Sie sind auf Seite 1von 25

Ulrike Arnhold User Generated Branding

GABLER RESEARCH Innovatives Markenmanagement


Herausgegeben von Professor Dr. Christoph Burmann, Universitt Bremen, Lehrstuhl fr innovatives Markenmanagement (LiM) Professor Dr. Manfred Kirchgeorg, HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management, Lehrstuhl fr Marketingmanagement

Marken sind in vielen Unternehmen mittlerweile zu wichtigen Vermgenswerten geworden, die zuknftig immer huger auch in der Bilanz erfasst werden knnen. Insbesondere in reiferen Mrkten ist die Marke heute oft das einzig nachhaltige Differenzierungsmerkmal im Wettbewerb. Vor diesem Hintergrund kommt der professionellen Fhrung von Marken eine sehr hohe Bedeutung fr den Unternehmenserfolg zu. Dabei mssen zuknftig innovative Wege beschritten werden. Die Schriftenreihe will durch die Verffentlichung neuester Forschungserkenntnisse Anste fr eine solche Neuausrichtung der Markenfhrung liefern.

Ulrike Arnhold

User Generated Branding


Integrating User Generated Content into Brand Management
With a preface by Prof. Dr. Christoph Burmann

RESEARCH

Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.

Dissertation University of Bremen, 2010

1st Edition 2010 All rights reserved Gabler Verlag | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2010 Editorial Office: Ute Wrasmann | Stefanie Loyal Gabler Verlag is a brand of Springer Fachmedien. Springer Fachmedien is part of Springer Science+Business Media. www.gabler.de No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. Registered and/or industrial names, trade names, trade descriptions etc. cited in this publication are part of the law for trade-mark protection and may not be used free in any form or by any means even if this is not specifically marked. Cover design: KnkelLopka Medienentwicklung, Heidelberg Printed on acid-free paper Printed in Germany ISBN 978-3-8349-2324-0

Preface
The increasing relevance of the internet has brought about significant change in media consumption, communication and social behaviour and thus evoked a debate in both business studies and practice. Brands, in particular, are affected by the developments in and around the internet since they stimulate and shape such behavioural patterns. Therefore, how to manage a brand in the era of the internet has been a topic of discussion for quite some time. First, success factors of so called "virtual ebrands" were searched for, then "internet-based brand management" was explored and finally one was acknowledged as an "expert" by only using the buzzword "brand management in Web2.0." Many of the papers and books published at that time, however, dealt only superficially with the subject, distinguishing themselves through sequences of empty words rather than in-depth knowledge of the matter. Unfortunately, this even led to the case that the editor of a topic related Special Issue of the "Marketing Science" joumal preselected all submitted manuscripts according to the fact whether he personally liked or disliked the used terminology. Against the background of this situation of as much shallowness as sUbjectivity, Dr. Ulrike Arnhold analyses the state of the art of research within her dissertation with great care and intellectual finesse. She reveals that many of the brand management insights claimed as "new" in the era of social media by those alleged experts have been actually known in business studies for a long time - even though under different terms. Having truly identified the open and relevant research problems, Dr. Amhold focuses on the conception and conduction of an extraordinarily complex and challenging empiric study in order to respond to the raised questions. She thereby collaborates with three brand-owning companies: FRoSTA, a very successful medium sized frozen food producer from Bremerhaven; Germany; InBev, the worldwide leading brewery; and one of the biggest car manufacturers in the world which prefers to stay anonymous in this study. For all three industries and brands, Dr. Arnhold conducts multiple face-to-face consumer interviews both offline and online. The considerable depth and breadth of this empiric study reflects to my knowledge a unique accomplishment in this research field. Hence, the results of the dissertation at hand have in fact an exceptionally high level of explanatory power. In the end, the very high quality of the presented results is the outcome of the just as unusual as impressing curriculum vitae of the author. I am not allowed to reveal more at this point. The interested reader might find it out him- or herself. The PhD thesis at hand represents Volume 21 of the edited book series entitled "Innovative Brand Management" published by Gabler (Deutscher Universitats-

Verlag). These book series document research projects conducted by Germany's first and only Chair of Innovative Brand Management (LiM) at the University of Bremen and the Chair of Marketing Management at Leipzig Graduate School of Management (HHL). Our goal is to stimulate further research on innovative brand management topics and evoke a vivid exchange of experiences. My co-editor Prof. Dr. Manfred Kirchgeorg and I are looking forward to getting all types of feedback (please email toburmann@uni-bremen.deormkirchgeorg@t-online.de). Also in future we intend to publish at least three dissertations per annum within these book series in order to revitalise the growing interest in "innovative brand management" topics by presenting new ideas in short sequence. Finally, I wish the thesis of Dr. Arnhold a very broad distribution in theory and practice given the excellent conceptual and empiric quality of this study. The publication in English language will surely facilitate the circulation and maybe even motivate some foreign academic colleagues to read through it (even if the one or other term used by the author does not meet their personal taste).

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christoph Burmann

VI

Foreword
"Markets do not want to talk to flacks and hucksters. They want to participate in the conversations going on behind the corporate firewall. "

The Cluetrain Manifesto (1999), Thesis 62 This provocative thesis was raised in The Cluetrain Manifesto already a decade ago. The authors anticipated a development which breaks the paradigm of branding and opens up a new world - user generated content. In the participatory world of Web2.0 millions of common people have started publishing own brand related content. As evidenced by YouTube videos, Facebook groups, Twitter messages, Wikipedia articles, Amazon book reviews and other social media activities, such amateur pieces may achieve significant reach and thus represent serious brand touch points to consumers - with or without the consent of the brand-owning company. In order to cope with this emerging phenomenon of consumer created brand messages, brand managers have basically four choices: They can fight against it, just ignore it, somehow monitor it or actively exploit the creative power of consumers. The last is the focus of the thesis at hand. The study shows how brand-owning companies may involve consumers in interactive programmes such as corporate blogs, brand communities and online challenges in order to strengthen the consumer's relationship to the brand. The thesis thereby introduces the term user generated branding (UGB) understood as the management of such brand related artefacts created by consumers. It documents not only the theoretical basis of UGB but also the development and empiric validation of an explanatory UGB model. Though penned through my own hand, completing this thesis would not have been possible without the contributions of various people. First of all, I would like to thank my PhD adviser Prof. Dr. Christoph Burmann from the University of Bremen who granted me the opportunity to pursue a doctoral thesis in my favourite speciality. With his unwavering support of my innovative PhD topic, he allowed a very efficient and effective research and graduation process. Many thanks also to the assistants and PhD students of the Chair of Innovative Brand Management who made me feel at home. I would also like to express my gratitude to my reviewer Prof. Dr. Marcus SchOgel from the University of St. Gallen who inspired me with his compassion for interactive branding topics. Special thanks also to my former employer The Boston Consulting Group and notably Senior Partner Dr. Antonella Mei-Pochtler who opened up the
VII

field of branding to me in the first place as well as to my current employer Swarovski and Senior VP Markus D. Lampe for letting me apply my branding knowledge to daily business. Furthermore, I am indebted to the companies and managers which allowed me exploring their Web2.0 communication initiatives as 'real life' study objects: I would like to thank the owner of FRoSTA Felix Ahlers for his outstanding willingness to cooperate; Kathe Reichert and Dr. Markus Zeller from AB InBev (Beck's) for their straightforward support as well as the online marketing unit of our automotive research partner. A special toast to my spouse Aki Hardarson for promoting my inspiring visit to Japan and supporting me in all moods and circumstances. Another toast to my brother Ivo Amhold and my Berlin friends Axel Sommer, Mareike Jung and Susan Schagen for spending happy after-work hours with me. Last but not least I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my parents Reinhard and Steffi Arnhold who never let me forget my promise to pursue doctoral education. To them, I dedicate this book.

Dr. Ulrike Arnhold

VIII

Contents
Preface Foreword Contents Index of figures Index of tables Index of abbreviations V VII IX

xv
XIX XXIII

XXVII Index of symbols A User generated branding (UGB) as a field of study 1 1 Relevance of UGB 2 1.1 Major shifts in the branding environment.. 2 9 1.2 UGB as a new challenge for brand management.. 2 Need for research 13 3 Objectives of the study 17 4 20 Outline of the study 22 Placement of the study in research theory 5 B Theoretical basis for the development of a UGB reference framework 24 25 User generated content (UGC) as the subject of this study 1.1 25 Notion of content 1.2 27 Definition of UGC 31 1.3 Definition of brand related UGC Identity-based brand management approach as the theoretical 2 34 framework of this study 35 Basic model of the identity-based brand management approach 2.1 2.1.1 Brand identity 35 2.1.2 Brand image 37 40 2.1.3 Consumer-brand relationship as the reference point of this study Identity-based brand management process 44 2.2 Integration of UGB and brand related UGC into the identity-based 2.3 brand management approach 47 Relationship marketing as the practical reference of this study 3 51 3.1 Relationship marketing 51 3.2 Interactive marketing 52 3.3 Integration of UGB and brand related UGC into relationship marketing 54 4 56 Web2.0 and the digital world as context factors of this study 4.1 56 Advancements in digital technology
IX

4.2
4.3 4.4

Web 2.0 Emergence of the digital community Facilitation of legal schemes Discussion and summary of the theoretical basis Specification of UGB Slate of the art of research of UGB related concepts

57 58 59 62 64 65 66 66 68 71 74 74 75 77 77 81 83 87 87 95 96 97 99 105 106 108 108 112 116 123 126 126 127 127 129 131 132 133 134

5
C
1
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.7

User innovation research Prosumers Lead users Open source Collective intelligence research Wisdom of crowds Wikinomics Word of mouth research Offline word of mouth Online word of mouth Organic versus amplified word of mouth Community research Brand communities Online communities UGC research Motivations for creating and consuming UGC User generated advertising Fan fiction Citizen joumalism UGB research in a broader sense Vigilante marketing by MUNIZ/SCHAU eTribalized branding by KOZINETS Open source brands by BERTHON/PITTIWATSON et al Discussion and summary of the literature review UGB definition and differentiation from related concepts Differentiation of UGB from neighbouring terms Elaboration of detailed UGB definition Non-sponsored UGB Sponsored UGB Application of UGB UGB for the purpose of applied market research Social media monitoring Idea soliciting

2
2.1

2.2
2.2.1 2.2.2

3
3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2

3.1.3 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 3.4

Implications from social media monitoring and idea soliciting 135 UGB for the purpose of commercialisation and customer retention 137 Crowd sourcing 137 Social media participation UGB for the purpose of intemal branding Firm's stances regarding UGB and brand related UGC Development of the explanatory UGB model Understanding of Causality Reference framework for the explanation of determinants of UGB attitude Determinants in user-centric research fields Derivation of hypotheses regarding UGB determinants Hypothesis regarding usage and demographics Hypotheses regarding attitudes and user personality Specification of the conceptual model for UGB determinants Reference framework for the explanation of UGB effectiveness Basic models of communication effectiveness Advertising effect models Consumer-brand relationship models 141 146 148 152 153 155 155 157 157 159 164 166 166 166 168 168 171 173 173 176 177 178 181 182 186 190 191 192 192 194 195 197 197 203
XI

1 2
2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2

3.1.2.1 Brand relationship model by FOURNIER 3.1.2.2 Customer-brand relationship model by WENSKE and STICHNOTH 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3 3.4 Derivation of research hypotheses regarding UGB effectiveness UGB as an instrument to strengthen the consumer-brand relationship UGB effectiveness in comparison to advertising effectiveness UGB effectiveness regarding different user groups Assumed moderators Specification of the conceptual model for UGB effectiveness Extra: UGB effectiveness model for the internal target group Summary of hypotheses and overall UGB model.. Empiric model validation and hypothesis testing Research design

4
E 1

1.1
1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2

Study objects FRoSTA Blog Beck's Festival Video Challenge UGC based car brand community Sampling and data collection Multi-channel design Questionnaire design

1.2.3 1.3 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2

Pre-test. Data processing and editing Sample statistics Characterisation of the adjusted research sample Inter-channel comparison Applied statistics for hypothesis testing Descriptive statistics Inferential statistics Characteristics of structural equation models Suitability of Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach Evaluation of reflective measurement models within PLS Evaluation of structural models within PLS Multi group comparison within PLS Evaluation of interaction effects within PLS Validation of inherent measurement models Attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the UGB programme Consumer-brand relationship Attitudinal and behavioural effects Programme related factors User personality related factors Discussion and summary of measurement model results Validation of determinants of UGB attitude Results of univariate UGB analysis Characterisation of UGB attitude Attitude toward crowd sourcing and open communication in general Results of bivariate analysis Evaluation of usage and demographics Evaluation of attitudes and user personality Validation of UGB cause model Validation of UGB effectiveness modeL

207 208 211 211 215 217 217 219 219 222 224 227 230 232 235 235 240 245 248 251 258 261 261 261 263 264 265 273 279 288 288 288 291 293 293 296

2
2.1

2.2
2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6

3
3.1 3.2

3.3
3.4 3.5 3.6

4
4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.4

Discussion and summary of results of UGB determinants analysis. 282 Validation of total UGB effectiveness model Evaluation of UGB effectiveness Comparison of UGB and ad effectiveness Multi group comparisons based on partial UGB effectiveness model UGB application specific evaluation UGB awareness and participation specific evaluation

5
5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2
XII

5.2.3 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.5

Brand usage specific evaluation Validation of partial interaction models UGB programme related factors User personality related factors Extra: Validation of internal UGB effectiveness modeL Validation of inherent measurement models Validation of structural model Discussion and summary of structural model results Summary, critical consideration and outlook Summary of the study results Managerial implications Critical consideration of the study results Directions of future research

299 301 302 308 316 316 321 323 330 331 338 342 345

F
1

2
3 4
Appendix

.......................................................................................................... 347

Bibliography .......................................................................................................... 409

XIII

Index of figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Active and passive Web 2.0 usages in Germany Social Technographics segments Structure of the thesis Categorisation of content Categorisation of user generated content Differentiation of brand related UGC Basic model of the identity-based brand management approach Identity-based brand management process Brand related UGC as brand touch point.. Interaction types in marketing Context factors of user generated branding Analysis approach for state of the art of research exploration Word of mouth research directions Techniques to stimulate word of mouth Brand community models Variability of brand and community adaptation Motivational factors for creating UGC Types of advertising related UGC by message Types of advertising related UGC by creator's motivation Patterns of eTribalized branding Postmodern qualities of as brands Values of source types Differentiation of non-sponsored and sponsored UGB UGB applications along value chain Translation of social media monitoring insights into marketing action SWOT analysis for sponsored user generated advertising UGB tactics within social media participation Firm's stances toward brand related UGC Saving potential regarding interactive marketing application Demographics and psychographies of Social Technographics segments First exposure confirmation model by VON WElzsAcKER Conceptual model for determinants of UGB attitude Brand relationship model by FOURNIER Customer-brand relationship model by WENSKE Conceptual model of UGB effectiveness 7 8 21 27 31 33 39 44 48 54 61 65 78 85 91 93 98 101 103 115 117 121 130 132 136 139 145 150 151 157 161 165 170 172 182

xv

Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 65
XVI

Conceptual model of UGB effectiveness for the internal target group Integrated conceptual UGB model. Introduction of the FRoSTA Blog Introduction of the Beck's Festival Video Challenge Overview of study objects Multi-channel design for data collection Structure of the questionnaire according to channels Socio-demographic sample statistics Brand related sample statistics Programme awareness related sample statistics Exemplary path diagram of a structural equation modeL Model of PLS product indicator approach Verified total measurement model Descriptive analysis of UGB attitude and ad attitude Descriptive analysis of attitude toward open communication and influence on intended purchase decision Mean comparison regarding UGB attitude and UGB participation related factors Mean comparison regarding UGB attitude and brand usage Mean comparison regarding UGB attitude and demographic factors Mean comparison regarding UGB attitude and UGB programme related factors Mean comparison regarding UGB attitude and brand and involvement related factors Mean comparison regarding UGB attitude and user personality related factors Validation of UGB cause model Verified model for determinants of UGB attitude Parameter estimation for total UGB effectiveness model

185 189 193 195 197 201 206 212 213 215 221 233 259 262 264 266 268 271 274 276 278 281 287 290

Parameter estimation for partial UGB effectiveness model in terms of UGB applications 295 Parameter estimation for partial UGB effectiveness model in terms of UGB awareness 297 Parameter estimation of partial UGB effectiveness model in terms of UGB programme participation 298

Parameter estimation for partial UGB effectiveness model in terms of brand usage 300 Parameter estimation for UGB-brand fit model. Parameter estimation for UGC attitude model 304 306

Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71

Parameter estimation for Web2.0 experience modeL Parameter estimation for innovativeness model Parameter estimation for involvement model Parameter estimation for opinion leadership model Parameter estimation for internal UGB effectiveness model Verified combined UGB effectiveness modeL

309 310 312 314 322 326

XVII

Index of tables
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24 Table 25 Table 26 Table 27 Table 28 Table 29 Table 30 Table 31 Table 32 Table 33 Table 34 Harley-Davidson subculture of consumption Doritos' online contests (Apple) Newton brand community Jones Soda brand community Alt.coffee eTribe Overview of research hypotheses Sample adjustment in the course of data editing Evaluation criteria for reflective measurement models Evaluation criteria for structural models Operationalisation of ad attitude variable Quality evaluation for ad attitude measurement model Operationalisation of UGB attitude variable Quality evaluation for UGB attitude measurement modeL Operationalisation of CBR variable (actual customers) Operationalisation of CBR variable (potential customers) Quality evaluation for CBR measurement model Operationalisation of attitudinal effects variable Quality evaluation for attitudinal effects measurement model. Operationalisation of behavioural effects variable Quality evaluation for behavioural effects measurement model Operationalisation of UGB-brand fit variable Quality evaluation for UGB-brand fit measurement model Quality evaluation for UGC attitude measurement model Operationalisation of Web2.0 experience variable Quality evaluation for Web2.0 experience measurement model Operationalisation of innovativeness variable Quality evaluation for innovativeness measurement model. Operationalisation of involvement variable Quality evaluation for involvement measurement model Operationalisation of opinion leadership variable Quality evaluation for opinion leadership measurement model Multi-group comparison regarding UGB attitude and UGB participation related factors (Mann-Whitney U test) Multi-group comparison regarding UGB attitude and active UGB participation (Kruskal-Wallis H test) Multi-group comparison regarding UGB attitude and brand usage (Kruskal-Wallis H test) 89 104 110 111 113 187 211 227 230 236 237 239 240 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 256 257 258 266 267 268
XIX

Table 35 Table 36 Table 37 Table 38 Table 39 Table 40 Table 41 Table 42 Table 43 Table 44 Table 45 Table 46 Table 47 Table 48 Table 49 Table 50

Close-up brand usage: UGB application specific multi-group comparison (Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H test) Multi-group comparison regarding UGB attitude and demographic factors (Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H test) Close-up age: UGB application specific multi-group comparison (Kruskal-Wallis H test) Close-up education: UGB application specific multi-group comparison (Kruskal-Wallis H test)

269 271 272 272

Close-up gender: UGB application specific multi-group comparison (Mann-Whitney U test) 272 Multi-group comparison regarding UGB attitude and UGB programme related factors (Kruskal-Wallis H test) MUlti-group comparison regarding UGB attitude and brand and involvement related factors (Kruskal-Wallis H test) Close-up: UGB application specific multi-group comparison regarding UGB attitude and involvement (Kruskal-Wallis H test) Multi-group comparison regarding UGB attitude and user personality related factors (Kruskal-Wallis H test) Quality evaluation for UGB cause model. Latent variable correlations within UGB cause model Validation of hypotheses regarding determinants of UGB attitude Quality evaluation for total UGB effectiveness model Comparison of UGB application specific sample differences for partial UGB effectiveness model (Kruskal-Wallis H test) Comparison of UGB awareness specific sample differences for partial UGB effectiveness model (Mann-Whitney U test) Comparison of UGB programme participation specific sample differences for partial UGB effectiveness model (Mann-Whitney U test) Comparison of brand usage specific sample differences for partial UGB effectiveness model (Mann-Whitney U test) Quality evaluation for UGB-brand fit interaction model. Quality evaluation for UGC attitude interaction model Quality evaluation for UGC attitude main model Quality evaluation for the Web2.0 interaction model Quality evaluation of innovativeness interaction model Quality evaluation of innovativeness main effects model Quality evaluation for involvement interaction modeL Quality evaluation for involvement main model Quality evaluation for opinion leadership interaction modeL Quality evaluation for opinion leadership main model 274 276 277 278 281 282 286 290 295 297

299 301 304 307 307 309 311 311 313 313 315 315

Table 51 Table 52 Table 53 Table 54 Table 55 Table 56 Table 57 Table 58 Table 59 Table 60 Table 61

xx

Table 62 Table 63 Table 64 Table 65 Table 66 Table 67 Table 68 Table 69

Quality evaluation for UGB attitude measurement model (internal target group) Operationalisation of brand commitment variable Quality evaluation for brand commitment measurement model. Operationalisation of brand citizenship behaviour variable Quality evaluation for brand citizenship behaviour measurement model Quality evaluation for intemal UGB effectiveness model Verification of hypotheses regarding UGB effectiveness Final results of hypothesis testing

317 318 318 319 320 322 328 336

XXI

Index of abbreviations
Aad abbr. ad AGOF AJAX AMA AMOS approx. ARG Asymp. Sig. Att Attitude toward the ad Abbreviation Advertising Arbeitsgemeinschaft Online Forschung (Working Committee for Online Research) Asynchronous JavaScript American Marketing Association Analysis of Moment Structures approximately Alternate reality game Asymptotic significance Attitudinal effects (variable) Average variance extracted Billion Brand commitment Brand citizenship behaviour Brand community quality Behavioural effects (variable) Weblog Brand relationship quality Business-to-consumer Compound annual growth rate Consumer-brand relationship (variable) Consumer-brand relationship regarding actual customers (variable) Consumer-brand relationship regarding potential customers (variable) Consumer generated media Coefficient Customer relationship management Consumer-to-consumer

AVE
B
BC BCB BCQ Beh blog BRQ B2C CAGR CBR aCBR pCBR CGM coeff. CRM C2C

XXIII

DPMA DSL

Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt (German Patent and Trade Mark Office) Digital subscriber line Euro Earnings before interest and taxes Editor Editors exempli gratia (for example) et alii (and others) et cetera (and other things) et sequens (and the following one) et sequentes (and the following ones) Eigenvalue Electronic word of mouth Gesellschaft fUr Konsumforschung (Organisation for Consumer Research) Hypothesis Household Hypertext transfer protocol ibidem (in the same place) Institut fUr Konsum- und Verhaltensforschung (Institute for Consumer and Behavioural Research at Saarland University, Germany)

EBIT

ed.
eds. e.g. etal. etc. et seq. et seqq. EV eWOM GfK H HH HTTP ibid.

IKV

Inno Inv ISDN

Innovativeness Product category involvement Integrated services digital network Lehrstuhl fUr innovatives Markenmanagement (Chair of Innovative Brand Management) Linear Structural Relationship Million Megabyte Massachusetts Institute of Technology

liM
L1SREL

M
MB MIT

XXIV

NWOM n.s. OECD OL OPA OS

Negative word of mouth Not significant Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Opinion leader/opinion leadership Online Publishers Association Open source Page Predictive Analytics Software Partial least squares Point of sales Pages Positive word of mouth Procter & Gamble Peer-to-peer Reversely coded

p.
PASW PLS PoS

pp.
PWOM P&G P2P

R&D RBMA RSS SEM SMS SPSS TV UGA UGB UGC URL US$ VCAM Vol. vs.

Research & development Red Bull Music Academy Really simple syndication Structural equation model Short message system Superior Performing Software System Television User generated advertising User generated branding User generated content Uniform resource locator US Dollars Viewer created advertising messages Volume versus World Wide Web

www

xxv

WOM WOMMA

Word of mouth Word of Mouth Marketing Association

XXVI

Index of symbols
a (alpha) Significance level Standardized path coefficient (effect) inbetween latent endogenous variables Standardized path coefficient (effect) between latent exogenous and endogenous variable Measuring error with respect to measurement model of latent exogenous variable (indicator variable X)
E

8/13 (beta)

r/y (gamma)
6 (delta)
(epsilon) (zeta)

Measuring error with respect to measurement model of latent endogenous variable (indicator variable Y) Measuring error with respect to effects on latent endogenous variable (structural model) Latent endogenous or dependent variable Factor loading of latent variable to its indicator variable Latent exogenous or independent variable Omission distance (regarding blindfolding) Degrees of freedom Sum of squares of prediction errors (regarding blindfolding) Effect size Number of cases Coefficient of determination Coefficient of determination of a latent endogenous variable if examined latent exogenous variables is included Coefficient of determination of a latent endogenous variable if examined latent exogenous variables is excluded Sum of squares of observations (regarding blindfolding) Predictive relevance (Stone-Geisser criterion) Predictive relevance of a latent endogenous variable if examined latent exogenous variables is included Predictive relevance of a latent endogenous variable if examined latent exogenous variables is excluded Indicator variable for latent exogenous variable
XXVII

'l (eta)
11. (Iamda)
~

(xi)

D df E

1"
N

2 2

R incl

R2excl

o
Q2/q2

Q incl
2

Q2excl

Xix

Y/y
Z

Indicator variable for latent endogenous variable Moderator variable

XXVIII