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PreparingForTheDayOfJudgement

By:ImaamIbnHajarAlAsqalani

TranslatedBy:S.MHasanAlBanna

AbulFadlShihabalDinAhmadibn`AlialKannanial`Asqalani,betterknown bythenameofImamIbnHajar,wasborninCairoin773/1372.Hebeganhis studiesattheageoffiveandcompletedthememorisationoftheQuranbythe ageofnine.AShafi`ischolarandhadithmaster,hestudiedunderrenowned scholarsinCairo,Yemen,andtheHijaz.KnownasShaykhalIslam,scholars travelledfromfarawaylandstotakeknowledgefromhim.Appointedtothe positionofchiefjudgeseveraltimes,heauthoredmorethanfiftyworksonhadith, history,biography,Quranicexegesis,poetry,andShafi`ijurisprudence;among themostfamousofthemishisfourteenvolumecommentaryonSahihalBukhari calledFathalBari.HepassedawayinCairoin852/1449.

Contents

Foreword..5
1CounselInTwos...7
2CounselInThrees..10
3CounselInFours.....17
4CounselInFives..24
5CounselInSixes..29
6CounselInSevens...33
7CounselInEights....36
8CounselInNines.37
9CounselInTens...39

Foreword

PraisebetoAllahLordoftheuniverse,CreatorandSustainerofmankind;and mayHispeaceandblessingsbeuponourbelovedMessengerMuhammad (salAllahualayhiwasallam),hisfamily,Companions,andthosewhofollowthem untiltheDayofJudgement. WhenAllahtheAlmighty,inHisinfinitewisdomanddivinemercy,createdthe humansoul,HeintendeditseternalabodetobeintheGardenofBliss.However, thejourneytothiseternalabodeisindeedfullofmanyobstacles,beitthe splendoursofthisworld,thepassionsofourlowerself(nafs),orthewhispersof Satan.ItisthesuccessfulpreparationforthisjourneythatwillwiththeMercy ofAllahultimatelyleadustothatGarden.Thispreparationisbasedon comprehendingtheDivineMessageandinternalisingitsteachingsinourlives. Manyanobleandstrongwilledsoulhasundertakenthisjourney,andwhatlies inthesepagesarethevaluablepiecesofadvicethatrepresentthefruitsoftheir experience. AProphetictraditionstates,Wisdomisthelostpropertyofthebeliever.Ifhe findsitthenheismostdeservingofit.Thisbookisabeautifulcompilationof someofthewisesayingsoftheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam),ofthe Companions,andofthepiouspredecessorsandascetics.Reflectingonthese wisesayingsandheedingthesecounselswillassistininfusinguswiththe requisiteawarenessandfervourtopreparefortheDayofJudgement.Verily,we areinneedofsuchcounsel,forourDayofJudgementbeginsnotwhentheworld ends,butwhenourlifecomestoanendwhichisindeedimminentasthe Prophet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)stated. Theauthor,ImamIbnHajaral`Asqalaniascholarofimmensestature, especiallyinthefieldofhadithadoptedauniqueapproachincompilingthese sayings.Heorderedthesesayingsnumerically,beginningeachchapterwith ProphetictraditionsfollowedbysayingsoftheCompanions,thenthoseofthe piouspredecessors.Thisarrangementbearstestimonytohisencyclopaedic knowledgeandcreativity. Maytheimmensewisdomcontainedinthisbookenlightenourhearts,openour eyesandawakenusfromourstateofheedlessnesstoourrealtaskinthisdunya preparingfortheDayofJudgement,asAllahtheAlmightysays,Forsurelyitis nottheeyesthatareblind,butitistheheartsthatareinthechests. S.M.HasanalBanna 5

July2004 London,UK

1
CounselinTwos
[1]IthasbeennarratedthattheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,There aretwotraits,nothingisbetterthanthem:beliefinAllahandbringingbenefitto theMuslims.Andtherearetwotraits,nothingisworsethanthem:associating partnerswithAllahandbringharmtotheMuslims. [2]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Sitwiththescholarsandlisten tothespeechofthewise,forverilyAllahtheExaltedgiveslifetothedeadheart withthelightofwisdomashegiveslifetothedeadsoilwithrainwater. [3]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Hewhoentersthegravewithout anyprovisionsisasthoughhewishestosailtheseawithoutaship. [4]`UmaribnalKhattab(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Honourinthisworldisin wealth,andhonourintheHereafterisinrighteousactions. [5]`Uthmanibn`Affan(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Worryingaboutthedunyaisa darknessintheheart,whileworryingabouttheHereafterisalightintheheart. [6]`AliibnAbiTalib(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Theonewhoseeksafterknowledge, Paradisewillseekafterhim;andtheonewhoseeksafterdisobedience,the Hellfirewillseekafterhim. [7]YahyaibnMu`adhsaid,Anhonourablepersonwouldneverbedisobedient toAllah,andawisepersonwouldneverpreferthedunyaovertheHereafter. [8]AlA`mashsaid,TheonewhosecapitalisGodconsciousness(taqwa), tongueswillbeincapableofdescribingthefortunethatishispiety;andtheone whosecapitalisthedunya,tongueswillbeincapableofdescribingthemagnitude ofhislossofpiety. [9]SufyanalThawrisaid,Everyactofdisobediencecommittedduetopassion, itsforgivenessishopedfor.Everyactofdisobediencecommitteddueto arrogance,itsforgivenessisnothopedforbecausetherootofSatans disobediencewasarrogance,whereastherootofAdamslapsewaspassion.

[10]Anasceticoncesaid,Theonewhosinswhilelaughing,Allahwillmake himentertheFirewhilecrying.Andtheonewhoobeyswhilecrying(outoffear ofAllah)AllahwillmakehimenterParadisewhilelaughing. [11]Awisemansaid,Donotbelittleminorsins,forverilyfromthemmajorsins grow. [12]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Nosinremainsminorwhen accompaniedbypersistence,andnosinremainsmajorwhenaccompaniedbythe seekingofforgiveness. [13]Itissaid,TheGnostic(arif)occupieshimselfwithpraise[ofAllah],while theascetic(zahid)occupieshimselfwithsupplication;becausetheGnostics concernishisLord,whiletheasceticsconcernishisownnafs. [14]Anasceticsaid,Whoeverisunderthedelusionthathehasacloserfriend thanAllah,littleishisknowledgeofAllah;andtheonewhoisunderthe delusionthathehasagreaterenemythanhisnafs,littleishisknowledgeofhis nafs. [15]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)saidregardingtheQuranicverse, Corruptionhasappearedonlandandsea,Thelandreferstothetongueand theseareferstotheheart.Ifthetongueiscorruptedpeoplecryoverit,andifthe heartiscorruptedtheangelscryoverit. [16]Itissaid,Verilypassionturnskingsintoslaves,andpatienceturnsslaves intokingsDoyounotseethestoryofYusufandZulaykha? [17]Itissaid,Gladtidingstotheonewhoseintellectishismasterandwhose desireishisslave.Andwoetotheonewhosedesireishismasterandwhose intellectishisslave. [18]Itisalsosaid,Theonewholeavessins,hisheartwillbesoftened;andthe onewholeavestheforbiddenandeatsthelawful,hisintellectwillbe enlightened. [19]AllahrevealedtooneoftheProphets,ObeymeinthatwhichIhave commandedyou,anddonotdisobeymeinthatwhichIhaveadvisedyou. [20]Itissaid,TheperfectionoftheintellectisinfollowingthepleasureofAllah andavoidingHiswrath. [21]Itissaid,Thereisnoexileforthelearned,andthereisnohomelandforthe ignorant.

[22]Itissaid,TheonewhoisclosetoAllahduetohisobediencewillbea strangeramongstpeople. [23]Itissaid,Themovementtowardsobedienceisevidenceofknowledgejust asthemovementofthebodyisevidenceofitsvitality. [24]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Therootofallsinsisloveof thedunyaandtherootofalltribulationsiswithholdingtaxesandzakat. [25]Itissaid,Theonewhoadmitshisshortcomingsisalwayspraised,and admittingshortcomingsisasignofacceptance[byAllah]. [26]Itissaid,Ingratitudeforblessingsisbasenessandthecompanyofafoolis badfortune. [27]APoetsaid: Ohewhoisbusywithhisdunya!
Whomillusionsofalonglifetimehavedeluded Washenotinastateofheedlessness Untilhisappointedtimedrewnear? Verilydeatharrivessuddenly AndtheGraveisthecollectionboxofactions Bepatientoverthedunyaanditshardships Nodeathisthereexceptatonesappointedtime

2 CounselinThrees
[1]IthasbeenreportedthattheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,The onewhowakesupinthemorningandcomplainsaboutthescarcityoflivelihood, itisasthoughheiscomplainingagainsthisLord.Theonewhowakesupandis sadovertheaffairsofthedunya,itisasthoughhehaswokenupangrywith Allah.Andtheonewhohumbleshimselfinfrontofarichmanbecauseofhis wealthwillhavelosttwothirdsofhisReligion. [2]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Therearethreethingswhich cannotbeattainedthroughanotherthree:wealthwithhope,youthwithdyeing [thehair],andhealthwithmedication. [3]UmaribnalKhattab(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Goodinteractionwithpeopleis halfofintelligence,goodquestioningishalfofknowledge,andgoodplanningis halfofsubsistence. [4]UthmanibnAffan(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Theonewholeavesthedunya AllahtheExaltedwilllovehim;andtheonewholeavessins,theAngelswilllove him;andtheonewhohasnocravingforthepossessionsoftheMuslims,the Muslimswilllovehim. [5]AliibnAbiTalib(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Surelyfromtheblessingsofthis world,sufficientisIslamasablessing;surelyfromthemultitudeof preoccupations,sufficientisobedienceasapreoccupation;andsurelyfromthe causesforreflection,sufficientisdeathasacause. [6]AbdullahibnMas`ud(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Howmanyaredeludedbythe blessingsshoweredonthem;howmanyaretestedbythepraiseheapedonthem; andhowmanyaredupedintoasenseofsecuritybyAllahhidingtheirsins. [7]ProphetDawud(`alayhisallam)said,ItwasrevealedtomeinthePsalmsthat asensiblepersonshouldonlyoccupyhimselfwiththreethingsmaking provisionsfortheDayofJudgement,seekingsustenanceforhislife,andseeking pleasurewithinwhatispermissible. [8]AbuHurayrah(radyAllahu`anhu)relatedthattheProphet(salAllahualayhiwa sallam)said,Therearethreesavioursandthreedamnations,three[high]ranks 10

andthreeabsolutions.Asforthesaviours,theyare:fearingAllahtheExaltedin secretandinpublic,spendingmoderatelyinpovertyandinrichness,andjustice incontentmentandinanger.Asforthedamnations,theyare:severmiserliness, followingonesdesires,andselfinfatuation.Asforthe[high]ranks,theyare: spreadingthegreetingofsalam,providingfood(forguests,aswellasthepoor andneedy),andprayingatnightwhilstpeopleareasleep.Asfortheabsolutions, theyare:makingablutionincoldnights,walkingtothecongregationalprayers, andawaitingthenextprescribedprayerhavingjustfinishedaprescribedprayer [inthemosque]. [9]Jibreelsaid,OMuhammad!Liveaslongasyouwill,foryouwillsurelydie; lovewhomsoeveryouwish,foryouwillleavethem;anddowhateveryouwish, foryouwillberecompensedaccordingly. [10]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Therearethreeindividuals whomAllahwillshadeundertheshadeofHisThroneonadaywhentherewill benoshadeexceptHisshadetheonewhomakesablutionindifficult conditions,theonewhowalkstothemosqueinthedarkness,andtheonewho feedsthehungry. [11]ItwassaidtoProphetIbrahim(`alayhisallam),WhydidAllahtakeyouasa friend?Hesaid,ForthreethingsIalwayschoseAllahscommandsoverthe commandsofothers;IneverworriedaboutwhatAllahhadalreadyallottedfor me(oflivelihood);andIneverlunchedandsuppedexceptwithaguest. [12]Awisemansaid,ThreethingsdriveawayanguishremembranceofAllah, meetingHisawliya(thoseclosetoHim),andtalkingtoascetics. [13]AlHasanalBasrisaid,Hewhohasnomannershasnoknowledge;hewho hasnopatiencehasnoReligion(din);andhewhohasnoGodconsciousnesshas noclosenesstoAllah. [14]IthasbeennarratedthatamanfromBaniIsra`ilwenttoseekknowledge andtheirprophetcametohearofthis.Hecalledforthemanandsaidtohim,O youngman!Iwilltellyouofthreethingsinwhichliestheknowledgeofallthose whohavecomeandallthosetocomefearAllahinsecretandpublic,holdyour tongueregardingpeopleanddonotspeakofthemexceptingoodness,and ensurethatthebreadthatyoueatishalal.Uponhearingthis,theyoungman refrainedfromleaving[toseekknowledge]. [15]IthasbeennarratedthatamanfromBaniIsrailcollectedeightychestsfull ofscripturesandbooksofknowledgebutdidnotbenefitfromhisknowledge. AllahtheExaltedrevealedtotheirprophettosaytothiscollector,Evenifyou

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hadcollectedalotofknowledgeitwillnotbenefityouexceptifyoudothree thingsdonotlovethedunyaforitisnotahomeforthebelievers,donot befriendSatanforheisnotacompanionforthebelievers;anddonothurt anyoneforthatisnotthewayofthebelievers. [16]ItisreportedthatAbuSulaymanalDaranisaidinhissupplication,Omy Lord,ifyouaskmeaboutmymanysins,IwillsurelyasYouforYour forgiveness;andifyouaskmeaboutmymiserliness,IwillsurelyaskYoufor Yourgenerosity;andifyoumakemeenterHell,IwillinformthepeopleofHell thatIloveYou. [17]Itissaid,Thehappiestofallpeopleishewhohasasincereheart,apatient body,andcontentmentwithwhathepossesses. [18]IbrahimalNakha`isaid,Thosewhoweredestroyedbeforeyouwere destroyedduetothreetraitsexcessinspeech,excessinfood,andexcessin sleep. [19]YahyaibnMu`adhalRazisaid,Gladtidingstotheonewholeavesthe dunyabeforeitleaveshim,preparesforhisgravebeforeheentersit,andpleases hisLordbeforehemeetsHim. [20]`AliibnAbiTalib(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Hewhodoesnothavethesunnah ofAllah,thesunnahofHisMessenger,andthesunnahofHischosenones,has nothing.Itwasasked,WhatisthesunnahofAllah?Hereplied,Safeguarding secrets.Itwasasked,WhatisthesunnahoftheMessenger?Hereplied,Being gentlewithpeople.Itwasasked,WhatisthesunnahofHischosenones?He replied,Bearingpeoplesharm. [21]Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)alsosaid,Peoplebeforeususedtoadviceeachother ofthreethingstheonewhoworksforhisHereafter,Allahwilltakecareofthe mattersofhisdinanddunyaforhim;andtheonewhobeautifieshisinnerself, Allahwillbeautifyhisappearance;andtheonewhorectifiesthatwhichis betweenhimandAllah,Allahwillrectifythatwhichisbetweenhimand people. [22]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)alsosaid,BeinAllahsestimationthebestofpeople, andintheestimationofyournafstheworstofpeople,andinpeoplesestimation justamanfromamongstthepeople. [23]ItwassaidthatAllahrevealedtoProphetUzayr(`alayhisallam),OUzayr! Ifyoucommittedasmallsin,donotlookatitssmallness;ratherlookatWhom youhavesinnedagainst.Ifyouaregrantedasmallblessing,donotlookatits

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smallness;ratherlookattheOnewhohasgrantedittoyou.Andifacalamity befallsyou,thendonotcomplainagainstMetoMycreation,justasIdonot complainagainstyoutoMyangelswhenyourbaddeedsareraisedtoMe. [24]HatimalAsammsaid,ThereisnotamorningthatpassesexceptthatSatan saystome,Whatdoyoueat?Whatdoyouwear?Wheredoyoulive?Isayto him,Ieatdeath,Iweartheshroud,andIliveinthegrave. [25]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Theonewhocomesoutofthe humiliationofdisobedienceintothehonourofobedience,AllahtheExaltedwill makehimrichwithoutwealth,strengthenhimwithoutsoldiers,andhonourhim withoutaclan. [26]Ithasbeenreportedthathe(salAllahualayhiwasallam)wentouttohis companionsandsaid,Howdoyoufindyourselvesthismorning?Theyreplied, AsbelieversinAllah.Hesaid,Whatisthesignofyouriman(belief)?The replied,Wearepatientintimesofhardship,gratefulintimesofease,and contentwithwhateverhasbeenpredestined.TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwa sallam)said,BytheLordoftheKa`bah,youaretrulybelievers! [27]AllahrevealedtooneoftheProphets,WhoevermeetsMe[ontheDayof Judgement]whilehelovesMe,IwillmakehimenterMyParadise.Whoever meetsMewhilehefearsMe,IwillsparehimMyHell.AndwhoevermeetsMe andisashamedbecauseofhissins,Iwillmaketheangelswhorecorddeeds forgethissins. [28]`AbdullahibnMas`ud(radyAllahu`anhu)said,FulfilthatwhichAllahhas madeobligatoryuponyouandyouwillbethebestofworshippers;refrainfrom theprohibitionofAllahandyouwillbethebestofascetics;andbepleasedwith whatAllahhasallottedforyouandyouwillbetherichestofpeople. [29]SalihalMarqadiyoncepassedbysomehousesandsaid,Whereareyour firstinhabitants?Andwhereareyourolddwellers?Soheheardavoicesaying, Theirlegacyhascometoanend,underneaththesoiltheirbodieshave decomposed,andtheiractionsremainasnecklacesaroundtheirnecks. [30]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Givetowhomsoeveryouwishandyouwill becomehismaster;askfromwhomeveryouwishandyouwillbecomehis prisoner;anddonotseekhelpfromwhomsoeveryouwishandyouwillbehis equal.

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[31]YahyaibnMu`adhsaid,Leavingallofthedunyaistakingallofthedunya; theonewholeavesallofithastakenallofitandtheonewhotakesallofithas leftallofit;so,takingitisleavingit;andleavingitistakingit. [32]ItwassaidtoIbrahimibnalAdham,Howdidyouattainzuhd (asceticism)?Withthreethings,Hesaid,Isawthatthegraveislonesome andthatIwouldhavenocompaniontherein;IsawthatthepathislongwhileI hadnoprovisions;andIsawthattheOmnipotentwouldbetheJudgewhileI hadnovalidargument(inmydefence). [33]Shiblisaid,IfyoufinddelightinAllahscompanythenrenouncethe companyofyournafs.Andhesaid,Hadyoutastedthesweetnessofcloseness toAllahyouwouldhaveknownthebitternessofestrangement(fromHim). [34]SufyanalThawriwasaskedaboutthesweetnessofclosenesstoAllahthe Exalted.Hereplied,Itisthatyoudonotfinddelightinabeautifulface,nice voice,oreloquenttongue. [35]Ibn`Abbas(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Zuhd(asceticism)iscomposedofthree letters,zhd.Ziszadunlilma`ad[provisionfortheHereafter].Hishudanlil din[guidancefortheReligion].AndDisdawam`alaalta`a[constancyin obedience]. [36]Ibn`Abbas(radyAllahu`anhu)alsosaid,Zuhd(asceticism)iscomposedof threeletters,zhd.Zisforleavingzina[adornments],Hisforleavinghawa [desires]andDisleavingthedunya[thisworld]. [37]AmanoncecametoHamidalLaffafandsaidtohim,Adviceme.Hesaid, HaveforyourReligion(din)acover,justlikeacopyoftheQuran(mushaf)has acover.Themanasked,Andwhatisthecoverofthedin?Hereplied, Leavingspeechexceptthatwhichisnecessary,leavingthedunyaexceptthat whichisnecessary,andrefrainingfrommixingwithpeopleexceptwhenitis necessary.Alsoknowthattheessenceofasceticismisrefrainingfromthe prohibitionsbetheyminorormajor,fulfillingalltheobligationsbetheyeasyor difficult,andleavingthethingsofthisworldforitspeoplebetheygreator small. [38]LuqmanalHakim,peacebeuponhim,saidtohisson,Omyson!Manis composedofthreethirdsathirdforAllah,athirdforhimselfandathirdfor theworms.ThethirdthatisforAllahishissoul;thethirdthatisforhimselfishis actions,andthethirdthatisforthewormsishisbody.

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[39]Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Threethingsenhancememorisationand eradicatephlegmsiwak,fasting,andreadingtheQuran. [40]Ka`balAhbar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Fortressesforthebelieversarethree themosqueisafortress,theremembranceofAllahisafortress,andthereading oftheQuranisafortress. [41]Awisemansaid,ThreethingsarefromthetreasuresofAllahtheExalted thatHedoesnotgiveexceptthoseHelovespoverty,illnessandpatience. [42]Ibn`Abbas(radyAllahu`anhu)wasonceasked,Whichisthebestofdays? Whichisthebestofmonths?Whichisthebestofactions?Hereplied,Thebest ofdaysisFriday,thebestofmonthsisRamadan,andthebestofactionsis performingthefivedailyprayersintheirprescribedtimes.Afterthreedays`Ali (radyAllahu`anhu)cametohearofthequestionsandtheanswersofIbn`Abbas. `Alisaid,Ifthescholars,theascetics,andthejuristsoftheEastandtheWest wereasked,theywouldnothaverepliedaswellasIbn`Abbas,exceptthatIsay, ThebestofactionsisthatwhichAllahacceptsfromyou,thebestofmonthsis themonthinwhichyoumakesincererepentancetoAllah,andthebestofdaysis thedayinwhichyouleavetheworldto[meet]AllahtheExaltedwhileyouarea believer. [43]Apoetsaid: Doyounotseehowthetwoeverrenewables[nightandday]
Wearusout,whilewejestinsecretandinpublic? Trustnotthisworldanditspleasures Foritshomesarenotrealhomes Andworkforyourbenefitbeforeyourdeath Andbenotdeceivedbytheabundanceoffriendsandbrothers

[44]Itissaidthat,IfAllahwantsgoodforHisservantHegiveshimthe understandingofthedin,reduceshisattachmenttothedunya,andgrantshim awarenessofhisfaults. [45]TheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Iwasmadetolove threethingsfromyourworldperfume,women,andprayer.Thecompanions weresittingwithhimandAbuBakr(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Youhavespoken thetruth,OMessengerofAllah!Iwasmadetolovethreethingsfromthisworld lookingatthefaceoftheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam),and givingmydaughterinmarriagetotheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwa sallam).Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said, You havespokentruthfully,OAbu Bakr! Iwasmadetolovethreethingsfromthisworldcommandinggood,forbidding evil,andworngarments.`Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Youhavespoken truthfully,O`Umar!AndIwasmadetolovethreethingsfromthisworld 15

feedingthehungry,clothingthenaked,andreadingtheQuran.`Ali (radyAllahu`anhu)said,Youhavespokentruthfully,O`Uthman!Iwasmadeto lovethreethingsfromthisworldservingtheguest,fastinginthesummer,and fightingwiththesword.Astheywerediscoursing,Jibreelcameandsaid, AllahtheExaltedsentmewhenHeheardyourdiscussionandhasorderedyou toaskmewhatIwouldhavelovedifIweretobefromthepeopleofthisworld. TheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam)asked,Ifyouweretobe fromthepeopleofthisworldwhatwouldyouhaveloved?Jibreelreplied, Guidingthoseledastray,keepingthecompanyofcontentedstrangers,and helpingfamiliesafflictedwithhardship.Hecontinued,TheLordofHonour lovesthreethingsfromHisservants givingonesutmost, cryingwheninregret, andbeingpatientintimesofpoverty. [46]Anasceticsaid,Theonewhoonlyconsidershisownopinionascorrectwill bemisguided;theonewhothinksheisrichduetohiswealthwillbe impoverished;andtheonewhoseeksprominencethroughacreaturewillbe humiliated. [47]Anasceticsaid,Thefruitsofma`rifa(knowledgeofAllah)arethreebeing ashamedfromAllahtheExalted,lovingHimandenjoyinghisCompany. [48]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Loveisthebasisofma`rifa, chastityisthesignofconviction,andthepeakofconvictionisGod consciousnessandcontentmentwithwhatAllahtheExaltedhaspredestined. [49]Sufyanibn`Uyaynahsaid,WhoeverlovesAllah,Allahwillmakehimlove thosewhomHeloves;andtheonewholovesthosewhomAllahtheExalted loves,AllahwillmakehimlovethatwhichhasmadeHimlovethem;andthe onewholovesthatwhichmadeAllahtheExaltedlovethosewhomHeloveswill wishthatnooneknewhim. [50]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Truthfulnessofloveisinthree thingschoosingthespeechofthebelovedoverthespeechofothers,choosing thecompanyofthebelovedoverthecompanyofothers,andchoosingthe pleasureofthebelovedofthepleasureofothers. [51]WahbibnMunabbihalYamanisaid,ItiswrittenintheTorahthathewho isgreedyisinfactpoorevenifheownsthewholeworld;hewhoobeys[God]is obeyedevenifheisaslave;andhewhoiscontentis richevenifheishungry. [52]Awisemansaid,TheonewhoknowsAllahwillnotfindanypleasurein thecompanyofcreatures;theonewhoknowstheworldwillnotdesireanything

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fromit;andtheonewhoknowsthejusticeofAllahtheExaltedwillnotfeelthe needtopresenthisgrievancestoHiminordertoobtainredress. [53]DhualNunalMisrisaid,Anyonewhoreallyfearssomethingfleesfromit; anyonewhoreallydesiressomethingseeksit;andanyonewhofindsthe [sweetnessofthe]companyofAllahbecomesestrangedfromhisnafs. [54]DhualNunalMisrialsosaid,TheonewhoknowsAllahtheExaltedisa captive,hisheartisseeing,andhisactionsforAllaharemany. [55]Healsosaid,TheonewhoknowsAllahtheExaltedisloyal,hisheartis alert,andhisactionsforAllaharepure. [56]IbnSulaymanalDaranisaid,Theoriginofeverygoodinthisworldand theHereafterisfearofAllah;thekeytothedunyaissatiety;andthekeytothe Hereafterishunger. [57]Itissaidthatworshipisacraft:itsmarketplaceisisolation,itscapitalisGod consciousness,anditsprofitisParadise. [58]MalikibnDinarsaid,Remedythreethingswiththreepridewithhumility, greedwithcontentment,andenvywithsincereadvice.

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3 CounselinFours
[1]TheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam)saidtoAbuDharral Ghifari,OAbuDharr!Mendtheshipfortheseaisdeep,takeallprovisionsfor thejourneyislong,lightentheloadfortheobstaclesaredifficult,andmake sincereyouractionsfortheCriticisAllSeeing. [2]Apoetsaid: Itisanobligationuponpeopletorepent.
Butleavingsinsisevenmoreofanobligation. Patienceinthemidstofhardshipsisdifficulttobear. Butloosingtheopportunityforrewardismoredifficulttobear. Timeisindeedperplexinginthewayitpasses. Yetpeoplesheedlessnessisevenmoreperplexing. Everythingthatisduetoarriveisindeedclose, Yetdeathiscloserthaneverythingelse.

[3]Anasceticsaid,Fourthingsaregoodbutfourothersareevenbetter chastityisgoodinmen,butinwomenitisevenbetter,justiceisgoodinlay people,butinrulersitisevenbetter;repentancebyanoldmanisgood,butbya youngmanitisevenbetter;andcontentmentbytherichisgood,butbythepoor itisevenbetter. [4]Awisemansaid,Fourthingsarebadbutfourothersareevenworse sinningisbadfromayoungman,butfromanoldmanitisevenworse;busying oneselfwiththedunyaisbadfromanignorantperson,butfromascholaritis evenworse;lazinessinfulfillingreligiousobligationsisbadfromlaymen,but fromscholarsandstudentsofknowledgeitisevenworse;andprideisbadfrom therich,butfromthepooritisevenworse. [5]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Fourthingsarecompletedby fourothersprayerwiththeTwoprostrationsofForgetfulness(sajdatyalsahw), fasting[Ramadan]withsadaqatalfitr(almsgivenattheendofRamadan),hajj withsacrificialslaughter,andiman(faith)withjihad. [6]`AbdullahibnalMubaraksaid,Theonewhopraystwelverak`ahseveryday hasfulfilledtherightofprayer;theonewhofaststhreedayseverymonthhas fulfilledtherightoffasting;theonewhorecitesonehundredverseseveryday

18

hasfulfilledtherightoftheQuran;andtheonewhogivesadirhamincharity everyFridayhasfulfilledtherightofcharity. [7]`Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Therearefourtypesofoceanspassionisthe oceanofsins,thenafsistheoceanofdesires,deathistheoceanoflives,andthe graveistheoceanofregrets. [8]`Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Ifoundthesweetnessofworshipinfour thingsthefirstinfulfillingAllahscommandments,thesecondinabstaining fromAllahsprohibitions,thethirdisenjoininggoodwiththeintentionof attainingAllahsrewardofAllah,andthefourthinforbiddingevilfearing Allahswrath. [9]`Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)alsosaid,Therearefourthings,theoutwardof whichisavirtuebuttheinnerofwhichisanobligationbeinginthecompany oftherighteousisavirtueandimitatingthemisanobligation;recitingthe Quranisavirtueandactingaccordingtoitscommandmentsisanobligation; visitingthegravesisavirtueandpreparingforthetimewhenonewillenter themisanobligation;visitingasickpersonisavirtueandaskinghimforadvice isanobligation. [10]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,TheonewholongsforParadisewillrush towardsgooddeeds;theonewhodreadsHellwillputanendtohisvices;the onewhohasafirmconvictionin[theimminentarrivalof]deathwillloseallhis passions;andtheonewhoreallyknowsthedunyawillfinddisasterseasyto bear. [11]ItissaidthatAllahrevealedtooneoftheprophetsofBaniIsra`il: RemainingsilentinsteadofspeakingevilisfastingforMe;guardingyour organsagainstprohibitionisprayerforMe;loosinganyhopeincreatures[that theycanbringonegoodorevil]ischarityforMe;andrefrainingfromhurting MuslimsisjihadforMe. [12]`AbdullahibnMas`ud(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Fourthingsarefromthe darknessoftheheartafullstomachwithoutcaring[whetheritishalalorharam]; keepingthecompanyofoppressors;forgettingpastsins;andbeingunderthe delusionthatoneslifetimewillsurelybelong.Thereareanotherfourthings thatarefromtheilluminationoftheheartanemptystomachbecauseofcaution; accompanyingtherighteous;rememberingpastsins;andnotexpectingtolive forlong. [13]HatimalAsammsaid,Theonewhoclaimsfourthingswithoutdoingfour othershasliedtheonewhoclaimstoloveAllahyetdoesnotabstainfrom

19

thingsprohibitedbyHimhaslied;theonewhoclaimstolovetheProphet (salAllahualayhiwasallam)yetdislikesthepoorandneedyhaslied;theonewho claimstoloveParadiseyetdoesnotgivecharityhaslied;andtheonewhoclaims tofearHellyetdoesnotgiveupsinninghaslied. [14]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Premonitorysignsof wretchednessarefourforgettingpastsinswhilsttheirrecordiswithAllahthe Exalted;rememberingpastgooddeedswhilstonedoesnotknowwhetherthey havebeenacceptedorrejected;lookingtothoseofahigherstatusinthedunya, andlookingtothoseofalowerstatusintheReligion[ofIslam].Allahwillsay,I wantedhimbuthedidnotwantMeandthusIhavelefthim.Premonitorysigns ofblissarefourrememberingpastsins;forgettingpastgooddeeds;lookingat thoseofahigherstatusintheReligion[ofIslam];andlookingatthoseofalower statusinthedunya. [15]Anasceticsaid,Therightsoffaith(iman)arefourGodconsciousness, shame,gratitudeandpatience. [16]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Mothersarefour:themother ofcures,themotherofmanners,themotherofworship,andthemotherofhopes. Themotherofcursesiseatingless,themotherofmannersisspeakingless,the motherofworshipissinningless,andthemotherofhopesispatientce. [17]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)alsosaid,Therearefourgemsin thebodyofthesonofAdamthatareremovedbyfourthingsasforthegems theyareintellect,Religion,shame,andgooddeeds.Angerremovestheintellect, envyremovesReligion,desireremovesshame,andbackbitingremovesgood deeds. [18]He(salAllahualayhiwasallam)alsosaid,TherearefourthingsinParadise thatarebetterthanParadiseitselfremainingeternallyinParadiseisbetterthan Paradise;beingservedbytheangelsinparadiseisbetterthanParadise;beingin thecompanyoftheProphetsinParadiseisbetterthanParadise;andgaining AllahspleasuresinParadiseisbetterthanParadiseitself.Therearefourthings inHellthatareworsethanHellitselfremainingeternallyinHellisworsethan Hell;thereproachingoftheunbelieversbytheangelsinHellisworsethanHell; beinginthecompanyofSataninHellisworsethanHell;andAllahswrathin HellisworsethanHellitself. [19]Whenoneoftheasceticswasasked,Howareyou?Hereplied,Iamwith myLordincompliance,withthenafsinopposition,withcreaturesin[givingand taking]advice,andwiththedunyaonlyinnecessity.

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[20]AnasceticselectedfouraphorismsfromthefourrevealedBooksfromthe Torah:TheonewhoiscontentwithwhatAllahhasgivenhimwillfindrepose inthisworldandinthenext;fromtheBible:Theonewhodestroyshisvices willbehonouredinthisworldandinthenext;fromthePsalms:Theonewho isolateshimselfawayfrompeoplewillfindsalvationinthisworldandinthe next;andfromtheQuran,Theonewhosafeguardshistonguewillbesafein thisworldandinthenext. [21]`Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,IswearbyAllah!Ihaveneverbeentestedby hardshipexceptthatAllahbestoweduponmeduetoitfourblessingsthefirst isthatIwasnottestedthroughasin;thesecond,thatthehardshipwasnot greaterthanitwas;thethird,Iwasntdeprivedofbeingcontentedwithit;the fourth,IhopethatIwillberewardedforit. [23]AbdullahibnalMubaraksaid,Awisemancollectednumeroussayings andfromthemheselectedfortythousand;fromthefortythousandheselected fourthousand,fromthefourthousandheselectedfourhundred,fromthefour hundredheselectedforty,andfromthefortyheselectedfourthefirst,Dont trustawomaninanysituation.;thesecond,Dontbedeludedbywealthinany situation;thethird,Dontburdenyourstomachwithwhatitcantbear;and theforth,Dontgatherfromknowledgethatwhichisnobenefittoyou. [24]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Dinanddunyawillcontinuetoexistaslongas fourthingsexistaslongasthericharenotmiserlyinthatwhichtheyhavebeen blessed;aslongasthescholarspracticewhattheyhavelearnt;aslongasthe ignorantarenotarrogantaboutthatwhichtheydonotknow;andaslongasthe poordonotselltheHereafterinreturnforthedunya. [25]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,OntheDayofJudgement Allahwillusefourpeopleasaproofagainstfourtypesofpeople[Prophet] Sulayman[Solomon]againsttherich,[Prophet]Yusefagainstservants,[Prophet] Ayyubagainstthesick,and[Prophet]`Isa(Jesus)againstthepoor. [26]Sa`dibnBilalsaid,Despitecommittingasin,Allahstillbestowsfour blessingsonHissinfulservantHedoesnotcutoffhissustenance,Hedoesnot causehishealthtodeteriorate,Hedoesnotmakethesinapparentonhimforall tosee,andHedoesnothastenhispunishment. [27]HatimalAsammsaid,Theonewhodelaysfourthingsuntilfourothers willfindParadisesleepuntilthegrave,prideuntilaftertheaccounting[of goodandbaddeeds],reposeuntilafterthecrossingofthesirat(bridgetobe crossedontheDayofJudgement),anddesiresuntilenteringParadise.

21

[28]HamidalLaffafsaid,Wesearchedforfourthingsinfourothersandfailed tofindthemthere,butfoundtheminyetanotherfourthingswesought richnessinmoneybutfounditincontentment;wesoughtpeaceinopulencebut founditinpoverty;wesoughtpleasureinabundancebutfounditingoodhealth; andwesoughtsustenanceintheearthandfounditinthesky. [29]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Fourthings,alittleofwhichisstillalotpain, poverty,fireandenmity. [30]HatimalAsammsaid,Fourthingsarenotappreciatedexceptbyfourtypes ofpeopleyouthisnotappreciatedbytheold,freedomfromworriesisnot appreciatedbythoseafflictedwithcalamities,healthisnotappreciatedbutby thoseinpoorhealthandlifeisnotappreciatedbutbythedead. [31]ThepoetAbuNuwwassaid: Mysins,ifIthinkaboutthem,aremany
ButthemercyofmyLordismuchvaster IdonothopeforsalvationinanygoodactionImayhavedone RatherinAllahsmercyismyhope HeisAllahmyLordwhoismyCreator AndIam[infrontofHim]aslavewhoobeysandsubmits Ifforgivenessisintendedformethenthatismercy AndifitisotherthanitthenwhatamItodo?

[32]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,OntheDayofJudgementthe scaleswillbeplacedandthepeopleofprayerwillbebroughtforwardandthey willbecompensatedaccordingtotheScales;thenthepeopleoffastingwillbe broughtforwardandtheywillbecompensatedaccordingtotheScales;thenthe peopleofhajjwillbebroughtforwardandtheywillbecompensatedaccording totheScales;andthenthepeopleafflictedwithhardshipsandcalamites[inthe dunya]willbebroughtforwardandtheScaleswillnotbeusedforthemnorwill theirrecordsbebroughtout,andtheywillgiventheirrewardwithoutany account,somuchsothatthepeoplewhousedtobefreeofworriesand calamitieswouldwishthattheywereintheirposition,suchistheimmensityof theirrewardfromAllahtheExalted. [33]Awisemansaid,ThesonofAdamwillfacefourseizurestheAngelof Deathwillseizehissoul,hisheirswillseizehiswealth,thewormswillseizehis body,andhisadversaries(thepeoplehehadwrongedorbackbitten)willseize hishonour,meaninghisgooddeeds,ontheDayofJudgement. [34]Anasceticsaid,Theonewhopreoccupieshimselfwithdesiresmusthave women;theonewhopreoccupieshimselfwithcollectingwealthmustindulgein theprohibited;theonewhopreoccupiedhimselfwithbringingbenefitto 22

Muslimsmusthavesecrecy;andtheonewhopreoccupieshimselfwithworship musthaveknowledge. [35]Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Themostdifficultofactionsarefour forgivingwheninastateofanger,contentmentintimesofhardships,chastityin seclusion,andspeakingthetruthinfrontofsomeonewhomonefearsorfrom whomonehopesforlargesse. [36]InthePsalmsitisstated,Allahrevealedto[Prophet]Dawudthatawise andintelligentpersonneverneglectsfourperiodsoftimeatimetointimately conversewithhisLord,atimetobringhimselftoaccount,atimetovisitthoseof hisbrotherswhowillshowhimhisdefects,andatimetogivehimselffreereign toindulgeinthepermissible. [37]Anasceticsaid,Thewholeofworshipisinfourthingshonouring promises,abidingbythelimits[setbyDivineLaw],beingpatientoverloss,and beingcontentwithwhateverisinonespossession.

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4 CounselinFives
[1]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)wasreportedtohavesaid,Theone whomocksfivewillloosefivetheonewhomocksscholarswilllosehis Religion(din);theonewhomocksrulerswilllosethislife(dunya);theonewho mockshisneighbourswillloosetheircompassion;andtheonewhomockshis familywilllosethejoyofliving. [2]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Therewillcomeatimeformy ummahwhentheywilllovefivethingsandforgetfivethingstheywilllovethis life(dunya)andforgetthelifetocome;theywilllovepropertyandforgetthe grave;theywilllovewealthandforgetthe[Dayof]Judgement;theywilllove theirchildrenandforgetthetruth;andtheywilllovethemselvesandforget Allah.TheyhavenothingtodowithmeandIhavenothingtodowiththem. [3]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Allahdoesnotgivesomeone fivethingsuntilHehaspreparedanotherfivethingsforhimHedoesnotgive himgratitudeexceptthatHehaspreparedforhimanincrease[inprovisionand sustenance],Hedoesnotgivehimsupplication(du`a)exceptthatHehas prepareditsaward;Hedoesnotgivehimtheaskingforforgiveness(istighfar) exceptthatHehaspreparedforhimforgiveness;Hedoesnotgivehimthe askingforrepentanceexceptthatHehaspreparedforhimacceptance;andHe doesnotgivehimcharityexceptthatHehaspreparedforhimitsreward. [4]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Darknessisoffivetypesandits lampsarefiveloveofthedunyaisadarknessanditslampisGod consciousness;sinsareadarknessandtheirlampisrepentance;thegraveisa darknessanditslampis:ThereisnogodbutAllah,Muhammadisthe MessengerofAllah;theHereafterisadarknessanditslamparighteousactions; andthepathisadarknessanditslampiscertitude. [5]`Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Ifitwerenotclaimingtoknowtheunseen,I wouldbearwitnessthatthesefivetypesofpeoplewillsurelybefromthepeople ofParadisethepoormanwhohastosupportalargefamily;awifewhose husbandispleasedwithher;thewomanwhogivesherdowrytoherhusband, consideringitasanactofcharity;theonewhoseparentsarepleasedwithhim; andtheonewhorepentsfromsins. 24

[6]Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)said,ThesignsofaGodconsciouspersonarefive thefirstisthathedoesnotsitexceptwithsomeonewhoisconcernedforthe Religionandhascontroloverhissexualdesiresandtongue;ifagreatfortune befallshimfromthedunyahedeemsitatrial;ifhefindsapracticetobefromthe Religionheclingstoit,thoughitmayseeminsignificant;hedoesnotfillhis stomachwiththehalalfearingthatharammaybemixedwithit;andhesupposes thatallofthepeoplewillbesavedandthathissoulwillperish. [7]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Wereitnotforfivethingsallofmankindwould havebeenrighteouscontentmentwithignorance,covetousnessoverthisworld (dunya),miserlinessoverwhatissurplus,insincerityinactions,andconceitover onesopinions. [8]`Abdullahibn`Amribnal`As,mayAllahbepleasedwithhimandhisfather, said,Fivethings,hewhoembodiesthemwillbehappyinthisworldandinthe nextthefirstistoregularlysay,LailahaillaAllah,MuhammadunrasuluAllah ThereisnogodbutAllah,MuhammadistheMessengerofAllah;thesecondis tosaywheninflictedwithacalamity,Innalillahiwainnailayhiraji`un,walahawla walaquwwataillabillahil`alliyyil`atheemVerilywebelongtoAllahandtoHim weshallallreturn,andthereisnopowerormightexceptbythewillofAllahthe mostHigh,theMighty;thethirsistosayingratitudewhengivingablessing, Alhamdulillahirabbil`alaminPraisebetoAllah,LordoftheUniverse;the fourthistosaywhenbeginninganything,BismillahirrahmanirrahimInthe nameofAllahthemostMercifulthemostKind;andthefifthistosayupon committingasin,AstaghfiruIlahil`atheemawaatubuilayhIseektheforgiveness ofAllahtheGreatestandIrepenttoHim. [9]AlHasanalBasrisaid,IntheToraharewrittenfivelessonswealthis contentment,safetyisinseclusion,dignityisinrejectingdesires,enjoymentisin longdays(intheHereafter),andpatienceisinafewdays(inthedunya). [10]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Makeusoffivebeforefive youryouthbeforeoldage,yourhealthbeforeyoursickness,yourwealthbefore yourpoverty,yourlifebeforeyourdeath,andyourfreetimebeforeyour preoccupation. [11]YahyaibnMu`adhalRazisaid,Hewhoseappetiteincreases,his corpulencewillincrease;hewhosecorpulenceincreases,hisdesireswillincrease; hewhosedesiresincrease,hissinswillincrease;hewhosesinincrease,the hardnessofhisheartwillincrease;andhewhoseheartbecomeshardwilldrown inthepitfallsofthedunyaandinattractions.

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[12]SufyanalThawrisaid,Thepoorhavechosenhavefivethingsandtherich havechosenfiveothersthepoorhavechosenserenityofthesoul,freedom fromworries,worshipoftheLord,easeofaccountabilityandthehighest position.Therichhavechosenwearinessofthesoul,preoccupationwithworries, worshipofthedunya,severityinaccountability,andthelowestposition. [13]`AbdullahalAntakisaid,Fivethingsarefromtheremediesoftheheart sittingwiththerighteous,readingtheQur`an,emptinessofthestomach, standingatnight[inprayer],andsupplicatingatdawn, [14]Themajorityofthescholarshaveagreedthat,Contemplationisoffive typescontemplatingAllahssignsresultsinaffirmingtheonenessofAllah (Tawhid)andinconviction;contemplatingAllahsblessingsresultsinloving Allah;contemplatingAllahspromise[ofrewardandparadiseforthegooddoers] resultsincreatingadesiretodogood;contemplatingAllahspunishmentresults infearandaweofHim;andcontemplatingonesshortcomingsinobedience despiteAllahsblessingsandmercytowardsoneselfresultsinasenseofshame andhumility. [15]Anasceticsaid,TherearefiveobstaclestoattainingGodconsciousness (taqwa),andonlytheonewhoovercomesthesewillattainitchoosinghardship overease,exertionoverrest,lowlinessoverpride,silenceoveridletalk,and deathoverlife. [16]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Discreetnesssafeguards secrets,charitysafeguardswealth,sinceritysafeguards gooddeeds,truthfulness safeguardsspeech,andconsultation safeguardsopinions. [17]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Inthegatheringofwealth therearefive[blameworthy]things wearingoneselfoutingatheringit; neglectingthe remembrance(dhikr)ofAllahinpreservingit;fearofrobbersand thieves;beinglabelledamiseronaccountofit;andleavingthecompanyofthe righteousduetoit.Indistributingoneswealthtothepoortherearefive [praiseworthy]thingseaseofmindduetoabandoningitsamassing;having timetorememberAllahratherthanworryingaboutpreservingit;safetyfrom robbersandthieves;gainingthetitleofgenerous;andaccompanyingthe righteousduetoleavingitbehind. [18]SufyanalThawrisaid,Nooneinthisageamasseswealthexceptthathehas fivetraitsthedelusionthathislifespanwillbelong,overpoweringgreed, intensemiserliness,lackofpiety,andforgetfulnessoftheHereafter. [19]Apoetsaid:

26

Oyouwhoseeksthehandofthedunyainmarriage!Knowthatshehasa
newlovereveryday Shetakesahusbandnow,yetgivesherselfatthesametimetoanother elsewhere Sheonlyacceptsloverssothatshemaykilltheminherbosomonebyone Ihavebeenfooledandtheafflictionisspreadinginmybodylittlebylittle Readyyourselfandtakeprovisionsfordeath,fortheheraldhascalled:tis timetoleave,tistimetoleave!

[20]HatimalAsammsaid,HastinessisfromSatanexceptinfivesituationsin whichitisthesunnahoftheMessengerofAllahtohastenfeedingtheguest whenhearrives;preparingthedeceasedforburialwhenhedies;marryingoff thedaughterswhentheyreachtheageofmaturity;payingadebtwhenitisdue; andmakingrepentancefromasinassoonasitiscommitted. [21]MuhammadibnalDurisaid,ThedamnationofIbliswasduetofivethings hedidnotacknowledgehissin,hedidnotregretit,hedidnotblamehimself, hedidnotresolvetorepent,andhelosthopeinthemercyofAllah.The salvationofAdamwasduetofivethingsheacknowledgedhissin,heregretted it,heblamedhimself,hehastenedtorepent,andhedidnotlosehopeinthe mercyofAllah. [22]ShaqiqalBalkhisaid,Fivepreceptsareobligatoryuponyou,sopractice themworshipAllahtotheextentthatyouneedHim;takefromthedunyatothe extentofyourstaininit;disobeyAllahtotheextentthatyoucanbearHis punishment;prepareprovisionsduringthedunyatotheextentofyourstayinthe grave;andworkforParadisetotheextentofyourdesiredrankinit. [23]`Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,IhaveseenalltypesoffriendsbutInever foundafriendbetterthansafeguardingthetongue,Ihaveseenalltypesof clothesbutIneverfoundclothesbetterthanGodconsciousness,Ihaveseenall typesofwealthbutIneverfoundwealthbetterthancontentment;Ihaveseenall typesofgooddeedsbutIneverfoundagooddeedbetterthangivinggood advice;andIhaveseenalltypesoffoodandIneverfoundfoodmoredelicious thanpatience. [24]Anasceticsaid,Asceticism(zuhd)isinfivethingsconfidenceinAllah, independencefromcreatures,sincerityinactions,bearingoppression,and contentmentwithwhatonehasinhishand. [25]Duringsomeofhissupplicationsandentreaties,adevoteesaid,OmyLord! Thinkingthatmylifespanwillbelonghasdeludedme,loveofthedunyahas destroyedme,Satanhasmisledme,thenafsthatinclinestoevilpreventedme fromabidingbythetruth,mywickedcompanionhelpedmeindisobedience,so 27

savemeOHelperofthosewhoseekhelp!IfYoudonothavemercyonmethen whowill? [26]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Therewillcomeatimeformy ummahwhentheywilllovefivethingsandforgetfiveotherstheywilllovethis world(dunya)andforgetthenextworld;theywilllovelifeandforgetdeath;they willlovepalacesandforgetthegrave;theywilllovewealthandforgetthe[Day of]Account;andtheywilllovecreaturesandforgettheCreator. [27]YahyaibnMu`adhalRazisaidinhisentreatiesandsupplication,Omy Lord!ThenightisonlypleasanttomewhenIsupplicatetoYou;thedayisonly pleasanttomewhenIobeyYou;theHereafterwillonlybepleasanttomeifI receiveYourpardon;andParadisewillonlybepleasanttomeifIseeYou.

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5
CounselinSixes

[1]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Sixthingsarestrangersinsix situationsthemosqueisastrangeramongstpeoplewhodonotpray;the Quranisastrangerinahouseholdwhereitisnotread;thememorisedQuranis astrangerintheheartofanopensinner(fasiq);arighteousMuslimwomanisa strangerinthehandsofanoppressivehusbandofbadcharacter;apiousMuslim manisastrangerinthehandsofanevilwifeofbadcharacter;andascholarisa strangeramongstagroupofpeoplewhodonotlistentohim.Thenhesaid, VerilyAllahtheExaltedwillnotlookatthemontheDayofJudgementina mercifulmanner. [2]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Therearesix[typesof]people whomIhavecursedandAllahhascursed,forthesupplicationofeveryProphet isacceptedHewhoaddsanythingtotheBookofAllah;hewhodisbelievesin thedecreeofAllahtheExalted;hewhooppressivelyuseshispowertoelevate thosewhomAllahhasbroughtlowandtobringlowthosewhomAllahhas elevated;hewhopubliclydisobeysAllahscommandments;hewhomakes lawfulthatwhichisunlawful;andhewholeavesmySunnah(Tradition)Allah theExaltedwillnotlookatthemontheDayofJudgementinamerciful manner. [3]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Iblisisstandinginfrontofyou, yournafsisonyourright,yourdesireisonyourleft,thedunyaisbehindyou, yourlimbsandsensesarearoundyou,andtheOmnipotentisaboveyou,Iblis, mayAllahcursehim,callsyoutoleavetheReligion(din),thenafscallsyouto disobedience,desirecallsyouto[fulfillingyour]passions,thedunyacallsyouto chooseitovertheHereafter,yourlimbsandsensescallyoutowardssins,andthe OmnipotentcallsyoutoParadiseandforgiveness.AllahtheExaltedsays[inthe Quran].AndAllahinvitesyoutoParadiseandforgiveness.Theonewho respondstoIbliswilllosehisReligion,theonerespondstothenafswilllosehis soul,theonewhorespondstodesirewilllosehisintellect,theonewhoresponds tohislimbsandsenseswillloseParadise,andtheonewhorespondstoAllah willloseallhissinsandacquirealltypesofgoodness. [4]Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Allahhasconcealedsixthingsinsixothers Hehasconcealedpleasureinobedience,angerindisobedience,HisGreatest NameintheQuran,theNightofPower(laylatulqadr)inRamadan,theMiddle 29

Prayer(alsalatulwusta)amongsttheprayers,andtheDayofJudgementamongst thedays. [5]`Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Thebelieverisinsixtypesoffearthefirst isthatAllahtheExaltedwilltakeawayhisiman(faith);thesecondisthatthe angelswillwritedownthingsthatwillexposehimontheDayofjudgement,the thirdisthatSatanwillrenderhisactionsvoid;thefourthisthattheAngelof Deathwilltakehissoulwhenheisinastateofheedlessness;thefifthisthatthe dunyawilldeludehimandmakehimworkforotherthantheHereafterandthe sixthisthathisfamilyandchildrenwillpreoccupyhimsuchthatheneglectsthe remembranceofAllahtheExalted. [6]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Theonewhogatherssixtraitswillnothaveleft anythingthatbringshimclosertoParadiseoranythingthatmakeshimescape HellhecametoknowAllahtheExaltedandthusobeyedhim;hecametoknow Satanandthusdisobeyedhim;hecametoknowtheHereafterandthussoughtit; hecametoknowthedunyaandthusrejectedit;hecametoknowtheTruthand thusfollowedit;andhecametoknowfalsehoodandthussteeredclearofit. [7]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,BlessingsaresixIslam,theQur`an, MuhammadtheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam),wellbeing, Allahsprotection,andnondependenceonpeople. [8]YahyaibnMu`adhalRazisaid,Knowledgeistheproofofaction, comprehensionisthevesselofknowledge,theintellectistheleadertogoodness, desireisthemountofsins,wealthisthegarmentofthearrogant,andthisworld isthemarketforthenextworld. [9]AbuDharrJimhirsaid,Sixthingsequaleverythinginthedunyasatisfying food,avirtuouschild,asensiblewife,wisespeech,amatureintellect,anda healthybody. [10]AlHasanalBasrisaid,Wereitnotforrighteouspeople,theearthand everythinginitwouldhavebeendestroyed;wereitnotforthevirtuous,the corruptwouldhaveperished;wereitnotforthescholars,peoplewouldhave becomelikecattle;wereitnotforrulers,peoplewouldhavekilledoneanother; wereitnotforfools,thedunyawouldhavedevastatedoutofneglect,andwereit notforthewind,everythingwouldhavestagnated. [11]Anasceticsaid,TheonewhodoesnotfearAllahwillbesafefromthe lapsesofthetongue;theheartofonewhodoesnotfearmeetingAllahwillbe safeneitherfromunlawful(haram)things,norfromthingsoverthepermissibility ofwhichthereisdoubt;theonewhodoesnotbreakoffdependenceoncreatures

30

willnotbesafefromgreed;theonewhodoesnotsafeguard[thesincerityof]his actionswillnotbesafefromshowingoff,theonewhodoesnotseekthehelpof Allahinguardinghisheartwillnotbesafefromjealousy;andtheonewhodoes notlooktothosewhoarebetterthanhiminknowledgeandworshipwillnotbe safefrompride. [12]AlHasanalBasrisaid,Thecorruptionofpeoplesheartisinsixthings thefirstisthattheysinwiththehopeofrepentance;theyseekknowledgebutdo notactuponit;iftheydoactuponittheyareinsincereindoingso;theyeatthe sustenanceofAllahhasprovidedthembutdonotshowgratitudeforit;theyare notcontentwiththeallotment(qisma)ofAllah;andtheyburytheirdeadbutdo nottakeheed. [13]AlHasanalBasrialsosaid,Allahwillinflictsixpunishmentsontheone wholovesthedunyaandchoosesitoverHereafterthreeinthisworldand threeinthenext.Asforthethreeinthisworldtheyaredelusionandhopein havingalonglifetimethathasnoend,overpoweringgreedthatleavesno contentment,andthetakingawayofthesweetnessofworship.Asforthethree intheHereaftertheyaretheharrowingordealoftheDayofJudgement,asever bringingtoaccount,andaneternalregret. [14]AlAhnafibnQayssaid,Thereisnorestfortheenvious;thereisno immoralintegrityfortheliar;thereisnowellbeingforthemiser;thereisno loyaltyforkings;thereisnonobilityfortheillmannered;thereisnoabrogation forAllahsdecree. [15]Someasceticswereasked,Whenaservant[ofAllah]repents,howdoeshe knowwhetherhisrepentancehasbeenacceptedorrejected?Theysaid,We cantpassajudgementinthismatter,butthereareindicationsthatthe repentancehasbeenacceptedthathedoesnotdeemhimselfimmunefrom disobedience;thatheseeshappinessabsentfromhisheartandsadnessever presenttherein;thathedrawsclosetothepeopleofvirtueandmovesfarfrom thepeopleofdisobedience;thatheseeslittlefromthisdunyaasmuchandthe manygooddeedshesdonefortheHereafteraslittle;thatheseeshisheartbusy withthatwhichhewishestosecurefromAllahtheExalted[i.e.Paradise]and emptyofconcernforthatwhichAllahtheExaltedhadalreadysecuredforhim [i.e.hisdailysustenance];thathesafeguardshistongueandisever contemplativeinastateofcontinuousremorseandregret. [16]YahyaibnMu`adhsaid,Fromthegreatestofalldelusionsinmysightis thecontinuanceinactsofdisobedienceinthehopeofforgivenesswithoutany regret;expectingnearnesstoAllahwithoutperforminganyactsofobedience; waitingtoreapthecropofParadisehavingsowntheseedsofHell;seekingto

31

resideintheHouseoftheobedientones[i.e.Paradise]withactsofdisobedience; waitingforrewardwithoutmeritingitwithdeeds;andexcessivehopeinthe kindnessofAllahtheExaltedwithheedlessness: Theyhopeforsalvationwithouttreadingitspath Surelyashipdoesnotsailonsolidground. [17]AlAhnafibnQayswasasked,Whatisthebestthingthatcanbegiventoa servant[ofAllah]?Hereplied,Aninstinctivelyuprightintellect.Itwassaid, Andifnotthis?Hesaid,Goodmanners.Itwassaid,Andifnotthis?He said,Anagreeablecompanion.Itwassaid,Andifnotthis?Hesaid.Aheart attached[toAllah].Itwassaid,Andifnotthis.Hesaid,Longsilence.It wassaid,Andifnotthis?Hesaid,Immediatedeath.

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6
CounselinSevens

[1]AbuHurayrah(radyAllahu`anhu)narratedthattheProphet(salAllahualayhi wasallam)said,Seven[typesof]peopleareshadedbyAllahintheshadeofHis Throne,ontheDaywhentherewillbenoshadebutHisShade[i.e.ontheDayof Judgement]ajustruler,ayoungmanwhogrewupintheworshipofAllah,a personwhoseheartisattachedtothemosque[andlongstoreturntoit]fromthe momentheleavesituntilhereturnstoit,twopersonswholoveeachotherfor thesakeofAllah,meetforHissakeanddepartfromeachotherforHissake,a personwhoremembersAllahinsolitudeandhiseyeswellupwithtears,aman whomanextremelybeautifulandrichwomanseduces,buthe[rejectingher seduction]says,IfearAllah;andapersonwhogivescharityandconcealsit[to suchanextent]thathislefthanddoesnotknowwhathisrighthandhasgiven. [2]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Themiserwillnotescapeoneof seventhingseitherhewilldieandtheonewhowillinherithiswealthwill spenditinthatwhichAllahtheExaltedhisforbidden,orAllahwillempower overhimatyrantrulerwhowilltakehiswealthfromhimafterhumiliatinghim, orHewillinflameinhimadesirethatwillcausehimtoloosehiswealth,orhe willhavetheideaofconstructingabuildinginanunsuitablepieceoflandand willthuswastehiswealth,oroneofthecalamitiesofthedunyasuchas drowning,burning,theftorsimilarthingswillbefallit,orhewillbeafflicted withpermanentillnessandhewillspendallhiswealthseekingacure,orhewill burythewealthinaplacewhichhewillforgetandthuswillneverfinditagain. [3]`Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Theonewholaughsalotwilllosehisrespect; theonewhomakesmockeryofpeoplewillbemockedbyothers;theonewhois excessiveinsomethingwillbecomeknownforit;theonewhospeaksalotwill makemanyblunders;theonewhomakesmanyblunderswilllosehissenseof shame;theonewholoseshissenseofshamewilllosehisGodconsciousness; andtheonewholoseshisGodconsciousnesswillcausehishearttodie. [4]`Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)saidwhendiscussingthesayingofAllahthe Exalted,Andbeneathitwasatreasureforthem,andtheirfatherwasrighteous man,thetreasureisagoldtabletandonitwerewrittensevenlines:Iam amazedattheonewhoknowsdeathiscomingyetlaughs;Iamamazedatthe onewhoknowsthatallthingsarepredestinedyetbecomesdistressedoverwhat hehasmissed;Iamamazedattheonewhoknowsaboutaccountabilityandyet 33

gatherswealth;IamamazedattheonewhoknowsabouttheHellfireyetsins;I amamazedattheonewhobelievesinAllahwithcertaintyyetremembersothers besideHim;IamamazedattheonewhobelievesinParadisewithcertaintyyet isateaseinthedunya;andIamamazedattheonewhoknowsSatanisanenemy yetobeyshim. [5]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)wasasked,Whatisheavierthanthesky?Whatis widerthantheearth?Whatisricherthanthesea?Whatisharderthanrock? Whatishotterthanfire?Whatiscolderthan ice?Whatismorebitterthenpoison? Hereplied,Accusingtheinnocentisheavierthanthesky;theTruthiswider thantheearth;acontentheartisricherthanthesea;theheartofahypocriteis harderthanarock;atyrantrulerishotterthanfire;beinginneedofhelpfroma scoundreliscolderthanice;andpatienceismorebitterthanpoison(andin anothernarration,backbitingismorebitterthanpoison). [6]TheProphetsaid(salAllahualayhiwasallam),Thedunyaishomefortheone whohasnohome,andwealthfortheonewhohasnowealth,Onlytheonewho hasnointellectgathersforit;onlytheonewhohasnocomprehensionacts accordingtoitsdesires;onlytheonewhohasnoknowledgewillbepunishedfor it;onlytheonewhohasnointellectwillbecomejealousforit;andonlytheone whohasnoconvictionstrivesforit. [7]Jabiribn`AbdullahalAnsari(radyAllahu`anhu)narratedthattheProphet (salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Jibreelusedtoremindmeoftherightsofthe neighbourtosuchanextentthatIthoughtaneighbourwillbegiventherightto inheritfromhisneighbour;heusedtoremindmeoftherightsofwomentosuch anextentthatIthoughtthatdivorcingthemwouldbemadeforbidden;heused toremindmeoftherightsofslavestosuchanextentthatIthoughttherewillbe atimefixedwhentheywillbefreed;heusedtoremindmeoftheuseofsiwak (toothstick)tosuchanextentthatIthoughtitwouldbemadeobligatory;he usedtoremindmeoftheimportanceofprayerincongregationtosuchanextent thatIthoughtthatAllahtheExaltedwillnotacceptprayerexceptin congregation;heusedtoremindmeaboutstandingupinthenightandpraying tosuchanextentthatIthoughtthattherewillbenosleepduringthenight;and heusedtoremindmeabouttheremembranceofAllahtosuchanextentthatI thoughtthereisnobenefitinanyspeechexceptinit. [8]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Therearesevenpeoplewhom theCreatorwillneitherlookatontheDayofJudgementnorwillHepurifythem, andHewillmakethementertheHellfirethehomosexualandhispartner,the onewhomasturbates;andtheonewhoengagesinbestiality;andtheonewho hasanalintercoursewithawoman;amanwhomarriesbothawomanandher

34

daughter;theonewhofornicateswithhisneighbourswife;andtheonewho hurtshisneighbourtosuchadegreethathecurseshim. [9]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Themartyrsaresevenapart fromthosekilledinthewayofAllahtheonewhodiesofaninternal haemorrhageisamartyr,theonewhodiesfromdrowningisamartyr,pleurisy isamartyr,theonewhodiesinafireisamartyr,theonewhodiesundera collapsedbuildingisamartyr,andthewomanwhodieswhengivingbirthisa martyr. [10]Ibn`Abbas(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Itisadutyonanintelligentpersonto chooseseventhingsoversevenotherspovertyoverwealth,lowlinessover honour,humilityoverarrogance,hungeroversatiety,sadnessoverhappiness, inferiorityoversuperiority,anddeathoverlife.

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7
CounselinEights
[1]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Eightthingsareneversatiated ofeighttheeyefromlooking,theearthfromrain,thefemalefromthemale,the scholarfromknowledge,thequestionerfromquestioning,thegreedyfrom gathering,theseafromwater,thefirefromwood. [2]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Thereareeightthingswhichare adornmentsforeightotherschastityistheadornmentforpoverty;gratitudeis theadornmentforblessings;patienceistheadornmentforcalamity;gentlenessis theadornmentforknowledge;humilityistheadornmentforthestudent;much cryingistheadornmentforfear[ofAllah];notboastingofonesgenerositytoits recipientistheadornmentforcharity;andcompletecalmnessandinner concentrationistheadornmentforprayer. [3]`Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Theonewhoabandonssuperfluousspeech willbegivenwisdom,theonewhoabandonssuperfluouslookingwillbegiven thetranquillityoftheheart;theonewhoabandonssuperfluousfoodwillbe givendelightinworship;theonewhoabandonssuperfluouslaughterwillbe givenveneration;theonewhoabandonssuperfluousjokingwillbegivena beautifulappearance;theonewhoabandonstheloveofthedunyawillbe grantedtheloveoftheHereafter;theonewhoabandonsbusyinghimselfwith thefaultsofotherswillbegiventheabilitytorectifyhisownfaults;andtheone whoabandonsquestioningtheEssenceofAllahtheExaltedwillgivensecurity fromhypocrisy. [4]`Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)said,SignsofapersonwhoreallyknowAllahare eighthisheartisinastateoffearandhope,histongueisinastateofpraiseand gratitude,hiseyesareinastateofshameandtears,andhiswillisinleavingthe dunyaandseekingthepleasureofhisLord. [5]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Thereisnogoodinprayerwithoutconcentration andcalmness;thereisnogoodinfastingwithoutrefrainingfromidletalk;there isnogoodinreadingwithoutanycontemplation;thereisnogoodinknowledge withoutpiety;thereisnogoodinwealthwithoutgenerosity;thereisnogoodin brotherhoodwithoutcaringforanother;thereisnogoodinablessingthatis shortlived;andthereisnogoodinsupplicationwithoutsincerity. 36

8
CounselinNines

[1]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,AllahtheExaltedrevealedto Musaibn`Imran(Moses)intheTorahthatthesourceofallmistakesarethree arrogance,envyandgreed.Anothersixdiseaseswerebornoutofthesethree, andthustheybecameninesatiety,excessivesleep,excessiverest,loveof wealth,loveofpraise,andloveofleadership. [2]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Worshippersareofthreegroups, eachgrouphasthreesignsbywhichitisknownagroupwhoworshipAllah theExaltedoutoffear;agroupwhoworshipAllahoutofhope;andagroupwho worshipAllahoutoflove.Forthefirstgrouptherearethreesignsthey disparagethemselves;deemtheirrighteousdeedstobefew;andthereevildeeds tobeplenty.ForthesecondgrouptherearethreesignsTheyareanexampleto othersinallsituations;theyarethemostgenerousofallpeopleinspendingtheir wealth;andtheyhavethebestopinionamongstcreaturesregardingAllah.As forthethirdgrouptherearethreesignstheygaveawaywhattheylovemost anddonotcareaslongastheirLordispleasedwiththem;andtheydothat whichwilldispleasetheirnafstopleasetheirLord,andtheyarewiththeirLord ineverysituation,whetheritbein[following]Hiscommandmentsor[avoiding] Hisprohibitions. [3]`Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,TheprogenyofSatanarenineZaltun, Wathin,Laqus,A`wan,Haffaf,Murra,alMusawwit,DasimandWalhan.Zaltun commandsthemarketsandheunfurlshisbannertherein;Wathancommands catastrophes;A`wancommandsrulers;Haffafcommandsintoxicants;Murra commandslicentiousmusic;LaquscommandstheMagians;AlMusawwit commands[false]newswhichheputsinthemouthsofpeoplewhiletheyknow notitsorigin;Dasimcommandshouses;ifamanweretoenterhishousewithout greetinghiswifeandfamilywithsalamandmentioningthenameofAllahthe Exalted,Dasimwillcauseadisputebetweenhusbandandwifesuchthatitleads todivorce,separation,orviolence;asforWalhan,hewhispers[inpeoplesears] duringablution,prayer,andotheractsofworship. [4]`Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Theonewhoobservesthefivedailyprayers intheirpropertimesandisconstantinthis,Allahwillhonourhimwithnine miraclesAllahwilllovehim,hishealthwillbegood,angelswillprotecthim, blessedness(baraka)willdescendonhishouse,thesignoftherighteouswillbe 37

apparentonhisface,Allahwillsoftenhisheart,hewillcrossthebridgeofalsirat almustaqim[intheHereafter]atthespeedofaflashoflightening,Allahwillsave himfromHellfire,andAllahwillplacehimamongstthepeoplewhohaveno fearnoraretheyeversad. [5]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Sheddingtearsisofthreetypesthefirstisfrom thefearofAllahspunishment,thesecondisfromthefearofAllahsanger,and thethirdisfromthefearofbeingcutofffromAllah.Thefirstoneisa compensationforsins,thesecondispurificationfromfaults,andthethirdis elevationtotheranksofsainthoodaccompaniedbythepleasureoftheBeloved. Thefruitofthecompensationofsinsissalvationfrompunishment;thefruitof thepurificationoffaultsiseternalblissandhighranks;andthefruitofthe elevationtotheranksofsainthoodaccompaniedbythepleasureoftheBeloved isgladtidingsfromAllahtheExaltedofHispleasure,ofseeingHim,ofthe visitingofangels,andofanincreaseinvirtue.

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9 Counselin Tens
[1]TheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Usethesiwak,for therearetenbenefitsinititpurifiesthemouth,pleasestheLord,angersSatan, islovedbytheMercifulandbytheguardianangels,strengthensthegums, eliminatesphlegm,getsridofthebadtastefromthemouth,brightenstheeyes, eliminatesbadbreath,andisfrommySunnah.Hethenadded.Oneprayer after[using]thesiwakisbetterthanseventyprayerswithout[using]it. [2]AbuBakralSiddiq(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Thereisnotaservantwhom Allahhasgiventhefollowingtentraitsexceptthathewillbesavedfromall pitfallsandafflictions,reachtherankofthosewhoareclosetoAllah,andattain thepositionofthepiousonesthefirstisperpetualtruthfulnesstogetherwitha contentheart;thesecond,completepatiencetogetherwithpermanentgratitude; thethird,perpetualpovertytogetherwitheverpresentasceticism(zuhd);the fourth,uninterruptedcontemplationtogetherwithanemptystomach;thefifth, lastingsadnesstogetherwithcontinuousfear;thesixth,perpetualstruggle togetherwithahumblebody;theseventh,perpetualgentlenesstogetherwith everpresentmercy;theeighth,perpetuallove[ofAllah]togetherwithshame; theninth,beneficialknowledgetogetherwithperpetualpatience;andthetenth, perpetualfaith(iman)withanunflappableintellect. [3]`Umar(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Tenthingsarenotrightwithouttenothers intelligencewithoutGodconsciousness,superioritywithoutknowledgesuccess withoutfear,powerwithoutjustice,noblelineagewithoutmanners,happiness withoutsecurity,wealthwithoutgenerosity,povertywithoutcontentment, [having]ahighandexaltedpositionwithouthumility,andjihadwithoutthe guidanceandsupportofAllah. [4]`Uthman(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Themostfutileofallthingsaretena scholarwhoisnotasked,knowledgewhichisnotactedupon,acorrectopinion whichisnotaccepted,aweaponwhichisnotused,amosquewhereinnonepray, acopyoftheQuranwhichisnotread,wealthwhichisnotspent,ahorsewhich isnotmounted,knowledgeofasceticismbyonewhopursuesthedunya,anda longlifeinwhichnoprovisionshavebeenpreparedforthedeparture, [5]`Ali(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Knowledgeisthebestinheritance,goodmanners arethebestcraft,pietyisthebestprovision,worshipisthebestbaggage, 39

righteousactionisthebestguide,goodcharacteristhebestcompanion, gentlenessisthebestadvisor,contentmentisthebestwealth,[divine]assistance isthebestally,anddeathisthebestteacher. [6]TheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Ten[typesof people]fromthisummaharedisbelievers(kuffar)inAllahtheGreatandwho thinktheyarebelieversthekillerwithoutaright,theonewhopracticesmagic, thewithholderofzakat,thedrinkerofalcohol,theoneuponwhomhajjbecame obligatorybutdidnotperformit,thespreaderofseditionandtrouble(fitna),the sellerofweaponstotheenemy,theonewhohasanalintercoursewithawoman, theonewhocommitsadulterywithaclosefemalerelative(mahram)whomheis legallyforbiddentomarryiftheydeemwhattheyhavedonepermissible(halal) thentheyhaveapostatised. [7]TheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Noservant[of Allah]intheheavensandtheearthcanbeabelieverunlesshehasarrived[atthe truebeliefinGod],andhecannotarrive[attruebeliefinGod]unlessheisa Muslim,andhecannotbeaMuslimunlessheisknowledgeable,andhecannot beknowledgeableunlessheactsuponwhatheknows,andhecannotactupon whatheknowsunlessheisanascetic,andhecannotbeanasceticunlessheis Godconscious,andhecannotbeGodconsciousunlessheishumble,andhe cannotbehumbleunlessheknowshimself,andhecannotknowhimselfunless heisintelligentandcautiousinspeech, [8]YahyaibnMu`adhalRazisaid: OyouwhoentreatshisLordwithalltypesofspeech!
AndwhoasksofHimresidenceintheLandofSpeech Whoceaselesslydelaysrepentanceyearafteryear Idonotseeyoubeingjusttoyoursoulamongstallpeople Hadyoufilledyourdaywithfasting,Oheedlessone! Andstayedawakeallnightinprayer Anddiminishedyourwaterandfood Youwouldhavebeenfittoattainthehonourofelevatedrank AndgiventheabilitytoperformgreatfeatsbytheLordofcreation AndsecuredthegreatestpleasureofthePossessorofMajestyand Generosity

[9]Anasceticsaid,TencharacteristicsarehatedbyAllahfromten[typesof] peoplemiserlinessfromtherich,arrogancefromthepoor,greedfromscholars, lackofshamefromwomen,loveofthedunyafromtheelderly,lazinessfromthe youth,oppressionfromtherulers,cowardicefromwarriors,selfinfatuation fromascetics,andostentationfromworshippers.

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[10]TheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Wellbeingisin tenforms,fiveinthisworldandfiveinthenext.Asforthoseinthisworld,they areknowledge,worship,halalincome,patienceindifficulttimes,andgratitude forblessings;asfortheonesinthenextworldtheyarethecomingoftheAngel ofDeathtothebelieverwithmercyandgentleness;MunkarandNakirnot frighteninghiminthegrave;beingsafeonthedayofthegreatestterror(theDay ofJudgement);thewipingawayofhissinsandtheacceptanceofhisgood actions;andhewillpassbythesirat[bridgeovertheHellfirenottobecrossedby everyoneontheDayofJudgement]likeaflashoflightening,andwillenter Paradiseinpeace. [11]AbulFadlsaid,AllahtheExaltedhasnamedtheQuranwithtennames alQuran,alFurqan[theCriterion],alKitab[theBook],alTanzil[SentDown],al Huda[theGuidance],alNur[theLight],alRahma[theMercy],alShifa`[theCure], alRuh[theSpirit],andalDhikr[theRemembrance].AsforitsnamingalQuran, alFurqan,alKitab,alTanzilitisknown,asfor[itsnaming]alHuda,alNur,al RahmahandalShifaa.AllahtheExaltedsays,Opeople!Areminderhascome fromyourLordandaCureforthatwhichisinthehearts,andGuidanceand Mercyforthebelievers.AndfromAllahhascometoyouLightandamanifest Boo.AsforalRuh,Hesays,AndthusWerevealedtoyouaSpiritfromOur command.AndasforalDhikr,Hesays,Andwehaverevealedtoyouthe Remembrancetomakecleartopeople. [12]Luqmansaidtohisson,Wisdomisindoingtenthingsenliveningthe deadheart,sittingwiththeneedy,stayingawayfromthegatheringofkings, honouringthehumble,freeingtheslave,beinghospitabletothestranger, enrichingthepoor,andveneratingthepeopleofhonour.Thesethingsarebetter thanwealth,areaprotectionfromfear,aweaponinwar,amerchandiseatthe timeofcommerce,anintercessorwhenafflictedwithterror,anindicationthat convictionhasenteredtheheart,andacoveringwhennoclothescancoverone [ontheDayofJudgement]. [13]AnAsceticsaid,Itisincumbentupontheintelligentpersonwhenhe repentstodotenthingsseekforgivenesswiththetongue;regretwiththeheart; abandonthesinwiththebody;resolvenevertoreturntoit(theactof disobedience);loveoftheHereafter;hatethedunya;reducespeech;reducefood anddrinksothathecandevotehimselftoknowledgeandworship;andreduce hissleep.AllahtheExaltedsays,Littledidtheysleepatnight,andintheearly hoursofdawntheydidseekforgivness. [14]AnasIbnMalik(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Everydaytheearthcallsoutwith tenthings,saying,OsonofAdam!Youstriveonmysurfaceandyour destinationismystomach;youdisobey[Allah]onmysurfaceandyouwillbe

41

punishedforitinmystomach;youlaughonmysurfaceandyouwillcryinmy stomach;youarehappyonmysurfaceandyouwillbesadinmystomach;you gatherwealthonmysurfaceandyouwillregretgatheringitinmystomach;you arearrogantonmysurfaceandyouwillbehumiliatedinmystomach;youwalk insolentlyonmysurfaceandyouwillfallmiserablyintomystomach;youwalk inthelightonmysurfaceandyouwillbeinthedarknessinmystomach;and youwalkwithcrowdsandlargegatheringsonmysurfaceandyouwillbelonely inmystomach. [15]TheMessengerofAllah(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Theonewho laughsalotwillbeafflictedwithtenthingshisheartwilldie,hewilllack shameandhonour,Satanwilllaughathim,[Allah]theMercifulwillbeangry withhim,hewillbeheldtoaccountontheDayofJudgement,theProphet (salAllahualayhiwasallam)willturnawayfromhimontheDayofJudgement, theangelswillcursehim,thepeoplefotheheavensandearthwilldetesthim,he willforgeteverything,andhewillbeexposedontheDayofJudgement. [16]AlHasanalBasrisaid,OnedayIwaswalkingwithayoungpiousmanin thenarrowstreetsofBasraanditsmarketsuntilwereachedaphysiciansitting onachairandaroundhimweremanymen,women,andchildrenwhohad bottlesofwaterintheirhands.Eachoneofthemwasseekingacureforhis illness.Theyoungmanmovedclosertothephysicianandaskedhim,O physician!Doyouhaveamedicinethatcleansawaysinsandcuresthe[spiritual] diseasesoftheheart?HerepliedYes!Theyoungmansaid,Giveittome!The physiciansaid,Taketenthingsfrommetaketherootsofthetreeofpoverty withtherootsofthetreeofhumility,andpourinitthemilkofrepentance,then placeitinthemortarofacceptance[ofwhateverispredestinedforone],crushit withthepestleofcontentment,thenplaceitinthepotofpiety,pouroveritthe waterofshame,thenboilitwiththefireoflove,thenplaceitinthecupof gratitudeandcoolitdownwiththefanofhope,thendrinkitwiththespoonof praise.Ifyoudoallofthisthenitwillcureyouofeveryillnessandtrialinthis worldandintheHereafter. [17]Itissaidthatakinggatheredfivescholarsandasceticsandorderedeachone togiveawordofwisdom.Eachonespokeandgavetwopiecesofwisdomand thustheybecameten.Thefirstonesaid,FearingtheCreatorissecurityand feelingsafe[fromHiswrath]isdisbelief;andfeelingsafefromanothercreature isfreedomandfearinghimisslavery.Thesecondsaid,HopingfromAllahis richnessthatnopovertycanharm,andloosinghopeinHimispovertythatno wealthcanalleviate.Thethirdsaid,Povertyinworldypossessionsdoesnot harmtheonerichatheart(i.e.contented),andrichnessinworldypossessions doesnotbenefittheonepooratheart(i.e.greedy).Thefourthsaid,Generosity doesnotincreasetherichnessoftheheartexceptinrichness,andpovertyat

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heart(greed)doesnotincreasewithrichnessinmaterialpossessionsexceptin poverty.Thefifthsaid,Takingalittlefromgoodnessisbetterthanleavingalot fromevil,andleavingallactsofevilisbetterthancommittingafewactsof goodness. [18]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Tenthingsareincumbent upontheonewhoentersthemosqueremovingonesshoes;enteringwiththe rightfoot;sayingwhenentering,InthenameofAllahandpeacebeuponthe MessengerofAllahandtheangelsofAllah.OAllahuponforusthedoorsof Yourmercy,verilyYouaretheGrantor;greetingwithsalamthepeopleofthe mosque,orsayingifnobodyisinthemosquePeacebeuponusandthe righteousservantsofAllah;sayingItestifythatthereisnoLordbutAllahand MuhammadistheMessengerofAllah;notpassinginfrontofthosewhoare praying;notengaginginworldlyactionsorworldlytalk;notleavingwithout prayingtworakahs,notentering[themosque]withoutablution;andsaying whenstandingup[toleave]GloryandpraisebetoYouOAllah!Itestifythat thereisnoLordexceptYou,IseeyourforgivenesssandrepenttoYou. [20]AbuHurayrah(radyAllahu`anhu)narratedthattheProphet(salAllahualayhi wasallam)said,PrayerisapillaroftheReligionandinitaretenbenefits beautyfortheface,lightfortheheart,restforthebody,andescapingthe lonelinessofthegrave.Itmakesmercydescend,isthekeytoParadise,isheavy ontheScales[ofgooddeeds],[gains]thepleasureoftheLord,isthepriceof Paradise,andthebarrieragainsttheFire.Theonewhoestablishesithas establishedtheReligion,andtheonewholeavesithasdestroyedtheReligion. [21]Aisha(radyAllahu`anha)narratedthattheProphet(salAllahualayhiwa sallam)said,WhenAllahwantstoallowthepeopleofParadisetoenterParadise, HesendsthemanangelwithagiftofclothesfromParadise.Whentheyreabout toenterParadise,theangelsaystothem,Wait,Ihaveagiftwithmefromthe LordoftheWorlds.Theywillsay,Whatisthegift?Theangelwillsay,Itisten sealsonthefirstoneiswrittenPeacebeuponyou!Youweregood,so enter [theGardenofdelight],todwelltherein;onthesecond[seal]itiswritten,Your sadnessandanxietieshavebeenremoved;writtenonthethirdis,Andthisis thegardenwhichyouaregivenasaninheritanceonaccountofwhatyoudid; writtenonthefourthis,Wehavegivenyouornamentsandbeautifulclothesto wear;writtenonthefifthis,WeshallwedthemwithHouriswithwide,lovely eyes,andIhaverewardedthemthisdaybecausetheywerepatient,thatthey arethetriumphant;writtenonthesixthis,Thisisyourrewardtodayforthe actsofobedienceyouwereengagedin;ontheseventhis,Youhavebeen returnedtoyouryouthandyouwillneverbecomeaged;ontheeighthis,You areinperpetualsecurityandneedneverbefrightened;ontheninthis,Youwill beinthecompanyoftheprophets,truthfulones,martyrs,andrighteousones;

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writtenonthetenthis,YouwillresidebesidetheAllMercifulwhoPossesses theGreatThrone.TheangelswillthensayEnteritinpeaceandsecurity.They willthusenterparadiseandsay,PraiseisduetoAllahtheOnewhoremoved ouranxieties,surelyourLordisMostForgivingandGrateful.Praiseisdueto AllahtheOnewhowastruetoHisPromiseandgaveustheinheritanceofthis earththusistherewardofthosewhowork. AndwhenAllahwishestothrowthePeopleofhellintotheFire,hesendsthem anangelwhohastenseals.Onthefirstoneiswritten,Enterit,neverwillyou die,bebroughttolife,oreverbroughtoutofit;onthesecondiswritten,Linger inpunishment,neverwilltherebeanyreposeforyou;onthethirdiswritten, TheyhavedespairedofMymercy;onthefourthiswritten,Enterit,into perpetualdistress,anxiety,andsorrow;onthefifthiswritten,Yourclotheswill befire,yourfoodwillbefromanextremelybitterandthornytreethatgrowsat thebottomoftheHellfire(zaqqum),yourdrinkwillbeboilingfluids,andyour bedandcoveringwillbetheFire;onthesixthiswritten,Thisisyour recompensetodayfordisobeyingme;ontheseventhiswritten,Myangerwill bewithyouintheFireforever;ontheeightiswritten,Youarecursedforthe majorsinsyouintentionallycommitted,forwhichyouneverrepentednorhad anyregret;ontheninthiswritten,YoureternalfriendsintheFirewillbethe devils;andonthetenthiswritten,Youfollowed[thepathof]Satan,desiredthe dunyaandneglectedtheHereafter,thusthisisyourrecompense. [22]Anasceticsaid,Isoughttenthingsintenplacesandfoundtheminten othersIsoughtelevationinarrogancebutfounditinhumility;Isought worshipinritualprayerbutfounditinasceticism;Isoughtilluminationofthe heartinthedaytimepublicritualprayersbutfounditinthesecretlatenight prayers;IsoughtthelightoftheDayofJudgementingivingandgenerositybut founditinthirstandfasting;Isoughtpermissiontopassthesiratinsacrificing animals[tofeedthepoor]butfounditingivingcharity(sadaqa);Isought protectionfromtheHellfireinpermissibleactionsbutfounditinleavingdesires; IsoughttheloveofAllahtheExaltedinthedunyabutfounditinHis remembrance(dhikr);Isoughtwellbeingingatheringsbutfounditinsolitude; andIsoughtilluminationoftheheartinlecturesandreadingtheQuranbut founditincontemplationandcrying. [23]Ibn`Abbas(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Tenthingsarefromthesunna,five relatedtotheheadandfivetothebodyasfortheheadtheyare;usingsiwak, rinsingthemouth,rinsingthenose,shorteningthemoustache,andshavingthe head.Asforthebodytheyare:removingarmpithair,clippingthenails,shaving pubichair,circumcision,andcleansing[afterrelivingoneself]. [24]Ibn`Abbas(radyAllahu`anhu)said,Theonewhosendsonesalutationunto theProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)Allahwillsendtensalutationsuntohim,

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andtheonewhoinsultstheProphetonceAllahwillinsulthimtentimes;doyou notseethesayingofAllahtheExaltedregardingalWalidibnalMughiramay thecurseofAllahbeuponhim,whenheinsultedtheProphet(salAllahualayhi wasallam)onceandAllahinsultedhimtentimesandsaid,Heednothetypeof despicablemenreadywithoaths,aslanderer,goingaboutwithcalumnies, hindererofthegood,transgressor,malefactor,ignoble,besidesallthat,baseborn; becauseheposseswealthand(numerous)sons.That,whenourrevelationsare reciteduntohim,hesays:Merefablesofthemenofold.[Thelastpart]means thatherejectedtheQuran. [25]IbrahimibnAdhamwasaskedaboutthesayingofAllahtheExalted,And YourLordsaid,SupplicatetomeandIwillansweryoursupplication.We supplicatebutourprayersarenotanswered!Hesaid,Yourheartshave becomedeadduetotenthingsyouhaveknownAllahbuthavenotfulfilled Hisright;youhavereadtheBookofAllahbutdidnotabidebyit;you proclaimedenmityofSatanbutmadehimyourguardianandprotector;you claimedloveoftheMessengerbutyoulefthispathandhisTradition(sunnah); youclaimedloveofParadisebutyoudidnotworkforit;youclaimedfearofthe Hellfirebutdidnotrenouncecommittingsins;youclaimedthatyoubelieved thatdeathwasarealitybutyoudidnotreadyyourselvesforit;youbusied yourselveswiththefaultsofothersandneglectedyourownfaults;youeatfrom thesustenancethatAllahprovidesforyoubutdonotshowgratitude;andyou buryyourdeadonesbutdonottakeheedfromit. [26]TheProphet(salAllahualayhiwasallam)said,Anyservant[ofAllah], whethermaleorfemale,whosupplicateswiththisdu`awhichiscomposedof tenphrasesonthenightof`Arafahonethousandtimeswillnotaskathing fromAllahexceptthatHewillgiveittohimprovidinghedoesnotsupplicatefor theseveranceoftiesofkinshiporforanactofdisobedience.Thefirstisglory betotheOnewhoseThroneisinheaven;glorybetotheOnewhosedominion andpowerisonearth;glorybetotheOnewhoseknowledgeisinthewombs; glorybetotheOnewhosedecreeisinthegraves;glorybetotheOnewhoraised theskieswithoutanypillars;glorybetotheOnewhoextendedtheearth;glory betotheOneinWhomthereisnorefugeorsalvationexceptinHim. [27]Ibn`Abbas(radyAllahu`anhu)narratedthatonedaytheMessengerofAllah (salAllahualayhiwasallam)saidtoSatan,maythecurseofAllahbeuponhim, Howmany[typesof]peoplearebelovedtoyoufrommyummah?Hesaid, Tentheoppressiveruler;thearrogant;therichwhoneithercarehowthey obtaintheirwealthnorhowtheyspendit;thescholarswhofindexcusesforthe oppressionofaruler;thefraudulenttrader;theonewhomonopolises[a product];thefornicator;theonewhodealsininterest;themiserwhodoesnot carehowheaccumulateshiswealth;andthealcoholic.TheProphetthenasked,

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Howmany[typesof]peopleareyourenemiesfrommyummah?Hesaid, Twentytypes[ofpeople]thefirstoneisyouOMuhammad,Itrulyhateyou! [Then]thescholarwhoactsuponhisknowledge;theonewhomemorisesthe Quranandfulfillsitscommandments;themuadhdhinforthefivedailyprayers whocallstheadhanonlyforthesakeofAllah;theonewholovesthepoor,needy, andorphans;theonewhohasamercifulheart;theonewhohumbleshimselfin frontofthetruth;theyoungmanwhogrowsupintheobedienceofAllahthe Exalted;theonewhoeatsonlyhalal;thetwoyoungmenwholoveeachotherfor thesakeofAllah;theonewhoisalwayszealousinperforminghisprayersin congregation;theonewhooffersprayersatnightwhilepeopleareasleep;the onewhoholdshisnafsbackfromcommittingtheharam;theonewhoadvises[in anothernarration,supplicatesfor]hisbrotherswithouthavinganyulterior motiveinhisheart;theonewhoisalwaysinastateofablution;theonewhois generous;theonewithgoodmannersandcharacter;theonewhobelievesin whatHisLordhasguaranteedforhim;theonewhodoesgoodtowidows;and theonewhoreadieshimselffordeath. [28]WahbibnMunabbihsaid,ItiswrittenintheTorah,Hewhoprepares provisions[fortheHereafter]inthisworldwillbesafefromAllahspunishment ontheDayofJudgement;hewholeaveshatredwillbepraisedontheDayof Judgementinfrontofthewholecreation;hewhoabandonsloveofleadership willbehonouredontheDayofJudgementinfrontoftheOmnipotentKing;he whoabandonstheexcessesofthedunyawillbeblissfulamongsttherighteous ones[ontheDayofJudgement];hewhoabandonsquarrellinginthisworldwill beamongstthewinnersontheDayofJudgement;hewhoabandonsmiserliness inthisworldwillbementionedinfrontofthewholeofcreationontheDayof Judgement;hewhoabandonsreposeinthisworldwillbehappyontheDayof Judgement;hewhoabandonstheprohibitedinthisworldwillbeinthe companyoftheProphetsontheDayofJudgement;hewhoabandonslookingat thatwhichhasbeenprohibitedinthisworld,Allahwilldelighthiseyesonthe DayofJudgementinParadise;hewhoabandonswealthandchoosespovertyin thisworld,AllahwillraisehimontheDayofJudgementamongstthebeloved andtheProphetsofAllah;hewhoassistsothersinfulfillingtheirneeds,Allah willmakehimfreefromallneedsinthisworldandinthenext.Hewhowishes tohavegoodcompanyinsteadofsolitudeinhisgraveshouldwakeupinthe darknessofthenightandpray;hewhowishestobeintheshadeoftheThroneof theMercifulshouldbecomeanascetic;hewhowisheshisbringtoaccounttobe easyshouldadvisehimselfandhisbrothers; hewhowishestheangelstobehis visitorsshouldbecomeGodconscious;hewhowishestoliveinthedelightof ParadiseshouldrememberAllahduringthenightandday;hewhowishesto enterParadisewithoutanybringingtoaccountshouldrepenttoAllahwitha sincererepentance;hewhowishestoberichshouldbecomecontentedwithwhat AllahtheExaltedhisallottedforhim;hewhowishestobeamanof

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understandinginthesightofAllahshouldhavefearofAllah;hewhowishesto bewiseshouldseekknowledge;hewhowishestobesafefrompeopleshould notmentionanyoneexceptwithgoodandtakealessonfromhisownselfand ponderoverwhyandfromwhathewascreated;hewhowantsdignityand honourinboththedunyaandintheHereaftershouldgivepreferencetothe Hereafteroverthedunya;hewhowishesforalFirdaws(thehighestrankin Paradise)andinfinitehappinessshouldnotwastehislifeinthevicesofthe dunya;hewhowishesforParadiseinthisworldandthenextshouldadoptthe pathofgenerosity,becausetheonewhoisgenerousisclosetoParadiseandfar fromHell;hewhowisheshishearttobeenlightenedwiththecompletelight shouldadoptthepathofcontemplationandoftakinglessons[fromlifeand creation];hewhowishestohaveabodythatpatientlyendures[hardships],a tonguethatisinconstantremembrance[ofAllah],andaheartwhichisfearful [ofHim]shouldadoptthepaththepathofseekingforgivenessforthebelievers maleandfemale,andfortheMuslimsmaleandfemale.

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