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History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment

Prof.Dr.Ing.MathiasNoe P f D I M thi N InstituteforTechnicalPhysics,KarlsruheInstituteofTechnology,Germany September21st 2011,TheHague,Netherlands p , g ,

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment S d i P E i
Acknowledgementinalphabeticalorder c o edge e a p abe ca o de Allcolleaguesallaroundtheworldcontributingtothisfield andespeciallyforthispresentation JoachimBock JanThureEriksson PaulGrant P lG t NaokiHayakawa DrewHazelton ReinhardHeller LarsKhn PeterKomarek HeinzWernerNeumller MinwonPark MarkStemmle Mark Stemmle
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment
Introduction Highenergytransmissionwithcables Highefficiencywithrotatingmachines Highpowerdensitywithtransformers High power density with transformers Fastenergystoragewithmagnets Fastprotectionwithcurrentlimiters F i ih li i Bettertransport withmagneticlevitation Summaryandoutlook

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Motivation Powersystemsofthepast Power systems of the past


Loadandgenerationwaslocallycoupled Power Length 300hp 176km

Voltage 15kV Voltage 15 kV Frequency50Hz q y

No copyright

FirstACtransmissionsysteminGermanystartedAugust25th 1891
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Motivation Powersystemstoday Power systems today


Largeinterconnectedsystemswheregenerationfollowsload >1000km >1GWperline

1GW=1000MW 1MW=1000kW 1kW=myvacuum cleanerathome cleaner at home

(Source: http://www.spchina.com/powerNetwork/gridmap.htm) MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Motivation Powersystemsinthepast
Loadangenerationwaslocallycoupled Load an generation was locally coupled

Powersystemstoday
Largeinterconnectedsystemswhere generationfollowsload Net generation history from 1975 to 2008 (UCTE)
Source: All Source:All values are calculated to represent 100% of the national values UCTE database as of 06 April 2009

Powersystemsinthefuture
More electricity Moreelectricity
Fossile fuels

Others

Nuclear power Hydro power

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Motivation Powersystemsinthepast
Loadangenerationwaslocallycoupled Load an generation was locally coupled

Powersystemstoday
Largeinterconnectedsystemswhere generationfollowsload Sum of electricity exchanges of the UCTE in TWh
Source: UCTE database as of 02 April 2009

Powersystemsinthefuture
More electricity Moreelectricity Moreenergytransport

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Motivation Powersystemsinthepast
Loadangenerationwaslocallycoupled Load an generation was locally coupled

Powersystemstoday
Largeinterconnectedsystemswhere generationfollowsload

CO2 Emission by Sector


Source: IEA CO2 EMISSIONS FROM FUEL COMBUSTION Highlights (2010 Edition)

Powersystemsinthefuture
More electricity Moreelectricity Moreenergytransport MoreCO2 emissions

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Motivation Powersystemsinthepast
Loadangenerationwaslocallycoupled Load an generation was locally coupled

Powersystemstoday
Full load ho ours

Largeinterconnectedsystemswhere generationfollowsload

Full load hours of G F ll l d h f German wind power i d

Powersystemsinthefuture
More electricity Moreelectricity Moreenergytransport MoreCO2 emissions Morestorageandflexiblegeneration

Year

Source: ISET 2005

e.g. Data 50 Hertz Transmission (2009)


Installed wind power Max. Generation Min. Generation Largest 15 min. change Largest 60 min. change Largest daily change 10.126 MW 9.094 MW 0 MW + 785 MW, -769 MW +1723 MW, -1727 MW 7.692 MW

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Motivation Powersystemsinthepast
Loadangenerationwaslocallycoupled Load an generation was locally coupled

HistoricR&DHighlights R&Dstateoftheart

Powersystemstoday
Largeinterconnectedsystemswhere generationfollowsload

Powersystemsinthefuture
More electricity Moreelectricity Moreenergytransport MoreCO2 emissions Morestorage Moreintelligentsystemswhereload More intelligent systems where load followsgeneration

Perspectives
Topicsofthistalk

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

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History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment S d i P E i
Introduction Highenergytransmissionwithcables Highefficiencywithrotatingmachines Highpowerdensitywithtransformers High power density with transformers Fastenergystoragewithmagnets Fastprotectionwithcurrentlimiters F i ih li i Bettertransportwithmagneticlevitation Summaryandoutlook

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

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VisionaryStudyfromGarwinandMatisoo

Data PowerCapacity VoltageDC CurrentDC Length


50 cm c

100GW 200kV 500kA 1000km >99.9% >99 9 % 4.2K 1km

Efficiency Linetemperature Jointspacing

Vacuumpumpspacing500m Refrigeratorspacing 20km Superconductor


30 cm R.L.GarwinandJ.Matisoo,Superconductinglinesforthe RL G i dJ M i S d i li f h transmissionoflargeamountofelectricalpowerovergreat distances,ProceedingsoftheIEEE,Vol.55,Nr.4,April1967

Nb3Sn

Totalcostestimation 806Mio.US$

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

The boom years with cryocables (end of 60 up to mid 80)


Institution / Company C AUSRI AEG Siemens AT CERL BNL Union Carbide Hitachi CRIEPI
Myowninvestigation

Country USSR

Design Data 110 kV, 50 m

Years 75 74-75 74 75 77-78 79-80 77 82-86 75-76 70-71 70-71 -

Conductor Nb3Sn Nb3S Sn NbAl Nb NbZr Nb3Sn Nb/Cu/Invar Al (no SC) Al (no SC) -

DC, kV, 12.5 kA, Germany DC 100 kV 12 5 kA 25 m G Germany 110 kV, 10 kA, 35 m Austria UK US US Japan Japan 60 kV, 1 kA, 50 m 33 kA, 5 m 138 kV, 1000 MVA, 115 m 138 kV, 3400 MVA, 12.2 m 345 kV, 500 kV, 12.2 m 66 kV, 100 MVA, 30 m 66 kV, 37 m

General Electric US

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefirstsuperconductingcableinapublicpowersystem TheArnsteincableinAustriain1979 The Arnstein cable in Austria in 1979

PeterKlaudy

P. Klaudy, J. Gerhold, A, Beck, P. Rohner , E Scheffler and G, Ziemek First field test trials of a superconducting power cable within the power grid of a public utility IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Voll. MAG 17 , Nr. 1, pp. 153-156, January 1981

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefirstsuperconductingcableinapublicpowersystem TheArnsteincableinAustriain1979 The Arnstein cable in Austria in 1979


Data Commissioning Voltage Current Length Superconductor 10/1979 60kV 1000A 50m NbCu

Cryogenic loss at 6K 0.15W/m Cryogenic loss at 77K 4W/m Fully flexible cryostat flexiblecryostat Fieldtest with low current,separatehigh current lab.test

P. Klaudy, J. Gerhold, A, Beck, P. Rohner , E Schef f ler and G, Ziemek First field test trials of a superconducting power cable within the power grid of a public utility IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Voll. MAG 17 , Nr. 1, pp. 153-156, January 1981

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefirstsuperconductingcabletransmittingpower TheBrookhavenCable The Brookhaven Cable

Installation site at Brookhaven

B. Forsyth Superconducting power transmission lines the past and possibly the future Supercond. Science and Technology 6 (1993) 699-714

4100 A, 80 kV cable
2010 2020 2030 2040 2050

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

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Thefirstsuperconductingcabletransmittingpower TheBrookhavenCable The Brookhaven Cable


Data Test Voltage V l Power Length Temperature Cooldown
Installation site at Brookhaven

19821986 135kV 135 kV 1000MVA 115m 115 m 6.5 8.5K 6.58.5 K 100h

SuperconductorNb3Sn Totaltimecold2727h

B. Forsyth Superconducting power transmission lines the past and possibly the future Supercond. Science and Technology 6 (1993) 699-714

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

17

Thehard work with low temperaturesuperconducting cables

Courtesy:Dr.HeinzWernerNeumller,formerSiemensCorporateTechnology MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

ThefirstHTScableoperatinginapowersystem Carrollton,Georgia,US Carrollton Georgia US


Commissioning Voltage Current Superconductor Temperature Lossperterminal Croystatloss Croystat loss
Figure: Southwire

01/2000 12.4kV 1.25kA BSCCO2223 77K 230W 1W/m/Phase 1 W/m/Phase

Totalloss1490W@77K,600A ll

ACloss0.2W/m/Phase@600A

J. P. Stovall et. al. Installation and operation of the Southwire 30 m HTS power cable IEEE Transaction on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2001

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

SuperconductingACCables StateoftheArtofHTSACCableTestssince2000 State of the Art of HTS AC Cable Tests since 2000
275kV,3kA,Japan 275 kV, 3 kA, Japan

160 Phas se-Phas Voltag / kVRMS se ge 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0


1960 1970

LIPAII11 LIPAI08

Gochang11

Threephasescoaxial 1phasein1cryostat 3phasesin1cryostat 3 phases in 1 cryostat Inredwarmdielectric

Yokosuga04 Yokohama12

Albany06 y

Yunnan04

Gochang07 Copenhagen01 Icheon10 Columbus06 Moscow 09 Carollton01 Essen13 NewYork10 k

1
1980

2 3 CurrentRMS / kA
1990 2000

4
2020 2030 2040

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2050

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

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SuperconductingACCables StateoftheArt State of the Art


Columbus LIPA Gochang
Figure: LS Cable

Ultera 13.2kV,3kA,200m TriaxialTM Design Design BSCCO2223 Energized2006 Highreliability High reliability
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Figure: Ultera

Nexans 138kV,2.4kA, 600m 600 Singlecoaxialdesign BSCCO2223 Energized2008 Energized 2008


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Figure: Nexans 11 2010


2020

LSCable 22.9kV,50MVA,100m BSCCO2223 BSCCO 2223 Energized2007 500mfieldtestwithYBCO in2011 in 2011


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1980

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

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Thefuture ofsuperconducting cables Hydricity A combination of liquid hydrogen and HTS electricity Acombination ofliquidhydrogenand HTSelectricity

Paul M. Grant, Chauncey Starr, Thomas Overbye A power grid for the hydrogen economy, Scientific American 2006 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

30? 2030

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefutureofsuperconductingcables
R&DTrends Towards longer lengths.Acable lenght of1kmwillbe demonstrated soon. Towards higher currents up to 5kA Towards the trial use ofYBCOtapes Towards DCcables forhigh power Attractive Applications Avoid bottlenecks inpowertransmission and distribution Eliminate high voltage substations in urban areas inurbanareas Improve efficiency and enable high powertransmission with DCcables DC cables for degaussing ships and connecting data centres DCcables fordegaussing

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment S d i P E i
Introduction Highenergytransmissionwithcables Highefficiencywithrotatingmachines Highpowerdensitywithtransformers High power density with transformers Fastenergystoragewithmagnets Fastprotectionwithcurrentlimiters F i ih li i Bettertransportwithmagneticlevitation Summaryandoutlook

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

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Themotivationofsuperconductingrotatingmachines
Smallervolumeandweight
Halftheweightandvolume Twotimeshigherpowerdensity

Lessresources
Higherefficiency L Lessmaterial i l

Improvedoperationparameters
L Lowervoltagedrop(xd~ 0 2 0 3 lt d ( ~0.20.3p.u.) ) Higherstability Higher torque Highertorque Higherratioofbreakdowntorqueto nominaltorque Morereactivepower Enables new drive and generator systems
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

LTS synchronous generators tested (> 10 MVA)


Institution /Company MIT Westinghouse General Electric Fuji Electric Hitachi Elektros la Elektrosila All Union Inst. Siemens Super GM Country US US US Japan Japan USSR USSR y Germany Japan Data 10 MVA 10 MVA 20 MVA 30 MVA 50 MVA 300 MVA 20 MVA 400 MVA (rotor only) ( y) 70 MVA, 3600 rpm Years 74-80 -86 -83 80 85 80-85 82-83 80 9 80-92 -82 -91 88-00

Source:D.Lambrecht,L.Intichar,Summaryreportonanswerstoaquestionnaireconcerningtheprogressinthedevelopmentof superconductingrotating machines,superconductingmaterialandcryogenicequipment,ElectraN.139,December1991,pp.4361 MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

TheSuperGMprojectinJapan
Data Capacity Voltage Current Powerfactor Power factor Polenumber Rotationspeed Synchr.reactance Fieldcurrent Rotorouterdiam. Rotor outer diam 70MVA 10kV 4215A 0.9 09 2 3600rpm 0.35p.u. 3200A 885mm 885 mm

Recordholder Worldslargestoutput79MVA ld l Worldslongestcontinousoperation1500h Worldsfirstconnectiontorealpowersystem Worlds first connection to real power system
Ikuo Oishi, Kenichi Nishijima, Summary of development of 70 MW class model superconducting generatorresearch and development of superconducting for electric power application, Cryogenics 42 (2002) 157167 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

SuperconductingRotatingMachines StateoftheArtoflargescalerotatingmachines State of the Art of large scale rotating machines

Source:MinwonPark,CNU,Currentstatusof HTSpowerapplicationsafter100yearsof superconductivity Sep.12162011Marseille,France,22nd Sep 12 16 2011 Marseille France 22nd InternationalConferenceonMagnet Technology

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

SuperconductingRotatingMachines StateoftheArt State of the Art


ShipPropulsion
Picture from: Nature Physics 2, 794 - 796 (2006) doi:10.1038/nphys472 Wired for the future John Clarke & David C. Larbalestier

EUHydrogenie Hydrogenerator

ShipPropulsion

ImageCourtesyofConverteam

ImageCourtesyofSiemens

AMSC 36.5MVA,6kV 120rpm 8poles,75tons Efficiency>97% Dimensions:3,4mx4,6mx4,1m


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Converteam 1.790MW,5.25kV 214rpm,77.3kNm 28poles,32.7tons 4.7mx5.2mx3.5m Installationin2011


1990 2000

Siemens 4MW,3.1kV 120rpm,320kNm 37tons 50kmHTS Testin2010


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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefutureofsuperconductingrotatingmachines
R&DTrends Moredetailedstudiesandtechnologyprojectsonwindpower Widevarietyofdifferentapplications(torque,rating,speed) Nearlyallmaterialsarewelcome(MgB2,BSCCO,YBCO,LTS) MajorApplications Renewablegeneration Largepowergenerators Ship propulsion Shippropulsion Specialapplications

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment S d i P E i
Introduction Highenergytransmissionwithcables Highefficiencywithrotatingmachines Highpowerdensitywithtransformers High power density with transformers Fastenergystoragewithmagnets Fastprotectionwithcurrentlimiters F i ih li i Bettertransportwithmagneticlevitation Summaryandoutlook

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

31

Themotivationofsuperconductingtransformers
Manufacturingand transport
Compactand lightweight p g g (~50%Reduction)

Environmentand Marketing
Energy savings (~50%Reduction) Ressourcesavings Inflammable(no oil)

Operation
L Lowshortcircuit i h i i impedance d Higherstability Less voltage drops Less reactive power Active current limitation Protection ofdevices Reduction ofinvestment
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

LTS transformer projects


Institution p y /Company GEC Alstom y y Kyushu University Toshiba Nagoya University Kyushu University ABB Osaka University Country France Japan p Japan Japan Japan Switzerland Japan Data 80 kVA, 660/1040V 72 KVA, 1057/218 V 30 kVA, 100/100 V 100 kVA, 6600/210 V 1000 kVA, 3300/220 V 330 kVA, 6000/400 V 40 kVA, 460/115 kVA Year 1986 1988 1991 1991 1992 1993 1995

Source:B.W.McConnell,,S.Mehta,M.WalkerHTSTransformers,IEEEPowerEngieneeringReview2000

Wilkinson1966,IEEETrans.Magnetics there is little loss inconventional transformers or cables,to make the very high cost ofrefrigeration worthwhile. of refrigeration worthwhile

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

LTStransformer demonstrators inJapan


6.6 kV, 100 kVA 6 kV, 1000 kVA

Corutesy:Prof.Hayakawa,NagoyaUniversity

Y.J.Tang,T.Kato,N.Hayakawa,Y.Yokomizu,T.Matsumura,H.Okubo,Y.Kito,K.Miyake, T.Kumano,W.Satoh,K.Satoh:DevelopmentoftheProspectivePowerTransmission ModelSystemIntegratedunderSuperconductingEnvironment PROMISE IEEE Model System Integrated under Superconducting Environment PROMISE ,IEEE Trans.onAppliedSuperconductivity,Vol.5,No.2,pp.945948(1995)

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

ThefirstHTStransformerinoperationinJanuary1997
Power Voltage V lt Type Frequency q y Shortcircuit imp. Current Superconductor Cooling Lossat Loss at Ir 630kVA 18720/420V 18 720 / 420 V Dyn11 50Hz 4,6% 11.2/866 Bi2223 LN2 bei77KV 337W@77K 337 W @ 77 K

Source:H.Zuegeretal,Cryogenics1998Volume38,Number11 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Stateoftheartofsuperconductingtransformers
Country USA USA Japan Germany G EU Korea Japan China Japan Japan Germany G New Zealand USA Inst. Waukesha Waukesha Fuji Electric U Kyushu Siemens S CNRS U Seoul RTRI CAS U Kyushu U Nagoya KIT IRL Waukesha Application Demonstrator Demonstrator Demonstrator Railway Demonstrator Demonstrator Railway Demonstrator Demonstrator Demonstrator Demonstrator D t t Prototype Prototype Data 1 MVA/13.8 kV/6.9 kV 5 MVA/24.9 kV/4.2 kV 1 MVA/22 kV/6.9 kV 1 MVA/25 kV/1.4 kV / / 41 kVA/2050 V/410 V 1 MVA/22 9 kV/6 6 kV MVA/22.9 kV/6.6 4 MVA, 25 kV, 1.2 kV 630 kVA/10.5 kV/0.4 kV 400 kVA, 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 2 MVA/22 kV/6,6 kV 60 kVA 1 MVA, 11 kV/415 V 28 MVA/69 kV Phase 1 3 Dy 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 3 < 2001 2001 2003 2004 2004 2005 2009 2010 2012 2012 Year HTS Bi 2223 Bi 2223 Bi 2223 Bi 2223 P-YBCO S- Bi 2223 Bi 2223 Bi 2223 Bi 2223 YBCO P-Bi 2223 S-YBCO P-Cu/S-YBCO P C /S YBCO YBCO YBCO

Activecurrentlimitation

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Stateoftheartofsuperconductingtransformers
KarlsruheInstituteofTechnology NagoyaUniversity Waukesha/SuperPower

Courtesy y:N.Hayakawa

60kVADemonstrator 1kV/0.6kV Primarycopper SecondaryYBCOtapes S d YBCO t Successfultestin2010 Recoveryundernominalload


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2MVADemonstrator 22kV/6.6kV PrimaryBi2223tapes Secondary YBCO t S d YBCOtapes Successful test in2009

Source:W Waukesha

Copyrigh ht:KIT

28MVAPrototype 69kV Primaryandsecondarywith YBCOtapes YBCO t Testplannedin2012

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefutureofsuperconductingtransformers
R&Dstatus and trend HTStransformers with afew MVA have been realized Presently,there are a fewlargescale activitiesonHTStransformerswith activities on HTS transformers with activecurrentlimitation Applications Inprinciple there are many different transformers applications
G
Generator stepup transformer t f

G
Auxiliary transformer

Extrahighvoltage(380kV)
Power Power transformer

Highvoltage(110,220kV)
Substation transformer

Mediumvoltage(630kV)
Distribution transformer

Lowvoltage(0.4kV)

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment S d i P E i
Introduction Highenergytransmissionwithcables Highefficiencywithrotatingmachines Highpowerdensitywithtransformers High power density with transformers Fastenergystoragewithmagnets Fastprotectionwithcurrentlimiters F i ih li i Bettertransportwithmagneticlevitation Summaryandoutlook

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

39

Theneedforenergystorage

Fuel

Generation

Transmission

Distribution

Customer/Load

Large scale

Energy Storage

Small scale

Store Renewables

Load Balance

Higher Utilization Benefits

Stability

Power Quality

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Theneedforenergystorage

Distribution

Customer/Load

Energy Storage

Small scale

Stability

Power Quality

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Large scale SMES studies


ThefirstpaperonSMESforenergystorage M.Ferrier,Stockagedenergiedansunenroulementsupraconducteur,,inLow TemperatureandElectricPower.London,England:1970,Pergamon.pp.425432. Bechtel 1984 Energy Power Height Diameter Inductance Temperature Current Superconductor g Wire length Efficiency Total cost 5500 MWh 1000 MW 16 m 1568 m 67.7 67 7 H 1.8 K 765 kA NbTi 587.6 km 93.7% 1311 Mio. US $ Masuda 1985 5000 MWh 1000 MW 10.8/18/10.8 10 8/18/10 8 m 400/376/400 m 71.8 71 8 H 4.1 K 707 kA Nb3Sn 403 km 95% 1452 Mio. US $ Hassenzahl 1989 5250 MWh 1000 MW 19 m 1000 m 945 H 1.8 K 200 kA NbTi 506 km 94% 958 Mio. US $

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Source: T. Fleischer, K.-P. Jngst, V. Brandl, W. Maurer, E. Nieke, Energiespeicherung in supraleitenden Spulen (SMES), Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 5575, Mai 1995

LargeenergystoragewithlargeSMES

Source: U.S. Department of Energy

Toroidalconceptof5000MWhSMES
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Early SMES demonstrator projects (>100kJ)


Institution LASL Westinghouse KFK ANL Westinghouse KEK KEK KEK KEK Japan BPA Kyushu Hitachi Chubu Electric Country US US Germany US US Japan J Japan Japan J p n Japan US Japan Japan Japan Energy 244 kJ 302 kJ 220 kJ 1.5 MJ 400 kJ 100 kJ 3 MJ 400 kJ 200 kJ 30 MJ 100 kJ 5.06 5 06 MJ 1 MJ 1 MJ Year 1978 1978 1978 1979 1979 1979 1979 1981 1981 1983 1985 1986 1989 1991 Superconductor NbTi/Cu NbTi/Cu NbTi/Cu NbTi/CuNi/Cu NbTi/Cu NbTi/C NbTi/Cu NbTi/CuNi/Cu NbTi/C Ni/C NbTi/Cu NbTi/Cu NbTi/CuNi/Cu NbTi/CuNi/Cu NbTi/Cu

Tohoku Electric Japan

Source: T. Fleischer, K.-P. Jngst, V. Brandl, W. Maurer, E. Nieke, Energiespeicherung in supraleitenden Spulen (SMES),
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 5575, Mai 1995

TheBPA30MJSMES
30MJSMEScoil Nonconductingdewar

Energy Max.power Max.current Max. current

30MJ 10MW 4.9kA 4.9 kA

Max.field Superconductor Op.Temperature Op Temperature

2.95T NbTi 4.5K 45K

Source:J.D.Rogers,R.I.Schemer,B.L.Miller,andJ.F.Hauer,30MJSuperconductingMagneticEnergyStorageSystemforElectric UtilityTransmissionStabilization,ProceedingoftheIEEE,Vol.71,No.9.Sept.1983

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Stateoftheartofsuperconductingmagneticenergy storage
Lead Institution KIT AMSC KIT Chubu Chubu KERI Ansaldo Chubu CAS KERI CNRS KERI ABB/SP Country Germany US Germany Japan Japan Korea Italy Japan China Korea France Korea US 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2007 2007 2007 2008 2011 2013 Year 1997 Data 320 kVA, 203 kJ 2 MW, 2,6 MJ MW 2 6 25 MW, 237 kJ 5 MVA, 5 MJ 1 MVA, 1 MJ 750 kVA, 3 MJ 1 MVA 1 MJ MVA, 10 MVA, 19 MJ 0,5 MVA, 1 MJ 600 kJ 800 kJ 2.5 2 5 MJ 2.5 MJ, 20 kW Super Superconductor NbTi NbTi NbTi NbTi Bi 2212 NbTi NbTi NbTi Bi 2223 Bi 2223 Bi 2212 YBCO YBCO Application Flicker compensation Grid stability Power modulator Voltage stability Voltage stability Power quality Voltage stability Load compensation Power-, Voltage quality Military application Power quality -

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

StateoftheartofHTSsuperconductingmagnetic energystorage energy storage


Chubu,Japan B id i Bridgingvoltagedips lt di KERI,Korea P Powerquality lit CNRS,France Milit Militaryapplication li ti

Figure:ChubuElectric

1MJ,1MW Bi2212tape 500A, 500 A, 5Kconductioncooled Voltage:2.5kV

2.5MJ YBCOtape,22km 550A 550 A 20Kconductioncooled BmaxII 6.24T Testin2011 Test in 2011

Figure:KERI

Figure:CNRS 814kJ Bi2212tape 315A 315 A 20Kconductioncooled Diameter :300/814mm Height:222mm H i ht 222

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefutureofsuperconductingmagneticenergystorage
R&Dstatus and trends Afew MJClassHTSSMEShave been realized Mostofthe present activities are inAsia Afew activities to further develop technology HTSmaterialis notyet cost competitive to LTSmaterialinSMESapplication Applications Highpowerand modest energy applications are favourable forSMES Hybrid energy storage with liquid hydrogen Hybridenergy liquidhydrogen More,if the SMESsystem is competitive to other energy storage options

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment S d i P E i
Introduction Highenergytransmissionwithcables Highefficiencywithrotatingmachines Highpowerdensitywithtransformers High power density with transformers Fastenergystoragewithmagnets Fastprotectionwithcurrentlimiters F i ih li i Bettertransportwithmagneticlevitation Summaryandoutlook

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

49

Oneofthefirstlargescalefaultcurrentlimiters
DCbiasedironcoretype Voltage Frequency F Normalcurrent Faultcurrent Fault current forfaultatVpeak 2900Apeak forfaultatVzero 14750A k for fault at V zero 14750 Apeak Normalvoltagedrop4.4% 3kV 50Hz 50 H 556ARMS

B.P. Raju, T.C. Bartram; Fault current limiter with superconducting DC Bias, IEEE Proc Vol 129 No 4 July 1982 pp 166 Proc. Vol. 129, No. 4, 1982, pp.166

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

My first summary on SCFCL activities in 1994


Institution / Company KfK GEC Alsthom GEC Alsthom GEC Alsthom NEI ASC / General Dyn. ABB BB ABB Daimler B D i l Benz Hydro Quebec Hydro Quebec H d Q b TEPCO / Toshiba TEPCO / Toshiba Sekei Uni. Country / Year Germany / 1980 France / 1989 France / 1992 France / 1994 UK 1979 US / 1995 CH / 1 H 1989 CH / 1989 Germany / 1993 G Canada / 1993 Canada / 1995 C d Japan / 1990 Japan / 1990 Japan / 1990 Type Resistive Resistive Resistive Resistive DC biased iron DC biased iron Shielded iron h ld d Shielded iron Shielded iron Shi ld d i Inductive Inductive I d ti Inductive air coil Inductive air coil Inductive Data 40 MW / 47 kV 25 kV / 200 A 7.2 kV / 1 kA 63 kV / 1.25 kA 5 MVA 100 MVA 100 VA 20 kVA 100 VA 100 kVA 400 V / 100 A 6.6 6 6 kV / 1.5 kA 15 600 V / 6 A Superconductor NbTi NbTi NbTi NbTi NbTi BSCCO BSCCO B BSCCO YBCO BSCCO BSCCO NbTi NbTi NbTi

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

ThefirstHTSfaultcurrentlimiterinapowersystem InstalledandcommissionedinahydropowerstationinSwitzerland Installed and commissioned in a hydro power station in Switzerland


Shieldedironcoretype Voltage Frequency Normalcurrent Lim.Current Temperature Superconductor Loss 10kV 50Hz 70ARMS 700Apeak 77K Bi2212bulk 80literLN2/d l /day

Noshortcircuitduring installation

Source:W.Paul,M.Lakner,J.Rhyner,P.Unternahrer,Th.Baumann,M.Chen,L.WidenhornandA.Guerig, Testof1.2MVAhighTc superconductingfaultcurrentlimiter,Supercond.Sci.Technol.10(1997)914918. 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

ThefirstresistiveHTSfaultcurrentlimiterina powersystem TheCURL10projectinGermany power system The CURL10 project in Germany


Voltage Frequency Normalcurrent Faultduration Max.lim.current M li t Temperature Superconductor 10kV 50Hz 600ARMS 60ms 8.75kA 8 75 kA 66K Bi2212bulk Bi 2212 bulk

Onlyasinglephaseshort circuitduringinstallation

Source:R.Kreutz,J.Bock,F.Breuer,K.P.Juengst,M.Kleimaier,H.U.Klein,D.Krischel,M.Noe,R. Steingass,andK.H.Weck,SystemTechnologyandTestofCURL10,a10kV,10MVAResistiveHighTc S i dK H W k S T h l dT f CURL 10 10 kV 10 MVA R i i Hi h T SuperconductingFaultCurrentLimiter,IEEETrans.OnAppliedSuperconductivity,Vol.15,No.2,June2005

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefirstthreephasefaultofasuperconducting faultcurrentlimiterinapublicpowersysteminChina fault current limiter in a public power system in China


Diodebridgetype Voltage V lt Normalcurrent Superconductor Coilinductance 10.5kV 10 5 kV 1500ARMS Bi2223 Bi 2223 6.24mH

A three phase shortcircuit Athreephaseshort circuit duringinstallation

Source:D.Hui,Z.K.Wang,J.Y.Zhang,D.Zhang,S.T.Dai,C.H.Zhao,Z.Q.Zhu,H.D.Li,Z.F.Zhang,Y.Guan,L.Y.Xiao, L.Z.Lin,L.F.Li,L.H.Gong,X.D.Xu,J.Z.Lu, Z.Fang,H.X.Zhang,J.P.Zeng,G.P.Li,andS.Z.Zhou,DevelopmentandTestof10.5kV/1.5kAHTSFaultCurrentLimiter,IEEETrans.onAppliedSuperconductivity VOL.16,NO.2,JUNE2006 VOL 16 NO 2 JUNE 2006 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Stateoftheartofsuperconductingfaultcurrent limiters Realizedandplannedprototypessince2005


1000,0

Vo oltage/k kV(phas sephase)

100,0

10,0

1,0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Current/A

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Stateoftheartofsuperconductingfaultcurrent limiters
12kV,800A Bi2212bulk Bi 2212 bulk 10kV,800A YBCOcoated YBCO coated conductor 20kV,1kA YBCOcoatedconductor YBCO coated conductor

11/2009 12kV,100A Bi2212bulk

10/2011 12kV,400A Bi2212bulk

2012 10kV,2.3kA YBCO

10/2009
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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Stateoftheartofsuperconductingfaultcurrent limiters
AMSC/Siemens Innopower KEPRI

Cour rtesy:Siemens

Courtesy:Inno opower

ResistiveType 115kV,1200A YBCOtapes YBCO tapes 1phasetestin2011

DCBiasedIronCoreType 220kV,280MVA Bi2223tapes Bi 2223 tapes Substation Installation2011


1970 1980 1990 2000

Courtesy y:KEPRI

Hybridtype 22.9kV,3.0kA YBCOtapes YBCO tapes Factorytestedin2011

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Thefutureofsuperconductingfaultcurrentlimiters
R&DTrends Towards compact andinexpensive mediumvoltageSCFCLs TowardshighvoltageSCFCL demonstratorsandprototypes demonstrators and prototypes Towardspermanentinstallationsto demonstratereliability Towardstestsstandards Towardscommercialication Applications Many,many,many Busbar coupling Transformerfeeder Generator feeder Generatorfeeder Powersystem auxiliaries ..
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment
Sub-transm. Network (e.g. 110 kV)
FCL

FCL FCL

Transmission network (e.g. 380 kV)

FCL

FCL

3
FCL

Sub-transm. Network (e.g. 110 kV)

Sub-transm. Network (e.g. 110 kV)

FCL

FCL

FCL

7
FCL

FCL

10

8 11
FCL

Canwe see superconducting systems? Asuperconducting A superconducting substation commissioned in China in 2011 inChinain2011

1MJ/0.5MVA SMES

10kV HTS FCL

10kV/400V/630kVA HTS Transformer

75m/10kV/1.5kA 75m/10kV/1 5kA HTS Power Cable

Courtesy:IEEECAS

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment S d i P E i
Introduction Highenergytransmissionwithcables Highefficiencywithrotatingmachines Highpowerdensitywithtransformers High power density with transformers Fastenergystoragewithmagnets Fastprotectionwithcurrentlimiters F i ih li i Bettertransportwithmagneticlevitation Summaryandoutlook

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

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Magneticlevitation
Electrodynamic levitation FZ FX IS Superconductor (moving) vS Superconducting levitation Superconductor (moving)

BS BP IP Permanentmagnets (track) Majorbenefits Very high speeds self guiding at high speed Majorbenefits Stable passive speed independant p p
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Electrodynamiclevitation

Photo:JTEriksson,1974

JapanNationalRailway first levitated test vehicle p g 4passengers

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Electrodynamiclevitation

MLX01

Superconductingmagnetanda Superconducting magnet and a liquidheliumtankontopofit

1977 1996 Nov.1997 Nov. 1997 Dec.2nd 2003 May18th 2011 y

7kmtestlineinMiyazakiPrefecture y 42.8kmtestlineinYamanashi firsttimespeedwithmorethan500kmperhour first time speed with more than 500 km per hour 581km/h worldspeedrecordforalltrains ConsentonTokyo Osakaline(505km/h) y ( / )

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Superconductinglevitation
80mtestlinecommissionedin2011inDresden(evicoandIFWDresden)

Tracklength NdFeBmagnets Levitationforce Superconductor Speed Vehiclemass V hi l Propulsion

80.84movalshape 4.85tons 89kNat810mm YBCObulk 20km/h 400kg 400 k Asynchronousshort stato statorlinearmotor ea oto

Courtesy:evico

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MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

History,StateoftheArtandPerspectivesof SuperconductingPowerEquipment S d i P E i
Introduction Highenergytransmissionwithcables Highefficiencywithrotatingmachines Highpowerdensitywithtransformers High power density with transformers Fastenergystoragewithmagnets Fastprotectionwithcurrentlimiters F i ih li i Bettertransportwithmagneticlevitation Summaryandoutlook

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

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Summary
Technology demonstration Large scale prototypes in field i fi ld Cable MVSCFCL HVSCFCL Powergenerator Shippropulsion Ship propulsion Hydro generator LTSSMES LTS SMES HTSSMES Transformer Electrodynamiclev. SC.levitation SC levitation
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

First commercial products d t

Full market entry

Whatisneeded?
Lower materialcost and better materialperformance? Invisible,reliableandcheaprefrigeration? Longtermreliabilitytests? Moreeducation ofsystem benefits and performance? Morepublic R&Dsupport? Or simply someone who wants to have it? Thursday 20:00SpecialSession Commercialization ofSuperconductivity
MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment

Summary
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1982 1st LTSpowertransmission 1979 1st LTScable

2000 1st HTScable 2008 1st transmissionvoltageHTScable

1996 HTSSCFCL 1996 1st HTS SCFCL 1982 1st LTSSCFCL

2009 2009 1st commercial SCFCL commercialSCFCL 2004 1st resistiveHTSSCFCL

1971 PioneerLTSmotor

2009 36.5MWHTSmotor

1985 30MJSMES

2004 HTSSMES 2004 1st HTS SMES

1997 1st HTSTransformer 2009 2MWHTSFCLTransformer 1997 1st >500km/h


1MJ/0.5MVA SMES 10kV HTS FCL 10kV/400V/630kVA HTS Transformer 75m/10kV/1.5kA HTS Power Cable

2011 1st HTSsubstation


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1965 Steklycryostabilization 1961 Utilization ofNbTi

2005 YBCOcommercially available

1986 DiscoveryHTS 2001 DiscoveryMgB2

MathiasNoeEUCAS2011,History,StateoftheArtand Perspectives ofSuperconducting PowerEquipment