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PS-I WEEKLY REPORT: WEEK 2

Steel melting Shop


I. INTRODUCTION
Steel is a product of a large and technologically complex industry having strong forward and backward linkages in terms of material flows and income generation. Ingots manufactured in the steel melting shop are intermediate products, further used to manufacture TMT (Thermo Mechanically Treated) bars. Ingots are corrosive resistant to manufacture TMT bars and structural steel.

II. LEARNING OBJECTIVES


1) To become familiar with the process of converting hot metal (received from the blast furnace) into steel. 2) To interact and learn from the experience of trained engineers, supervisors and other organization employees. 3) To differentiate between the real working scenario/uncertainties involved and the text book knowledge and to analyse the gap between the two. 4) To understand and appreciate the extent of coordination required between various departments for the success of the organisation.

III. RAW MATERIALS


The raw materials used in the manufacturing of ingots are scrap and sponge iron.

IV. MANUFACTURING PROCESS


The most commonly used ingot mould sizes for ingot production are 3x4x60 and 3x4x60. The process of manufacturing Ingots through the steel melting shop is explained in the following process flow diagram:
Selection of Raw Material (Sponge Iron and Scrap)

Melting of Steel in Furnace

Pouring of hot metal into Ingot moulds

Solidification of Ingots

Solid Ingots are taken out from moulds for gas cutting and cleaning of Ingots

V. TECHNOLOGY
The technology/machinery required for the Steel Melting Shop unit are: i. Melting Shop Machinery items like Induction Furnace, Ingot Moulds for casting, Induced draft FRP cooling tower, sewing frame grinding machine and oil fired heater for ladle heating, etc. Melting shop electrical items like motors, drivers, pumps, electrical panels, cables, liquid starters and transformers of 2250 KVA, etc. Melting shop auxiliary equipment like EOT cranes, welding transformers, MS Fabricated water treatment plant, electro-mechanical Weigh Bridge, air compressor, gas cutting machines and other miscellaneous auxiliary equipment, etc.

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VI. SUGGESTIONS/IMPROVEMENTS FOR THE FUTURE


Newer technologies: The Corex Process combines an iron melter/coal gasifier vessel with a pre-reduction shaft to produce a liquid product that is very similar to blast furnace hot metal. Coal, oxygen, and pre-reduced iron are fed into the melter/gasifier to melt the iron and produce a highly reducing off-gas. The HIsmelt process Iron reduction and coal gasification take place in a liquid metal bath. The fundamental processes of HIsmelt began with early

experiments in Germany with bottom-blown oxygen steelmaking converters (LD, LD-AC, KMS, among others) to allow for coal, lime, and/or iron ore injection through the bottom nozzles. Direct Iron Ore Smelting (DIOS) process in Japan and the AISI direct steelmaking process in North America produced two similar routes to hot metal production. Both processes utilize a smelting reactor where the primary reactions occur in a deep slag bath as opposed to in the metal phase. SAIL could look at some acquisition opportunities. It could try to bag various coal blocks in Asia, Africa, etc. which is essential for its security of raw materials. Time for diversification: With the demand for various products of steel soaring, this presents SAIL with the right time for upstream diversification. SAIL should try to improve its quality of operations, products and inventory management.