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Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

Advisor: Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Board of Head: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Ministry of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Ministry of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Design: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Anggie Rifki Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone: (021) 31904113 e-mail:

Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.

From Editor 1 Your Voice 2 Main Feature Water Supply and Sanitation Achievement in the Millennium Development Goals: New Target Classical Issue 3 Important Questions in Relation to Millennium Development Goals 8 Erna Witoelar: No Excuse 2015 11 Interview Dr. R. Hening Darpito: Water has an initiating power 12 Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA: Empowerment is the key 13 DR. Agus Prabowo: Insufficient Socialization 15 Article Bantar Gebang: Potrait of a poor solid waste management in Jakarta 17 Children Manifesto 19 Feature When public toilet is desire 20 Reportage The Community of Kureksari, Sidoarjo is waiting for water supply 22 Field Visit Fund request procedure is not yet simplified 23 Technology choice cannot be made uniform 24 Counterpart fund is a problem 24 WASPOLA Workshop for development of national policy for community based water supply and environmental sanitation implementation strategy 25 Water supply and sanitation facility ownership within the community 26 Workshop for vision formulation for water supply and environmental sanitation sector development in Indonesia 28 Water supply and sanitation policy formulation and action planning (WASPOLA) phase 2 29 Workshop on achievement of Millennium Development Goals 32 Book Info 33 Website Info 35 Agenda 36


nconsciously, time goes by and it is now that we visit you again. The present edition comes to you late. Many things have been taken as the cause, among others the hectic schedule at the beginning of the year. But in the future we will try the best we can to have Percik come regularly. The present edition brings to you the theme of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This option is in response to the strong wishes from the WSES Working Group to disseminate MDGs to all WSES stakeholders. In the main feature, the discussion is focused on the MDGs related aspects especially target 10 water supply and sanitation. In relation to this, we also present to you the summary of a paper presented by Ms. Erna Witoelar (UN Special Ambassador for MDGs in

Asia and the Pacific) in a MDGs Workshop conducted by WASPOLA in collaboration with WSES Working Group. Other matters such as MDGs targets, linkage between WSES and other MDGs targets are also included in order to broaden our vision. It is our hope that Percik might become a means for MDGs socialization. In this edition we also include articles related to environmental sanitation, such as the widely-discussed Bantar Gebang. In special report we are presenting you public toilets in big cities, and the experience of Yayasan SEHAT in assisting the community to solve drinking water and sanitation problem. Beginning from this edition we will regularly present the activities done by WSES Working Group and WASPOLA. The WASPOLA and

WSES Working Group Work Plan for 2004 and several activities during 2003 and beginning of 2004 are also in the focus. We plan to present the activities made by projects such as WSLIC-2, ProAir, CWSH in each edition. To make it easier for the reader, the entire Percik edition can be accessed from WSES Working Group website ( and we can also send electronic file to your address. Article, comments and suggestion can also be sent through the above address. The variety of articles contained in Percik is also because of the variety of contribution of articles we receive. For all of those we wish to thank all of you. We are still waiting for more articles, comments and suggestion from you.

100 hose People in the village of Garut distric share water from reservoir directly with hose to the house. From technical side this kind is wrong but people choose it.


Vol. 3 /February 2004

Reference Material
Firstly we wish to congratulate you for the publication of WSES related information media. The information contained in Percik is very valuable as reference material to Mitra Samya. Mitra Samya has received August 2003 edition. We are waiting for the following editions because Mitra Samya is quite concerned about issues related to WSES development, especially those implemented in MPA/PHAST approach. Mitra samya has a lot of experience in conducting participatory studies since WSLIC-1, WSLIC-2 and presently we are supporting ProAir in the application of MPA/PHAST Methodology. As time goes by, we are preparing article for your publication. Thank you.
I Nyoman Oka Director, Mitra Samya Lembaga Studi Partisipasi dan Demokrasi Jl. Sultan Salahuddin No. 17 Mataram, Lombok Telp./Fax: 0370-624232 Email: mitra@mataram.

gerial board of Partai Amanat Nasional herewith expresses its appreciation and thankfulness for your kind attention. We hope that Percik could be valuable and serve as an input to PAN in the fulfillment of reform mandate.
Machnun Husein Executive Secretary Partai Amanat Nasional DPP Secretariate

Thank you for the enthusiastic response from our partners in the regions, especially Mitra Samya. We hope Percik can always be used as a reference material and at the same time also as means to sharing information among various WSES related stakeholders We are very pleased if our partners and friends could share the information contained in this media. We are waiting your article. (Editor)

As Input to PAN
We would acknowledge receipt of your letter No. 5956/Dt.6.3/12/2003 attached to a copy of Percik. The mana-

We are quite thankful if Percik could serve as a reference material for every component of the community, especially the political party. In this way we could expect the WSES program will get a bigger public attention both by the decision makers and the community. The participation of political parties will enhance the acceleration of MDGs targets achievement. (Editor)

Photos Gallery

Source: Ministry of Health


Vol. 3 /February 2004

Water Supply and Sanitation Achievement in the Millennium Development Goals:
Millennium Development Goals
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1: Reduction by half, between 1990-2015, the proportion of population with an income less than $1 per day. Target 2: Reduction by half, between 1990-2015, the proportion of population suffering from hunger. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Target 3: Assurance that by 2015 all male and female children can finish primary education. Goal 3: Promote gender equity and empower women Target 4: Elimination of gender inequity at primary and middle education levels by 2005 and at all levels of education by 2015. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Target 5: Reduction by two thirds, between 1990-2015, mortality rate of children below the age of 5. Goal 5: Improve maternal health Target 6: Reduction by three fourths, between 1990-2015, mortality rate of mothers at delivery. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Target 7: Reduce growth rate by 2015, and begin reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Target 8: Reduce growth rate by 2015, and begin reducing the spread of malaria and other diseases.

New Target Classical Issue

glimpse of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) MDGs represent an agreement of development goals summarized from various world level conferences and meetings during the decade of 1990, all of which converge into the resolution of Millennium Declaration in September 2000. Taking the declaration as point of departure the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in collaboration with other UN departments, the World Bank, IMF (International Monetary Fund), and OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) took the initiative in developing the goals, targets and measurable indicators to measure the progress. All of which is later known as Millennium Development Goals consisting of 8 goals, 18 targets, and over 40 indicators. Then in Johannesburg Summit in 2002 the world leaders expressed their agreement to the goals and main targets of MDGs. The goals to be achieved within the 1990-2015 time span are: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equity and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases Ensure environment sustainability Develop a global partnership for development. Why MDGs are Important? It is understood that many of the problems faced by the world developing nations are still geared in the area of basic human needs. For an example, poverty, illiteracy, lack of education, gender

inequity, infant mortality rate, health care for mother and child, environmental degradation. The abovementioned problems cannot be solved alone by the developing nations which most of their revenues are spent for loan repayment. It is necessary to build some kind of mutually beneficial cooperation between developing and developed nations. This understanding that forms the base underlying MDGs declaration, and it is expected to become a tool for the unification of world nations in fighting the basic problems of humanity. Human problems of the world must be solved together without discrimination between developing and developed nations. This is the basic idea. Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Related Targets and Goals From 8 goals and 18 targets WSES is directly related to Goal 7 Ensure Environmental Sustainability and Target 10 halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. The achievement of drinking water and sanitation target is grossly influential to welfare improvement of world population. This is evidenced from the fact that there are currently 1,1 billion or 1/6 of total world population are without access to drinking water system and 2,4 billion or 2/5 of total world population without access to acceptable sanitation system. Reduction half of these figures will, of course, increase health condition, productivity, poverty level, and eventually even world economic growth. It is clearly seen that the role of water and sanitation is significantly influential to the achievement of other targets.


Vol. 3 /February 2004

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principle of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the losses of environmental resources. Target 10: Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Target 11: Have achieved by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development Target 12: Establishment of open financial and trade system, based on regulation and non-discriminative. Target 13: Priority attention be given to the need of developing nations. Target 14: Priority attention be given to nations without sea and small island nations. Target 15: Comprehensive efforts for solving the loans of developing nations through national and international discussions towards provision of sustainable long term loan program. Target 16: Cooperation with developing nations to develop a strategy to create an appropriate and productive employment opportunity for child laborer. Target 17: Cooperation with pharmaceutical industries to provide access to acceptable basic medicines for the developing nations. Target 18: Cooperation with private sector in creating new and effective technologies especially in information and communication The Preparedness of Other Countries As time goes by, it is understood that not every nation will be able to achieve the target as set forth without any strategic step being prepared. It is estimated that approximately half of the nations will not be able achieve the target by 2015. Based on the currently foreseeable trend there will be only 20% are certain to achieve. Global achievement may happen only because the developed nations are included in the calculation. Based on a rough estimate, if the target for drinking water is to be achieved there must be an additional access to at least 250 thousand people per day from now on through year 2015. The achievement of basic sanitation is even more difficult considering the increasing urbanization rate, which means there will be an increased land scarcity in towns and cities. It is estimated that additional access to sanitation must reach at least 300 thousand people per day. Up to now (2003) there are 29 nations recorded to have produced MDGs country report. South East Asia is represented by Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Indonesia is still preparing the report. Based on the official report and results of monitoring, the UN Secretary General prepares his annual report. In 2003 annual report there are several important findings, (i) attention to achievement of MDGs has made a meaningful progress, both politically and financially, (ii) several trends indicate that several parts of the world will have difficulty in achieving the MDGs, (iii) it is necessary to renew commitment from the world leaders to provide opportunity for an increased assistance and abolition of foreign loans in order to give more opportunity for the developing nations to reduce poverty. How About Indonesia? Although not as poor as it is in some African countries the status of WSES condition in Indonesia cannot be classified as satisfactory. Based on the available data (see table) that show a wide variation both in terms of structure and definition, the status of WSES in Indonesia varies widely. As an illustration, if we are using the data from National Action Plan for Drinking Water sector published by Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure drinking water service coverage in year 2000 can be categorized as (i) piped system, in urban areas 39% and in the rural areas only 8%; (ii) protected non piped system, in urban areas 51% and in rural areas 57%. Total coverage of piped system for urban and rural 20% in piped system, and 53% in protected non piped system. Based on the calculation from the above action plan, in year 2015 the coverage target of piped urban drinking water service is 70%, while protected non piped system is 25%. The coverage for rural areas is 54% in piped system and that for protected non piped system 29%. Based on National Action Plan for Sanitation the condition in Indonesia in 2000 can be classified as the following: a. Access of population to wastewater treatment system is approximately 50,35%, consisting of: (i) access to treatment system for wastewater originating from toilet (pit latrine, pit type with septic tank and infiltration, communal wastewater installation and small bored sewer) is estimated at 30,67%, (ii) access to wastewater treatment using server, night soil processing, oxydation pond. is estimated at 2,21%, (iii) access to treatment of waste water originating from non toilet facility is estimated at 17,47%. b. Access to wastewater recycling system such as biogas, irrigation system, water culture, manure is not known for certain but it is estimated that the amount is small. c. Considering the availability of public toilets, the access of population to basic sanitation system is estimated at 74,03%. Following the calculation made in the action plan the target in year 2015 for sanitation will reach 75% of the total population covering 80% of the urban and 70% of the rural. It should be noted, however, that the figures presented herein cannot be considered as official because there are still a number of disagreements concerning the baseline data being used, including using year 2000 instead of 1990. According to a study made by UNSFIR (2003) Indonesia can only reach the target of reduction half of the po-


Vol. 3 /February 2004

Global Facts
There are 1,2 billion people with a capital income less than $1 per day, and 153 million undernourished children. Even in the Sub Saharan Africa half of the population are living in poor condition. There are 114 million children are without schooling, this means 1 out of 5 children does not go to school. Nearly 11 million children below the age of 5 die each year. There are 500 thousand mothers die at childbirth each year. HIV/AIDS is the first cause of death toll in Sub Saharan Africa. Approximately 2,4 billion population are without access to basic sanitation and around 1,2 billion are without access to drinking water system. Developing nations do not have sufficient access to market and information as well as technology while their loan repayment burden consumes most of their revenue.

pulation without access to water supply in year 2040. Whereas it is estimated that in 2015 there are 24 provinces will fail to reach their targets.

To t a l Po p u l a t i o n W i t h o u t A c c e s s t o Wo r l d D r i n k i n g Wa t e r Ye a r 2 0 0 0
Arabian Countries Latin America

South Asia Important issues Sub Saharan Africa Water supply and sanitation Pasific & East Asia condition in Indonesia has not been properly recorded yet. There are a number of reasons underlying it, among others (i) no agreement in data structure, definition of operational, and detailed components of data. As an illustration, there is a variation in what service coverage means, thus the related data also vary widely (see table),

number (millions)

(ii) water supply and sanitation development is undertaken by several institutions, therefore the data produced are not well coordinated; (iii) no effort has been made to regularly update the data, by the respective institutions. To improve the condition, this year the Proportion of Population Without Access WSES Working Group will organize a workto World Drinking WaterYear 2000 shop seminar to formulate WSES data Arabian Countries 3% structure for use by the stakeholders. Then in cooperation with WASLatin America 7% POLA the Working Pacific & Group will try to folSouth Asia 21% East Asia low-up the result of the 43% seminar. In relation to the availability of data as Sub Saharan Africa mentioned above, it is 26% necessary to first agree on what is meant by

drinking water and basic sanitation as mentioned in the MDGs. Based on agreement with MDGs Working Group, drinking water is (i) water that can readily be consumed; and (ii) water that is taken from a protected source. Besides, the weakness of the available data lies with the disregard of the quality of the facility, therefore the data basically do not reflect the service coverage. Especially the consideration of sustainability of facility in Indonesia, particularly in connection with sanitation in rural areas, the validity of service coverage becomes questionable. Along with regional autonomy, the responsibility for water supply and sanitation development is relinquished to the regional government. A study conducted by JICA reveals that fund allocated for human settlement and housing sector is only 3-5% of the whole budget. Whereas water supply and sanitation is only one component of the sector. From the amount of budget one could assume that there is a lack of attention from the regional government. PDAM as a potential institution for provision of drinking water supply is now being interlaced with problems including repayment of loans. From a total of 293 PDAMs, 201 are indebted to loans at a total of USD 300 millions. This burden represents a hindrance to improvement including extension of service coverage. Involvement of public sector in water supply development has not shown a good prospect both in terms of number of interested private company as well as the performance of the company itself. Take as an example, the performance of a private company in Jakarta is below the expectation of the majority of the community. Degradation of environmental condition affects the water source. The availability of raw water in Java is nearing a critical condition. The availability of raw water source poses difficulty to regions without such a source. Whereas river as the potential source indicates a pollution rate almost reaching the upper limit of tolerance. Consequently, management cost is considerably increased.


Vol. 3 /February 2004

Ta r g e t
Reduction half of poverty rate All children finish elementary school Free from illiteracy Abolition of gender inequity in primary and secondary schools Reduction 2/3 of children mortality rate Reduction of mortality rate of mothers at childbirth Reduction half of the proportion of population without access to safe drinking water supply
Source: UNSFIR

Number of Provinces that will fail to reach MDGs target

Year when Indonesia will reach MDGs target

Achievement Effect of Water Supply and Sanitation to the other Target

The better quality of human resource The better education Reduce poverty

More prosperous nation

Children have time for school

Daughter must The girl continue the study to higher school Access to sanitation based

Economizing of healthy cost

Economizing of nation budget

Access to water supply

Free from diarrhea and water diseases

Reduce load of women

Deceive the women

Reduce of children mortality

The better environment

Reduce birth of baby under normally weight

Source: MDGs Achievement workshop Jakarta, February, 17, 2004

The better Care of baby, nutrition the better nutrition


Vol. 3 /February 2004

in Access to Water Supply In Indonesia (%) Source Urban Rural Total 1990 2000 1990 2000 1990 2000
UNICEFand WHO UNICEF and WHO National Social Economy Survey SUSENAS (2002) PERPAMSIof Indonesia Drinking Water Companies Association (2001) National Action Plan, Water Supply Sector National Action Plan, Water Supply Sector Ministry of Settlement KIMPRASWIL (2003) and Regional Infrastucture WASPOLA WASPOLA
N/A = not available

90 N/A N/A N/A N/A

91 N/A 39 90 15

60 N/A N/A N/A N/A

65 N/A N/A 65 N/A

69 N/A N/A N/A N/A

76 89 N/A 71 N/A

Access to Basic Sanitation Service (%)

Source UNICEF and WHO (2000) UNICEF and WHO (2000) National Social Economy Survey (2002) and Statistic (2003) SUSENAS (2002) and ProsperityProsperity Statistic (2003) National Action Waste Sector, Sector, KIMPRASWIL National Action Plan, Plan, Waste Ministry (2003) of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (2003) Urban Urban 1990 2000 76 67 N/A 88,5 N/A N/A Rural 1990 2000 44 52 N/A 64,1 N/A N/A Total Total 1990 2000 54 66 N/A 68 N/A 50


Oceania South East Asia East Asia Latin America Sub Saharan Africa North Africa

Proportion with acces to water supply

Urban 1990 Rural 1990 Urban 2000 Rural 2000

Pessimistic or Optimistic? To answer the above question one should first look back to the statement made by Erna Witoelar during the MDGs Workshop in Jakarta on 17 February 2004 with her motto saying "No Excuse 2015" all the targets must be reached. Erna added that we do not have to worry because the targets initially came from us. This is also reflected in the MDGs Indonesia Country Report which is being prepared by the MDGs Working Group which states that drinking water does not only include water that is readily drinkable but also water that is taken from a protected source. If we see it from this

criteria then our status is not that bad. Similarly with basic sanitation, if what we mean is a simple latrine and not a modern wastewater disposal system, then again we do not have to worry too much. Of course MDGs target can only be achieved through hard work and straightening up problems intertwining water supply and environmental sanitation sector. Several preliminary steps must be taken such as the ones brought forward by Agus Prabowo (Chairman of MDGs Working Group V) that socialization activity has not been fully undertaken to make all the stakeholders sufficiently informed. Besides, we haven't fully explored the potentials within the community. It is the duty of the government to provide facilitation in order to have the potentials exploited effectively and efficiently, says Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas. We should be able to take the benefit of MDGs momentum as a starting point to iron out problems in water supply and environmental sanitation sector. MDGs is actually the commitment of industrialized nations to help the developing countries solve the basic human needs. We should have captured the momentum. If we only treat MDGs as a routine, MDGs will only become a means to decide a new target without any instigation. If so, then MDGs is just like a new target in a classical issue.




1 2. Lack of access to drinking water, sanitation and improper hygiene condition have caused the death of 3 million children of developing nations. 200 million of world population is suffering from schistosomiasis. Scientific studies suggest that reduction of rate of incidence by 77% can be reached through improvement in quality of and access to water supply and sanitation During the last 10 years diarrhea disease killed more children than the total death toll of World War II In China, India and Indonesia the number of people die from diarrhea is double that from HIV/AIDS In 1998 there were 308 thousand people died as war victims in Africa, but more than 2 million died from diarrhea disease A study in Karachi indicates that population living in an area without sufficient sanitation and they lack the knowledge in hygienic life has to spend 6 times more money for medicare than those living in areas with sufficient sanitation facility Women of Africa and Asia walk 6 km to take water from a source. They carry 20 kg of water on their heads Per liter water tariff charged to population living in slum area of Kibeira, Kenya is 5 times higher than an average American citizen has to pay

Singapore C O U N T R Y

Philippine Thailand

3. 4.




Proportion with acces to water supply

7. 8.


Vol. 3 /February 2004


Important Questions in Relation to Millennium Development Goals

1. What is Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)? MDGs represent an agreement of development goals summarized from various world level conferences and meetings during the decade of 1990, all of which converge into the resolution of Millennium Declaration in September 2000. Taking the declaration as point of departure the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in collaboration with other UN departments, the World Bank, IMF, and OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) took an initiative to develope goals, targets and measurable indicators to measure the progress. All of which is later known as Millennium Development Goals consisting of 8 goals, 18 targets, and over 40 indicators. Then in Johannesburg Summit in 2002 the world leaders expressed their agreement to the goals and main targets of MDGs. The goals to be achieved within the 1990-2015 time span are: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equity and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases Ensure environment sustainability Develop a global partnership for development. 2. What is our (world) status in terms of the condition for achieving MDGs in 2015? In general the target can only be achieved through serious commitment and hard work. Simple calculation based on poverty trend during the decade 1990 indicates that we would be able to reduce poverty rate by 2015 in compliance with the target. But in reality in each individual nation, many are still in the stage of increasing poverty rate. The total poor population in Sub Sahara, South Asia and Latin America has increased by 10 million since 1990. Many countries experience a twofold decrease in community welfare during the last two decades. There are currently 1,2 billion people live with less than $1 income per day. No meaningful improvement from the last decade. The progress in other targets varies widely. In 1990, a target in education for all was set forth to be reached by 2000. Favorable result is obtained from reduction by half gender inequity in education, but unfortunately the overall target achievement is merely one tenth. As a consequence, the target is moved back to 2015. Although some progress may be achieved yet there is a likeliness the target will not be reached, except when there is a fourfold acceleration. In 1990 the progress in reducing the rate of infant mortality, mothers' death at childbirth, malnutrition, and access to water supply and sanitation is relatively lower than it was in the earlier decade. The emergence of epidemic AIDS, malaria and failure of government to provide the necessary health services have been attributable to the unfavorable condition in the decade 1990. 3. Whether the goals in MDGs can be achieved? Yes, in terms of financial as well as technical. However, some nations may need assistance in technical, policy adjustment, and institutional empowerment. It is a miracle if a poor nation can achieve the targets without international assistance. 4. Are the goals of MDGs based on economic consideration? The rate of return of human resources investment in the developing nations is very high. Many of the nations are entangled in poverty mesh because of poor health condition, insufficient nutrition, low education, limited access to water supply and sanitation, and even high population growth. In addition, geographical condition also influences poverty, such as remoteness of region, changes in climatic condition, environmental degradation, tropical diseases. This condition represent the logical explanation for being less favorable to investment. Human resources investment can speed up MDGs achievement and also improve economic growth, creation of employment opportunity, improved productivity, and increased revenue that eventually lead to macro economic stability.

Human resources investment can speed up MDGs achievement and also improve economic growth, creation of employment opportunity, improved productivity, and increased revenue that eventually lead to macro economic stability.


Vol. 3 /February 2004


Participants of Workshop on MDG Achievement through Action Plans for WSES sector in Jakarta 17-19 February 2004.

5. Can the financing gap be overcome? Based on estimate made by UNICEF, World Bank and WHO to achieve the MDGs targets it will need a budget of approximately $50 billion a year. This represents additional fund on top of the currently being set aside. This means double the present requirement. Though in terms of amount this looks big but only represent one fifth per cent of the income of the developing nations. 6. What is meant by MDGs report? UNDP is supporting the preparation of progress report in MDGs achievement of each country. The assumption is that each country report will help in speeding up target achievement, as well as dissemination of MDGs from international to national level. The purpose of MDGs report is to help increase public attention, stimulate discussion related to challenges in development, renewal of political commitment, and help the developing nations and donor countries create a detailed and better budget framework based on the principle of mutual confidence. The report is targeted to mass media and the general public. MDGs report should be concise, easily understandable so that the message could easily be absorbed. It should follow the format of

For developing countries, the campaign is focused on domestic resources mobilization, strengthening human rights, democracy and good governance in accordance with the Millennium Declaration.

the existing reports such as Common Country Assessments, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, or National Human Development Reports, in order to minimize burden to each of the nations. Up to now (2003) there are 29 counties already completed MDGs report.Five others, including Indonesia are still preparing it. It was planned that in 2004 all countries have completed each of their reports

7. Why a global campaign is needed? Global campaign is needed to bridge up the targets to be achieved with the complication of problems at the real world level. The campaign is expected to improve and then maintain world attention and action focused to MDGs targets. For developed nations, the campaign is focused on assistance and reduction of loan repayment based on the actual revenue, assurance that assistance is allocated to respective sector in MDGs, and creation of market for the products from developing nations, especially the poor countries. For developing countries, the campaign is focused on domestic resources mobilization, strengthening human rights, democracy and good governance in accordance with the Millennium Declaration. Each of these objectives are adjusted with objective condition in each nation and target group. The format of campaign is also adjusted with the local condition. A sustained campaign program can help to make MDGs as a priority, and creation of a realistic planning. A campaign that involves political debate, public policy debate, academic debate, using facts and detailed figures about MDGs will speed up attention toward MDGs.


Vol. 3 /February 2004

Result of Studies and Empirical Observations related to MDGs targets for WSES development
Research initiated by the World Bank in 43 countries reveals that (i) access to piped water supply service is main key to the reduction infant mortality rate. This explains why there is approximately 25% infant mortality, and 37% children mortality rate difference between the rich and the poor nations; (ii) lack of acceptable sanitation system and improper pit well condition: contribute 10% and 20% difference in malnutrition between the rich and the poor nations

Infrastructure and housing influence poverty through (i) economic growth; (ii) reduce weakness due to health condition; (iii) increase family income

Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Water and sanitation influence school attendance and mark in examination Lack of water reduces attendance to class by 2-17% in Africa Improvement in ownership of pit wells and public taps increase number of schoolchildren school children by 20% in rural areas of India Water and sanitation increases attendance by 15% in Bangladesh Better water supply and sanitation is related to reduction in rate of absence in Tanzania and Nigeria. Indonesia represents a country in SE Asia with the lowest number of children enrolled to school (UNESCO Education Statistics, 2003)

Goal 2 Guarantee education for all

Goal 3

Promote gender equity

Infrastructure like water supply, sanitation, housing, electricity based on MDGs strategy represents one of three intervention tools in improving gender equity and empowerment of women Access on waterown life and basic energy, privacy and pride, the role of women through a better control to their supply (time and sanitation will strengthen employment opportunity) Access to their supply (time and energy, privacy and pride, employment opportunity) control on waterown life system and environmental sanitation in schools improves girl attendance
during puberty reduces gender inequity in secondary schools Access to water supply and basic sanitation will strengthen the role of women through a better

Access to water supply system and environmental sanitation in schools improves girl attendance during puberty reduces gender inequity in secondary schools Water and sanitation reduces infant and children mortality rate Access to clean water reduces children mortality rate by 55% (42 studies) Women in the rural Africa and Asia walk 6 km a day carrying 20 kg of water on their heads. Pregnant women doing this may give birth to baby with less than normal weight, and risk complication during delivery

Goals 4 and 5 Improve maternal and children health



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Erna Witoelar
(UN Special Ambassador for MDGs in Asia and the Pacific)
n the opening of MDGs achievement workshop on through WSES Action Plans in Indonesia held on 17 February 2004 Erna Witoelar takes the opportunity to explain about Millennium Development Goals focusing on Drinking Water and Sanitation in Indonesia. Economic crisis in Indonesia has caused a slowdown in the achievement of community access to water supply and sanitation service. However, it is estimated that Indonesia will achieve most of the MDGs in year 2015, though poverty enclosures will still be found in some provinces. Quoting the data from Susenas (National census) 2002, the households with acceptable water supply system with an access level reaching 80% are only in Jakarta, Bali, Yogyakarta, East Java, Banten, North Sulawesi, Central Java, West Java. Other regions like Central Kalimantan, North Maluku and Papua are standing below 50%. Access to sanitation indicates an even worse situation. Only Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Lampung reach 80% access. Water supply and sanitation is closely linked to other MDGs goals, namely poverty (goal 1), education (goal 2), gender (goal 3) children mortality (goal 4), mothers mortality (goal 5) and eradication of diseases. The following facts may suffice to explain the linkage. Sufficient water may become one way in poverty reduction, through reducing the time needed to take water, and reducing family expenditure for buying water. Water insufficiency and lack of sanitation service discourage qualified teachers to work in villages. A long queue mostly of women and children to get water dismiss the opportunity for girls to attend their class. More than 3 million mostly infant and children below the age of 5 die each year because of water borne disease like diarrhea. Water and sanitation become the initial point to gain acceleration for achieving the other MDGs goals. Global partnership may enhance this achievement process through the principle of good governance in water and sanitation system development. Erna Witoelar expressed a number of policy implications

N o

E x c u s e

2 0 1 5

in achieving MDGs targets. First, it might be necessary to link water and sanitation target with other issues of the Millennium Declaration, e.g. human rights, good governance, and peace and security. Second, National policy and regulatory framework for an integrated water resources management is deemed required in order to enhance drinking water service mechanism through participatory approaches in all phases of the development, enhance the level of service, and focuses be placed on the community based facility. Third, attention should be focused at improvement of
Proportion of Households having access to Water Supply Service, per province, 2002
Papua (2001) West Kalimantan Jambi Gorontalo East Kalimantan South-east Sulawesi INDONESIA Central Java East Java Jakarta
Percentage (%)

Proportion of Households having access to Basic Sanitation, per province, 2002

Maluku Central Sulawesi West Kalimantan South-East Sulawesi Central Java INDONESIA East Nusa Tenggara East Kalimantan Riau Jakarta
Percentage (%)

access to benefit. Drinking water is the right for everyone, it is not a commodity for trading. Fourth, it is necessary to increase funding for water supply and sanitation system from various sources. Fifth, women are highly affected with water insufficiency. Therefore, they should be the ones to play the leading role. Sixth, sustainable water and sanitation for urban poor should be integrated with improvement program for city slums, including guarantee for ownership to slum inhabitants. The local government should wage a war to "local mafia." Seventh, implementation of water supply and sanitation project is conducted at the kabupaten/kota level, while the monitoring and technical assistance by the provincial level government. Erna Witoelar wrapped up her presentation by saying that we must achieve the MDGs goals. We have no excuse. We proposed the targets ourselves after considering to what we have in hands. Our nation has the resources, technology, and knowledge that are needed to provide water supply and sanitation service for everyone. The problems lies with how water can be used wisely, improve water supply and sanitation service and involvement of the stakeholders.
Source: Presentation made by Erna Witoelar in the Opening Ceremony of Workshop on Millennium Development Goals Achievement Through Action Plans for Drinking Water and Sanitation Sector Jakarta February 17, 2004 Table: BPS 2002.



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Dr. R. Hening Darpito
Director of Hygienic Water and Sanitation, Department of Health

Water has an initiating power

hat is health sector doing to support achievement of target 10? It seems that MDGs have been absorbed by Indonesian government. Now are being translated into action plans. In water supply and sanitation sector we actually have started it in 198090 in response to the water and sanitation decade. At that time the government prepared an extensive plan through Inpres Samijaga (drinking water and household toilet). During the 10-year period the facilities constructed are standardized. But because community involvement was quite minimum the facilities are not maintained. After 1997, the target changed. After 2000 as a consequence to decentralization the leading role is given to the regional governments. But the level of interest vary from region to region. Some are highly interested while others are almost entirely ignorant. After the signing of MDGs, particularly for drinking water and sanitation, we rely more to Bappenas to coordinate the planning aspect. What action plans are proposed? This is how it looks. Water and sanitation is not solely a health related issue. It is very difficult to work out an independent action plan because this is the responsibility of the government as a whole. All the related agencies must sit together and prepare the plan. What is most important is executive and legislative commitment. If there is a political will from the executive from the central to the regional level, and the legislative from the central to the regional level, the private sector and the community can be persuaded to move. Political will cannot be upheld by one agency alone but as a combined action by all sectors. The most important is that the action plan must belong to and respected by everyone. The next would be, how the action plan could be disseminated to the regions and then to the private sector in order to create a favorable atmosphere for investment. What is the linkage between MDGs program with the existing projects? We have been appointed as the executing agency for community-based projects. We implement the projects in collaboration with the regional governments. This represents the application of the policy formulated by WASPOLA (Water Supply & Sanitation Policy Formulation & Action Planning). It seems that the policy is in agreement with the targets contained in MDGs. How would the lack of community interest be dealt with? Awareness is not an independent factor by itself. It is inherent within program implementation. That is why we have to start with the reasons behind it. How can water supply and sanitation projects be made as the spearhead in achieving MDGs? Water has a initiating power so that other problems can also be solved. Toilet, for instance. If water is available and one will begin to think of having a toilet. I think what is contained in MDGs are in line with the target of our Indonesia Healthy Program in 2010. What would be done to make MDGs targets achieved? The most important is establishment of good governance. Government, private sector, community must work together toward that direction. For this purpose it is necessary to organize large scale public campaign. The key is in two factors, professionalism and transparency.



Vol. 3 /February 2004


Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA

Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency

Empowerment is the key

hat is the linkage between MDGs with the national policy for water supply and environmental sanitation? MDGs consist of many targets, drinking water and sanitation being one of them. The community based development policy represents our effort to overcome the low government budget. It is very difficult if we were to rely only on government budget. If in 2015 the population reach 240 million level, there will be at least 48 million households each requires $40-60 for drinking water only, the amount of budget is 40 times 48 million in US dollars. Considering government and legislative attention in water supply and sanitation sector is very low we have no choice but community empowerment. We provide them with stimulant. Provide facilitation to the human resources. Thus MDGs are closely related to the National Policy for Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Development Whether the MDGs momentum give tints to the formulation of national policy for institutionally based WSES development? More than just that. This is related to the service provided for by a kabupaten and kota level corporate body (PDAM). Considering the inefficient service we will make the PDAM improve its efficiency, then we stimulate them to serve the consumers. If a PDAM serve less than 10.000 homes why not dissolve it and turn it into a local government service so that it can be subsidized by the government. It would be better than an expensive investment in a poor repayment rate. But if a plant has a promising potential we will help it to grow. At this moment most of big PDAMs with big coverage are heavily indebted. This is a case that happens now and might happen again in the future. We have made a rule to prevent PDAM indebted again. Then we improve the management performance and finally introduction of new technology in water supply and sanitation system. Such as solid waste, if we maintain sanitary landfill technology which need hundreds hectares of land, how can this idea be maintained in a big city like Jakarta? Therefore we have to look to a more environmentally friendly technology. Could you elaborate on the terminology drinking water and sanitation in MDGs? MDGs do not include solid waste. Environmental sanitation should also cover the problems of liquid waste, solid waste and drainage. MDGs is focused at wastewater. I think all those are closely related.


Percik 2004 Vol. 3 /February


It is impossible for us to deal only with wastewater while the garbage and drainage are left unattended. I think with regard MDGs we should not set our attention to terminology per se but rather we also pay attention to other problems related to it. It might happen that one town is free from wastewater problem but its garbage disposal system is a mess. This becomes a challenge, whether we will deal with wastewater only or to include also its related components. How was target 10 determined and what year is taken as the baseline? Actually we used baseline data of 1990. But the question is, whether the assets of 14 years ago are still in record? It is difficult to find it. The global data may be OK, but what about the details. Data inaccuracy may lead to inefficient service. If we used 1990 data the level may be lower. What we could do was to make our calculation based on the existing data. If population in 2003 is 210 million and the service coverage of piped system is 39-40%, this means that the target for 2015 which half of the presently without access is approximately 30%. Therefore the total service coverage in that year is 70%. For sanitation, in 2003 the figure reads 8%. Those without access are 92%. In 2015 the total households who have access to sanitation system is 8% plus 46% equals 54%. Does it mean there must be a strategic step to achieve the target? We have to strengthen the community. Without strengthening (empowerment) it will be difficult to reach the targets because government budget is very low. An annual budget of Rp1,2 trillion for human settlement and housing sector is far from sufficient because we actually need three to four times that amount. Such an amount of money, where can we get it from? It is here that community empowerment is inevitable. The phases for achieving the target, have they been developed? Not yet. It should be ideal if the available fund were sufficient. Is there possibility for a foreign

It is impossible to being a single sector and achieve its own goals. All sectors must work in synergy with others in order to be efficient.

loan? There is always possibility. The question is, whether we are ready? The donors are always ready because they will make benefit if we borrow. We are trying to create a condition where foreign loan is not the main source of financing. I think our community is capable if we can mobilize it. Is there problem in inter-sector coordination? Up to this time inter-sector coordination has made some improvement. It is impossible to being a single sector and achieve its own goals. All sectors must work in synergy with others in order to be efficient. We have to realize that we are

only a public servant, not a bureaucrat nor an authority. What is your opinion regarding pessimistic attitude in achieving MDGs targets? It is quite natural. They are pessimistic because they know the budget allocation for water supply and sanitation is extremely low. Less than one per cent of gross domestic revenue. The point is now how to motivate those who are pessimistic to learn that the community has an unexploited potential. It is our job now to unearth the potential. The duty of the government is to facilitate it. That is why, do not be pessimistic now. Let us be together to work things out.



Vol. 3 /February 2004


Director of Natural Resources and Environment Control, National Development Planning Agency


Insufficient Socialization
Could you elaborate how Pokja MDGs Working Group was initially organized? This began when Mr. Syahrial Luthan, Director of Multilateral Foreign Financing, National Development Planning Agency attended the MDGs meeting. He was given a mandate to organize a pokja (kelompok kerja, working group). A meeting in Bappenas was held in 2003 to form the pokja. Later there are 5 working groups organized, though without a formal Letter of decision. This is based on partnership, not top down relationship. The members represent the need of each pokja. Why is it that MDGs echo is not as loud as it is with other programs? I guess you're right. MDGs aren't well known yet. Because not much has been done for its socialization yet. The knowledge is still limited within the circle of those directly involved. The others are alien to it. No campaign being conducted yet? Not yet. But at national level we have an ambassador, Ibu Erna Witoelar. I think it is the job of Ibu Erna to organize the campaign. How is Indonesia's preparedness for achieving targets by 2015? I can explain this through my own working group in dealing with target 9. There are three components, first is integration of sustainable development principles into the national policy, and replenishment of the missing environmental resources. I am optimistic this target can be reached. As this is a sustainable development, everything has been included in the Propenas (National Development Program). Second, halve by 2015 the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. I have some doubt in this. This is drinking water, whereas what we have in Indonesia right now is only clean water. Is it possible that by 2015 we can make it into half?



Vol. 3 /February 2004


The third, to arrive at a meaningful improvement to welfare condition of 100 million population in 2020. The possibility is fifty-fifty. It seems difficult to reach it. Then why are those being decided as indicators? This is an international level common agreement which is not based on scientific calculation, or analysis of facts. This is based merely on common determination. As we see it, this program is a cooperation of the rich and the poor nations. How does it look like in reality? It is a long story. MDGs represent a global agreement which started since 1978 in Commission on Environment Development in Stockholm. In that time there arose a common awareness between the developed and the developing nations. The common awareness rolls on into a meeting in Rio in 1992. Then in Johannesburg in 2002. This all comes from common awareness. The developed nations admit they have done degradation to environment. On the other side the south nations are poor but they have natural resources reserve. The common awareness is one alone cannot be rich while others around him are still poor. The following idea is that each developed nation set aside 0,1% of their gross national income to help the developing countries. But the developed nations will not help just for the sake of helping. They want to know the targets to be achieved. One way of doing this is through compilation into the MDGs. In other words, MDGs is an agreement among the poor nations. What are the formats of the assistance? Assistance can come in various different forms. The assistance is called ODA (Official Development Assistance), some are loan funded, others in grant fund. For environment it is specially grant fund. If it is a loan the interest rate is very low. The essence is the developed nations helping the developing countries. The total amount of fund is 0,1% of gross incomes of those countries. But the fact is smaller than that. The rich nations are

usually flatterers. The more so is America, the most flattering nation of all. Does the program pose any a new burden to Indonesian government? No. With or without MDGs Indonesia must do as what is contained in MDGs. Thus MDGs is a reminder that we are being monitored by international community. This means, before there were MDGs targets we already have steps toward this direction? Yes, of course. The Repelita (Annual Plan) documents contain just those. The targets are internationally agreed. How if there were a drastic change in a specific country? This is a very good question? If there were a drastic change the result will be influenced. Take for instance, poverty. In 1997 our poverty figure is 11%. But shortly after monetary crisis it rose to 22%. After 5 years we start to recover, now it is 18%. This means we suffer from setback. The goals in MDGs are set forth based on normal condition.

What is the recent status of report preparation? All working groups have completed. Draft has been translated into English. Indonesian version is already in final . What does the report contain? All targets. Of all the targets what percentage is within the optimistic rate? It is difficult to estimate. In water supply and sanitation, for example? With drinking water it is more difficult, but with sanitation relatively easier. For example, per capita emission. The Americans are 200 times higher than we Indonesians. What consequence will a poor country suffer if she fails to reach the target? The consequence is the ODA What are the barriers in achieving the MDGs targets? I think it is the mental attitude, social and collective responsibility.



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Bantar Gebang:

A portrait of a poor solid waste management in Jakarta

public facility is one that is needed by all and used by all. But sometimes its existence causes a feeling of repugnance because it disturbs esthetical taste, and is detrimental to health and environment. A solid waste disposal area located at Bantar Gebang is one example. This article tries to provide the readers with a picture how poorly a public facility, especially waste material disposal, is managed in Jakarta and how complicated is the technical approach in waste material handling that the city government should be responsible of. Waste material management must, indeed, be seen from various aspects, among others, institutional, financial, legal, and involvement and education for the local community as well as the private sector. This article will, however, be dealing with the aspect of handling technology, beginning from the source point where waste material is produced down to the final disposal area. The importance of a master plan Population growth in Jakarta is followed with an increasing amount of solid waste. The growth rate of waste production is estimated at 4% annually with a more complex composition. On the other hand there is a demand for a better service. The city government is demanded to improve performance out of the existing resources. That is why, without a systematic planning, development, and evaluation Jakarta will not be able to reach its environmental development objectives. In 1987 Jakarta has had a master plan and feasibility study for solid waste management system which was prepared by the central government and Japanese Government (through JICA). The Master Plan contains the existing condition, problem identification, alternatives of processing technology, as well as a selection of suitable and appropriate (technological,

By: Dwityo A. Soeranto

social and economical) methods for its disposal. It is but natural, that the most important thing to do following the completion of the master plan is to purchase a land area where all the facility will be constructed, be it a transfer station, final disposal ground, compost processing plant, or other processing forms as recommended. This is exactly what the city government of Jakarta fails to undertake. At last the city government falls into mounting difficulty because price of land keeps on increasing. The city of Surabaya, for instance, directly purchased a piece of land for final disposal at Benowo, when the master plan was completed in 1992, so that when Keputih disposal area was in trouble much the same with Bantar Gebang was in 2000, and their incinerator did not work properly, the government of Surabaya city has had a substitute solid waste dumping ground.

Handling solid waste at its source An expert in solid waste management says "Mixed waste is waste, but separated waste is resources." That is why, minimizing the amount of waste, separation through 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle) approach must start from the source point and settlement area. In several kelurahan of Jakarta some NGO has started toward this direction. This effort could reduce transportation cost and prolong the effective age of a final disposal area. Organic wastes are separated from inorganic material. Organic waste can be used to produce compost in a small-scale plant, inorganic material can be sold to used material collector. On the other side the effort must be supported with a fee collection based on the amount of waste from each source, and a progressive tariff system if the waste exceeds the prescribed average amount. Collection and transportation of solid waste The efficiency of individual as well as communal solid waste material collection using wheeled cart can be improved through provision of transfer depot model which was introduced by Department of civil work years ago in Kelurahan Kayumanis, Central Jakarta. This model can reduce the time for transferring from cart into truck so that the number of truck routes for transport to transfer station could be increased. With a transfer depot solid waste material from a cart can be directly loaded into truck without unloading it first to the floor. Besides, the container combined with arm roller truck can make operation faster, as long as the community put their waste into the container, not littering all over the place. Solid Waste processing Since Bantar Gebang is located far



Vol. 3 /February 2004

from the city proper, it has been recommended to take benefit from a transfer station where the solid waste are compacted to allow more garbage transported in one haul. In Bantar Gebang this system has been operated by a private company, PT. Wira Gulfindo Sarana, and in Sunter by the Jakarta city government. With this transfer station waste materials from several trucks each containing 4-8 m3 are compacted to a 40 m3 bulk so that the transport is more convenient and more efficient. Because the 100 ha site planned in Tangerang has not been materialized the corresponding transfer station in Srengseng which is intended to process waste from West and South Jakarta has not been constructed either. On the other hand, the Jakarta city government is planning to operate an integrated solid waste processing plant at Jonggol, Kab. Bogor. If the economic and environmental feasibility studies are made correctly and the implementation is done strictly following the standard operation and procedure (SOP) as recommended, this effort is worthy of support as an alternative to a garbage handling in Jakarta. Especially because there are private companies interested in this business. Through compaction less land area is needed to hold the waste materials. However, a sufficient area is needed because the leachate from its compaction must be previously treated before sending it to the nearest drainage system. For the sake of efficiency, an integrated waste materials processing plant which is located far away from the cleaning service area can make use the existing transfer station. Besides, currently an effort is ongoing to process organic solid waste into compost so reduce the release of approximately 12 million m3 of methane and carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. This World Bank funded project is implemented by Western Java Environmental Management Project (WJEMP) covering the areas of West Java, Jakarta and Banten and is capable of producing 6.000 tons compost annually. This of course will considerably reduce the amount of litters and will contribute to minimizing greenhouse effect. It should be reminded, however, the management must obtain some sort of assurance for a market outlet for the compost produced. Small scale compost production has been started since 1990 through Recycling and Compost Production Project in more than 10 kelurahan in Jakarta but several of the plants have cease production because of marketing difficulty. However, this kind of effort must somehow be continued. fuel, as Agency for Assesment and Application Technology (BPPT) study in Cakung abattoir is also worthy of consideration and support as a community level plant, though in practice it might difficult because it depends on the number of animals slaughtered in an abattoir. However, this is a really good effort to reduce the amount of litters and how to make benefit of it Final disposal The master plan mentions that Jakarta should have two disposal areas, each covering an area of approx. 100 ha, and are operated with sanitary landfill method. This method is selected because it is suitable for Jakarta condition (technological, economical as well as social) and is environmentally safe if it is operated in accordance with standard operation and procedure. Based on its geographical condition the solid waste collected from N. Jakarta, C. Jakarta and E. Jakarta are to be dumped at Bantar Gebang, while those collected from W. and S. Jakarta are sent to a disposal point in Tangerang. In 1989 the Bantar Gebang site was purchased by Jakarta government, while the Tangerang site was not yet made available because at that time Jakarta was still using two community owned sites at Kapuk Kamal and Cilincing, each of them was 10 ha in size. As both sites became full all Jakarta waste materials are transported to Bantar Gebang. What makes things worse is that Bantar Gebang is not operated in accordance with sanitary landfill standard procedures and operation, for which it is designed, so that it turned to be a major polluter to its environment, degradation of ground water, gaseous smoke, odourous and swarming flies to areas within 5 km radius Policy re-formulation Looking at the solid waste handling currently practiced which deviates from the scenario as set forth in the master plan and the initial feasibility study, it might be necessary to update the existing master plan, such as being planned in West Java under WJEMP program. The activity should begin from review of data on demography, quality and quantity of solid waste production, alternatives of technology proposed, priority in activity

As for the present condition, whether you want to or not, Jakarta government must be able to find a new land area for final disposal in compliance with Jakarta City Spatial Plan.

The proposal raised by several members of DPRD Jakarta to install incinerator at each kelurahan needs be reconsidered. Based on the master plan and report of a feasibility study Jakarta, waste materials are not suitable for incineration because of high moisture content, incineration becomes incomplete therefore the operational costs is high. Besides, the costs for operating incinerators is much higher than sanitary landfill, especially investment for air pollution prevention. In an incinerator this equipment takes the major portion of the investment cost. Without this equipment we are just moving the problem from land to air, because gases like NOx, SOx, HCl, CO and dioxine generated from the burning materials will certainly pollute the atmosphere of Jakarta. The failure of the 200 tons capacity per day incinerator in Surabaya which was bought for Rp30 billion 10 years ago should be taken into mind, since after 1999 the plant cease operation. The production of methane gas as



Vol. 3 /February 2004

and implementation strategy. The effort of Jakarta government to handle solid waste problem by way of Baling Method (in mass media it is frequently called Bala Press) at integrated solid waste processing plant Bojong (Kab. Bogor) must be accommodated in the reformed policy for holistic garbage management, and finally to be linked with transport and final disposal. The more so currently Ministry of Settlement Regional Infrastructure together with related agencies is preparing an Action Plan for Solid Waste Management, the policy and strategy of which can be referred to in the achievement of MDGs later in 2015. As for the present condition, whether you want to or not, Jakarta government must be able to find a new land area for final disposal in compliance with Jakarta City Spatial Plan. Another effort is to resume negotiation with government of the city of Bekasi to continue using the land for the correct operation method and extending the effective age through mining the completely decomposed solid waste for 10 years if sanitary landfill is used (through semi-aerobic method). Zone 1 (of 5 zones in Bantar Gebang) covering an area of 23 ha which is used since 1990, can be used for this purpose. The materials which is already decomposed in this zone which is estimated to amount at 4 million m3, is mined separate the organic material, chopped and screened to produce natural compost. This compost can be used as soil conditioner in replanting activity or soil cover for a former mining land area. This process can extend the effective age of a Final Disposal Area.
The author is Section Chief, Programming at the Directorate of Central Region Urban and Rural Affairs, DG City and Rural Planning, Dept. of Housing & Regional Infrastructure. This paper is the author's personal opinion and does not represent the policy of the agency where the

Children's Water Manifesto

sified water use for boys, girls, parents and community leaders. Support children and young people's projects and activities related to water and the environment that affect the access to potable water and sanitation. We as children and young people pledge to: Establish action groups, clubs, organizations, and networks of children and young people for activities on water, sanitation and hygiene - locally, nationally and internationally. Be responsible for peer to peer education as young facilitators and child to adult education on conservation of water, sanitation and hygiene. Develop and use child-friendly resource materials and use peer education methods like drama, poetry, drawing, websites, etc. to create more awareness on environment, water and sanitation issues. To work with decision makers to promote better water and sanitation facilities at schools in rural and urban areas and in the community so that girls do not drop out of schools or face abuse. Be involved in designing, implementing and evaluating child managed water and sanitation projects and other initiatives. Form a Global Children and Young People's Alliance on water, sanitation and hygiene.

t seems that up to now water is the affairs of the adult. We never realize that our children are also water users. Aware of this condition, children all over the world agree to declare a statement known as Children's water Manifesto that was made known in Children's World Water Forum in Kyoto, March 2003. The complete manifesto reads as follows: Children's Water Manifesto On behalf of love, peace, and harmony, we, 109 children representing 32 countries, seek assurance from decision makers related to child, water, sanitation and hygiene. We hope the decision makers guarantee the participation of child and youth, in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ascertain the participation, protection, safety, and development of child and youth through the promotion of safe environment. We hereby state that: The governments are obliged to: Ensure that children and young people are involved in the decision making and policy making processes beginning from the planning through implementation and evaluation of household water related program/issues, including access, safety, conservation, and use of water. Improve water and sanitation facilities and cooperate with children and young people with NGOs, government, municipalities, private companies, and

media to strengthen school program and child friendly facilities. Encourage free exchange and sharing information, technology, and experiences across developed and developing nations, specific to safe water supply. Take preparatory measures towards strengthening the infrastructure and basic services and train children and young people to exchange ideas and support during emergencies. Respect children and young people's opinions and different cultures in relation to water use and sanitation, as well as provide safe water areas for children and young people's play. Promote strong environmental childfriendly education issues related to diver-



Vol. 3 /February 2004


When a public toilet

i s d e s i r e
t is a shame, brother", said a toilet user when asked why not just piss at an open corner. "Now there isn't any place where public won't see you. In a toilet it is closed from public and there is water to rinse", said a man who wants to keep himself anonymous. This is the reason why he always looks for a toilet when he wants to urinate or defecate, though he has to pay for it. Toilet in public area is a must. The community need a toilet for different reasons. For practical reason, Febrin Anastasia, an employee of a telecommunication company chooses a toilet near a mushalla (small mosque). "Just like in a train station a toilet is always connected with a mushalla. Cleansing and then praying". She added: " Though the facility in it is still limited, but we do need a


public toilet. Otherwise, we women will be in trouble looking for one." The need for a toilet in public has been monitored by the business sector. It is not too difficult to find a public toilet in most places in Jakarta and other big cities. Some are permanently built like in train station, shopping centers, and bus terminals. Some are mobile facility that emerges where a crowd gathers. Both types can be found for instance in Blok M terminal, Jakarta. The mobile type consists of a boxlike fiber glass construction resembling a public telephone box, 1.5 m2 base and 2,5 m height. Water is fed into with a hose. Each user is charged Rp500 each time using it. On average a toilet is visited by 100 users per day, men and women. Though income fluctuates but on average a toilet operator can col-

lect Rp50.000 a day minus rental for the place, salary for labourer and tax. A higher income may be collected by owner of a permanent toilet in the same location. It is used by more than one hundred passers-by every day. The number of visitors increases if the toilet is strategically located like near an entrance and there is a mushalla close by. "Usually when one is going to pray one has to clean himself first". Enthusiasm of the community to use public toilet may be an indication of cultural change has been happening. In 1970's an American anthropologist Clifford Geertz, in his research in a village in E. Java once met with a woman wearing Javanese clothing on her way to the market carrying a basket of vegetables tied to her waist with a cloth. In a wink of an eye



Vol. 3 /February 2004

he noticed something unusual the woman went to the side of the road near a cluster of bush. She stood there for some time, and what the anthropologist noticed was the woman was urinating there while standing at the side of the road. In his anthropological research Geertz mentions this as a cultural ethic of a community. It may be as simple as someone urinating in a public space, but it has an impact to social and cultural issue of a community. Therefore, urinating and defecating is one of human basic needs just as eating and drinking. From the basic comes out a habit, which in the community is known as ethic. It is not surprising then, there is a stereotype saying toilet, WC, latrine or any other form of waste disposal facility reflects the character of its owner in terms of cleanliness, politeness and health. Today, household toilet ownership for town community has been widely progressing that it is not a major issue any more, neither cleanliness, politeness nor health. Even a toilet may be used as an indicator of economic or social status of a family by looking at the facility and its furnishing. Still uncomfortable Contrary to household or private toilet, a public facility is basically less attended, from cleanliness to hygienic aspect. Take a look for instance, at toilet facility in economy and business class train in Indonesia, it looks dirty, odorous, tissue papers scattered all over the place, water not flowing, and walls full of squiggles. Even, in some specific season, such as during lebaran (Islamic holiday) or new year holidays when train as public transport is fully packed, its toilet is not functioning at all. If it is, water and tissue is not provided for as it should be. In some other place like in the street or a park public toilet is not available. According to Primastuti Handayani, 36 yrs, editor of one foreign language newspaper in Jakarta, public toilet in Indonesia does not meet cleanliness and hygienic criteria. "Speaking of cleanliness means that we are also speaking of health. Especially for women, we need a clean toilet, free from filthiness, tissue

paper always available, non odorous, no litter, and no stagnant water," she says. The public toilet she expects to see is one that is clean and also convenient. "Comfort is also important because we need to be relaxed when in a toilet. Imagine if you don't feel comfortable and always worry should anyone is peeping or carefully operate a hidden camera, things like that may happen in a public facility." From her experience in foreign countries, Yani, that's how Handayani is called, on average public toilets in Asian countries are free of charge, while in Europe one has to pay for using a toilet, such as one in train station, airport, or public park. "In Germany, we have to insert a coin to open the toilet door. In other place a coin is needed for a tissue. I think it is quite proper if we have to pay for the maintenance of a facility that actually belongs to us" she said. For a convenient and safe and clean toilet Yani has no objection to pay Rp2.000 for using it. "Take for instance in Mal Senayan the facility is well kept and clean, I have no problem paying for its service, though actually it is free of charge in there. Most of the malls in Jakarta have good toilets. But in other places, such in a train, station, or other public places the toilets are less comfortable". Heri Sucipto, 31, a toilet user at Blok M says that for men the condition of a toi-

let is not too much of a problem, but it will be different with women. "The compartment is too small, nauseating urine smell, but water is flowing sufficiently. For men it is no problem, but for women it is quite uncomfortable," says Heri, who is working for an NGO at Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta. According to Febrin, from her experience using public toilet the most annoying problem is related to cleanliness and comfort. Toilets in shopping malls, hotels and office buildings are usually cleaner, dry and well provided with tissue paper. While in other public places, they just build the facility with a very minimum furnishing. Syukur Nugroho, 29 had a different experience with mobile toilet. According to the movie cameraman, a public toilet should be kept properly, its cleanliness and comfort. "We don't mind paying for the service, provided it is well kept, clean, enough water, tissue and hand drier". For Nugroho considers that the service fee for using public toilet should be no more than Rp500. "Parking fee which entails a bigger management responsibility is only Rp1.000, toilet service should be lower than that". What is certain that, in whatever condition it may appear the community needs a toilet. Now it is left to us who will initiate to grasp the opportunity, with of course offering a better service.



Vol. 3 /February 2004

The community of Kureksari, Sidoarjo is
ak Solekan says, 'a promise is easy but what about the reality". Why the community of RT001/04 of Kureksari village Waru. Sidoarjo, West Java say so because "we have become fed up with such kind of promise, many times since long ago we were promised a PDAM (local government owned company) connection, but in reality only a big ZERO, then another time a toilet system but again no reality". What Cak Solekan say was an expression of disappointment and at the same time a long felt yearning how comfortable it would be for a community to have access to water supply and sanitation system. Cak Solekan's feeling was addressed to Pak Sutrisno Hadi sanitation program specialist of Yayasan SEHAT Indonesia, and his group when visiting the community upon the invitation of Pak Wardi, one of the community leaders, who is aware of the difficulty for the community in having access to water supply and household toilet. Lack of water supply and sanitation facility RW 04 of Kureksari village is located only about 200 m from a luxury housing complex of Deltasari. It is not surprising if this community use to dream of a water supply service and a convenient toilet system, the comparison is like the earth and the sky. It seems the expression is not quite excessive. The real fact shows how difficult the community obtain water and sanitation service they need. According to Cak Solekan there are 400 families live in RW 04, but only less than 100 have a household toilet. This RW has only one public latrine built on the river and one public toilet with 3 closets. The closets are also fixed close to the riverbank so that the wastewater may easier be flushed down into the main water body. This is done because they only have very limited land space. What is feasible for them is public toilet. Pollution by soda plant The difficulty for obtaining water sup-

waiting for water supply

Public toilet with poor condition ply is made worse with the construction of a soda plant about 100 m from the public latrine. A well which formerly was good as drinking water source now is polluted. Its water smells bad and foamy. Still according to Cak Solekan, once before the soda plant constructed a water supply facility with a water collector as a compensation for the community. The tank is built near the public toilet, but now the facility is not functioning any more. It is said that the compensation is now changed into cash amounting to Rp600.000 a month. But still, the community has to buy water for Rp750 per 20 liter can. Aware of this situation, the Yayasan offers a toilet program with informed technology options to be chosen by the community. Important note For the community of RW 04 in Kureksari water supply and sanitation system is a long time demand. Land space is quite limited, it is nor feasible for the community to build household toilet. Water collector donated by the soda plant, now not functioning anymore The disappointment of the community with previous water supply and sanitation program is a threat and at the same time an opportunity in initiating a deve-

lopment effort and employing an effective strategy to invite community participation. The opportunity for a community sponsored water supply and sanitation service seems promising. This is proven from the fact that the community is willing to buy water though at a more expensive cost. The role of an outside facilitator is important in order to build community's confidence through a realistic and commonly beneficial program. (Reported by Subari Observer on Human Settlement and Housing)



Vol. 3 /February 2004


Fund request procedure

is not yet simplified
n 2003 there were 156 villages in W. Sumatra joining WSLIC-2 project. 36 of them have completed construction. While 101 were in construction phase consisting of 36 villages in term three, 23 in term two and 42 in term one. The remaining 19 villages were still preparing work plan and waiting for initial term fund. In connection to project implementation there is something worthy of note. There is one proposal for water supply system that cost more than Rp200 million ceiling. This system is to supply water to 4 village communities: Mulyorejo, Solok, Solok Selatan and Karang Rejo all in Kabupaten Pasaman Barat. This is a consequence of merging the villages into nagari. The World Bank wanted this clarified and asked if the ceiling could be increase to Rp250 million. Besides, the emergence of new kabupatens as a result of the split of the existing, Pasaman and W. Pasaman, Solok and Solok Selatan, Sawahlunto Sijunjung and Damas Raya. This split implies the village location and the counterpart budget. In 2004 the new kabupaten have to coordinate with their respective parents because of difficulty in human resources, fund and capacity. The role of provincial coordination team is very important to bridge the inter-kabupaten coordination. Special attention must be paid that pursuant to Keppres 42/2002 which stipulates that counterpart budget is appropriated on yearly basis, the provincial coordination team is expected to do its best to simplify the fund disbursement process. Project delay because of complication in fund disbursement is a recurrent sickness. To overcome this difficulty it might be advisable to prepare the construction plan one year ahead.

Water is Life is the slogan for the party held by local community

In 2003 there were 156 villages in W. Sumatra joining WSLIC-2 project. 36 of them have completed construction. While 101 were in construction phase consisting of 36 villages in term three, 23 in term two and 42 in term one. The remaining 19 villages were still preparing work plan and waiting for initial term fund.

But the problem is, price increase can make the budget short. That is why, the Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas suggests that a contingency fund be made available to cover the shortage. It is quite a pleasure to learn that the interest of the community in sanitation is increasing sharply. Unfortunately this is not supported with sufficient budget allocation. To overcome this it is suggested that the kabupaten government set aside some budget for a rolling fund program in the community. Finally, it is necessary to conduct a regular water quality test. And not the least important is natural conservation measure in the surrounding area of a water source. (ML)



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Technology choice cannot be made uniform
family has objection to have facility built near his house. On the average it takes 8 months from socialization at the provincial level till completion of construction. The time required for preparation of sanitation service management team is not known yet because the process is just beginning in January 2004. The learning process obtained from this project is the technology applied at the community level cannot be made uniform. The choice of sanitation technology is based on the community perception and the local culture. Take for instance the city of Pasuruan, its community rejects communal toilet because it is considered as a dirty place and cannot be built before the public eyes. The community actually needs sanitation but they do not know what a hygienic sanitation looks like. Up to now sanitation development is not accompanied with explanation of the principles of hygienic sanitation. One reason why SANIMAS is successful is because it is a sanitation development program through improvement of the existing facility and accompanied with socialization. (Muria Istamtiah)

he SANIMAS project has been ongoing in East Java. The community makes its own technology choice. In the cities of Pasuruan and Blitar the communities choose piped


drainage with anaerobic pond method; in Kediri, Mojokerto and Kabupaten Sidoarjo the communal with anaerobic treatment. The town of Pamekasan is cancelled because at the last moment one

Counterpart fund is a problem

everal participating communities are so poor that it is impossible for them to make available 4% cash and 16% inkind contribution as is required for joining the project. This fact was revealed during the World Bank visit to Kabupaten Jember and Malang on 25-27 January 2004. Besides, there remains some doubt from the community if this project will indeed work, this makes a relatively low community participation in the early stage of the development. A prolonged process makes the community feel sick and loose interest. The ever changing guidelines from CPMU also confusing the community. In Kabupaten Jember there are in total 36 villages participating in WSLIC-2 project, consisting of (a) 8 villages completed in 2002, (b) 14 villages implementation ongoing since 2003, (c) 14 implementation to start in 2004 (6 villages) and in 2005 (8 villages). In this kabupaten the role of local government is exemplary. The local government is active in conducting dissemination through radio jingle, and puppet shows filled with hygiene behavior messages. The villages visited represent the successful ones in carrying WSLIC-2 objectives. This success is attributable to intervillage cooperation in using a water source, the availability of initial baseline data, the formulation of subsidy format for poor families, the piping network are constructed by the community after completion of infrastructure construction, and activity recording well done. What needs be taken into consideration for the future is the ceiling amount of Rp200 million. This amount is insufficient that causes several projects suffer from an inferior quality. (OM)



Vol. 3 /February 2004


W o r k sof the National hop for the Development

Policy for Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Implementation Strategy
n January 15, 2004 the Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (Pokja AMPL) held a seminar in JEW Marriott Hotel, Jakarta. The purpose of the workshop is to gather input and materials for the formulation of participatory reference for policy implementation at regional level. Participants from the stakeholders consisting of representatives from Ministry of Health (Depkes), National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), Ministry of Settlement & Regional Infrastructure (Kimpraswil), Ministry of Internal Affairs (Depdagri), Ministry of Finance (Depkeu) and Ministry for Environmental Affairs were present. As is already known that WASPOLA (Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning) project has succeeded in formulating the National Policy for Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation development in Indonesia. At this moment the policy has been agreed and signed by Central Project Coordinating Committee consisting of echelon I officials of Bappenas, Depkes, Kimpraswil, Depdagri, and Depkeu. The follow-up action consists of bringing the policy into regional level implementation. The first field trial was already conducted in 4 kabupatens: Solok, Musi Banyuasin, Subang and Sumba Timur in November 2002 through April 2003. It was found out from the field trial that the regions are receptive and willing to adopt the policy though the quality of their adoption varies from place to place. This policy has been agreed for dissemination and implementation throughout the country. Realizing that the responsibility for regional implementation is in the hands

This policy has been agreed for dissemination and implementation throughout the country.

of kabupaten/kota level government it is important that a nationwide strategy and action plans for the policy socialization and dissemination be prepared. The inputs obtained in the workshop are among others: 1. Application of site selection criteria

and the tools needed. Realizing that the central government's limitation the implementation will conducted gradually. In general, based on the discussion it is recommended that the site selection be based on the principle of area diversity and distribution. The tools that need be made available consists of among other the document of the National Policy for Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation development, facilitation manual for policy implementers and published material related to policy implementation at regional level. 2. In order to have the activity more focused it is necessary to prepare a detailed action plan for 2004. It is agreed that the activity will be directed to promotion, advocation, facilitation, consulting and real implementation. The time scheduling must take into consideration the national agenda, among others the national election. (ML)



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Water Supply and Sanitation Facility

Ownership within the Community

Financial responsibility for construction
100% government Government and the community 100% from outside the government Outside funding and the community Government and outside party Government, outside party and community 100% community self-reliantly

he ownership of water supply and sanitation system within the community becomes an important issue that deserves special attention by WSES related decision makers in Indonesia. Many WSES projects were constructed for the community, but after completion one question remains unanswered, what about the sustainability? To whom does a facility belong after it is constructed? If one says it belongs to the community, what is the reason behind it and what kind of legal protection does the community have? Frequently we find a situation where the community does not know what to do when a facility breaks down until the facility is totally damaged. The classical reason that there is no transfer from the project. On the other hand, we can also find a WSES project which is properly sustained and the community knows what to do in case of breakdown. The key word to both cases is sense of belongingness. It might be possible that a sustainable community managed WSES infrastructure and facility is one of the viable income generating alternatives for the regional government. This is because the regional government reserves the rights to control the resources within their domain. This fact may also lead to a conflict between the regional government and the local community. Therefore it becomes our common responsibility to develop a regulation to wisely avoid losses any of both parties. A legal umbrella or some kind of legal protection is important. Speaking of community WSES based on source of funding especially for the construction there are several models as the following: Though in fact the facility is in the hands of the community as initially intended but legally -in absence of a lawful evidence- the ownership is left hanging except when the facility is developed

Emergency for refugees WSLIC-1 and WSLIC-2


Atambua Sumbar, S. Sumatra, E. Java,, W. Sumatra, Sumsel, Jabar, W. Nusatenggara,etc. Jatim, NTB, Bangka Belitung German Govt. funded drinking Watumbaka water project Sumtim Env. Sanitation CIDA funded and Tulungagung facilitated by Spektra, Surabaya Emergency for refugee of earthquake victims Sulawesi Rural Development Sulsel, Sulteng, Sulut, S. Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, dan N. Sulawesi, SE Sulawesi Project-CARE Indonesia Sultra SMAS (Swadaya Masyarakat Kebonagung, Pacitan, dan Sanitasi) facilitated by CARE Jawa Timur. East Java Indonesia. Tlogo Mas, Malang Agus Gunarto sewerage system Tlogo Mas, Malang, East Java project

on the initiative of and using an asset paid for by the community. In this connection, WASPOLA made a study on ownership by the community as an input for the development of strategy for the implementation of national policy for WSES development for the following purposes: 1) Obtaining the picture of how ownership by the community of a WSES facility built from the funds provided for by the government and outside assistance can have a guarantee of a legal protection. 2) Obtaining an experience in ownership by community of a government project especially a WSES facility. 3) Obtaining a picture of the sustainability of legal protection to a WSES facility owned by the community. This study was conducted through a bibliographical research of policy and regulatory accounts as well as experience of the field gathered from Kabupaten Bandung, Subang, Malang and Kediri particularly in the application of legal protection to WSES facility. A study at community level was carried out at Cibodas village, Kab. Bandung; Palasari village, Kab. Subang; Mojo village, Kab. Kediri; Kandangan village, Kab. Kediri; and kelurahan Ciptomulyo, City of Malang. From the study of bibliographical materials and field observations the following important notes are extracted:

How to apply legal protection to ownership of WSES facility which is subsidized by government and outside assistance? In general the legal base regarding public service is linked to Art. 33 of the Constitution and Law No. 25/2000 (Propenas 2000-2004). Although basically land, water and atmosphere is under the control of the state for the interest and well being of the population but community participation in public service becomes one of the development strategy in Indonesia. As is stipulated in Law No. 22/1999 art 10(1) the regional government reserves the power to control natural resources including its conservation through issuance of the respective regulations or letter of decision. The format of protection or evidence of ownership of a WSES facility by a community varies between one project to another: From the very beginning there has been a statement that the project belongs to the community and its included in a contract between the project and the community. After completion the project is handed over by the central/provincial government to regional and then the regional government follows this up through an SK (Surat Keputusan, letter of decision) .



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Organization Location
East Timur JawaJava Ciptimulyo, Mergosono, Malang, East Java

In general from the very beginning it is understood that the facility belongs to the community and is formulated in the statute and internal regulation and some also through a notarial document.
From the very beginning the community knows that the project belongs to the community, they contribute, enjoy the benefit and select the management team from among themselves. How to apply legal protection to ownership of WSES facility which is built from community initiative? In general from the very beginning it is understood that the facility belongs to the community and is formulated in the statute and internal regulation and some also through a notarial document. What does the ownership model look like and what guarantee for

HIPPAM Lembaga Pengelola Prasarana Lingkungan (LPPL) Model Badan Pengelola Air Bersih (BPAB) Model Badan Pengelola Air Bersih dan Sanitasi (BPABS) Model Usaha Bersama (UB) Tirta Sari Model Kelompok Tani Penghijauan Assalam Model Badan Usaha Milik Desa

Format of legal protection from Village Headman Keputusan Kepala Desa Mayors Letter of decision SK Walikota

Palasari Kab. Subang

West Java

Cibodas, Lembang, Kab. Bandung , West Java Bandung , West Java Bandung , West Java Trawas, Mojokerto
, East Java

Letter of decision from SK Kepala Desa Village Headman Letter of decision from SK Kepala Desa Village Headman Letter of decision from SK Kepala Desa Village Headman Cooperative Koperasi Kelembagaan Letter of decision from Keputusan Kepala Desa Village Headman

sustainability? From the field study several examples are observed as the following: Matters to consider From the above examples we can say that all choices of legal protection are acceptable and valid, but there differences in terms of jurisdiction and coverage: a. If Surat Keputusan Kepala Desa (letter of decision from village headman) is used the jurisdiction is limited only within the village boundary (administrative approach);

b. If using the legal body of a cooperative is used the coverage and jurisdiction follows the details contained in the document; it is more independent from the village institution; c. If using a notarial document the coverage and jurisdiction follows its stipulation; it is broader and more independent from village institution; d. If using the Mayor's letter of decision, the coverage and jurisdiction is limited to the kelurahan, or inter kelurahan. Elimination of conflict Conflict related to natural resources particularly to WSES service is quite possible if any or all the conflicting parties disregard their responsibility. With a clear ownership status the possibility of conflict can be greatly minimized. If any, the channel for seeking a solution is already clearly indicated. Consequence of ownership Through an ownership regulation there are consequences that must be honoured by all the parties involved, who is to facility maintenance, to whom the service is to be provided, and how the facility is managed in order to effect in an equitable service. Eventually the facility can sustain the service to the community. (Summarized from report of study on community ownership WASPOLA 2004)



Vol. 3 /February 2004


Workshop for Vision Formulation

for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Sector Development in Indonesia
n 5-6 November 2003 the Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (Pokja AMPL) held a workshop seminar to vision formulation in WSES development at Hilton Hotel, Jakarta. The purpose of the seminar is to help WASPOLA and other WSES related stakeholders to formulate the vision or general direction of WSES development in 10-15 years from now (including MDGs) and design the strategic and realistic steps to arrive at the destination. There were 23 participants representing the agencies of the Pokja. In the opening , Mr Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas delivers his directive and expectation to take into consideration several points as the following: Pertaining to drinking water The scarcity of source to take drinking water from Increased demand due to population growth and improvement in per capita income The community and the private sector reserve potential resources for WSES system investment. Pertaining to sanitation The costs related to management of household wastes are still relatively high The approach in waste water management is directed to neighborhood, communal and citywide In terms of quantity as well as quality waste products are increasing, while the proportion of inorganic waste will continue to be higher Final disposal of waste materials will remain a problem in all cities, none of them is happy to have a dumping ground in its place. All wants a clean city, but none wants a disposal ground within its border. The principle "not in my backyard" is a serious threat to the overall waste material management The approach in waste material management must be directed to an environmentally friendly and application of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) principle. It was also indicated about the debate at the central level in relation to the best approach to be applied in the WSES development, one side suggests enhancement of demand responsive approach, while the other considers that supply

driven can make target service coverage fulfilled easier and faster. The implication from the statement is that there is still confusion in understanding the role of central government in national development particularly in relation to WSES sector. Toward the end of the workshop a common vision was formulated. The formulation can be categorized into optimistic, neutral, and pessimistic. Optimistic indicates a conviction that MDGs goals and targets can be achieved, in contrast with that of the pessimistic. The statement of the vision is just an initial idea, there will much improvement needed especially in terms of wording. A complete proceeding of the seminar is found in WSES website (



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning (WASPOLA) Phase 2
ater Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning (WASPOLA) project in Indonesia started implementation from 1998 through 2003. The 5-year project is implemented in partnership between the Indonesian government, Australian government through AusAID and WSP-EAP/World Bank. In this partnership effort, the Australian government provides funding which is channeled through AusAID, WSP/EAP provides facilitation of the process for the benefit and welfare of Indonesian people. After completion of the 5 year term (phase 1) all partners agree to continue the activities for the second 5 year term (phase 2) which will be implemented from 2004 through 2008. In principle phase 2 is a continuation of phase 1. As is with phase 1 the second phase is focused to community based WSES system development. The difference is in its type of activity: in the first it was in policy formulation while in the second is in translating the policy into actual operation. As with policy formulation for institutionally based WSES development which has been started since the last two years will also be continued. Belongingness In the initial design WASPOLA was to become an instrument in formulation of a national policy for WSES development and for this purpose it will be supported with a cross sectoral agencies. It was expected that the policy would be produced by the Indonesian government for the benefit of Indonesian people and by the Indonesians. In its progress however, it took a considerable length of time to convince the Working Group (Pokja) the

In board line the activities of WASPOLA phase 2 covers 3 main areas: policy implementation, policy revision, management of knowledge
product of WASPOLA's activities belongs to Indonesian government. As a consequence all who are involved are required to actively participate in the process. Widespread misinterpretation often happens regarding the policy formulated. Apparently the policy produced was better known as WASPOLA policy. At an early stage such a mistake may be forgiven but later it must be straighten out, because as it was mentioned earlier WASPOLA is only a project with limited period of implementation, while the national policy is expected to be applied nationwide and will last forever. This misinterpretation may be harmful to everyone, AusAID, WSP-EAP and the Indonesian government. One aspect that may cause adverse effect is lack of sense of belongingness and respect to the policy, and possibly also the emergence of a stigma to bind AusAID and WSP-EAP because of their funding and facilitation. Change toward improvement In the last two years WSES Working Group has allocated a significant amount of budget to support WASPOLA activities. This indicates a growing sense of belongingness and responsibility to carry

out a planned programme. The sense of belongingness and responsibility also demands that the other partners to provide a wider room for WASPOLA activities. That is why since the final year of phase 1 the WSES Working Group has been actively involved in designing WASPOLA phase 2 , and also active in the preparation of working plan , design of activities, and others related to WASPOLA main activities. Other aspect worth mentioning is the more intensive involvement of Working Group members in WSES related activities, either it is facilitated by WASPOLA or one based on their own initiatives. In addition more frequent meetings the number of active members is also increasing. If in the initial stage only Bappenas, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Ministry of Internal Affairs, and Ministry of Finance, are the member agencies, now Ministry of Environmental Affairs is joining in. Hopefully more are coming. WASPOLA Phase 2 Work Plan It should be known that the work plan of WASPOLA is different from that of working group (Pokja AMPL), though in implementation both work hand in hand in order to produce the best result. In broad line the activities of WASPOLA phase 2 covers 3 main areas: Policy Implementation Translating the national policy into operable regional level community based WSES development. Policy Revision Improvement of the institutionally based WSES development now already in the first draft. Management of knowledge Case studies and information dissemination.



Vol. 3 /February 2004

WASPOLA 2 Workplan for 2004


Percik 2004 Vol. 3 /February

Workshop on Achievement of Millennium Development Goals
Through Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Action Plans in Indonesia
he purpose of the workshop is to obtain a common understanding among the stakeholders about Millennium Development Goals particularly in water and sanitation and its linkage with other sectors. It is hoped that this workshop could produce action plans for water and sanitation sector which represent an agreement by all stakeholders. The workshop lasted for 2 days from 17 -19 February 2004 at Hotel Sheraton Bandara, Jakarta. The participants consist of representatives from Departments or Ministry (Bappenas, Kimpraswil, Keuangan, Dalam Negeri, Lingkungan, Pengentasan Kemiskinan, Kehutanan, Sumberdaya Air, Pemberdayaan Wanita, and Kelautan); professional association/institution, iniversities, regional governments, media association, donor agencies, NGOs and community organization. It is interesting that during the implementation of this workshop is the application of participatory method, where each participant is a resource person therefore an active participation and contribution from everyone was called for. The first session started with a directive from the Deputy for Facility and Infrastructure, Bappenas. His speech contains primarily of a statement that although the principle of MDGs have been adopted by the related government agencies, yet a discussion by all stakeholders is needed in order to translate and to agree to targets and realistic and operable national action plans. An interesting presentation was also provided By Ms. Erna Witoelar in her capacity as UN Special Ambassador for MDGs in Asia and the Pacific stated that the target determination (in particular, water and sanitation) was made by each country in accordance with the condition of the respective country. This matter, she

The result produced in the workshop consists of recommendation for indicative strategy, solution and action plans related to theme and issues that may be influential to water and sanitation target in MDGs.
stressed later that MDGs achievement needs an integrated effort with other issues such as human rights, good governance, and security. As is mentioned earlier that this workshop applies participatory approach the following sessions consist of group discussions. The discussions deal with among others, the participants' opinion about the possibility of achieving the goals and targets in Indonesia, and theme

and issues that might be influential to MDGs target in particular water and sanitation. The result produced in the workshop consists of recommendation for indicative strategy, solution and action plans related to theme and issues that may be influential to water and sanitation target in MDGs. The outcome is colored with new information and knowledge brought in by the related stakeholders, such as from local governments, forestry sector, women empowerment, poverty reduction, human resources and environmental affairs, non government organizations, donor agencies and media representative. It is hoped that such a dialogue could be continued, so that MDGs targets particularly water and sanitation could be achieved.
(Summarized from workshop result Achievement of Millennium Development Goals Through Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Action Plans in Indonesia)



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Integration of the interests for Winning Life
A reference to the methodology for natural resources conflict management
atural resources management which is tinted with various interests may in the end lead to conflicts. Therefore, conflict management should become an inherent part in the long process of natural resources management. While it is in our culture, conflicts tend to be avoided or even neglected. Realizing that conflict is an effectual phenomenon this book attempts to offer the steps to managing it. This book is prepared from various references and initiatives in many places, which were alter combined into several concepts, principles and methodologies to help in natural resources management in Indonesia. The book is divided into 6 chapters beginning from the solution of non-confrontation type of conflict, discussion on the meaning of conflict, conflict solution including its strength and weakness, and the guidelines to its solution. The main strength of this book is in solution of non-confrontation type of

Authors: Ilya Moeliono, Larry Fischer, Stefan Wodicka, Suporahardjo Publisher: Studio Driya Media in cooperation with World Neighbors, Consortium Pengembangan Nusa Tenggara with support from The Ford Foundation First Edition, 2003 Pages: xxxi + 242 pp

conflict through mediation. In its linkage with WSES development this book is quite relevant especially with the beginning of the emergence of conflict related to water source management, including WSES facility management.

Infrastructures in Indonesia
Before, During, and After the Crisis
Author: Suyono Dikun (ed.) Publisher: The Office of Bappenas First Edition, 2003 Pages: xxxiv + 566pp. his book attempts to contribute some ideas for a sustainable infrastructure development program of the future especially in the light of a strategically changing environment. The materials presented here represent the overall picture of the conditions and important factors governing infrastructures in Indonesia, in the past, today and in the future. The infrastructure covered includes transport, energy, electricity, water resources and irrigation, drinking water and sanitation, telematic, housing, and related industry and service.



Vol. 3 /February 2004


Ideas for Local Action in

Water Management
Authors: Marten van Ittersum and Frank van Steenbergen Publisher: Global water Partnership First Edition, 2003 Pages: 102 pp Campaigns." The materials presented contains the basic principles underlying small scale community water supply management including examples which is divided into categories, water conserva-

his books attempts to disseminate local initiatives in water management, by the local government, civil community, private sector. The focus of local activity is very important, even for the big international organization. The main strength of this book lies with the variety of examples of local activities under various different organization and localities. The information presented in this book is useful for(a) professionals, (b) local government, (c) cooperation organization. This book is actually a continuation of a similar book entitled "Ideas for Water Awareness

tion, water quality improvement, and clean-ups. Besides, the discussion also includes the importance of transparency in water management. It is also interesting this book provides a list of referenced materials such as books, websites, reports, even the addresses of institutions related to water supply management. If one intends to learn about water supply management this book proves itself as a valuable source of information. If further information is needed there are address to contact which can be accessed through mail, internet, and telephone connection.



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Websites related to Target 10 of MDGs
Human Development Report 2003
Millennium Development Goals: A compact among nations to end human poverty because it provides detailed information about progress and anything done by each nation in achieving MDGs which are assembled into the Human Development Report (HDR) 2003. The document can be downloaded. There are many more interesting documents such as journals, data, books which the most part can be downloaded.


his is the official website featuring the Human Development Report. This website becomes important

Millennium Project
he United nations launched 4 strategies in achieving MDGs, namely millennium project, millennium campaign, achievement monitoring in each nation, activity coordination in each nation. This website contains explanation of one of the strategies, i.e Millennium Project for the purpose of producing the best recommendation in achieving MDGs. Report of each MDGs target is also included here. Specifically for target 10 interim report (water and sanitation) can be accessed in

Some interesting working papers are also presented here like Millennium Development Goals Needs Assessments.

Statistics Division
Other related websites

his represents the website of the Statistics Division of the United Nations, a section of which includes Millennium Indicators that contains definitions of drinking water and sanitation, and the related data linked to MDGs of each nation.

The United Nations Millennium Assembly United Nations Millennium Development Goals United Nations Group (UNDG) Millennium Development Goals Country Reports United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) World Health Organization (WHO) UN-HABITAT Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) World Economic Forum Paris21 Consortium Water and sanitation Program http://www.wsp.or/english/focus/mdg.html Source UNDP



Vol. 3 /February 2004

Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group

Action Plan 2004

fter several meetings held at the Pokja Secretariat the following action plan has been agreed. In broad line the plan comprises the following: 1. Support activities to foreign loan/grant funded projects such as WASPOLA, WSLIC-2, ProAir, CWSH, and others. The activities consist of monitoring and supervision, coordination meeting, workshop, procurement of laboratory equipment. 2. Public campaign. Following up the agreement of National Policy for Community Based WSES Development, during this year the dissemination process to all provincial and kabupaten governments will be undertaken, public service advertisement in national papers, talk show in national TV channels, training for national and provincial level facilitators, dissemination of the national policy through brochures, leaflets, and other media, article writing contest, website development and maintenance, publication of Bulletin (Percik), and routine discussion forum. 3. Organizing baseline data. To follow up the WSES baseline data workshop in 2003, it is planned to conduct field trial of data base WSES in 2 provinces. There will be, in addition, a WSES investment study be conducted. 4. Preparation of guidelines and standardization. Realizing the lack of guidelines and standardization related to WSES this year will start preparation of informed choice catalogue of sanitation

technology which gather all available technology each with detailed specification and construction cost. It is also realized that village level WSES investment need must be supported with village level financial institution. For this purpose a study in financial institution arrangement for village level WSES is to be conducted this year. 5. Field trial of national policy for community based WSES development. This year the field trial will be held in SANIMAS project sites as a replication to what the project has done in 2003, and another trial in the ex 2003 field trial area

which will continue with construction of WSES infrastructure and facility. 6. Improvement in working group secretariat. With the increasing in intensity and type of activities it becomes necessary to have a capable secretariat to support the activities. It is planned to hire new professionals to support the daily routines The working group will be supported by government budget (APBN). An activity conducted in collaboration with other party, WASPOLA, or the local government, the cost will be shared between the partners.



Vol. 3 /February 2004

National Policy Development of CommunityManaged Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Facilities and Services
1. Water as an Economic and Public Good 2. Informed Choice as the Basis of Demand-Responsive Approach 3. Environmental-Friendly Development 4. Hygiene Education 5. Poverty Focus 6. Women's Role in Decision-Making 7. Accountability of the Planning Process 8. Government's Role as Facilitator for Empowerment 9. Active Community Participation 10. Optimal and Target-Oriented Service 11. Improved Monitoring and Evaluation Program


Ir. E. Suyono Dikun, Ph.D.IPM Deputy of Infrastructure, National Development Planning Agency

Prof. Dr. Umar Fahmi Achmadi, MPH.Ph.D Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control & Enviromental Health, Ministry of Health

Ir. Budiman Arief Directorate General of Urban and Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure

Drs. Seman Widjojo, Msi Directorate General of Development Ministry of Home Affairs

Dr. Ardi Partadinata, Msi Directorate General of Rural and Community Empowerment Ministry of Home Affairs

Dr. Machfud Siddik, MSc Directorate General for Central and Local Fiscal Balance, Ministry of Finance