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Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 19 (2006) 312315 www.elsevier.

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Safety valve sizing according to EN ISO 4126-4 and industrial practice in case of highly viscous liquid duty
D. Moncalvo*, L. Friedel
Technische Universitat Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfon Str 38, 21073 Hamburg, Germany

Abstract The calculation of the minimum relief area on the basis of the iterative procedure, as reported in EN ISO 4126-4 and by adopting an explicit method as carried out in the industrial practice, leads to the same valve size. This applies to valves with a high and low value of the related lift, respectively, with a valve nozzle orice according to API RP 526. However, under extraordinary conditions it may be possible that the discharge areas differ due to the graduation of the valve sizes within a suppliers production program. Indeed, neither method gives systematically larger relief areas than the other, the procedures are equivalent. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Safety relief valve; Viscous ow; Relief area sizing

Kurzfassung Die Berechnung des Entlastungsquerschnittes auf der Basis des iterativen Verfahrens gema EN ISO 4126-4 und der expliziten Methode, wie in der industriellen Praxis eingesetzt, fuhrt auf identische Ventilabmes sungen. Unter auergewohnlichen Bedingungen ist es aber moglich, da sich unterschiedlich groe engste Stromungsquerschnitte ergeben. Gleiche Ergebnisse werden fur Sicherheitsventile mit groen und kleinen Werten des bezogenen Ventiltellerhubes bzw. mit Ventildusen gema API RP 526 erzielt. Keine der beiden Vorgehensweisen fuhrt systematisch auf groere Entlastungsquerschnitte in Vergleich zueinander, im Prinzip sind daher beide Methoden gleichwertig. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Safety relief valve; Viscous ow; Relief area sizing

The safety valve liquid ow capacity in case of a highly viscous uid is reduced by a dimensionless viscosity correction factor, Kh accounting, among others, for thermodynamical, uid dynamical, geometrical, reference model and derated discharge coefcient, adr, inadequacies (Friedel & Schecker, 2000). Besides from the original graph in API RP 520 (1993) (API RP 520, 1993) and the correlation included in API RP 520 (2000) (API RP 520, 2000), there is no mandatory formula for it but, indeed, a variety of equivalent correlations is proposed in the literature according to Wieczorek et al. (Wieczorek & Friedel, 2003).

The ultimately required safety valve ow area, Ah, according to, e.g. (AD-Merkblatt A 2, 1993; API RP 520, 1993; EN ISO 4126-4, 2000) follows from Ah Z A0 =Kh where A0 R _ M p with 0:3! Kh % 1 adr $ 2rp0 Kpb (1)

* Corresponding author. Tel.: C49 40 428 783348; fax: C49 40 428 782573.

0950-4230/$ - see front matter q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2005.07.015

Herewith, A0 is the reference valve seat area necessary in _ case of an inviscid uid with its density, r, M denotes the mass ow to be discharged, while p0 and pb are the upstream relieving pressure in the component to be protected and the static back pressure. The various sizing procedures in case of highly viscous ow include the same inviscid ow area design based solely on postulated ow conditions and on the derated discharge coefcient, adr, the latter being obtained usually with water or some other low viscosity uid. Divergences occur when

D. Moncalvo, L. Friedel / Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 19 (2006) 312315 Table 1 Viscosity correction factor prediction procedure according to EN ISO 4126-4 (EN ISO 4126-4, 2000) and to industry EN ISO 4126-4 Select catalogued ow area 0 Khmin Z A0 =AISO p 0 _ ReISO Z M=h$ 4=pAISO
0 AISO O A0

313

Industry

Khact Z 0:9935C 2:878=Re0:5 C 342:75=Re1:5 K1 ISO ISO 0 If Khact O Khmin , then AhISO Z AISO ; 0 Otherwise repeat with next larger AISO

p _ Reind Z M=h$ 4=pA0 Khind Z f Reind


0 Aind Z A0 =Khind 0 Ahind is next catalogued seat area Ahind O Aind

the uid viscosity has to be accounted for, due to a different denition of the Reynolds number and, consequently, of the viscosity correction factor, Table 1. In EN ISO 4126-4 0 (EN ISO 4126-4, 2000) a preassumed viscous ow area, AISO OA0 is tested through a comparison where it affects both terms of the inequality, the actual viscosity correction factor, Khact and the minimum required factor, Khmin ; such procedure must, therefore, be iterative. In contrast to this is the approach adopted in industry, where the selection of the catalogued viscous ow area constitutes the last step following the prediction of the viscosity correction factor calculated through the reference seat area, A0. This approach would be regarded as straightforward. In detail, the EN ISO 4126-4 standard accounts for the uid viscosity, h through an actual correction factor, Khact biunivocally correlated (API RP 526, 1984) to the Reynolds number, ReISO dened through the 0 candidate viscous ow area, AISO the mass ow rate and the dynamic viscosity. This viscous ow area xes, by dividing through the reference seat area, A0 also the minimum required viscosity correction factor, Khmin , which needs to be exceeded by the actual factor, Khact in order for the 0 preassumed area AISO to be the nally required valve seat area, AhISO In case of failure, this procedure is repeated with the next larger catalogued valve seat area. In industrial practice, the Reynolds number, Reind dened as function of

_ the reference seat area, A0 the mass ow rate, M and the uid viscosity, h relates to the viscosity correction factor Khind through manufacturers developed correlations or alternatively according to API RP 520 (2000), Table 2. The reference seat area is enlarged by this viscosity accounting 0 factor to obtain the minimum required viscous ow area, Aint . The actual valve seat area, Ahind can, therefore, be the next larger value extracted from the respective manufacturers catalogues. From this description the divergence between the two procedures is best shown in the case of highly viscous uids when large discrepancies between the reference seat area, A0 and the actually required area, Ah which are reected in the respective Reynolds numbers, ReISO and Reind, hence, on the estimation of the viscosity correction factors. The question, therefore, arises to which extent the valve relief area prediction for high viscosity uids is affected by using these different procedures. For numerical identication of the nally required valve sizes, the ow conditions, i.e. the operational pressure difference across the valve, DpZp0Kpb and the liquid mass _ ow rate, M have been set constant and independent from the uid. Three valve classes have been investigated rst, i.e. Type 441 from LESER GmbH & Co. KG, Type 6102/6302 from Bopp & Reuther GmbH and Type VSE2/VSR2 from Sempell AG. For each of the specied valves with a so called

Table 2 Calculation of the viscosity correction factor as a function of the Reynolds number according to the valve manufacturers Valve LESER Viscosity correction factor, Khind Z f Reind , (K) K0.6413C0.2669$ln (Reind) K 0:5735C 0:4343$lnReind K0:04093$ln2 Reind C 0:001308$ln3 Reind 1
0:5 1:5 0:9935C 2:878=Reind C 342:75=Reind K1

Reind, (K) 34200 20060,000 O60,000 O 34

B&R Sempell

Table 3 Catalogued derated discharge coefcient, inlet and outlet nominal diameter as a function of the valve type for equal safety valve duty _ Test condition: psetZ30 bara, MZ 45; 000 kg=h LESER 441 adrZ0.45 DNin 20 25 32 DNout 40 40 50 B&R 6102/6302 adrZ0.78 DNin 20 25 DNout 32 40 Sempell VSE2/VSR2 adrZ0.55 DNin 40 50 50 DNout 50 80 100

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D. Moncalvo, L. Friedel / Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 19 (2006) 312315

Table 4 Predicted viscous ow areas for selected uids according to both sizing methods _ Test condition: DpZ30 bara, MZ 45; 000 kg=h Substance Density (kg/m3) Viscosity (Pa s) Safety valve ow area A0 (mm2) Leser Mercury Oil engine SAE 50 Syrup 13,530 865 883 895 1200 0.0015 0.08 0.503 2.19 3 97.49 385.57 381.62 379.05 327.36 B&R 56.24 222.45 220.17 218.69 188.86 Sempell 79.77 315.47 312.24 310.14 267.84 AhISO (mm2) Leser 254 416 416 661 661 B&R 201 314 314 314 314 Sempell 254 471 471 471 471 Ahind (mm2) Leser 254 416 416 661 416 B&R 201 314 314 314 314 Sempell 254 471 471 471 471

high value of the related lift, the certied derated discharge coefcient, adr, along with the inlet and outlet nominal diameter, respectively, DNin and DNout is depicted in Table 3 as taken from the producers catalogues for a set pressure of 30 bara and a uid independent mass ow rate of 45,000 kg/h. Several viscous media have been investigated, from highly dense and less viscous mercury to medium density high viscosity glucose syrup, passing through several lighter standard SAE motor oils. The properties are listed in Table 4 in order of increasing viscosity. The reference seat area, A0 for each of the three valve classes is calculated rst according to Eq. (1), while the viscous areas, AhISO and Ahind follow by using the procedures outlined in Table 1. From an examination of the results, no substantial difference arises from using the two procedures, since the same nal valve

seat area is obtained. The only exception to this conclusion is the case of syrup ow through LESER Type 441, where according to EN ISO 4126-4 the next larger valve is necessary. The original question, therefore, mutates to the analysis of the occurrence of such phenomenon, meaning, if it should be regarded as exceptional so that the above conclusion is still valid, or instead of the common valve design for highly viscous ows. The answer to the new question can hardly be found by using real uids, where density and viscosity are not physically independent from each other, but rather by basing on synthetic, ideally incompressible polyliquids. In detail, several polyliquid ows with a common density of 1200 kg/m3 and a dynamic viscosity ranging between 1 and 4 Pa s has been employed, Table 5. In analogy with the sizing conditions in case of real liquids, the operational

Table 5 Predicted viscous ow areas for selected polyliquids according to both sizing methods _ Test condition: DpZ30 bara, MZ 45; 000 kg=h, rZ1200 kg/m3 Substance Viscosity (Pa s) Safety valve ow area A0 (mm2) Leser Poly 1 Poly 2 Poly 3 Poly 4aLeser Poly 4bB&R Poly 4ccSempell 4 2.5 1 3 0.54 10.0 327.36 B&R 188.86 Sempell 267.84 AhISO (mm2) Leser 661 416 416 661 B&R 314 314 314 314 616 Sempell 471 471 471 Ahind mm2 Leser 661 416 416 416 B&R 314 314 314 201 471 Sempell 471 471 471

Table 6 Predicted viscous ow areas for selected polyliquids in case of safety relief valves with ASME certied derated discharge coefcient and nozzle orices in accordance with API 526 _ Test condition: DpZ40 bara, MZ 45000 kg=h, rZ1200 kg/m3 Substance Viscosity (Pa s) Safety valve ow area A0 (mm2) Leser Poly 1 Poly 2 Poly 3 Poly 4aLeser Poly 4bB&R Poly4cSempell 4 3 2 1.5 2.9 0.82 B&R Sempell AhISO (mm2) Leser G G G F B&R G G F G G Sempell G G G Ahind (mm2) Leser G G G G B&R G G F F F Sempell G G G

223.82

189.0

221.48

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pressure difference and mass ow rate are xed for the sake of simplicity to the same level as before. The reference seat areas, A0 remain, consequently, equal for each valve type since they are independent of the viscosity level. On analysing the results, it is evident that also in case of polyliquid ows the actually required areas, Ah are equal for both procedures and unaffected by the viscosity level. The conclusion seems to be that obtaining different valve sizes by using the two procedures is rare. In an attempt to reinforce this conclusion as an universal rule, a trial and error assignment of peculiar viscosity levels specically to each valve type is carried out until some sizing divergence is obtained. In those cases named Poly 4a, b and c, nally, different predictions occur. However, unfortunately the result is not dependent on the procedure but on the graduation of the valve sizes within a suppliers production program. In order to provide a common ground for a conclusion, the study is extended to safety relief valves with geometries in accordance with API 526 (API RP 526, 1984), i.e. low values of the related lift, for a set pressure of 40 bara and identical polyliquid properties, Table 6. In detail, the considered safety valves, for each of which ASME derated discharge coefcients are provided, are Type 526 from LESER GmbH & Co. KG (adrZ0.57), Type 8102/8302 from Bopp & Reuther-GmbH (adrZ0.675) and Type SC from Sempell AG (adrZ0.576). From the results it may be concluded that the former statement can be extended,

respectively, generalised: there is no difference when sizing the viscous ow relief areas for valves with high or low related lift through one or the other of the two procedures, unless the situation is extraordinary. Indeed, engineering common sense would denitely suggest opting for the larger relief area, the results in Tables 5 and 6 do not prove that the use of either the iterative procedure following EN ISO 4126-4 or the direct industrial method leads to an oversizing for a postulated worst credible maloperation case.

References
AD-Merkblatt A 2. (1993). Sicherheitseinrichtungen gegen Druckuberschreitung. Sicherheitsventile. API RP 520. (1993). Sizing, selection and installation of pressure-relieving devices in reneries, part ISizing and selection. API RP 520. (2000). Sizing, selection and installation of pressure-relieving devices in reneries, part ISizing and selection. API RP 526. (1984). Flanged steel safety relief valves. EN ISO 4126-4. (2000). Safety devices for the protection against excessive pressurePart 4: Pilot operated safety valves. Friedel, L., & Schecker, J. (2000). Fudge factors in chemical reactor dynamic venting simulation. Minutes Europ. DIERS User Group Mtg, Ludwigshafen. Wieczorek, M., & Friedel, L. (2003). Massendurchsatzkapazitat von Vollhubsicherheitsventilen bei hochviskoser Flussigkeitsstromung und Zweiphasenstromung - Teil 1 und 2. Techn. Uberwachung 44 (2003) 11/12, 22/28, und 45 (2004) 1/2, 31/36.