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13/09/2011

Build a cell: select components found in each cell type


Component Mitochondria Chloroplast Golgi apparatus Endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus & nucleolus Nucleoid Chromosome(s) Cytoskeleton Cell /cytoplasmic membrane Cell wall Pellicle Ribosomes (& give size of) Flagellum, cilia rRNA, tRNA, mRNA
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Eukaryote cell

Bacterial cell Archeal cell

3a. The Prokaryote cell


3a) Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote cell How cell parts are studied The plasma membrane and transport Readings: Chapter 3, pg 73-88 3b) The cell wall and envelope (other outer layers)
Eukaryote cell walls

3c) Specialized structures / appendages, including pili & stalks,


heterocysts, endospores (& VBNC) Bacterial flagellum (flagella) and chemotaxis

The model microbial cells

Are the Best studied & we know most about


Prokaryotes:

Diagrams of a model prokaryote cell when compared to cells of two eukaryote microbes Please label all parts indicated by each pointer:

Escherichia coli & Bacillus subtilis

Eukaryotes:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bakers yeast)

Ref: Brock- Biology of Microorganisms

Most Prokaryotes have a Nucleoid

Exceptions are to be expected in prokaryotes:

Most have a single closed loop of double-stranded (ds)DNA


A. Gemmata obscuriglobus cells have a double membraned nucleus containing the chromosome(viewed by TEM)

Chromosome is attached to cell envelope Replicates once for each cell division
Fig. 18.46
Microbiology: An Evolving Science 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Microbiology: An Evolving Science 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.


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13/09/2011

Fundamental traits of most prokaryote cells are:


a) b) c)

Water, macromolecules, Essential ions, small organic molecules are chemical components shared by ALL cells

Envelope

Figure 3.1

How we Study the Cell, its parts & its composition


1) Biochemical techniques, e.g.

Ultracentrifugation is a key tool in subcellular fractionation

2) Structural analyses, e.g.

The high rotation rate produces centrifugal forces strong enough to separate particles by size. Follow up with biochemical identification
Figure 3.4

3) Genetic analyses, e.g.

Biochemical techniques
Gel

Genetic analysis
Shows

chromatography/ gel electrophoresis


Separates particles via chemical properties

biological function

Requires observation of phenotype

E.g.

Reporter

constructs show location in cell


Fluorescent ftsZ gene placed back into cell

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Microbiology: An Evolving Science Company, Inc.

2009 W. W. Norton &

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13/09/2011

The Cell Membrane defines the existence of a cell.


- It has both a separation & a protective roles

Cell membrane lipids have amphipathic properties


Variation in the - head group, - length & saturation of fatty acid side chains - Fatty acids are ester linked to the glycerol Sterol lipids reinforce the lipid bilayer, e.g. Cholesterol Hopanoids
Figure 3.8

a) Phospholipids

Composition

Proteins & lipids Type & composition is highly variable

Functions
Figure 3.7

Archaea have the most extreme variations in membrane lipids structures.


Proteins define the functional capabilities of the cell membrane


1.

Ether links between glycerol and the lipid component The lipids are Hydrocarbon chains NOT fatty acids

Membrane proteins are locked in place by their hydrophilic & hydrophobic properties

2. The proteins are divided into 3 groups based on their modification or localization in the membrane - integral or Transmembrane - peripheral - lipoproteins (some proteins are glycoproteins; i.e. _______)

Figure 3.14

Cell Transport : Polar molecules and charged molecules require transport (in / out) through specific protein transporters.

Functions of the prokaryote CM


1. ___________ Permeability Barrier

2 types of membrane transport


a)

Passive transport / diffusion - not substrate specific

2. Structural, sensor/signaling & Anchor functions

b) Active transport - Requires energy


* Refer to Figure 3.10

3. Ion gradients & Energy Conservation


Fig from Brock Biology of Microorganisms
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13/09/2011

Membrane proteins serve numerous functions, including


a) b) c) d) e) f) g)
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Questions for you to think about:

1. What are the functions of membrane lipids? 2. Why do all bacteria not contain one type / class of membrane lipids? (ie. a one type fits all model?) 3. Why is the cell membrane described a semipermeable or selectively permeable barrier?
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