-amphibolite facies conditions between ca. 340 and 330 Ma involved the growth of kyanite (Ireland & Gibson 1998; Daczko et al. 2009a; Scott et al. 2009c). Although Tobin, Ridge, and younger aramea suite plutons may be subduction-related, the intrusion of older Karamea, Paringa and Foulwind Suite I/A type plutons throughout the period from ca. 350 a to 320 a implies that general contractional deformation and metamorphism were punctuated by periods of intra-arc extension (Tulloch et al. 2009a). Permian Triassic uiescence Late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic rocks are virtually absent from Fiordland, and tectonic quiescence is inferred throughout this period. A small area of Permian metasedimentary rocks is preser ed in western Fiordland (George Sound Paragneiss; Figs 16, 64) (Stevenson 2002; Hollis et al. 2004; Clarke et al. 2009). Remnants of other late Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks in eastern Fiordland (Blattner 1978; Scott 2008) may represent small intraarc basins, or may ha e accumulated in a back-arc basin setting (Scott et al. 2009a). Sedimentary basins may have separated the Western Pro ince from the outboard edian atholith, and eastern Fiordland from the Permian rook Street terrane. The rook Street and Dun ountain- aitai terranes formed in island arc and back-arc basin settings within the Eastern Pro ince (Coombs et al. 1976; ortimer et al. 1999a). MESO OIC GONDWANA MARGIN Renewal of ondwana margin subduction in the Late Triassic initiated Darran Suite plutonism (Figs 64, 65). Igneous activity increased in the Jurassic, with more widespread Darran Suite plutonism, and may represent an increase in the rate of subduction ( imbrough et al. 1994; uir et al. 1998; Allibone et al. 2009a). The effusive equi alents of the Darran Suite are preser ed as the Loch urn Formation and Largs roup ( ortimer et al. 1999a; Ewing et al. 2007; Scott et al. 2008). Older Darran Suite rocks and related urassic intra-arc metasedimentary rocks were buried, deformed and metamorphosed at midcrustal depths (ca. 1520 km) in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous (Scott 2008; Fig. 66). Although static metamorphic aureoles formed around the Lake ike ranite in southwest Fiordland at this time (Ward 1984; Allibone et al. 2007), Paleozoic rocks in western Fiordland were apparently unaffected by the urassic to Early Cretaceous e ents taking place in eastern Fiordland before ca. 125 Ma (Ireland & Gibson 1998; Tulloch et al. 2000; Hollis et al. 2003, 2004; Scott 2008; Daczko et al. 2009). Amalgamation and accretion of Dun ountain- aitai and rook Street terranes onto eastern Fiordland were probably complete by the Late urassic ( ortimer et al. 1999a). A further increase in the ux of plutonism in Fiordland slightly later in the Early Cretaceous, at ca. 125 a, corresponds with a major change in magma chemistry ( uir et al. 1995, 1998; Tulloch imbrough 2003; Allibone

64

Cambrian Permian
300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Ordovician Triassic
350

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Jurassic

Cretaceous

Cenozoic

Age (Ma) 500

450

400

Ridge Suite Houseroof and related plutons Foulwind Suite Tobin Suite Darran Suite - Outboard ?
Amalgamation of Brook Street and Dun Mtn-Maitai terranes with Median Batholith/Western Province

(Loch Burn, Largs volcanics)

Outboard Median Batholith

Amalgamation of the Buller and Takaka terranes

Separation Point Suite - Outboard

Te Anau Basin Balleny Basin Waiau Basin Solander Basin

Metamorphic events - grade and geographic distribution

East

(Brook Street, Dun Mountain-Maitai terranes) Tectonic Setting Passive margin

Garnet granulite, omphacite granulite, eclogite facies

Two pyroxene granulite facies

Convergent-transpressional margin, I, S-type plutonism, volcanism Extension, basin formation, +/- A-type plutonism Passive margin rifting Active plate boundary (Alpine Fault) Episodes of sedimentary basin formation and plutonism Paleozoic/Mesozoic/Cenozoic sedimentary basins Emplacement of plutonic rocks

Mid to upper amphibolite facies - medium to high pressure

Mid to upper amphibolite facies - low to medium pressure

Mid amphibolite facies in contact aureoles

Greenschist to upper amphibolite facies

Poorly known metamorphism prior to Carboniferous plutonism

Figure 64 Time-space diagram showing major geological events in Fiordland, related to their tectonic setting.

Basement rocks
Inboard Median Batholith and Western Province

West
Puysegur Basin Rahu Suite Western Fiordland Orthogneiss
(George Sound paragneiss)

Buller terrane

Arthur River Complex

Takaka terrane

Cambro-Ordovician intrusions

Separation Point Suite - Inboard Darran Suite - Inboard

Karamea Suite

65

66
B C D
estern Fiordland Orthogneiss. Paleozoic and Mesozoic host rocks in grey.

Figure 65 Fiordland plutonic rocks, subdivided in terms of age. A: arly Paleozoic Gondwana margin: Latest Cambrian intrusions (purple) into Buller and Takaka terranes (blue and brown).

B: Mid-Paleozoic plutonism (red) of the Ridge, aramea, Foulwind, Tobin, and Paringa suites, and Arthur River Comple . Host terranes in grey.

C: Triassic to arly Cretaceous plutonism (blue) of the Darran Suite, and various syenogranites. Paleozoic host rocks in grey.

D: arly Cretaceous plutonism (green) of the Separation Point Suite and

Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary cover, unmetamorphosed or with zeolite facies assemblages in deep sedimentary basins Unmetamorphosed Cretaceous plutonic rocks (mostly Separation Point Suite, other than Refrigerator Orthogneiss) Later Cretaceous greenschist facies in McKerr Intrusives, and overprinting Cretaceous and Paleozoic amphibolite facies in Anita Shear Zone Early Cretaceous high-T, moderate-low-P amphibolite facies between Dusky Sound and Chalky Inlet Early Cretaceous retrograde amphibolite facies assemblages in Western Fiordland Orthogneiss
0 km 30

High-P granulite-amphibolite facies rocks of western Fiordland formed between c. 116-105Ma


Medium to high-P (7-9 kbar) amphibolite facies, commonly within Jurassic-Cretaceous gneissic plutonic rocks High-P amphibolite facies, locally with high-P garnet granulite facies in Arthur River Complex Two-pyroxene (hornblende) granulite facies, locally overprinted by high-P garnet granulite assemblages Eclogite and omphacite-granulite facies Metastable Carboniferous amphibolite facies within the high-P granulite facies aureole of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss. Overprinted by garnet granulite assemblages near the contact

Jurassic-Early Cretaceous metamorphism in eastern Fiordland


Amphibolite facies metaplutonic and rare metasedimentary rocks, interspersed with unmetamorphosed plutonic rocks Prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies metavolcanic and plutonic rocks

Rocks which generally retain unmodified Paleozoic metamorphic or igneous mineral assemblages
Massive to variably foliated Carboniferous plutonic rocks which generally retain igneous mineralogy Devonian-Carboniferous mid to upper amphibolite facies, including earlier high-T / low-P and later higher-P assemblages Devonian-Carboniferous lower amphibolite facies, locally overprinted by Carboniferous, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous amphibolite facies aureoles Devonian-Carboniferous greenschist facies

Figure 66 Simplied map of metamorphic phases and facies in Fiordland. There is considerable uncertainty in the position of some metamorphic boundaries, and overprinting has largely obliterated traces of some early metamorphic events. One, and possibly three, periods of regional metamorphism (lower to upper amphibolite facies) affected arly Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks from the Devonian to the Carboniferous. These rocks are also locally overprinted by contact metamorphic aureoles of amphibolite facies hornfelses ranging in age from Carboniferous to Jurassic and arly Cretaceous. Jurassic to arly Cretaceous metamorphism (prehnite-pumpellyite, greenschist and amphibolite facies) is recorded within eastern Fiordland metasedimentary and plutonic rocks. In western Fiordland, medium- to high-pressure amphibolite, hornblende- and garnet-granulite, and eclogite facies assemblages were developed between 116 Ma and 105 Ma within estern Fiordland Orthogneiss plutons, Arthur River Comple , and locally within adjacent Paleozoic metasediments. An arly Cretaceous metamorphic event (high-temperature amphibolite facies) locally affected Paleozoic metasediments between Resolution Island and Chalky Inlet. Both local and regionally e tensive zeolite facies assemblages occur within Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the aiau and Te Anau basins.

67

Major active faults

Offshore volcanic centres Offshore wells


S P

SOUTH WESTLAND
K

Timing of movement on major onshore and offshore brittle faults and fault systems
Mainly Cenozoic Cretaceous reactivated in Cenozoic Mainly Cretaceous Mainly Paleozoic
OQF

HO

Solander-1 Parara-1
AL N PI E

FA

T UL

L LY FOR D F LT
S

Old Quarry Fault


SA ND F LY

F LT

FA U

NE

AL

TE

PI

ANA

U F AUL T

LT

S M B F S

HRSIFS

Hump Ridge Stewart Island Fault System Spey-Mica Burn Fault System

SMBFS

Major Cretaceous ductile shear zones


T

OQF
LT FA U SKY

FL

Anita

LT

George Sound
Indecision Creek
K S

FI

FI

FA

E F RAS ER FAU LT

DU

Kaipo Fault; Surprise Creek Fault

LAK

Grebe
G
WE ST HU MP FA ULT

Grebe Fault

Straight River
T

Straight River Fault

Puysegur Bank
L T

Mid Bay Reef

Mt Irene Doubtful Sound

g
O

e R
K O U LT

BALLENY BASIN

id

S
F S S I H R

LA

LO

la

FA

FA

SOLANDER BASIN
P

LT

Resolution Island

Un-named shear zones


0 km 30

Figure 67 Major faults and ductile shear zones in the Fiordland map area. Only structures where the age(s) of movement can be reasonably inferred are shown. The subvertical Straight River Shear Zone (Late Cretaceous) is superimposed on the gently dipping Resolution Island and Doubtful Sound shear zones ( arly Cretaceous). Offshore structural features are indicated in the Solander and Balleny basins. Cenozoic faults shown on land are those with signicant (>1 km) known or inferred Cenozoic movement. Cenozoic reactivation of Cretaceous faults is generally based on presence of soft crush or pug zones. The Dusky Fault has Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Cenozoic and Quaternary episodes of movement.

68

et al. 2007, 2009a; Tulloch et al. 2009c; Fig. 65). Most plutons emplaced after ca. 125 a belong to the Separation Point Suite and the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss. These plutons crystallised from magmas generated at depths where garnet rather than plagioclase is stable. This greater depth of melting may result from thickening of the crust during earlier Darran Suite plutonism, or from underplating of new material at the base of the crust between ca. 130 and 125 a during continued con ergence ( uir et al. 1995; Tulloch imbrough 2003; Tulloch et al. 2009c). etween ca. 125 and 110 a, there was on-going emplacement of the Western Fiordland and Separation Point suites, de elopment of a regional-scale network of transpressional shear zones, and moderate- to high-pressure metamorphism throughout much of the western (inboard) part of the Median Batholith (Gibson & Ireland 1995; Tulloch imbrough 2003; Hollis et al. 2004; arcotte et al. 2005; Allibone & Tulloch 2008; Daczko et al. 2009; Scott et al. 2009a,c; Allibone et al. 2009c). Parts of some Western Fiordland Orthogneiss plutons, and much of the Arthur Ri er Complex, were partially recrystallised to high-pressure amphibolite and garnet granulite assemblages ( lattner 1976, 2005; radshaw 1989a,b; Clarke et al. 2000, 2005; Daczko et al. 2001a,b; Daczko & Halpin 2009). Omphacite granulite and eclogite facies assemblages formed within the reaksea Orthogneiss, at the base of the con ergent margin magmatic arc at depths between 70 and 80 km, around 115 a (Allibone et al. 2005; De Paoli et al. 2009). Kyanitebearing, mid-amphibolite facies assemblages de eloped in other parts of central and western Fiordland at this time, indicating that higher pressure Cretaceous metamorphism extended beyond the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss and the Arthur River Complex (Daczko et al. 2009; Scott et al. 2009c; Fig. 66). Deformation during the period from 125 to 110 a was concentrated along numerous major structures (Fig. 67). These include the Grebe Mylonite Zone (and Grebe Fault), the Indecision Creek Shear Zone (including the Surprise

Creek and Kaipo faults), the George Sound Shear Zone, and the Caswell Sound Fold-Thrust elt ( oons 1978; lepeis et al. 1999, 2004; Daczko et al. 2002; arcotte et al. 2005; Scott 2008; Scott et al. 2009a). The tectonic signicance of these faults and shear zones is still debated. Some may be large intra-arc structures, with between 2 and 20 km offset, formed during increasing transpression along the con ergent ondwana margin (Allibone Tulloch 2008; Allibone et al. 2009a). Alternatively, the Grebe and other shear zones, which locally separate the inboard and outboard parts of the edian atholith, may represent a terrane boundary within Fiordland (Scott 2008; Scott et al. 2009a). If the latter model is correct, then before ca. 120 a the outboard edian atholith may ha e been separated from the inboard part and the Western Pro ince by a now-closed back-arc basin. Howe er, ophiolitic rocks that might represent the oor of such a basin are unknown, and intrusi e contacts are preser ed between inboard and outboard parts of the edian atholith west of Lake Te Anau (Allibone et al. 2009a). Differences in metamorphic grade and thermal (uplift) histories occur across some shear zones (Marcotte et al. 2005; Scott 2008). Transpressional accretion of eastern Fiordland has been postulated as a cause for loading and deep burial of western Fiordland ( radshaw 1989a; Clarke et al. 2000; Hollis et al. 2003; Scott 2008; Scott et al. 2009a). At ca. 111 a, the tectonic regime in Fiordland changed from con ergent and transpressional, to extensional ( ibson et al. 1988; Gibson 1990; Gibson & Ireland 1995; Flowers et al. 2005; Scott Cooper 2006; lepeis et al. 2007). Extensional deformation was concentrated within gently dipping shear zones (Fig. 67), often but not exclusi ely localised along the margins of Western Fiordland Orthogneiss plutons in rocks weakened by the thermal affects of pluton emplacement. Examples include the Doubtful Sound and Resolution Island shear zones (Oli er 1980; ibson 1990; lepeis et al. 1999, 2004). Many shear zones (such as Mount Irene; Scott & Cooper 2006) entrain mylonitic marble bands (Fig. 68) within

Figure 68 Marble mylonite within the Mt Irene Shear Zone east of Robin Saddle. The paler clasts and bands are deformed and dismembered granitoid dikes. Such marble mylonites characterise many of the gently dipping Cretaceous shear zones in central and western Fiordland.

69

a zone of amphibolite facies gneiss up to 500 m thick. Movement on these extensional shear zones contributed to the partial exhumation of western and central Fiordland between ca. 111 and 100 a ( radshaw 1989b; ibson & Ireland 1995). Extension had largely ceased by ca. 108 Ma at Mt Irene (Scott & Cooper 2006) and ca. 88 Ma at Doubtful Sound ( ing et al. 2008), although regional exhumation continued into the latest Cretaceous (Flowers et al. 2005). The coincidence of extensional ductile shears with some of the contacts between Western Fiordland Orthogneiss and country rock, and apparent differences in metamorphic histories across these shears, ha e led to interpretations of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss as the lower plate of a metamorphic core complex ( ibson et al. 1988; ibson & Ireland 1995; Hill 1995a,b). However, the widespread preser ation of intrusi e contacts and high-pressure contact metamorphic aureoles in rocks adjacent to Western Fiordland Orthogneiss plutons indicates only minor offset on the extensional shears (Bradshaw 1985, 1990; Daczko et al. 2002a; Allibone et al. 2009b; Clarke et al. 2009). Only locally do these juxtapose rocks with different metamorphic histories (Scott & Cooper 2006). The Late Cretaceous, transpressional Straight Ri er and Anita shear zones (Fig. 67) may be more signicant and longer li ed than other Cretaceous transpressional shear zones in Fiordland. These two shear zones are imposed o er older structures, and include the youngest fabrics of any of the intra-batholithic shears within Fiordland. They are characterised by subvertical foliation(s), often mylonitic, which in turn are cut by sub- ertical shear zones with greenschist facies alteration and/or crenulation cleavage and brittle faults (Fig. 69). The mylonites may be Late Cretaceous in age, and the youngest Anita Shear one fabrics are probably associated with mo ement on the Alpine Fault (Hill 1995a,b; lepeis et al. 1999; Sutherland et al. 2000; ing et al. 2008). The older Anita Shear one fabrics probably formed in the deep crust,

during Early Cretaceous transpression, or may be inherited from a Paleozoic structure. The Straight River Shear Zone (including the Straight River Fault of Oliver 1980) is not a terrane boundary ( ing et al. 2008), but several features within the Anita Shear one suggest it may be a major Paleozoic boundary within the Western Province. Possibly allochthonous ultramac rocks are imbricated between Arthur Ri er Complex (and Western Fiordland Orthogneiss) to the east, and probable Buller terrane rocks to the west of the shear zone. Contrasting Paleozoic and Mesozoic plutonic rocks in Westland and Fiordland are juxtaposed across the Anita Shear one when Alpine Fault Cenozoic offset is restored. LATE MESO OIC TO CENO OIC TECTONICS Extension continued into the Late Cretaceous, e entually resulting in the splitting of ealandia from Australia and the opening of the Tasman Sea. In Fiordland, this riftrelated extension at around 85 a was oriented northeastsouthwest (Tulloch et al. 2009b). Extension-related uplift on higher le el brittle faults brought plutonic rocks in southern Fiordland to the surface by ca. 100 a, and formed fault-controlled basins that were lled by Puysegur Group sediments. Other brittle and brittle-ductile faults acti e or reacti ated in the Late Cretaceous include the Lake Fraser, Dusky, Wilmot and Spey-Mica Burn faults (Fig. 67). Terrane boundary faults in northeastern Fiordland were also reacti ated ( ortimer et al. 1999a; Turnbull 2000). These faults generally have greenschist facies alteration zones, and cut earlier extensional ductile shear fabrics. Pegmatitic dikes, and the Post Ofce and Five Fingers dike swarms, may be coe al with extension. The Fiordland area then became relati ely quiescent until the Middle Eocene, when seaoor spreading propagated from the Emerald asin, far to the southwest, into western Southland (Sutherland 1995a; King 2000). By the Late Eocene, regional extension had created fault-controlled and mostly non-marine sedimentary basins along the oonlight

Figure 69 Steeply dipping foliation in orsley Pluton dioritic orthogneiss (highlighted by a dark mac band), on the southeastern side of the Anita Shear Zone, north of Catseye Bay. The foliation is folded and the left limb (by the hammer) is completely strained out into the younger mylonitic shear zone fabric. here the mylonitic foliation completely overprints the orsley Pluton protolith, the rocks are mapped as Jagged Gneiss. The mac band is offset by a minor young epidotised brittle fault following the fold a ial plane.

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Fault System from the Solander asin to northern Fiordland (Norris Turnbull 1993; Turnbull et al. 1993; Sutherland & Melhuish 2000; Beggs & Ghisetti 2006). Extension, subsidence and marine sedimentation continued into the Oligocene o er most of southern and eastern Fiordland, linked to similar basins on the West Coast (King 2000). Extension gradually became more dextral-oblique in the Late Oligocene, and although marine sedimentation continued in eastern Fiordland, local fault-related uplift resulted in minor unconformities. In the Early Miocene, the extensional regime changed to transpressional or obliquely con ergent (Walcott 1998; Sutherland et al. 2006b). Pre-existing, predominantly normal faults became predominantly reverse and/or strikeslip, and basin e ersion began in the Waiau and Te Anau basins. In the Middle Miocene, Fiordland began moving northward relati e to the Longwood and Takitimu ranges, with mo ement on the oonlight and Hollyford fault systems, on faults in Fo eaux Strait (Turnbull et al. 1993), and on major brittle faults within Fiordland. The latter probably included the reacti ated Dusky, Lake Fraser and Spey- ica urn faults, and northeast-trending faults extending from Wet acket Arm to the Large urn (Fig. 67). A consequence of obliquely con erging plate motion was the initiation of a component of subduction south of Fiordland in the iocene, which has since accelerated (Sutherland et al. 2006b). The Australian Plate has been obliquely subducted to a depth of ca. 150 km (EberhartPhillips & Reyners 2001), although the total amount of inter-plate mo ement is much more (Sutherland et al. 2000). Subduction-related uplift, which began at ca.15 a around Dusky Sound, propagated northward to reach northern Fiordland in the Pliocene (House et al. 2005; R. Sutherland, pers. comm.). Late Cenozoic uplift is most pronounced in western Fiordland, west of the major intra-Fiordland faults listed abo e, implying that these ha e been acti e o er the past 515 million years. Fiordland has been uplifted, tilted and rotated, and its Cenozoic cover stripped away, in a series of discrete fault-bounded blocks, rather than deforming as one rigid block. Late Cenozoic deformation is distributed among fault networks adjacent to the Alpine Fault (Claypool et al. 2002), as well as localised on the Straight River and Anita shear zones (King et al. 2008). Although southern Fiordland was relati ely quiescent in the Late iocene and Pliocene (Sutherland et al. 2006b), renewed Pliocene to Holocene shortening of the northern Solander asin caused up to 20 km of strike-slip mo ement

on the onshore Hauroko Fault, and closure of the Waitutu Sub-basin along the Waitutu Thrust and Hump Ridge faults (Turnbull ruski 1995; Sutherland et al. 2006b). Downfaulting of Cenozoic rocks into Fiordland basement along NE- and NW-trending faults such as the Sandy, iddle Fiord, and t Cuthbert faults, and the eastern extension of the Dusky Fault (Zink 2000) dates from late Miocene and Pliocene time (Fig. 67). Basin closure and northeasterly-directed shortening of between 50 and 100 km has also affected northern Fiordland, where most of the rook Street and aitai terranes ha e been excised. Within and east of the Anita Shear Zone, some Late Cenozoic plate boundary mo ement was also transmitted onto brittle faults ( lepeis et al. 1999; Claypool et al. 2002). MODERN TECTONIC SETTING Fiordland now lies southeast of the Alpine Fault, the most ob ious and acti e expression of the boundary between the Pacic and Australian plates. The relative plate motion is highly oblique, with most mo ement being con erted to dextral strike-slip on the Alpine Fault, and a smaller amount being absorbed by slip of the subducting Australian Plate (Eberhart-Phillips Reyners 2001; arnes et al. 2002; Reyners et al. 2002; Sutherland et al. 2006a). The subducted plate dips more steeply to the north beneath northern Fiordland, and is sub- ertical below 75 km (see Fig. 73) down to ca. 150 km (Sutherland & Melhuish 2000; Eberhart-Phillips & Reyners 2001). The subducted slab is bent and torn (Reyners et al. 1991, 2002; Sutherland et al. 2000; Eberhart-Phillips & Reyners 2001). Seismic activity in Fiordland occurs on and within arious segments of the subducted Australian Plate, predominantly by normal faulting abo e ca. 16 km, and by thrust faulting at greater depths (Reyners et al. 2002, 2003). Wedges of Holocene sediment offshore are being deformed by shortening immediately west of the Alpine Fault, accommodating as much as 20% of the modern plate motion ( arnes et al. 2005). Subduction-related uplift at ca. 0.5 mm/yr continues in southern and western Fiordland, as shown by marine sedimentary inliers (Turnbull et al. 2007) and the presence of raised marine benches ( im Sutherland 2004; Fig. 63). The remainder of the plate boundary motion is accommodated on the Alpine Fault, and on nearby subsidiary faults onland. These include the Fi e Fingers and Two Fingers faults on Resolution Island, and acti e traces south of Dusky Sound and on Fi e Fingers Peninsula. Rates of strike-slip mo ement on the Alpine Fault vary from 23.1 1.7 mm/yr in northern Fiordland (Sutherland et al. 2006a) to an extreme 31.4 -3.5 mm/yr near 2.1 Doubtful Sound (Barnes 2009).

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GEOLOGICAL RESOURCES
Almost the whole map area is within Fiordland National Park, an area of outstanding natural beauty and high conser ation alue that is internationally recognised by its status as a World Heritage Site. Despite its rugged and remote nature, much of Fiordland was prospected for minerals by hardy indi iduals in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Deposits of mica, marble and metallic minerals were disco ered and some were worked on a small scale. Following extensi e allu ial gold mining, se eral hard-rock underground mines were established in the major goldeld that developed at Preservation Inlet (Hall-Jones 1982, 1987; Begg & Begg 1973; Petchey 2005, 2009a,b). Another phase of geochemical prospecting in the 1970s outlined numerous anomalies, which ha e yet to be followed up (Williamson 1972; Hancock 1977). The economic geology of the map area is described by Christie & Doole (1989) and Cotton et al. (1991), based on Geological Resource Map of New Zealand (GERM) data. This section summarises and updates those reports. METALLIC MINERALS Alluvial gold Gold was rst reported from southwest Fiordland in 1863 (McKay 1896). Alluvial workings in the Preservation Inlet goldeld extended from Cavern Head and Welcome Bay south to the Wilson Ri er and the south coast (Williams 1974; Christie & Doole 1989), but were concentrated around Coal Island and Te Oneroa. Gold was sluiced from raised marine terrace deposits, possibly from glacial deposits (McKay 1896), and from Holocene gravels reworked by ri ers and streams draining the older deposits. The total amount of alluvial gold recovered from Preservation Inlet is unknown, but may ha e exceeded 250 kg. ining had effecti ely ceased by 1905, although there was a brief revival in the 1930s (Hall-Jones 1982). Alluvial gold was also mined from Holocene stream gra els and beach sands at the Wolff Ri er on the West Coast (Hall- ones 1982; Cotton et al. 1991). This gold was probably derived from mineralised ein systems in the nearby reenland roup. Hard roc gold iners following up auriferous streams e entually disco ered t gold-bearing quartz reef systems in the Wilson Ri er catchment, abo e Te Oneroa, and at Cuttle Cove and Isthmus Sound on the north side of Preservation Inlet. The Golden Site (Fig. 70), Alpha and Morning Star underground mines operated at arious times between 1892 and 1908, producing some 233 kg of gold (Williams 1974). The Tarawera and Crown mines failed through lack of ore resources (Petchey 2009a,b). At the Tarawera Mine (or Bradshaws reef; Christie & Doole 1989), gold accompanied by arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite was hosted by possibly magmatic-hydrothermal quartz veins in Cretaceous Treble Mountain Granite (Gollan 2006). In contrast, the other vein systems are hosted by greenschist facies, schistose Preser ation Formation metasedimentary rocks. eins are associated with minor calcite, abundant pyrite, and argentiferous galena, normally in brecciated fold hinges (Benson 1934), and do not appear to be directly related to the nearby Cretaceous Re ol er granite. The style of mineralisation, age and type of host rocks, and proximity to granite plutons at the Preservation Inlet goldeld are similar to those of the Reefton and Aorere elds in Buller and Nelson respecti ely. Other metallic minerals Platinum, although found as a detrital mineral in the Waiau Ri er east of Fiordland, has not been traced to any source in the ultramac rocks of Fiordland (Mitchell 1996). Although there are traces of sil er at the Tarawera ine ( ollan 2006), and higher grades may be present (McKay 1896), sil er has not been reported from any allu ial workings. Rare occurrences of copper in the form of chalcopyrite are hosted by gabbro, hornblendite, and other ultramac rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age in Fiordland (Williams 1974; Pirajno 1981). Chalcopyrite and associated pyrrhotite, pyrite and Fe Ti oxides are concentrated in zones that follow magmatic layering. nown occurrences are up to 8 m wide and 50 m long, with up to 0.7% Cu in chip samples. Chalcopyrite also occurs in propylitic alteration zones up to 1 km by 1.5 km across in the Mistake Diorite, lade and Nurse suites, and Largs roup in northern Fiordland. Although Cu grades are locally ele ated to 120 ppm near intrusi e contacts, they are generally less than ca. 80 ppm (Pirajno 1981; Craw et al. 1997). Chalcopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite with copper grades of up to 0.7%, sometimes with up to 0.77% nickel, occur in hornblendite bands and ultramac pods within some Western Fiordland Orthogneiss plutons (Williams 1974, g. 22-12). Native copper occurs south of t Luxmore in association with chalcopyrite and carbonate in the Luxmore Mac Igneous Complex, possibly formed by supergene enrichment beneath the o erlying Tunnel urn Formation limestone (Mutch 1967). Rare molybdenum was reported from the rst Manapouri tailrace tunnel (Williams 1974), possibly associated with the West Arm Leucogranite. Polymetallic zinc, lead and copper silver mineralisation occurs in two en ironments in Fiordland. Calc-silicates, marbles, and psammitic and amphibolitic rocks in the Deep Cove Gneiss, Irene Complex, and Cameron Group contain thin, layer-parallel bands locally enriched in chalcopyrite, pyrite, nickeliferous pyrite, chromite, magnetite, pentlandite and bornite (Park 1924; Williams 1974; Hancock 1977; Christie & Doole 1989). The Mount Solitary copper lode in the Cameron ountains is the largest known example, comprising mineralised bands up to 150 mm thick in a zone 1015 m wide that is traceable for more than 700 m (Hancock 1977). At Dana Peaks in the Murchison Mountains, patchy propylitic alteration, and more intense phyllitic alteration within shear zones, affects Dana Tonalite, Murchison Intrusives, and imbricated slices of Loch Burn Formation. Disseminated galena, chalcopyrite and sphalerite occur in highly altered rocks adjacent to the shears and in cogenetic quartz-carbonate K-feldspar hematite veins. Rock chip samples contain up to 30 g/t silver, 0.1% copper, 1.3% lead and 1% zinc.

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Iron, titanium and vanadium-bearing minerals occur in Cretaceous mac units such as Mt George and Howitt Peaks gabbros, and in Paleozoic mac units such as the Black Giants Anorthosite and Tower Intrusives (Hancock 1977; Williams 1974, g. 22-8). The magnetite and ilmenite mineralisation is concentrated in narrow layers within the mac plutons, generally disrupted by later metamorphism and faulting. A magnetite-ilmenite deposit at Mt George (Fig. 33) was explored in the 1970s. Bands up to 6 m wide with up to 50% magnetite and ilmenite are hosted by hypersthene-augite gabbronorite (Main 1973), and contain up to 1.2% vanadium. Paleozoic gabbro near Lake Roe also contains 1.21.4% anadium in magnetiteilmentite bands (Williams 1974). Ultramac rocks from the Tower Intrusives also have elevated nickel (440 ppm) and chromium (360 ppm) contents. Cassiterite (an ore of tin) is an abundant detrital heavy mineral in some Cenozoic rocks around Lake Manapouri (Hutton & Turner 1936). The only known potential cassiterite source in edian atholith rocks in Fiordland is a pegmatite near Wilmot Pass (Turner 1937). Rutile is an abundant hea y mineral in concentrates from beach sands in western Fiordland (Watters 1977), along with magnetite and ilmenite. The latter minerals are especially abundant in the black, hornblende-rich sands of Coal Ri er (Hancock 1972). Zircon is ubiquitous in Fiordland plutonic rocks. It dominates the heavy mineral assemblage in some Cenozoic rocks (Smale 1985a,b, 1990) and in some modern beach sands (Watters 1977).

NON METALLIC RESOURCES Peat Peaty soils are widespread and typical of Fiordland, and can reach considerable thicknesses where er stream gradients are low behind rock barriers, moraine or landslide deposits. Peat domes, up to 1 km across and 5 m thick, ha e formed on outwash gra els in the Lill urn and Waikoau catchments (Turnbull & Uruski 1995), and also on some marine terraces (Wardle et al. 1973). Most peat domes are still forming and some in the Lill urn ha e been exploited for sphagnum moss, rather than for peat. Coal Small quantities of sub-bituminous coal were mined from Puysegur and alleny group rocks around Preser ation Inlet during the gold mining era of the 1880s, but seams are thin, with medium to ery high ash content. Coal seams further east within the alleny roup at ig Ri er (Lindqvist & Turnbull 1987), and in the Late Eocene Hump Ridge Formation (Turnbull & Uruski 1995), are thin and geographically isolated. A coal seam up to 2 m thick within the Oligocene Point urn Formation north of Lake onowai extends for se eral hundred metres. Seams of low- to highash coal, seldom more than 12 m thick, are common in the upper part of the Late Eocene Earl ountains Sandstone (Turnbull et al. 1993). Total coal reserves are unknown, but are unlikely to be economically signicant.

Figure 70 This stamper battery at the Golden Site gold mine in the

ilson River Gorge last operated in 1908.

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Hydrocarbons Sequences within the Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary basins contain potential reser oir rocks, as well as hydrocarbon sources in the form of Eocene coals and associated carbonaceous mudstones. Structural and stratigraphic traps occur in many places ( ruski 1991; eggs et al. 2000; Beggs & Ghisetti 2006). The only known gas seep, on a strand of the ellmount Fault in the Hindley urn, has a Cretaceous Ohai roup geochemical signature (Lyon & Giggenbach 1990). The Te Anau and Waiau sedimentary basins ha e been partly explored for hydrocarbons with reconnaissance seismic sur eys and some more detailed sur eys o er indi idual prospects. Se eral wildcat wells ha e been drilled in the eastern Waiau asin since the 1970s ( eggs et al. 2000), more recently targeting coal seam gas. Exploration has been mainly in areas east of the Fiordland map sheet, in the Waiau and Te Anau basins, although seismic lines run by A OCO co er the Lill urn catchment and the area east of Hump Ridge (Hutson & Smith 1987). The 3270-m-deep well Happy Valley-1, drilled with some difculty in the Lill Burn valley (Carter & Rainey 1988), was plugged and abandoned as a dry hole. The thick Cretaceous to Cenozoic sedimentary sequence offshore has been mapped by se eral seismic sur eys, most recently in 2005. The Parara Anticline within the Hautere Sub-basin was drilled in 1976; Parara-1 penetrated 3600 m of Late Eocene to Quaternary sediments overlying mac gneiss (HIPCO 1976). The 1991-m-deep Solander-1 well was drilled to basement on the Solander Ridge, between the Hautere and Waitutu sub-basins (Renton 1986). The onshore Waitutu Sub-basin has not been prospected. Data from earlier surveys are summarised by Uruski (1991) and Turnbull et al. (1993). More recent interpretations of offshore basin de elopment and structure are gi en by Sutherland & Melhuish (2000), Sutherland et al. (2006) and Frith (2006).

Within the Solander asin, Cretaceous source rocks may be present at depth (Turnbull et al. 1993). Eocene coal measures probably contain more extensi e potential source rocks, sealed by o erlying Oligocene to Pliocene turbidites (Turnbull et al. 1993; Sutherland & Melhuish 2000). olcanic rocks are intercalated within the Late Pliocene and younger sediments west of the Hauroko Fault, and the intrusive roots of the Solander Island Volcanics interrupt the Solander Ridge sequence, locally downgrading the hydrocarbon potential. Parara-1 and Solander-1 offshore wells were dry, although traces of hydrocarbons were noted in both (Frith 2006). Coals were intersected by both wells, as well as abundant potential reser oir sandstones. Coaly source rocks in the Solander asin ha e been buried deeply enough to achie e maturity, and to generate and expel both oil and gas. Se eral large anticlinal structural traps (Sutherland elhuish 2000; Sutherland et al. 2006b), and numerous smaller traps with both fault and four-way fold closure have been identied (Uruski 1991). The offshore Solander asin remains prospecti e and under-explored (Frith 2006). Within the Balleny Basin, potential source rocks occur in the Puysegur Group (Cretaceous) and lower Balleny Group (Eocene). They include coal, carbonaceous mudstone, and marginal marine mudstone. Reser oir sandstones could exist in the lower alleny roup. The marly limestone of the overlying Oligocene Chalky Island Formation is a potential seal. The hydrocarbon potential immediately offshore west of Fiordland is minimal, as the basins are lled with very young sediments and cut by numerous acti e faults. A gas seep at Poison Bay (Lyon & Giggenbach 1990) that produces hydrogen and methane, with traces of nitrogen and inert gases, rises from alteration of nearby Anita Ultramates. An oil seep in Cenozoic sediments at Madagascar Beach, north of Yates Point, taps the offshore Westland sedimentary sequence, but is considered insignicant in terms of exploration (Cook 1988; Cotton et al. 1991).

Figure 71 Coarse muscovite in pegmatite, typical of that mined at Mt lwood above the George Sound Track. The hand lens is 30 mm long.

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Limestone Large quantities of Cenozoic limestone are present within the Tunnel urn Formation. Other limestone deposits occur in the Clifden Subgroup at Helmet Hill, and limestone of lesser purity is also present in the McIvor and Goldie Hill formations in the Lill urn alley. Howe er, with large operating quarries in the Clifden Subgroup beyond the map area at Clifden, these deposits are unlikely to be exploited. Aggregate The gra els forming modern ri er beds and older Quaternary outwash plains pro ide large reser es of aggregate close to areas of demand on the few roads in the Fiordland map area. Howe er, in the more mountainous areas beside the ilford Road, the ri er gra els may be bouldery, so aggregate must either be screened, crushed, or brought in from pits with more suitable grain sizes. Clasts are almost all hard and fresh so abrasion resistance is high. any gra el pits in acti e stream and ri er beds are probably sustainable, with gravel being replenished during frequent oods. Mineral sands The garnet sands of Fiordland beaches ha e been prospected by se eral companies. arnet sands at Transit each and Poison Bay have been reported on by Wood (1960b) and McKellar (1976). Most of the garnet is almandine, deri ed from granulite or upper amphibolite facies rocks, although grossular and rare u aro ite occur in calc-silicate gneisses and may form a minor component. While garnet is abundant, its industrial potential as an abrasi e is reduced because the grains are typically well rounded and fractured, with many inclusions. uilding stone and riprap Small quantities of ornamental marble were quarried in Dusky and Caswell sounds (Christie Doole 1989; Cotton et al. 1991). Although marble is widespread in metasedimentary units throughout Fiordland, no other deposits ha e been worked. Riprap from a quarry in tonalite and granodiorite at the foot of Paddock Hill immediately east of the Fiordland map area was used during construction of the araroa Weir. Clean, freshly broken blocks of gneiss, diorite and granite, sourced from exca ations at the anapouri power scheme, ha e been used for facing buildings in Te Anau. Local supplies of boulders for erosion protection can normally be obtained from nearby ri ers. Thermal springs Warm springs are known from the Henry Burn, Irene Ri er, Transit alley, and from below sea le el in eorge

Sound ( ongillo Clelland 1984; Lyon iggenbach 1990). Springs located in Toe Cove at the head of Nancy Sound (Tiama Spring), and at the mouth of the Billy urn gorge, are only slightly warm and smell strongly of hydrogen sulphide. The illy urn spring may be related to a nearby fault. Groundwater With its notoriously high rainfall and seemingly limitless resources of surface water, Fiordland is not normally seen as having a need for groundwater. Excess groundwater inow was a serious problem in exca ations such as the Homer and anapouri tunnels, entering through crush and fault zones. Groundwater can be obtained from shallow aquifers in the outwash gra els of the Te Anau and Waiau basins, normally with ample recharge from rainfall or adjacent streams. Older gra els, such as the Prospect Formation, are weathered and make relati ely poor aquifers. Other materials The only documented occurrences of serpentinite are within the Anita Ultramates of the Anita Shear Zone, at Anita Bay and Poison Bay (Beck & Mason 2002). They contain semi-precious takiwai or bowenite (frontispiece), and oat material has been worked by Maori for many generations. owenite has not been reported from the Anita Ultramates in the Thurso River and near Lake Ronald, or from the Anita Ultramates south of Poison Bay. Cobbles of bowenite ha e been found in the Transit and Wolff rivers (Beck & Mason 2002); the latter are derived from sediments transported northeast from their source in the Anita Ultramates by movement on the Alpine Fault. usco ite mica was mined from pegmatite dikes within Lake Hankinson Complex at t Elwood abo e the eorge Sound Track, but mining ceased around 1906 (Willett 1946). The muscovite forms plates or books up to 2 cm thick and 20 cm across, with a tendency to split into strips along a secondary clea age. Numerous other occurrences of coarse muscovite were noted by Willett (1946) and more were recorded during current eld work (Fig. 71), but none ha e commercial potential. Rare gem stones ha e occasionally been reported from Fiordland. Beryl at Dusky Sound (Hutton & Seelye 1946) may be a misidentication of uvarovite, the green variety of garnet. The green feldspar amazonite, derived from pegmatite dikes, occurs in oat in the upper Lill Burn catchments. Corundum (not of gem quality) occurs as a metamorphic mineral in some high-grade metasedimentary rocks, such as the arguerite Amphibolite (Scott et al. 2009c) and the Irene Complex.

75

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
This section pro ides generalised information to assist geotechnical investigations and hazard assessments, but is not a substitute for detailed site in estigations. Potential difculties with some rock types are highlighted in those regions where infrastructure has been or may be de eloped. One of New ealands largest engineering projects, the anapouri power scheme, lies within the map area and engineering geological aspects of this scheme ha e recei ed considerable attention (Fig. 72). Paleo oic to Early Cretaceous roc s Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous plutonic rocks throughout Fiordland are in general strong to ery strong rocks, capable of supporting ery steep slopes. Quaternary glacial erosion and present-day erosion processes in this region of steep slopes and high rainfall have removed most surcial weathered material, so plutonic rocks tend to be fresh and hard. Paleozoic to Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks are also generally strong, hard and fresh, and capable of standing steeply in large faces, but they ha e additional potential failure surfaces with more closely spaced foliation defects. ariability in rock strength on outcrop or excavation scale is strongly inuenced by the thickness and orientation of foliation. nfoliated plutonic rocks tend to be more predictable in their properties than foliated and banded gneisses. neissic rocks may also be folded, with rapidly varying orientation, and are thus more difcult to characterise from an engineering point of iew. The anapouri power scheme, particularly the second tailrace tunnel, encountered ariable drilling properties because of change in rock types on scales of 1 m to 100 m (Fig. 72B). Landsliding on all scales is common within both plutonic and metasedimentary rocks, inuenced by the steep to o ersteepened slopes, and by earthquake shaking. Failure surfaces are commonly joints, and in more gneissic and metasedimentary rocks they include planar foliation defects. These rocks ha e widely arying engineering properties. Sandstone (for example, above the Eglinton valley) and limestone (at the Te Ana-Au caves) are hard, strong rocks, with widely spaced joints. oth are capable of forming prominent vertical to overhanging cliffs (Fig. 48B), which may generate block falls and landslides during large earthquakes. Conglomerates of all ages tend to erode more readily, as clasts fall out of the softer matrix. udstone (such as the widespread Waicoe Formation) is soft and weak, e en when fresh, and erodes readily by surface aking during wetting and drying. Mudstone is also prone to landsliding on all scales and creates particular difculties for roading. Landsliding on Waicoe Formation, for example on the ilford Road south of the Eglinton alley, requires careful design of surface and subsurface drainage. Quaternary sediments The unconsolidated gravels and sands on valley oors and atter land within and east of Fiordland are soft, loose and weak. E en the oldest glacial deposits are still considered to be engineering soils. Steep batters are prone to fretting and collapse, and roads require drainage works capable of handling high-intensity rainstorms. All unconsolidated materials are prone to ground-shaking amplication and potential liquefaction during Fiordlands numerous earthquakes, and peaty soils and peat swamps in particular may amplify ground shaking to damaging le els. Where infrastructure is at risk from landsliding, assessment of joint patterns and foliation attitudes is critical. Fault zones, where rocks are crushed and commonly altered, ha e decreased strength and hardness, as is seen in the narrow gullies and guts that de elop preferentially along these zones. In underground excavations such as Homer Tunnel and the Manapouri power scheme, fault zones were problematic as they were groundwater conduits. Cretaceous and Ceno oic sedimentary roc s

76

B
Figure 72 The Manapouri power scheme was one of New Zealands largest engineering projects. It required considerable geological input during e cavation and construction phases, and in assessing the environmental impact. A: The second tailrace tunnel, seen here under construction, provided e cellent e posure along a 7-km transect through the geological roots of Fiordland. B: The wall of the second tailrace tunnel illustrates rapidly varying rock properties: horizontal, folded and dipping gneissic foliation pegmatite (white), amphibolite (grey) and gabbro (dark) dikes and minor faults (centre). The black squares are rock bolts, and the faint sub-vertical striations (arrowed) are from the tunnel boring machine. Photos: A. . llo h.

77

GEOLOGICAL HA ARDS
The numerous geological hazards within the Fiordland area are discussed in regional assessments by an Dissen et al. (1993) and Glassey (2006). Hazards include landsliding, earthquake shaking and liquefaction, erosion, and tsunami. Many of these hazards are inuenced by geological factors such as rock strength and defects, and the presence and activity of faults. The hazards are summarised here, but this map and text should not be used for detailed natural hazard zonation or assessment of specic sites. Recording of sitespecic natural hazard information is the responsibility of local authorities and an awareness of the presence of major hazards, and their potential for recurrence, is essential for regional and district planning purposes. Earth ua es Numerous large earthquakes (magnitude 6 and greater3) are known to ha e occurred within the Fiordland map area (Fig. 73). An earthquake in 1826 was at least M7.2 (Downes et al. 2005). More recent large events such as the 1988 M6.7 Te Anau, 1993 6.8 Secretary, and 2003 7.2 Fiordland earthquakes caused damage to infrastructure and buildings in and near Fiordland (Hancox et al. 2003; Reyners et al. 2003). The most recent large event was the M7.8 Dusky Sound earthquake in uly 2009 (Cox ongens 2009; Wilson et al. 2009). Despite its magnitude, the energy in this earthquake was released slowly and focussed offshore, resulting in ery little damage. Earthquakes in the southern South Island (Fig. 73) are concentrated within the zone of seismicity along the Australian-Pacic plate boundary, including the Alpine Fault. Deformation caused by both subduction and strikeslip components of oblique plate collision is responsible for many earthquakes, which occur down to about 160 km. Large earthquakes can cause moderate to strong shaking. For example, the 1988 Te Anau earthquake, 57 km beneath Fiordland, caused shaking intensities of up to 8 close to the epicentre, and the 2009 Dusky Sound earthquake produced MM 7 intensity shaking in Invercargill. Large shallow earthquakes may rupture to the surface along faults. In the Fiordland map area, fault ruptures (active fault traces) are known from the Dusky and oonlight fault systems (including the Hauroko Fault), and on the Alpine Fault. Of these major faults, the Alpine Fault is the most acti e, and is considered capable of producing earthquakes up to 8 e ery 300400 years. ased on recalculations of slip rate in northern Fiordland, Sutherland et al. (2006a) conclude that the seismic hazard is higher than previously thought within an 80-km-wide zone of distributed deformation east of the Alpine Fault, rather than being concentrated on the fault itself. The southern Fiordland coast is more likely to be affected by major earthquakes along the Puysegur subduction zone, where an M8.58.6 earthquake may occur (Downes et al. 2005). The magnitude and likely return periods for earthquakes on the acti e Dusky and Hauroko fault systems are not known. Other acti e faults are scattered throughout Fiordland (for example, around outer Dusky Sound and in the Franklin Mountains), and many more are likely to exist. There are innumerable small brittle faults of presumed Late Cenozoic age, but the combination of high rainfall and erosion rates, and lack of marker horizons within plutonic rocks, means any recent movement on these faults is difcult to identify. Stirling et al. (2002) have calculated return periods for major earthquakes (MM intensities of 4 and above), and estimated the maximum ground shaking which can be expected from such e ents. They show that for a erage sites (with less than 3 m of soil and underlain by rock), a Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of 0.5 to 0.8g may be experienced o er Fiordland e ery 475 years. reater P As of more than 1g can be expected e ery thousand years in those parts of Fiordland near the Alpine Fault. Stirling et al. (2002) also suggest that there is a 10% chance in 50 years of an 9 shaking e ent affecting northwest Fiordland. The cumulati e long-term potential for damage from ground shaking (PGS) diminishes away from the Alpine Fault. Howe er, earthquakes on other acti e faults, such as the Hauroko or oonlight faults, will cause maximum damage in the east. The effects of ground shaking may extend to settling of unconsolidated sediments, progressing to liquefaction in saturated material; local amplication of shaking at sites with more than 3 m of soil; delta collapse and consequent tsunami in lakes and the sea; and triggering of landslides and rock falls, which may also cause tsunami (see below). Although local earthquakes may create tsunami up to 2 m high, they may lea e few traces (Wilson et al. 2009). The likely effects of earthquakes at sites within and adjacent to Fiordland ha e been estimated by an Dissen et al. (1993) and Glassey (2006).

Magnitude and Modied Mercalli intensity are frequently used earthquake terms. Magnitude (M) is a means of ranking the size of earthquakes. It is calculated using instrumental records of earthquake shaking. The Modied Mercalli intensity scale (MM scale; see text bo ) is a descriptive scale used to rank the strength or intensity of shaking produced by an earthquake at a location. The MM intensity level is determined by noting the effects of shaking on people, ttings, structures and the environment. To date, MM 10 is the highest MM intensity level reliably observed in New Zealand.

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The Modied Mercalli intensity scale (MM)


The Modied Mercalli intensity scale (summarised from Downes (1995), Dowrick (1996) and Hancox et al. (2002)) is a descriptive scale used to rank the intensity of an earthquake at a particular location. The intensity of any earthquake will vary from place to place, because of factors such as distance from the epicentre and localised differences in ground conditions (for example, shaking will be much greater on swampy ground than on solid rock).

MM 2 Felt by people at rest, on upper oors or favourably placed.

MM 3 Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks.

MM 4 Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration like passing of heavy trafc. Doors and windows rattle. Walls and frames of buildings may be heard to creak.

MM 5 Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Open doors may swing.

MM 6 Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Furniture or objects may move on smooth surfaces. Objects fall from shelves. Glassware and crockery broken. Slight damage to some types of buildings. A few cases of chimney damage. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground. A few very small (e.g. <1000 m3) shallow landslides and rockfalls occur.

MM 7 General alarm. Furniture and appliances may be shifted and unstable items overturned. Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Some pre-earthquake code buildings damaged. Roof tiles may be dislodged. Many domestic chimneys broken. Small falls of sand and gravel banks. Some ne cracks appear in sloping ground and ridge crests. Rockfalls from steep slopes and cuttings are common. A few small to moderate landslides (e.g. 1 000 to 10 000 m3) occur on steeper slopes. Some instances of liquefaction at susceptible sites.

MM 8 Alarm may approach panic. Steering of cars greatly affected. Some serious damage to pre-earthquake code masonry buildings. Most reinforced domestic chimneys damaged, many brought down. Monuments and elevated tanks twisted or brought down. Some post-1980 brick veneer dwellings damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Cracks may appear on slopes and in wet ground. On slopes in steep or weak ground, numerous small to moderate landslides and some large landslides (e.g. 100 000 m3). Collapse of roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small sand fountains and other instances of liquefaction.

MM 9 Very poor quality unreinforced masonry destroyed. Pre-earthquake code masonry buildings heavily damaged or collapse. Damage or distortion to some pre-1980 buildings and bridges. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose framing. Conspicuous cracking of at and sloping ground. On steep slopes, many small to large landslides and some very large (>1 000 000 m3) landslides and rock avalanches that may block narrow valleys and form lakes. Liquefaction effects intensied, with large sand fountains and extensive cracking or settlement of weak ground.

MM 10 Most unreinforced masonry structures destroyed. Many pre-earthquake code buildings destroyed. Many pre-1980 buildings and bridges seriously damaged. Many post-1980 buildings and bridges moderately damaged or permanently distorted. Widespread cracking of at and sloping ground. Widespread and severe landsliding on sloping ground. Very large landslides (>106m3) from steep mountain faces and coastal cliffs. Widespread and severe liquefaction.

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Cenozoic to Holocene faults


C

active inactive

B A

Magnitude 4 to 4.9
E

5 to 5.9 6 to 6.9 7 and greater

0 km

100

QMAP Fiordland map area

Depth 0-39 km 40-69 km 70-99 km 100-149 km 150-200 km

Subducting Australian plate

NORTH
B

Figure 73 A: arthquakes since 1900 in and around the Fiordland map area. These are plotted according to magnitude, and in relation to known major Cenozoic faults. Major earthquake epicentres marked by black triangles are: A, Secretary 1993, M6.8 B, Fiordland 2003, M7.2 C, Te Anau 1988 M6.7 D, Milford 1976, M6.5 , Dusky Sound 2009, M7.8. The M7 earthquake off Charles Sound occurred in 1938. There is little correlation between earthquake epicentres and surface traces of faults mapped in Fiordland, with the possible e ception of those clustering along the Alpine Fault, as most larger earthquakes are related to the deeper subduction interface. B: Major and minor earthquakes of the Fiordland area, plotted according to depth and seen in perspective from the northeast. The concentration of deeper earthquakes toward the northeast reects the increasing depth of the Australian Plate beneath northern Fiordland. The subducting plate dips progressively more steeply toward the north, and is subvertical beneath northern Fiordland. Adapted from the New Zealand Earthquake Catalogue 2009. 3D block model generated using ARANZ Earth Research software.

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Landslides Innumerable landslides are known within Fiordland, ranging in size from the giant 27 km3 reen Lake Landslide that co ers 45 km2 (Hancox & Perrin 1994), to slope failures of less than a few cubic metres (Fig. 61). Hancox & Perrin (2009) identied about 30 larger landslides with olumes 106 m3, which were probably triggered by earthquakes beneath Fiordland with shaking intensities of more than 910. any smaller landslides are clearly earthquake-triggered, as shown by the August 2003 e ent (Fig. 74). Rainstorms also set off many landslides (Read 1976; Thomson 1994). Nearly all the mapped landslides are within alleys that date from the last major glaciation, therefore the landslides are less than ca. 18 000 years old. The number and magnitude of these young landslides show that Fiordland has an extremely high rate of landslide activity, and the landslide hazard is also extreme. Specic conditions conduci e to landsliding include: unfa ourably oriented foliation, joint or fault planes; steep to extremely steep, recently deglaciated slopes; high groundwater pore pressures, inuenced by periods of unusually heavy rainfall (Read 1976); high lake levels; and most signicantly, earthquake triggering. Stronger ground shaking and/or longer shaking periods will create more and generally larger landslides.

Incipient landslides are also common, and are indicated by slope collapse features such as ridge rents (Fig. 75). These ha e scarps from 1 m to 10 m high, facing up-slope; tarns are often found in the trenches behind. They are formed when slopes topple outward e a e (sackng) under the inuence of gravity. Earthquake shaking may cause these features to collapse and break up into landslides. Incipient landslides can also be recognised on narrow ridges, where trenches and potential headscarps extend tens of metres back from steep upper slopes into apparently stable ground. This fracturing is more common on steep, narrow ridges than on broader crests, as ground shaking becomes amplied and focussed upward. On Secretary Island, near the epicentre of the 2003 Fiordland earthquake, many ridge crests were se erely affected by ridge fracturing. Large earthquakes may also trigger submarine and sublacustrine landslides. Slope collapse would be likely following rupture of offshore and onland traces of the Alpine Fault ( arnes et al. 2005). River deltas around lakes and ords may also collapse during large earthquakes (Hancox et al. 2003; Forsyth et al. 2006). Underwater landslides should be expected from earthquake shaking greater than about 6.

Figure 74 Many small landslides were triggered by the August 2003 Fiordland earthquake. On Secretary Island (centre), the landslides occurred in granite and intercalated metasedimentary rocks, many of which are shattered and fractured. The outer Fiordland coastline, on Secretary Island and elsewhere (see front cover), has been undermined and oversteepened by wave action rather than by glacial erosion, and slopes are collapsing along open joints. The coastline is thus relatively more vulnerable to landsliding. The large landslide east of Thompson Sound (left middle distance) is in Deas Cove Granite and threatened the Deas Cove Hut, which has since been removed. Photo CN48098B: D.L. Homer.

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The most frequent landslide hazard in Fiordland is posed by hea y rain e ents. Nearly e ery rainstorm triggers shallow slope failures in steep, peaty soils that are poorly bonded to underlying rock, and usually laden with trees. Such landslides frequently block the ilford Road (e.g. Wandres et al. 1998), and both the Borland Saddle and Wilmot Pass roads are often cut by minor rain-triggered landslides. Walking tracks and huts are also ulnerable (Thomson 1994; Fig. 76), but huts are normally re-sited once a landslide or a alanche risk has been recognised. Future large earthquakes (M7.58 or greater) on the Alpine Fault and the subduction zone beneath Fiordland will almost certainly trigger rock falls, rock slides and rock a alanches throughout Fiordland. ecause of their potentially greater size, earthquake-triggered landslides (such as Green Lake; Hancox & Perrin 2009) present a greater hazard than raininduced landslides to the ilford and other roads, mountain huts and tracks, and tourist centres like ilford Sound. Tsunami Flooding and damage due to tsunami are possible along all sea and lake shorelines within the Fiordland map area. Tsunami are generated by sudden large mo ements of the sea oor or lake beds, caused by local or distant earthquakes, submarine olcanic eruptions, submarine or sub-lacustrine landslides, or delta collapse initiated by strong earthquake

shaking. Tsunami are known to ha e affected coastal Fiordland in about 1820 and 1826 (Downes et al. 2005). During the 2003 Fiordland earthquake, a rockfall into old Arm, Charles Sound, created a locally damaging tsunami 45 m high (Fig. 77; Hancox et al. 2003). Tsunami damage from the 2009 earthquake, in contrast, was minimal (Wilson et al. 2009). Tsunami generated by distant e ents take many hours to reach New Zealand, sufcient time for Civil Defence to take appropriate action. The risk from distant e ents is relati ely low as there are few potential sources in the southern Tasman Sea. Locally generated tsunami are of more concern, as wa e heights may be large enough to be damaging and life-threatening, possibly catastrophic, and tra el times too short for warnings to be issued. Local tsunami may persist for up to twel e hours, and distant source tsunami for as long as three days. Tsunami may also be caused by landsliding into or beneath lakes following earthquakes (Forsyth et al. 2006). A major rock fall into any Fiordland lake could ha e potentially disastrous results for lakeshore constructions and their occupants. The marine tsunami hazard in Fiordland was studied and modelled by Downes et al. (2005). Their work suggests offshore segments of the Alpine Fault may rupture in an 7.8 earthquake and create tsunami up to 4 m high along the western Fiordland coast. The southern coast may be affected by tsunami of up to 4 m, emanating from major

Figure 75 Ridge rents at the head of an incipient major landslide, caused by gravitational collapse of glacially oversteepened slopes north of Poteriteri Peak. Lake Poteriteri (right) is covered in fog.

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Figure 76 The epler Track crosses the runout zone of the 198 Iris Burn landslide (open ground, centre), which began in bluffs of jointed Hunter Intrusives diorite and was probably triggered by heavy rain (Thomson 199 ). This view upstream also shows the debris of a much older landslide, which forms the forested mound in the middle right distance. Beyond the mound lie the Iris Burn Hut and the upper river ats. Photo CN47924b: D.L. Homer.

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earthquakes along the Puysegur subduction zone. The local effects of wave reection and refraction on tsunami travelling up ords and across lakes are complex and not well understood. Although the tsunami hazard is high, the risk is only high in those few places where population and infrastructure are concentrated, such as ilford, West Arm and Deep Co e. Flooding sedimentation and avalanche Fiordland receives extremely high rainfall, and oods are common. Sedimentation, by sheet ooding on river ats and deltas, and from debris ows on steeper surfaces such as screes and alluvial fans, is a more signicant hazard. Debris ows, especially in the run-out zones of landslides, can be particularly damaging when they contain ery large boulders. While infrastructure is generally designed to withstand oods, it is seldom capable of surviving major debris ows. As roads and tracks are usually committed to specic routes along valleys and across fans, there is little

that can be done to mitigate this hazard. Fiordland is also subject to avalanche hazard from winter snowfall. The ilford Road is well known to be at risk, but most alleys have equal exposure to this hazard. olcanic eruptions The Solander islands in western Fo eaux Strait are the eroded remnants of a young subduction-related olcano. Seismic data show that se eral other subduction-related olcanic centres ha e been acti e off southern Fiordland since the Pliocene (Turnbull ruski 1993; Sutherland et al. 2006b). No ash deposits associated with these volcanoes have been identied on land, and the Solander volcano is quiescent, but with on-going subduction there remains a possibility of renewed olcanic acti ity in this icinity. Any acti ity should be signalled by swarms of low-magnitude earthquakes that would precede an eruption by weeks or months.

Figure 77 In the Gold Arm of Charles Sound, the August 2003 earthquake triggered a rockslide (right) which in turn produced a tsunami (seiche). Vegetation was completely stripped from the adjacent and opposite shorelines, and a helipad was damaged. The surrounding rocks are diorite of the Misty Pluton. From Hancox et al.(2003).

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A AILA ILITY OF QMAP DATA


The geological map accompanying this book is deri ed from digital information stored in the Q AP eographic Information System maintained by GNS Science. The data on the map are a subset of the a ailable information. Other single or multi-factor maps can be generated from the GIS as required, for example maps showing single rock types, or mineral localities in relation to host rocks. Other digital data sets that may be integrated with the basic geology include gra ity and magnetic sur eys, acti e faults, earthquakes, landslides, mineral resources and localities (from GERM), fossil localities (from FRED), and petrological samples (from PETLAB). Data can be presented for user-dened areas or within specied distances from roads or coastlines. aps can be produced at arying scales, bearing in mind the scale of data capture and the generalisation in ol ed in digitising; maps produced at greater than 1:50 000 scale will not show accurate, detailed geological information unless they are based on point data (such as structural information). QMAP series maps are also available in digital formats as raster and vector les, using standard data interchange formats. The data record maps on which the digital geology is based are led in GNS Science ofces and, although unpublished, are a ailable for consultation. The map units and geological legends used on the detailed maps are based on a lithostratigraphic mapping philosophy, and may differ from those shown on this published Q AP sheet. The Q AP database will be maintained, and updated where new geologic mapping impro es existing information. For new or additional geological information, for prints of this map at other scales, for selected data or combinations of data sets, or for deri ati e or single-factor maps based on Q AP data, contact: The Q AP Programme Leader NS Science P O ox 30368 Lower Hutt.

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AC NOWLEDGMENTS
apping of Fiordland was undertaken by A.H. Allibone, R. Jongens, I.M. Turnbull and M.S. Rattenbury, with additional map data from D.G. Bishop (southern Fiordland), P. Blattner (northern Fiordland), J.K. Lindqvist and C. Zink. Data from the research programmes of .L. Clarke ( ni ersity of Sydney), N.R. Daczko (GEMOC, Macquarie University), K. Klepeis (University of Vermont), and their students, are acknowledged with thanks, as are the many discussions with them and their colleagues. L. ilan and . De Paoli in particular provided both eld assistance and data from their theses. Information also came from Canterbury University studies, in particular those of .D. radshaw, T.A. Ewing, R. . uir, A. Wandres and S. . Wea er. ajor contributions to this project from staff and students of the eology Department of Otago ni ersity are gratefully acknowledged. Professors A. F. Cooper, R.E. Fordyce and R. . Norris ga e permission to use information from numerous unpublished theses. We acknowledge the major ad ances in mapping and understanding Fiordland basement geology that ha e been made o er se eral decades by Otago ni ersity students including .Y. radshaw, . ibson, . ollan, R.P. ing, E. . Ladley, .H. . Oli er, N. . Powell, . . Scott, C.C. Simpson and C. . Ward; their work has been in aluable. Discussions with C.M. Ward and N.G. Powell on Paleozoic metasediments ha e also been useful. The great contribution to eld work, at times in challenging conditions, by . Allan, A. . eu, . Clynes, D. Cogger, Y. Cook, R. Crimp, T. Cross, . De Paoli, T.E. Elliott, P.J. Forsyth, H.L. Fraser, T. Hudson, M.J. Isaac, L. Milan, H. Phipps, . Prebble, S. Randall, .H. Rattenbury, D.D. Ritchie, A. Russ, . . Scott, P. Stenhouse, R. Sutherland, .R. Turnbull, T.E. Webb and A. West is acknowledged with thanks. S. Hall, . ones and P. Shaw also assisted. A. . eu pro ided macropaleontological expertise and eld support. The search for conodonts was undertaken by .E. Simes, who also crushed and curated a ast number of rock samples. C. . Adams contributed specialist ad ice on detrital zircon dating. Many excellent thin sections were cut by N. Orr, and RF analyses were pro ided by SpectraChem Analytical Limited. Radiometric dating services and interpretations by K. Ramezani, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are acknowledged with thanks. We also acknowledge major contributions from A. . Tulloch toward sol ing the conundrums of edian atholith geochemistry and radiometric dating. Helicopter transport was pro ided by . urgess, S. awith, D. reen, W. Pratt and A. Sutherland of the Southwest Helicopters roup. Logistic support from C. rown, and I. and A. Buick, of the Southwest Helicopters Group was in aluable throughout the entire project. Helicopter support from ilford Helicopters and Southern Lakes Helicopters is also acknowledged. Fixed-wing support was pro ided by A. Woods of Wanaka Flightseeing. We also thank Noddy Deaker of Te Anau for his help and hospitality. We wish to thank the staff of the Te Anau Area Ofce of the Department of Conser ation for their on-going support of our geological work in Fiordland. Field work was facilitated by DoC hut and track networks in the more frequented parts of Fiordland. The R/V Huia, skippered by R. Russ and T. Lewis, and crewed by R. rown, A. and N. Russ, and R. ruerton provided seaborne support for eld work in the southern ords. The R/V Tiama, skippered by H. Haazen and crewed by A. night and S. Dawson, ga e us access to Solander Island and the outer Fiordland coast. N. Lamb of Fiordland Explorer Charters also pro ided maritime assistance. Aerial photographic interpretation of landslides in parts of the map area was pro ided by N. . Perrin and .T. Hancox. Offshore bathymetric data were supplied by National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, and manipulated by D.W. Heron, . Smith Lyttle and H.L. Fraser. Data entry was by A.H. Allibone, Y. Cook, T.E. Elliott, H.L. Fraser, R. ongens, . Lyttle, . Smith Lyttle and I.M. Turnbull. Maps and diagrams were digitised by K. Lyttle and . Smith Lyttle with assistance from H.L. Fraser, D.T. Strong and C.A. Thurlow. ap and legend layout, checking and map production from digital data were by . Smith Lyttle and D.W. Heron. The text was written by I.M. Turnbull, A.H. Allibone and R. ongens. Photographs by Andris Apse, .H. rowne, H. Haazen, J.M. Scott, A.J. Tulloch and J.L. Turnbull are gratefully acknowledged, as are the large number of oblique aerial photographs pro ided by D.L. Homer. The other photographs were taken by the authors. The map and text were edited by P. . Forsyth and . . Aitken, and the text was formatted by P. urray. Discussion and comment on drafts of the map and text from D. .A. arrell, P. lattner, R.A. Cooper, D. EberhartPhillips, P. . Forsyth, .T. Hancox, N. ortimer, .E. Reyners, . . Scott, .S. Rattenbury, R. Sutherland and C.I. Uruski are gratefully acknowledged. The map and text were reviewed by D. Craw, M.J. Isaac and M.R. Johnston. Funding for the Q AP project was pro ided by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology, under contracts C05 0003, C05 0206 and C05 0401. The topographic base map was obtained from Land Information New ealand; crown copyright reser ed.

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Ward, C. . 1986: Speculations on the pro enance of the Lockett Conglomerate (Nelson) and False Edgecumbe Conglomerate (Fiordland). e l al et e eala ella e l at : 4850. Ward, C. . 1988: arine terraces of the Waitutu district and their relation to the late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Fiordland region, New ealand. al t e al et e eala : 128. Wardle, P.; ark, A.F.; ayliss, .T.S. 1973: egetation and Landscape of the West Cape District, Fiordland, New ealand. e eala al ta : 599626. Wardle, P.; McKellar, M.H. 1978: Nothofagus menziesii leaves dated at 7490 yr .P. in till-like sediments at ilford Sound, New ealand. e eala al ta : 153157. Watters, W.A. 1977: ineralogical report on hea y minerals in coastal sands from Northern Fiordland. e eala e l al e e t . Watters, W.A. 1986: Petrographic notes from samples from Solander-1 drillhole, Fiordland. Unpublished technical le report C46/571, GNS Science, Dunedin. + Watters, W.A.; Turnbull, I.M. 1996: Diagenetic minerals in Cenozoic sandstones of the Te Anau Basin, Western Southland. t t te e l al lea e e e e e t . Wellman, H.W. 1954: Marine Pliocene at Resolution Island, Dusky Sound, Fiordland (S156). e eala al e ea e l : 378389. Wellman, H.W.; Wilson, A.T. 1964: Notes on the geology and archaeology of the artins ay district. e eala al e l a e : 702721. Willett, R.W. 1946: The occurrence of sheet mica in Southland. e eala al e e a e l : 182186. Williams, . . e . 1974: Economic geology of New ealand. 2nd edition. t ala a t t te a etall a e e . 490 p. Williams, . . 1978: Eglinton olcanics stratigraphy, petrography and metamorphism. e eala al e l a e : 713732. Williams, . .; Harper, C.T. 1978: Age and status of the ackay Intrusives in the Eglinton-upper Hollyford area. e eala al e l a e : 733742. Williams, P.W. 1996: A 230 ka record of glacial and interglacial e ents from Aurora Ca e, Fiordland, New ealand. e eala al e l a e : 225242. Williamson, G.P. 1972: Fiordland reconnaissance, nal report. Unpublished open-le report MR 2051 for Kennecott Exploration Aust Pty Ltd, inistry of Economic De elopment, Wellington.

Wilson, K.; Litcheld, N.; Turnbull, I.M. 2009: Coastal deformation and tsunami deposit obser ations following the uly 15, 2009, W 7.8 Dusky Sound earthquake. e e e t Wood, .L. 1953: Caroline Peak. Scale 1:15 840. npublished technical le map VI-124, GNS Science, Dunedin. * Wood, .L. 1960a: Sheet 27 Fiord. e l al a e eala . Wellington, New ealand, Department of Scientic & Industrial Research. +* Wood, .L. 1960b: arnet sand in northern Fiordland. npublished technical le report D40/338, GNS Science, Dunedin. + Wood, .L. 1962: Sheet 22 Wakatipu. e l al a e eala . Wellington, New ealand, Department of Scientic & Industrial Research. +* Wood, B.L. 1966: Sheet 24 Invercargill. e l al a e eala . Wellington, New ealand, Department of Scientic & Industrial Research. +* Wood, .L. 1968: anapouri structural data. Scale 1:63 360. Unpublished technical le map VI-27, GNS Science, Dunedin. Wood, .L. 1969: eology of Tuatapere Subdi ision, Western Southland. e eala e l al e llet . Wood, B.L. 1972: Metamorphosed ultramates and associated formations near ilford Sound, New ealand. e eala al e l a e : 88128. Wood, .L. 1978: Fiordland. Suggate, R.P.; Ste ens, .R.; Te Punga, . ed. The eology of New ealand. Wellington, New ealand, o ernment Printer. Pp. 100110. Wood, R.A.; Herzer, R.H.; Sutherland, R.; Melhuish, A. 2000: Cretaceous-Tertiary tectonic history of the Fiordland margin, New ealand. e eala al e l a e : 289302. Woodward, D. . 1976: Sheet 27 Fiord. agnetic ap of New ealand 1:250 000, Total Force Anomalies. Wellington, New Zealand, Department of Scientic and Industrial Research. + Wright, A.C.S.; iller, R. . 1952: Soils of southwest Fiordland, New ealand. e eala l ea llet . ink, C. 2000: iddle Eocene to iddle iocene e olution of the Te Anau asin. PhD thesis, ni ersity of Otago, Dunedin, New ealand. ink, C.; Norris, R. . 2004: Submarine fans within small basins: examples from the Tertiary of New ealand. e l al et e al l at : 229240.

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APPENDI
Lithostratigraphic nomenclature in the uller and Ta a a terranes southwest Fiordland Early regional maps by rindley et al. (1959) and Wood (1960a, 1962, 1966) named numerous formations of Paleozoic rocks, and these names were later applied throughout Fiordland (Wood 1978). Subsequent detailed mapping in unpublished theses (e.g. ibson 1979; ing 1984; Ward 1984; Bradshaw 1985; Powell 2006) and more recent mapping for the Q AP programme (Allibone et al. 2007, 2009a) have demonstrated that many of these formations were too loosely dened to be useful, and contain rocks of both intrusi e and sedimentary origin without stratigraphic coherence. As a result, these formations ha e not gained widespread acceptance and ha e been rejected in published papers (e.g. Oli er Coggon 1979; ibson 1982). University thesis mapping established numerous and more clearly dened metasedimentary lithostratigraphic units, some of which were formally introduced by ibson (1982) for central Fiordland. Other lithostratigraphic names, as yet informal, ha e been used in a regional summary by Cooper (1989). Details and denitions of the lithostratigraphic nomenclature for metasedimentary rocks in southwest Fiordland, established by Ward (1984) and Powell (2006), are in preparation for publication. The nomenclature is outlined in Table 1.

e 1 Stratigraphic nomenclature for southwest Fiordland (after ard 198 and Powell 2006). Incorporates Preservation Formation after Grindley et al. (1959). Letter symbols are those used on the map. The order of formations in each group shows relative age (oldest at the bottom), but the table does not indicate age correlations between the three groups.

Buller terrane

Takaka terrane

Fanny ay Group (f)

Edgecumbe Group ($e)

Cameron Group ($cu)

reen Steam Formation (fg) Old Quarry Fault

ike Ri er Formation ($e ) Inferred Dar Cloud Fault

Prong Lake Formation ($cp)

Fanny Formation (ff)

iddle Stream Formation ($es)

Long Sound Calc-silicate ($cl)

Preser ation Formation (fp)

urnett Formation (fb)

False Edgecumbe Formation ($ef)

Parakiore Pelite ($ce)

Lumaluma Formation ()

Sea iew Psammite ($cs)

athryn

eta olcanics ($c )

*In Powell (2006), Mike River Formation is called Twin Otter Formation, and Prong Lake Formation is called Chankley ore Formation.

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The geology of Fiordland is described in this 1:250 000 scale geological map and text. The map is one of the QMAP series, initiated in 1996, which covers all of New Zealand. The entire Fiordland massif is shown, from Martins Bay and the Hollyford valley in the north, to Solander Island in western Foveaux Strait. The map also includes simplifed offshore geology and bathymetry. Geological information has been obtained from published and unpublished mapping by GNS Science geologists, from University of Otago and Canterbury staff and students, and from mineral exploration company reports. Offshore mapping includes data from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. All data are held in a Geographic Information System, and are available in digital format on request. The accompanying text summarises the geomorphology, geology and tectonic history of the area, as well as geological hazards, engineering geology and geological resources of Fiordland. The geology is dominated by Carboniferous to Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Median Batholith, which intrude Buller and Takaka terrane metasedimentary schists and gneisses of Cambrian to later Paleozoic age. Much of western Fiordland is underlain by Cretaceous granulitic diorite orthogneiss. Eastern Fiordland has been more tectonically disrupted and consists of complexly faulted and sheared Jurassic and Cretaceous plutonic rocks with minor volcanics. Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks are preserved in basins in eastern and southern Fiordland. Although Fiordland was deeply eroded by Pleistocene glaciers that created the present-day landscape, extensive glacial deposits are preserved only around the margins. The Alpine Fault, an active transcurrent fault marking the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, extends offshore to the southwest from Milford Sound, parallel to the western coast of Fiordland. Activity on the Alpine Fault creates a very high seismic hazard, and landsliding caused by earthquakes and rainstorms is another ongoing hazard.

One of the key geological contacts in Fiordland, between Cretaceous Western Fiordland Orthogneiss and Paleozoic country rocks, is exposed on the southern wall of outer Nancy Sound. Brown-weathering metasedimentary gneiss, forming the cliff at upper right, is intercalated with more massive granitic Pandora Orthogneiss (at bow of yacht). These gneisses overlie westwarddipping marble bands in the cave and beneath the dark overhangs at sea level (centre). The marble bands mark a sheared contact with banded felsic diorite of the Misty Pluton (left), part of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss. The diorite is cut by horizontal pegmatite dikes (extreme left). The scale is given by the yacht Tiama (15 m). Photo: I. M. Turnbull

ISBN 978-0-478-19670-2

ISBN 978-0-478-19670-2

9 780478 196702