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Table of Contents

From the Editors Main Feature: WASPOLA: Giving Birth to National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Interview: "We Need a National Policy" Opinion: Field Trial of the National Policy for Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Miscellaneous: National Policy for Development of Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Field Visit Book Info Website Info Mirror: Having a toilet, it is hard in the beginning but in the end we are proud of having one

Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

Advisor: Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Ministry of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Ministry of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa

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Board of Editor: Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Budi Susilo, Poedjastanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Design: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Anggie Rifki Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone: 62-21-31904113 e-mail:

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he development of facilities for water supply and environmental sanitation has been implemented for a considerable length of time. A considerable result has been achieved but at the same there also shortcomings and constrains that make the development result less than the expected. Apart from all these, it is noted that during the last few years the attention given to this sector indicates an increasing tendency. A number of cases mark the milestones of these changes. One, in September 2000 in a UN-sponsored Millennium Meeting the world leaders agreed to a set of measurable goals and targets in fighting poverty, diseases, illiteracy, environmental degradation and gender inequity. This document is later known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). With regard to water supply and environmental sanitation it is agreed halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. Two, in Johannesburg Summit 2002, the water supply target was further sharpened while in sanitation by 2015 half of the population that are currently without it must be able access its service. Three, safe and

hygienic drinking water is the right for everyone. All the above comprise the statement concluded by the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Affairs. As an awareness of the importance of water supply and environmental sanitation is increasing, one of the striking issues that needs to be dealt with is the indifference and lack of interest from among the community and the stakeholders. Examining further into the barrier, it is deemed necessary to build and improve the participation of the stakeholders in WSES development. Their participation greatly helps speeding up the achievement of the target and objective of the WSES development program. One of the most important strategies is through a public campaign. Such a campaign will enable to create a condition in which water supply and environmental sanitation development is placed in priority scale of the government and the community alike. One means of campaign is through an information media. This information media will become the means for interaction of at least the government agencies, universities, private sector, donor agencies/countries, and the community. It is hoped

this media will be instrumental in the establishment of a WSES network among stakeholders. What's in a name, so says Shakespeare. But what would it be like if an information media is without a name, it is like a head without a face. The process of selecting a name is not as easy as it seems. There were many prospects coming into mind that made it difficult to choose. PERCIK becomes the final choice. One might question the meaning behind the name. Percik literally means water splash. A splashed water that touches the surrounding indicates its existence. We, from this viewpoint, try to signify water splash as a metamorphosis of public campaign. A task this media will undertake. As it is with a new information media, there is a lot of improvement to be made before PERCIK can reach an acceptable standard. Toward this end, we would appreciate any comment and suggestion from the readers. As the wise man says, a big leap is preceded with an initial step. An initial step has been taken, we hope this will become the beginning of a journey toward the fulfillment of our common obsession.

Photos Gallery

Source: Ministry of Health


August 2003

WASPOLA: Giving Birth to National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

prolonged dry season has caused severe drought in many areas of Java and Madura. The people have difficulties to get water they need. The dry season which is estimated to last till October 2003 will aggravate the availability of water for consumption and sanitation needs. If the problem water scarcity is not solved in time the incidence of diarrhea, skin infection and diseases of the respiratory tract will certainly widespread. The government agencies involved are currently busy finding ways to overcome the scarcity of water for drinking and sanitation needs. This is indeed only an incidental case caused by natural disturbance. However, this is also an indication that the environmental quality is so poor that makes the availability of water for consumption so scarce. It is ironical, though, similar cases keeps on coming back from time to time, and it is always the poor who suffers. In other words, in terms of quantity, the coverage of WSES development is still in a very limited scale. A level of coverage that is not enough to cope with the increasing demand as a consequence of population growth. Up to this time it is estimated that 100 million of Indonesian population do not have access to water supply and sanitation service. Most of them are the poor and those living in the rural areas. The number indicates a growing tendency every year. Experience from the past indicates that water supply and sanitation systems/facilities constructed are not functioning properly. The reason for this failure is, that community was not involved in planning, construction, and operation and maintenance activity. Limited technology option also makes it difficult for the community to choose which of the facility complies with the demand, culture and capacity for management and the local condition. Lack of community involvement has led to facili-

ty service not sustainable. The facility is not used effectively because it was built for them based on supply driven approach. Many of the investment is not used by the community because they don't need it, but on the other hand there are many who need one but they aren't given any services. From the implementation of a number of donor and central government funded WSES related programs one could summarize that effective use and sustainability of service is better if the community is involved during the development phases. User management involving all components in the community and decision making by the local institution, will result in a greater community participation during the post construction O&M. A balanced involvement of women, under-privileged group (poor, disabled, etc.) in decision making process and in O&M, will improve effective use and sustainability of service. Effective use and sustainability of service will be achieved because the choice of technology and its funding consequences are determined directly at household level in the community. Community contribution in

development is determined based on technology choice and a management unit elected in democratic manner. Eventually user community will develop a capacity to pay for any service as long as the service satisfies their demand. User really care about the quality and wiling to pay as long as the service meets their demand. A study by World Bank on 121 WSES facilities around the world which was conducted by various institutions and organizations indicates that an active community participation in decision making and in development processes has resulted in effectively used and sustainable WSES service. The analysis on the result of study on 121 water supply facilities indicates that 20 of the facilities are highly effective. Two of the 20 highly effective services are in Indonesia. The two systems which the World Bank indicates as highly effective are the ones handled by an NGO who involved the community participation throughout their development phases. The development strategy consists of establishment of an institution involving


August 2003

Water As Economic Goods W
ater in indispensable to human life. We are quite aware that water constitutes the origin of life. The manifestation regarding role of water to human life, unfortunately, gives rise to the notion that water is solely a public good: it can be obtained at no cost. As a consequence, the community does not regard water as a scarce resource which has economic value. They exploit water freely and excessively. The community also tends to disregard environmental and water resources, both quality or quantity. Other consequence is a stagnation in developing knowledge and technology for reuse and recycle of water. The viewpoint may be right for as long as there is enough water available. But in fact the availability of water can never fulfill the need of everyone. For a community who is now being under prolonged dry season, for instance, water is no more a public good. A big sacrifice must be given in exchange to water. They have to deepen their wells, fall in line and wait for hours until water level to increase for the pail to be filled, or even they have spend money for water. A public campaign needs to be organized to introduce a change in the community viewpoint. All components of the community must be educated that water is a scarce resource with economic value and need sacrifice -money or time- in order to get water. A new community awareness in relation to the adherence of economic value in water is expected to enable to change community habit in water use: exploit water resource more wisely, use water more efficiently, willing to sacrifice to obtain water. Water is obviously valuable, and everyone must sacrifice something in order to obtain water. The more so because water supply and environmental sanitation system needs operation and management cost for its sustainability. Sustainable service can materialize only if there is equity in the amount to be paid, value of water in the eyes of the user, and the amount of cost of service. In accordance with its nature as an economic good, the main principle in WSES service is "user must pay for the service".

all components of the community; application of participatory approaches in problem solving; provision of training in management, design, construction, O&M and hygiene behavioral aspects. The indicator of success for the two systems includes: Applied technology design which is acceptable to all components of the community including women, a simple but quite reliable system. The project is acceptable to the community and it's able to motivate them to actively participate, including in financial aspect. The community is motivated and is capable of running O&M activity. The community pays for water supply service based on an agreed upon tariff. Women are involved in each phase of project development, though still limited in decision making process. Time saving for women so that they can do other things. Women are active members of water users' group. The community build toilet from one's own sources, high rate of toilet use. Women become active members of health related groups. WSES development is basically for

the community, without an effort to have their significant involvement the acceptability and sustainability of the development is difficult to achieve. This indicates that the current approach applied by the government in WSES development needs be revised thoroughly. Learning from the experiences of the past "both from domestic and abroad" a program called Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning (WASPOLA) was designed and implemented. The fiveyear program consists of 3 main components: learning process, policy formulation and implementation activity. The program is focused to water supply and sanitation facility managed by user community. In the policy formulation WASPOLA operates under the leadership of the Government of Indonesia with financial support from the Australian Government (AusAID) and the World Bank, through Water and Sanitation Program for East Asia and the Pacific (WSP-EAP). At central government level the management is handled by Central Project Committee consisting of cross-sectoral government agencies, National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Settlement

and Regional Infrastructures. The daily activities are handled by a Working Group represented by members from the same agencies. Both institutions are coordinated by Bappenas. The principle of partnership approach is not practiced among the central level agencies only, but also extends to the local governments, multi-lateral and bilateral donor agencies, local NGOs, and the community in general. The implementation of the five-year program has come to an end in July 2003. A document called National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation has been produced. This policy has become a new paradigm. The donor countries even have adopted it. Now, a number of new challenges are awaiting. When the policy has gained formal legal recognition, there will be a long list of works to be done in order to put the policy into the real nationwide implementation. Whether the national policy will be able to respond to the challenges in the Millennium Development Goals? How about the UN challenge which states that drinking water is the right for everyone? It seems that the job of the Working Group has not quite finished yet. Their opinion and hard work is still needed.


August 2003

Demand Responsive Approach
esponsive Approach places the demand of the community as a determinant factor in decision making including financial aspect. This makes the community participation in the whole process beginning from planning, funding, construction and management of the system in accordance with demand and funding capacity of the community. This approach calls for a substantial reform in the ways of project handling by stakeholders, whether community, NGO, private sector and government. The main features of the approach comprise: The community decides on the choice about: Whether or not to participate in the activity? Technology choice and system coverage based on willingness to pay How and what format of system How fund is to be managed and accounted How O&M will be managed The government functions as facilitator by making available a national policy and strategy, enhances consultative atmosphere among stakeholders and facilitates human resources development and learning process. Creating a conducive atmosphere for participation of various stakeholders in any initiative emerging within the community. Provision of sufficient information to the community and standard procedure to help the decision making process jointly made within the community.


A Glimpse Of

he working group was formed on the ground that WSES development is not the responsibility of one particular sector but rather it must be a combination of various aspects, technical, institutional, financial, social and environmental. Based on this consideration that WSES Working Group was formed consisting of the related government departments, Home Affairs, Health, Finance, Settlement and Regional Infrastructures, and coordinated by Bappenas. Beside its relation with WSES related projects (WASPOLA, WSLIC-2, Pro-Air, CWSH, SANIMAS) the Working Group is also involved in formulation of National Policy for WSES Development Policy. Up to this time only the National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation is completed, whereas the Institutionally Based National Policy on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation is in preparation, at the same time also the field test for the application of the policy in the regions and public campaign on the subject of water supply and environmental sanitation, through the publication of journal on WSES, posters, and animation. It is hoped that more members would join the Working Group so that more activities related to increasing access to drinking water and sanitation services could be done. In addition, it is hoped that this collaborative pattern could be duplicated by the regions (provincial and kabupaten/kota) to enhance drinking water and sanitation development to enhance the fulfillment of demand of the community.


August 2003


Participatory Approach
onstructing is easier than maintaining. The proof to this statement could easily be found in many physical development projects by the government. WSES development projects are no exceptions, many of them met with apprehensive failure. They are not effectively used and their sustainability was cut off because the community cannot operate and maintain them properly. It is the Methodology for Participatory Assessments (MPA) that can guarantee the effectiveness and sustainability of the facility. MPA represents a tool developed to enable the policy makers, program managers, and local community assess and monitor the sustainability of the facility and decide on a corrective action as necessary. This methodology proposes the ways how women and poor families may participate and benefit from a facility together with men and wealthy families of the community. It also indicates the keys toward a successful community managed WSES project. At the same time it also enables us to make a quantitative aggregation of community level monitoring data so that it can be applicable at the program and policy maker levels. MPA make use Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Self Esteem, Associate Strength, Resourcefulness, Action Planning, Responsibility (SARAR) which are known effective in stimulating community participation. But MPA additionally include the following characteristics: MPA is targeted to the implementing agency and the community as well in the light of a sustainable and effectively community managed facility. MPA is designed to involve all the main stakeholders and conducting analysis of the role of 4 important components of the community: poor women, rich women, poor men, and rich men. Therefore MPA puts the gender and poverty analysis framework into operation for the purpose of estimating the sustainability of a WSES facility. MPA utilize a set of public specific indicators to measure sustainability, demand, gender, and poverty sensitiveness. Each is measured in accordance with the participatory tool for the community, the implementing agency and the policy maker. The result of community level assessment is brought up by the representatives of user community and the implementing agency to the stakeholder meeting for the purpose of evaluating the institutional factors that are responsible for project impact and sustainability at the field level. The result of the institutional assessment is used for reviewing national as well as program level policies. MPA produce an aggregate of village level qualitative data, some of them are quantified into ordinal system by the community members themselves. Then the quantitative data can be statistically analyzed. In this way we can conduct an intercommunity, inter-project and time series analysis and at the program level. Therefore, MPA can produce a management information for large scale project and suitable data for program analysis. Who can benefit from MPA? MPA is open for a variety of uses. The qualitative information obtained from visual observation can easily be converted into numerical process or graphical presentation. The resulting community level graphs can be obtained immediately after the application of participatory tools to the community groups, men, women, rich, poor, and then present them before and be verified by the community. Similar data from different times or from other communities, after consolidation can be used to help manager or project personnel see the tendency and analyze its causes. Assessment results from a number of projects after being consolidated at program or national level can be used for policy analysis. What are the requirements for using MPA? MPA is open for a variety of uses. The qualitative information obtained from visual observation can easily be converted into numerical process or graphical presentation. The resulting community level graphs can be obtained immediately after the application of participatory tools to the community groups, men, women, rich, poor, and then present them before and be verified by the community. Similar data from different times or from other communities, after consolidation can be used to help manager or project personnel see the tendency and analyze its causes. Assessment results from a number of projects after being consolidated at program or national level can be used for policy analysis. What are the requirements for using MPA? MPA is designed as an integral part of a project, not as an accessory or as something independent. That is why MPA need a funding agency who feels obliged to design a new or an on-going project applying the participatory assessments. Although in many countries there are many experienced facilitators in the application of participatory methodologies, they still need a specific training in using MPA. First, MPA add an analytical framework that enhances sustainability and provide possibility for the conversion of participatory data into quantitative codes for use in sustainability analysis. Second, since the whole characteristics are participatory MPA enhance the learning process of the participants. A skilled and gender- and poverty-sensitive facilitator is the key to enhancing the cycle of learning process and actions at all levels. Source: National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Document


August 2003


Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA : Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas

'We Need a National Policy"

hat is behind the birth of WASPOLA program? Actually, up to the present time we do not have a national policy for water supply and environmental sanitation. That is why we are frequently wielded over by the donor agencies. Thus, we need such a policy, which we could use as guidance in dealing with the donor agencies. Thank God if we could fund it on our own, but at the moment it seems unlikely since we are still in shortage. At that time we could say this is our national policy. If you could accept it we could sit together and negotiate, but if not we have to say we are sorry, and thank you for your kind attention and help. In that way we could be more focused. As an example, in bilateral relationships, the donor countries have a preference to specific location. Australia, for instance. They prefer Indonesia Timur. Why? Why don't they like Indonesia Barat, anyway there a great variety of problems in Indonesia. Germany, is another example. For Transmigration Area Development (TAD) they prefer Kalimantan Timur. Why not SE. Maluku or SE. Sulawesi? Similar situation is encountered with the World Bank and other donors. I believe that if they have the same vision with us in solving WSES development problems, they should not have preference to any specific location. Why not we deal it as equals? Seeing it as something new, how was the program in the beginning? When we started with the design, we were somewhat at a loss because water supply and environmental sanitation basically encompass a very wide horizon. Whether it would be based on rural and urban, or what? If it is based on areas, rural and urban, it is but logical that urban areas are growing rapidly so that

the problems of the rural are left behind. Is it that we want? Finally we look at it in terms of function, some facilities are managed by an institution while others by the community. It so happens that this almost coincides with urban-rural phenomenon. Generally in urban the management is done by an institution while in rural areas by the community. We do not start from urban and rural, because we want to avoid discrimination issue. Such as town population get this amount and villagers get that amount. Who decides those numbers? In the past the town people got 100 liters per second, the villagers got 60 liters per second. Who justifies those? Why this discrimination in level of service? That is why we do not want to start from there. We want to start from the management institution. By an institution and by the community. If possible both are dealt with simultaneously. How far is WASPOLA's achievement? Up to this time what has been completed is the national policy for the community based. We are now moving toward the institutionally based.

Why should it be that way? We have three patterns, each with different level of complexity. We started from the easiest, i.e. the community based. This has been started since Pelita I and II. Under the umbrella of Inpres Sarana Kesehatan. It was supply driven, though. What do the villagers need, we made the logical allocation. There was then an empowerment component embedded within the project, though in minor format. The current becomes stronger after the reform that makes it a requirement that community empowerment must be strengthened. Yet at that time there was no tools for that purpose. Then we looked for the most suitable tools. It turned out that supply driven is not suitable for this purpose. This approach leads to low sense of belongingness within the community. Now we change into demand driven approach, depending on the real demand of the community. Even then it is still not enough because this does not guarantee the growth of sense of belongingness. Therefore there must be community contribution. This is one way in developing the sense of belongingness. This is what we compile into policy and strategy formula. We tried to accommodate the interest of all the stakeholders whether they are from inside or outside the local governments and the community. What we did was providing facilitation until we came to the present formulation. In terms wording it seems that the formula does not mean anything to the bureaucracy but from the view of the community it proves excellent. The nuance is no more instructive, rather it opens new perspective. How about the institutionally based? This is more complicated because institutional is often linked to the corporate culture of each sector especially one that is already managed by a public company, such as local government owned company.


August 2003


Richard Hopkins, Team Leader WASPOLA Project

"There are still many things to do"

We would expect that we would not be wielded by the donor agencies any more. We could become self reliant. It could be better if we could fund through APBN, without loan. But it seems unlikely.
It turns out that the amount of NPL (non performing loan) is so big that it is not possible to solve it with only one policy. The approach must be multi-sectoral including legislative, Ministry of Finance, and local governments. Need a common effort in finding solution. Therefore we have to approach it in phases leading to a national policy for institutionally based. We have to work harder because there are too many interests and stakeholders involved. What is the future outlook once the national policy is completed? We would expect that we would not be wielded by the donor agencies any more. We could become self reliant. It could be better if we could fund through central government budget, without loan. But it seems unlikely. Currently the budget for human settlement sector is Rp. 1,35 trillion per annum. That's not enough to meet the demand. Up to 2009, we need 50 trillion Rupiahs for filling up the gap of WSES provision in Indonesia. It means that we should provide 10 trillion rupiahs per annum. That's a problem. Therefore, we have to conduct some sort of "marketing" and at the same time also we are required to explain to the local government about something like better refrain from buying service vehicles and instead put the money for WSES development. And increase in local government budget from e.g. 3% to 8%. And if we find some regions with a strong willingness but they do not have enough money we are ready to share the costs. The program approach calls for a change in paradigm. What barriers are expected? Many. One and foremost is resistance to change, especially from the bureaucrat. Secondly, sectoral egoism. Everyone wants to be leader in his sector. The third relates to institutional structure. Needs a reform in the manner such as a government sincerely plays a true facilitator role, not just a lip service. This needs a cultural reform and a serious common effort.

n the beginning WASPOLA was faced with many barriers because this program applies a different approach, i.e. the focus is placed on the process and formal as well as informal inter-agency coordination/collaboration as the basic foundation for the policy formulation. In the early stages, WASPOLA moved very slowly, and it was caused by the common understanding in implementing the program has not taken its shape, especially policy development through a process approach Another matter that happened during the early stages was frequent changes in members of the working group, so that it needed a relatively extra effort in order to maintain consistency and progress of the overall WASPOLA activities. It turned out that the approach was successful in building sense of belongingness and commitment of the government, and this is showed from the hectic schedule of WASPOLA activities during the last two years, especially those related to institutionally based policy formulation, coordination with local governments, and lessons learned from each districts. By the end of the second year the activity found its acceleration, at the time when a working group from related departments began to show interest in WASPOLA activities. This was enhanced by the fact that pursuant to regional autonomy the responsibility for WSES sector development is relinquished to local government. In the third through the concluding (2003) years was noted with an increasingly more productive activities by the Working Group. Not only in policy discussion but also in field activities that support policy reform. This indicates a marked improvement in sense of belongingness of the government. In the end, all those involved, especially the inter-sectoral working group came to realize that policy formulation through participatory methodology, though in the beginning was seemingly dull and loathsome, but in the end produces something very useful. At the most important thing that the policy is acceptable to the stakeholders, because all of them participated during the development process. Although many things have been achieved yet still many more are awaiting to be done.


August 2003

Field Trial for the Implementation of National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
A new approach in policy development
Background cipate in the policy formulation that cerStarting from the fact that the tainly has nothing to do with physical By: Sofyan Iskandar responsibility for WSES sector developdevelopment project. In general, the WASPOLA Project Coordinator ment is now relinquished to district goregions would only be interested in phyvernment, WASPOLA Working Group sical development or something that tried to introduce a new breakthrough in would be followed with physical developpolicy formulation, especially for WSES ment. On the contrary, WASPOLA does for the regions to voice out willingness or development. Through an involvement not bring physical project at all. It would reluctance in the program offered. of a wide variety of stakeholders, especontain policy dialogues, and it could be Therefore each of the districts selected cially at district level, its hoped that the produce boredom. must be able to provide their best contridistrict aspiration, could be accommoBut the presumption was entirely bution in policy development process, date and finally the policy could be mistaken, because all 10 kabupatens and it was also expected that the policy implemented in the districts. invited to a seminar in Yogyakarta 9-12 would be directly adopted to the formula- October 2002 were present and After the basic idea accepted at the tion of WSES development policy and National Working Group forum, several expressed willingness to participate. planning of their respective districts. basic questions emerge, what is the The success in convincing the disamount of resources for providing facilitricts that WSES development need a Selection of Districts tation to the regions all over the country, special attention was born from an open From a series of discussions within who will do it, in what mechanism, how and participatory effort. In this opportuthe national working group it was agreed long is the time it will take, and so on. nity an introduction was given about the to invite several potential districts to It is indeed not easy to facilitate objectives of the field trial, and what kind enrich the policy which was being formuabout 400 districts within a relatively of activities were involved in the exercise. lated. The selection was based on the short time, while the National Policy for Besides, the districts also discuss among existence of similar activities within the Development of Community-Based Wathemselves how this policy could be scope of policy implementation, such as a applied in their respective areas. ter Supply and Environmental Sanitation project which applies the principles condocument must be finalized by the midIncluding the site selection criteria for tained in the policy, for instance WSLICdle of 2003. Under the consideration of the localities to participate in the field limited resources it was concluded that in 2, UNICEF sanitation project, KfW/GTZ trial, if such a selection is required. water supply project. Specific attention the initial stage only several regions were Out of 10 interested districts only 4 was also paid that the regions selected to participate, later in the future this kabupatens were selected. This is sufficiently represent the geographical might be done in a larger scale combined because the limited resources available distribution. with the necessary improvement to the with the WASPOLA Working Group. The There was uncertainty in the beginpolicy, taking lessons learned from this four kabupatens are Sumba Timur, ning of whether the regions would partiinitial stage. Subang, Musi Banyuasin, and Solok. It was not even easy to decide on the number of districts Field Trial Process to participate, since there was an In broad line the field trial In broad line, the objectives of the Field Trial for apprehension, whether the parprocess consists of three phases, the Implementation National Policy for ticipation was based solely on preliminary understanding, Development of Community-Based Water Supply the obedience to the central goadvancement, and independent and Environmental Sanitation in the districts are: vernment, rather than awareness practice. Facilitation support that 1. Obtaining inputs from the districts for policy of the importance of WSES provided by the WASPOLA improvement development. On the other Secretariat/Working Group up to 2. Adoption of the basic policies contained in the hand, WASPOLA being the party the second phase, while in the national policy into the development of districts promoting the demand responthird the district has had sufficient policy sive approach also tried to avoid capacity to work independently in 3. Obtaining inputs for marketing the policy to unilateral appointment pattern developing their district policy and other districts in Indonesia which dismiss the opportunity its implementation.


August 2003

The preliminary understanding phase consists of introduction of the importance of WSES sector to key stakeholders in the district, conducted through formal and informal visit, discussions, meetings, and concluded with a seminar. The main ability of a WSES facility. All the regions understand that all components are interrelated but each region sees that there is a specific factor fulfilled if the social barrier, i.e. the social structure of a given community, could be exploited optimally. In Kab. Subang, however, the technical factor is considered more influential, since geologically the region can be divided into 3 categories, mountainous, moderately flat and coastal plains. The selection of an appropriate approach and suitable technology option become the focus of interest in Subang. In Solok, the role of institutional factor is more dominant, when the nagari holds a strategic position in the sustainability of WSES service provision. As it is in Subang, Musi Banyuasin also sees that technology option is the most dominant, this relates to tidal swamps and river banks which make up a substantial portion of the district area. There is a common recognition that in the general the basic policies can be understood, and can be used as reference in WSES sector development by the region. In Kab. Subang the district working group were able to formulate the vision and mission of WSES program of the district, entitled Subang Sehat 2008. The Musi Banyuasin Working Group take time to review the Muba Sehat 2005. Solok Working Group formulated Solok Sehat 2010. Sumba Timur Working Group enriched the understanding about vision and mission of the kabupaten especially in WSES sector. Though it was understood, yet the present document still needs some improvement, especially in the use of specific terms with ambiguous meaning. There is an increasing communication intensity among stakeholders in the district, therefore the efficiency WSES sector development will be increase. The introduction of participatory methodology in policy development at district level contains an attraction for the districts, because it is a substantive improvement, and can also be applied for development planning in general. This methodology is considered very effective for collecting information and ideas from a wide range of sources within a relatively short time. It can be assumed that while the formal version is not yet available, the district might be able to start adopting the main policy guidelines for their own purposes because substantively the guidelines are acceptable and well understood. This of course does not deny the importance of the legal format.

Kabupatens invited to seminar of national WSES policy formulation:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Sumba Timur, East Nusa Tenggara Sumba Barat, East Nusa Tenggara Timor Tengah Selatan, East Nusa Tenggara Wonosobo, C. Java Garut, W. Java Subang, W. Java Musi Banyuasin, S. Sumatra Sawahlunto Sijunjung, W. Sumatra Solok, W. Sumatra Pasaman, W. Sumatra

The criteria for site selection according to the participants of the seminar:

activities undertaken in all the participating districts consisted of a review of the performance of WSES service in the past, at present, and its outlook in the future. In this way the regional stakeholders will identify the issues, the challenges and the opportunity for WSES sector development in their respective districts. Further the stakeholders may start with drawing a rough planning for WSES development of their districts. In the advancement phase which represents the continuation of the previous activities the stakeholders are invited to study the substantive matters of the national policy. The process contains participatory discussions about the policy guidelines in the district context. To broaden the perspective, a review is also made to a successful project and one that met with a failure. Through a field visit and an interview with the user, the findings are brought up to a kabupaten level discussion. Field Trial Result The regional stakeholders have come to understand that 5 factors, namely social, institutional, financial, technical and environmental influence the sustain-

1. Availability district administration support, as indicated with a formal letter from the head of the district 2. Commitment to participate in the activities, as indicated in the willingness to form and functionalize districts technical team 3. Condition of the area in relation to complexity of issues and geographical distribution

Concluding remark Once the National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation document is finalized and legally acknowledged the next step will be its implementation at a national scale. What is left for the National Working Group to do is to decide how this can be effectively undertaken. Whether it will be precisely like the field trial in 4 locations, with an implication that a big amount of resources would be needed, especially funding and availability of qualified facilitators. It is deemed necessary to find new ways to endorse the implementation of this policy so that it is not only formally accepted, but it is also put into the real practice. Besides, it is no less important is the flexibility in the part of the National Working Group in accommodating additional inputs from the regions which may be too valuable to miss for the future improvement of the policy.


August 2003

National Policy for Development of Community-Based WSES
PURPOSE 1. General Improvement of people welfare through sustainable management of water supply and environmental sanitation. 2. Specific a. To improve development, provision and maintenance of WSES infrastructures and services. b. To improve manageability and sustainability of WSES infrastructures and services. POLICY GUIDELINES Water as an Economic Good and Social Good Until today, some communities perceive water as an social/public good with no economic value, obtained and used at no cost to the user. This belief has led to the lack of community's motivation to conserve environment and other related water resources (both quantitatively and qualitatively), excessive exploitation and unchecked use of water coupled with slow progress in the development of skill and technology for water reuse and recycle have persisted. In order to drive reform in such existing public perceptions and to confirm that water in an rare commodity requiring a degree of sacrifice, either with money or time to obtain and use, public campaign effort targeting all levels of the community should be implemented. The underlying principle of WSES as an economic good is that the user pays for service. Informed Choice as a Basis for Demand Responsive Approach To improve effectiveness of the approach the government which plays as facilitator is required to offer the community with informed choices covering every aspect of WSES system development, including technological, financial, environmental, sociocultural and management institution. Environmentally-Based Development Development of water supply infrastructure, starting from raw water source intake, through distribution and treatment systems, and the ultimately to the final household distribution network should follow the rules and regulations pertaining to environmental conservation. Likewise, the development of environmental sanitation infrastructures, especially those built to manage waste should abide by environmental rules and regulations. Hygiene Education Sustained WSES management requires WSES development to be comprehensive and capable of stimulating change for better community hygiene behavior to improve quality of life. Initiative to change behavior should emphasize comprehensive proper hygiene and healthy living education as a compulsory and principal component of future WSES development, development planning and implementation should not focus strictly on the physical construction of infrastructures. Poverty Focus In principle, every individuals in Indonesia has the right to receive adequate and sustained WSES services. Therefore, the limited capacity of the government, WSES development must focuses on the poor and other disadvantaged member of the community and that requires them to be active participants and decision-makers. So that their demands could be fulfilled fairly and properly. Active Role of Women in Decision Making Women play a prominent role in the daily activities to meet the demand for household WSES, therefore it is natural that woman actively participate in WSES development. According to UNICEF and World Bank studies of WSES project in Indonesia, women's involvement in the development process of WSES systems, from planning, through implementation and to management, evidently increase the sustainability of the system. Accountability in the Development Process The era of decentralization and transparency no longer positions communities as objects, but rather as subjects in the WSES development process. This policy aims to enhance community ownership of infrastructures and community awareness of sound management principles early in the process. Therefore, WSES development should foster transparency and openness, providing the opportunity for all stakeholders to contribute according to their capacities during the process beginning from planning, implementation, operation and maintenance, to service improvement. Government as Facilitator Facilitation should not be translated as provision of physical infrastructure or direct subsidy, but rather the role of government in providing continuously technical and non technical assistance to enhance community empowerment in order to enable them to plan, construct and manage their own WSES system and other support activities. Community Participation All members of the community must be actively involved in each phase of the development. However, considering the limitation of time and space the involvement is implemented through a democratic representation mechanism and reflects the accommodation of the demands of the majority. Optimum Service and Right Target Optimum means a service that satisfies the demand, equitable and ease of access. Right target means as a coverage complies with the scope of issues within the community. Application of Cost Recovery Principle The financial capacity of the governments (central as well as regional) is insufficient to continuously develop and build WSES systems for all communities. In support a sustainable service development it is necessary that the construction and management of WSES system be based on the principle of cost recovery. In this connection, information regarding the cost recovery obligation must be made available and open to all stakeholders, especially the user community, so that they are aware of the size of their investment.



August 2003


Annual Coordination Meeting of DCT and PCT WSLIC-2 Project

epresentatives from 33 districts and 7 provinces gathered together for annual DCT (District Coordination Team) and PCT (Provincial Coordination Team) coordination meeting at Hotel Hilton, Surabaya, 20-22 August 2003. The purpose was to improve coordination among DCTs and PCTs in the implementation of WSLIC-2 (Water and sanitation for Low Income Communities Phase 2) project, evaluation of implementation activities, and planning for the future. For comparative study the

participants were brought to several project sites in Kab. Malang. The opening was made by Suyono Dikun Ph.D, IPM, Deputy for Infrastructure, Bappenas, who delivered a keynote speech. In his speech Dr Dikun stresses the importance of regional diversity and specific demand be taken into consideration. This means that regional development must be geared to the aspiration of the community and regionally based. The central government will only provide direction and relinquish all power to the regions to

develop themselves. " Based on this responsibility the government exercise a strong commitment to help in strengthening the regional capacity." In connection with WSLIC-2 project it is recommended that the regions allocate sufficient counterpart funds for the local goverment budget for cross-sectoral activities since the national budget is in shortage. After the in-house meeting the participants are brought to visit WSLIC-2 projects in Malang.

A bit of hope in Pagelaran

n first week of August 2003 WSES Working Group visited Pagelaran Village, Kec. Ciomas, Bogor. This village is a field laboratory for trial the implementation of National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation. The village has its uniqueness. In the middle of the village lies the Ciburial water spring, as raw water source for PDAM Kab. Bogor, but its population is in constant water shortage especially during dry season. The most difficult situation is experienced by those who live in RW 8 to the south of the spring and it's located at a higher elevation. The chief of village, H. Achmad Tohir said that in May 2000 the community was hit by a serious diarrhea. This was caused by insufficiency of water supply system and unfavorable environmental condition. "It was in the news everywhere," he added. Because of that disaster the village was then given a compensation of 20 mil-

lion from the local government of Kab. Bogor. Then the community started moving to look for their own water source. A water spring was located on 290 m2 land area at Desa Pasir Erih, Kec. Tamansari. The discharge is about 10,6 litre per second and located 13 m higher than Desa Pagelaran. In early 2003 water was beginning to flow through a very simple piping system. "The community began practicing some changes. From a habit of bathing in the river, they now do it in a bathroom", the village chief said. In an MPA discussion facilitated by Suprapto from the WSES Working Group it was revealed that the management is still in poor condition. Only one man is doing that. "Sometimes water flows nicely, another time it is choked," A Suhardja, one of RT chairmen said. This happens because water is not evenly distributed. Even then, many of the community members feel satisfied. This was expressed Endih, another RT chairman.

The reason being, his RT is located in the highest location of the village. But he also found out there is a lot of water uselessly wasted because there is no onoff mechanism in the homes. From the community responses, Suprapto, with his specific style, summarized several technical shortages such as the need to enlarge the water intake, firmer construction, improvement to management system. When asked about contribution they stated their willingness to contribute Rp 5000 per month. The government will contribute pipes and cement. As a beginning the community are requested to prepare a social map and piping network. It is hoped that all the RW 8 population could enjoy the service. The community is enthusiastic. In the near future the Group will return to the village and see what the villagers are doing.



August 2003

The Contribution of People's Participation Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Project
Title: The Contribution of Peoples Participation Evidence From 121 Rural Water Supply Project Author: Deepa Narayan Publisher: Environmentally Sustainable Development Occasional Paper Series No.1 The World Bank Washington DC, July 1995 viii + 108 pages

p until recently the practice of WSES system development is based on supply driven approach that ends up in inefficiency. Many of the constructed systems are left unattended because they are not in conformance with the demand of the community. By the year 2000's together with the acceptance of National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation the system development is beginning to put forward the application of demand responsive approaches. In the above context, this book (though has been in circulation for some time) is still very relevant as guidelines for WSES system development by the stakeholders. It is generally understood that the benefit of community participation in

decision making process could enhance the success of a development project. However, since the empirical data supporting this conclusion are qualitative many development practitioners reserve some doubt. This report tries to explain this conclusion through three important questions. First, how big does community participation contribute to project effectiveness? Second, what kind of community and government characteristics can speed up the process? Third, how can community participation be enhanced through community managed water supply development policy and technical design in 49 developing nations? The result indicates that community participation indeed provides contribution to project effectiveness.

Private Participation in Infrastructure ; Trend in Developing Countries in 1999-2001 Energy, Telecommunication, Transportation, Water
Title: Private Participation in Infrastructure; Trend in Developing Countries in 1999-2001 Energy, Telecommunication, Transportation, Water Author: Ada Karina Izaguire etc. Publisher: The World Bank and Public Private Infrastucture Advisory Facility (PPIAF), 2003 xiii + 160 pages

t is generally acknowledged that infrastructure is key to economic development. Since 1950 through 1990 most of the developing nations depend on the government investment for infrastructure development especially energy, telecommunication, transportation and water supply. But we are also aware that the speed is decreasing. It is estimated that 1 billion people do not have access to water supply, and 1,2 billion are without basic sanitation facility. In addition to that rate of inefficiency is high. The above constraints together with government lack of fund way out must be

found through private sector participation. This condition made an increasing of private sector participation since 1980's. It this context this report becomes very useful in explaining objectively based on trend analysis the private participation phenomenon in infrastructure development especially energy, telecommunication, transportation and drinking water in developing nations during 1990-2001. There were at least 2.500 private infrastructure projects developed in 132 developing nations with total investment of USD754 billion on which this report is based.



August 2003

Conclusions and Important Conferences During the Last 30 Years
Information in this website represents a part of UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) website. During the last 30 years there are several important events and milestones that are related to Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation:
1980-1990 1992 International Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Decade International Conference on Water and Environment in Dublin This conference produces a statement known as Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development that places attention to economic value of water, involvement of women, and poverty. UNCED Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro This conference produces Rio Declaration on Environment and Development that highlights issues on collaboration, community participation, water supply and sanitation, human settlement, sustainable development. Agenda 21 was formulated. 1997 First World Water Forum in Marrakech This forum produces Marrakech Declaration that highlights water supply sanitation, integrated water management, ecosystem conservation, gender quality, and efficient use of water. Second World Water Forum In this forum it was agreed World Water Vision, Marketing Water Everybody's Business that states that water has various uses and importance for domestic, food and irrigation. In this it was also declared UN Millennium Declaration which contains Millennium Development Goals (MDG's), one of which being reducing by half the number of population without access to drinking water and sanitation in year 2015. 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg In this meeting the world leaders emphasize their commitment to MDG's Third World Water Forum in Japan This forum is commemorated with the publication of First Edition of the World Development Report.





August 2003

Having a toilet, it is hard in the beginning but at the end we are proud of it
An experience of SEHAT Indonesia Foundation, Sidoarjo, E. Java
hy should we have to have a toilet?" That is used to be said by population in village Ental Sewu when we asked them about constructing a toilet. The same statement we got from the neighboring village. What they had in mind was that building toilet cost a lot of money because a toilet is identical to a big septic tank. That's why they preferred to defecate in river or drainage canal. Whereas their village is located just in a corner of a big town of Sidoarjo. This condition made Sutrisno Hadi (56 years), a retired government employee and motivator of Sehat Foundation in Ental Sewu promise himself to change the local community. Based on a survey conducted in year 2001 by the Foundation in Mlaten hamlet of Sidokepung there are only 7 households with a toilet out of 90, while in village Ental Sewu there are only 340 toilets in a total of 700 households. The Foundation considers this situation must change otherwise it will produce an adverse effect to health condition of the whole community in the future. However, it was understood that to break a hard habit is not an easy thing. Sutrisno had an idea that awareness must be built starting from family level and moving gradually to a common awareness in the whole community, from domestic (household to household) approach gradually into a systematic process. The awareness building was conducted through the Jamban Keluarga (family latrine) and Pembuangan Limbah Keluarga (family sewerage) Programs. With patience he talked to convince the community the importance of having a toilet, through door to door visit, speaking in RT meeting, and in any gathering. With a joke but deeply convincing he talked to families with a adolescent girl but have no toilet he would say: "if some day someone came to you proposing your young lady and it happens that he needs to


go to a toilet, where would you take him? To the river?" Beside the above method message after message was delivered in writing reminding the community "not to defecate in the open". The various methods proved effective in building the awareness. In Sutrisno's mind, if not now when will hygiene behavior be promoted? Should we wait for government subsidy? Isn't it the community really capable? An indeed, the community is capable of buying more expensive belongings. Isn't it by having a toilet also a way to build one's honor? The problem lies in awareness. And therefore the awareness is to be grown and nurtured. All this time, according to Sutrisno, there's a lot of government effort made to introduce household toilet program but since the introduction was made through project without initiative from the commu-

nity, many of the constructed facilities are left unattended and never been functioning. In other words, in terms of toilet and environmental sanitation, community motivation for building awareness and empowerment must be considered as equally important as the physical construction itself. Focus on physical construction and you are sure to come to problems. And the idea is right. Toilet construction is not necessarily expensive and the community, indeed, can afford it. To further convince them, Sutrisno asked the community to make calculation, how many families to use one toilet, plan to be emptied once in how many years, what kind of construction materials to be used. With a simple calculation it was septic tank that is best and most economical. To again convince them, observation was made to find



August 2003

out which of the materials were already available and what the remaining still need to be bought. Loan from SEHAT Indonesia Foundation As it was stated above, the community is actually has the resources they needed, but for a toilet they feel so thrifty and reluctant to spend anything except if there was a loan which they will pay back in installments. From an initial capital of Rp3.250.000, derived from contribution of the foundation officers in September, the fund was revolving and in July 2003 has grown to Rp8.530.000 and has served more than 80 households including loans for repair of sewerage. Average loan is Rp300.000 to 600.000 and repayment period of 4 to 8 months. In its implementation the Foundation and the borrowers agree to a loan agreement. Each borrower is charged with an added value of 1,5% per month in order to guarantee that the latter borrower and those in the waiting list get materials of similar value. The value added is not an interest like that of the ordinary bank, it is only to guarantee the sustainability of the service. However, many of those in the village say that the Foundation is practicing usurious lending. Only after some explanation that they began to understand. The lesson learned from this is how important it is to conduct a continuous socialization in a suitable format and in the right place so as to make those who oppose understand the essence. Not only toilet The steps in toilet development apparently lead to the growth of community awareness to improve the quality of infrastructure for hygiene behavior. In the beginning the members of the community came to borrow for toilet construction but later they also want it to repair the sewerage to dispose of wastewater from their kitchen. Others even borrow to add a window to allow light and fresh air flows into their house and also repair of the floor. Hygiene messages continue to transmit from SEHAT Indonesia Foundation, beside toilet also a reminder to prevention of careless

garbage disposal through placement of garbage bins in mosque and mushallas by the Foundation. Since the beginning of the first lending on 10 Sept. 2000 till July 2003 the growth of service for toilet and other sanitation facilities are as the following: Creating pride

The SEHAT Indonesia Foundation has an obsession, i.e. to make toilet and sewerage a family pride. The message that says: "I am proud having a toilet" seems fit for it. This is evidenced from several borrowers who got excited from seeing their neighbors and asked how they could borrow from the Foundation.

Growth of service coverage for toilet and sewerage SEHAT Indonesia Foundation Period of 2000/2003
Month Feb 2001 Aug 2001 Feb 2002 Aug 2002 Feb 2003 Jul 2003 No. borrowers Sewerage Toilet 10 10 18 2 9 3 5 7 4 6 4 10 58 38 30 September 2000 Rp. 3.350.000 Growth of service coverage Sewerage Toilet 18 10 36 12 47 15 52 23 56 29 60 39 269 128 31 July 2003 Rp. 8.530.000



August 2003

"Imagine how comfortable it is, now we don't have to go to the river any more", that was the expression of some who have built toilet. They are proud that now they have a toilet. The approach as applied by the SEHAT Indonesia Foundation: 1. Build awareness of the importance of environmental sanitation infrastructure. 2. Enhance family interest to own a toilet and put it as top priority. 3. Create a condition in which the community is able to put value to their sanitation facility and compare it with the condition before they own one or with those who do not have one. 4. Create a condition where the community is proud of his facility therefore use it and maintain regularly. 5. Enhance other families to adopt with or with outside assistance based on awareness and understanding about the importance of a sanitation system for them. Ideals for the future Although the scale is still relatively small but what has been accomplished by SEHAT Indonesia Foundation contains a strategic meaning. The Foundation hopes that in the future: Someone would adopt and improve the community initiative approach in environmental sanitation system development activity. Inclusion of community participation approach through the role of a committed and environmental-sanitationrelated NGO into the development strategy of the Local Government. There still many villages with problems in environmental sanitation, therefore a partnership with an NGO like SEHAT Indonesia Foundation could be considered as a sustainable model. SEHAT Indonesia Foundation wishes to become partner to various parties in village/kelurahan and area development strategy for environmental sanitation. The efforts made by SEHAT Indonesia Foundation Sharing of experience with government of Kabupaten Sidoarjo especially with Dinas Kesehatan, Dinas Lingkungan and Kimpraswil. Performing partnership with Kab. Sidoarjo in facilitating community participation for the development of sanitation facility in 4 kelurahans. Constraints As an institution dealing with environmental sanitation a number of constraints come on the way: How to change the critical awareness of the community from the habit of individualistic thinking into systemic. How to change the partner's perspective especially the government employees who behave like a contractor looking for a project. How to exploit financial resources to fund activities that up to now are entirely based on voluntary commitment. How to convince and enhance the government and other stakeholders to develop a holistic partnership scheme with SEHAT Indonesia Foundation for environmental sanitation which is not limited in ideas and opinions only but also includes financial scheme in the light of program sustainability. Alternatives for partnership with SEHAT Indonesia Foundation Grant fund to increase coverage of environmental sanitation to be managed as a revolving fund by the community under the supervision and facilitation of the Foundation. Provision of loan without interest by government or other stakeholder for environmental sanitation development expansion. Fund management is fully in the hands of SEHAT Indonesia Foundation and will be paid back within 3 years at least. Provision of soft loan to be paid back in installments for at least 5 years with one year grace period. Provision of technical assistance for environmental-sanitation-related projects.



August 2003