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Content Analysis

Children and Advertising

Submitted to: Mam Riffat Munawar

Submitted by: Marhaba Rana Roll No: 05 Date: July, 2nd 2012

Institute of Social & Cultural Studies

University Of the Punjab Lahore

Chapter # 1 Introduction

Impact of advertisements on Children Objective of the study Methodology

Chapter # 2

Definition Content Analysis as a research tool Media Content Analysis Characteristics of Content Analysis What is the study about Universe Sample Data Analysis and Findings

Chapter # 3

Data Analysis Nature of the advertisements Findings Conclusion and Suggestions

Chapter # 4 References

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Abstract Advertising is a pervasive influence on children and adolescents. Young people view more than 40 000 ads per year on television alone and increasingly are being exposed to advertising on the Internet, in magazines, and in schools. This exposure may contribute significantly to childhood and adolescent obesity, poor nutrition, and cigarette use. Media education has been shown to be effective in mitigating some of the negative effects of advertising on children and adolescents.

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Chapter # 1


Ever since mass media became mass media, companies have naturally used this means of communications to let a large number of people know about their products. There is nothing wrong with that, as it allows innovative ideas and concepts to be shared with others. However, as the years have progressed, the sophistication of advertising methods and techniques has advanced, enticing and shaping and even creating consumerism and needs where there has been none before, or turning luxuries into necessities.

Impact of advertisements on Children

Several European countries forbid or severely curtail advertising to children; in the Pakistan, on the other hand, selling to children is simply business as usual. The average young person views more than 3000 ads per day on television (TV), on the Internet, on billboards, and in magazines. Increasingly, advertisers are targeting younger and younger children in an effort to establish brand-name preference at as early an age as possible. This targeting occurs because advertising is a $250 billion/year industry with 900 000 brands to sell, and children and adolescents are attractive consumers: teenagers spend $155 billion/year, children younger than 12 years spend another $25 billion, and both groups influence perhaps another $200 billion of their parents' spending per year. Increasingly, advertisers are seeking to find new and creative ways of targeting young consumers via the Internet & even in schools

Objective of the study The objective of the study is to see that how print media is using the marketing strategies. The advertisement agencies use a verity of tactics to attract the customers to buy their products. Researchers purpose of the study is to see that how these promotional activities are affecting childrens behavior and attitude, physical aspect of youth.

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Chapter #2


The methodology used is Content analysis.

Bernard Berelson defined Content Analysis as "a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of manifest content of communications" Content analysis is a research tool focused on the actual content and internal features of media. It is used to determine the presence of certain words, concepts, themes, phrases, characters, or sentences

Within texts or sets of texts and to quantify this presence in an objective manner.

Media Content Analysis

Media content analysis is a specialized sub-set of content analysis, a well-established research methodology. Neuendorf describes content analysis as the primary messagecentred methodology and cites studies such as Riffe and Freitag and Yale and Gilly which reported that in the field of mass communication research, content analysis has been the fastest-growing technique over the past 20 years or so. Content analysis is used to study a broad range of texts from transcripts of interviews and discussions in clinical and social research to the narrative and form of films, TV programs and the editorial and advertising content of newspapers and magazines. Media content analysis was introduced as a systematic method to study mass media by Harold Lasswell initially to study propaganda. Media content analysis became increasingly popular as a research methodology during the 1920s and 1930s for investigating the rapidly expanding communication content of movies. In the 1950s, media content analysis proliferated as a research methodology in mass communication studies and social sciences with the arrival of television.

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Characteristic of Content Analysis

Content analysis offers several advantages to researchers who consider using it. In particular, content analysis:

looks directly at communication via texts or transcripts, and hence gets at the central aspect of social interaction can allow for both quantitative and qualitative operations can provides valuable historical/cultural insights over time through analysis of texts allows a closeness to text which can alternate between specific categories and relationships and also statistically analyzes the coded form of the text can be used to interpret texts for purposes such as the development of expert systems (since knowledge and rules can both be coded in terms of explicit statements about the relationships among concepts) is an unobtrusive means of analyzing interactions provides insight into complex models of human thought and language use when done well, is considered as a relatively "exact" research method (based on hard facts, as opposed to Discourse Analysis).

Uses of content analysis

Ole Holsti (1969) groups 15 uses of content analysis into three basic categories:

make inferences about the antecedents of a communication describe and make inferences about characteristics of a communication make inferences about the effects of a communication.

He also places these uses into the context of the basic communication paradigm. The following table shows fifteen uses of content analysis in terms of their general purpose, element of the communication paradigm to which they apply, and the general question they are intended to answer.

Uses of Content Analysis by Purpose, Communication Element, and Question





Source Make inferences about the antecedents of communications


Answer questions of disputed authorship (authorship analysis)

Encoding process


Secure political & military intelligence Analyse traits of individuals

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Channel How?

Infer cultural aspects & change Provide legal & evaluative evidence Analyse techniques of persuasion Analyse style Describe trends in communication content Relate known characteristics of sources to messages they produce

Describe & make inferences about the characteristics of communications



Recipient To whom?

Compare communication content to standards Relate known characteristics of audiences to messages produced for them

Make inferences about the consequences of communications Decoding process With what effect?

Describe patterns of communication Measure readability Analyse the flow of information Assess responses to communications

Note. Purpose, communication element, & question from Holsti (1969). Uses primarily from Berelson (1952) as adapted by Holsti (1969).

What the study is About

The study is about the analysis of advertisement in print media that influence the childrens attitude and behavior by the use means of different promotional schemes. It means that how marketing tactics are affecting the society

This content analysis is of the portrayal of youth in the print media through the advertisements. So the universe was consisted of Urdu newspaper which is published on daily basis in Pakistan. I collected the advertisements from the newspaper which is most popular & high rating and analyzed them to explore the role of print media in the youth culture

Sample consisted of a leading Urdu newspaper. I analyzed the newspapers from 1st April 2012 to 30th 2012 (one month)

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Chapter # 3

Data Analysis & Findings

Data Analysis
I have collected the data from the leading newspaper Jang. I have divided the data in different categories.

Nature of the Advertisement

The main advertisements which I have found in the news paper were

1. Edible Products 2. Advertisement through celebrity 3. Product placement ( toys etc)

Serial No. 1 2 3

Frequency 12 16 2

Nature Edible products advertisement Celebrity advertisement Product placement

location Front page Front & back page Inside page

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Tobacco Advertising

Tobacco manufacturers spend $11.2 billion/year on advertising and promotion. Exposure to tobacco advertising may be a bigger risk factor than having family members and peers who smoke and can even undermine the effect of strong parenting practices.

Food Advertising and Obesity

Advertisers spend more than $2.5 billion/year to promote restaurants and another $2 billion to promote food products. Healthy foods are advertised less than 3% of the time; children never see a food advertisement for broccoli. Increasingly, fast food conglomerates are using toy tie-ins with major children's motion pictures to try to attract young people.Nearly 20% of fast food ads now mention a toy premium in their Ad. Several studies document that young children request more junk food (defined as foods with high-caloric density but very low nutrient density) after viewing advertisment.

Sex in Advertising
Sex is used in commercials to sell everything from toothpaste to shampoo to cars..Teenagers' exposure to sexual content in the media may be responsible for earlier onset of sexual activities. What is increasingly apparent is the discrepancy between the abundance of advertising of products for erectile dysfunction (ED) Pakistani advertising also frequently uses female models that are anorectic in appearance and, thus, may contribute to the development of a distorted body self-image and abnormal eating behaviors in young girls

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Chapter # 4

Conclusion and Suggestions

The primary effects of media exposure are increased violent and aggressive behavior, increased high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and tobacco use, and accelerated onset of sexual activity. The newer forms of media have not been adequately studied, but concern is warranted through the logical extension of earlier research on other media forms and the amount of time the average child spends with increasingly sophisticated media. Clearly, advertising represents big business in the and can have a significant effect on young people Advertisements can be restricted or even banned if there is a significant public health risk. Cigarette advertising would seem to fall squarely into this category, and ads for junk food could easily be restricted. One solution that is noncontroversial and would be easy to implement is to educate children and teenagers about the effects of advertisingmedia literacy. Curricula have been developed that teach young people to become critical viewers of media in all of its forms, including advertising. Media education seems to be protective in mitigating harmful effects of media, including the effects of cigarette and food advertising

The following are some suggestions 1. General public should become familiar with the methods that advertisers use to target children and adolescents. 2. Doctors should only subscribe to magazines that are free of tobacco advertisements for their waiting rooms 3. Parents should write letters to advertisers if they see inappropriate ads

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4. Parents should work with community groups and local school boards to implement media education programs that teach about the effects of advertising on children and adolescents.

5. Parents should ask to:

a. ask parliament to implement a ban on cigarette and tobacco advertising in all media, including banners and logos in sports arena b. ask parliament to implement a ban on junk-food advertising

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University Of the Punjab Lahore