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QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY
Faculty of Applied Science
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
MECHMECH 448448
COMPRESSIBLECOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDFLUID FLOWFLOW
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INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
When a gas flows over a surface, the gas in contact with the surface
is brought to rest as a result of viscosity. Associated with this
decrease in velocity at a surface is a rise in temperature. If the gas
velocity is high, this temperature rise associated with the slowing of
the flow near a surface can become quite large. This, basically, is
what is referred to as the "aerodynamic heating" of a surface. The
phenomena is illustrated in following figure.
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The velocity is zero at the surface because of the action of
viscosity and the temperature rise in the boundary layer is the
result of the work done on the flow by the viscous forces, i.e. the
temperature rise is produced by the dissipation of kinetic energy
into heat as the result of the work done by the viscous forces. The
temperature rise, i.e. the aerodynamic heating, is, therefore, said to
be the result of "viscous dissipation".
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AERODYNAMICAERODYNAMIC HEATINGHEATING
September,September, 20112011
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Temperature Rise Near the Surface of a Body.
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Aerodynamic heating is particularly important in
hypersonic flows. However in such flows changes in the chemical
nature of the gas can occur due to the very high temperatures
existing in such flows. Further, because the temperature rises at
the surface are so high in hypersonic flow, radiation heat transfer
can become important. Attention will, therefore, here be restricted
to supersonic flows. Radiation effects will be ignored in this
chapter.
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Consider flow over a nearly flat surface at a Mach number
M as shown in following figure.
Flow Situation Considered
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If the flow between points A and B is adiabatic, then, since M at
point B on the surface of the plate is zero, it follows as shown
before that:
T
γ
1
T 0
2
=+
1
M
=
1
T
2
T
where T o is the stagnation temperature.
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For this reason it is usual to define a recovery factor, r, such
that:
T
T
= r
T
− T
0
r is a measure of the fraction of the local freestream dynamic
temperature rise that is actually "recovered" at the wall. It is
defined as the ratio of the actual rise in the temperature of the gas
across the boundary layer to the maximum possible rise in
temperature that could occur.
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It is assumed that the surface is adiabatic, i.e., there is no
heat transfer to or from the plate. In this case, the surface
temperature is denoted by T wad . Consider two points A and B as
shown in the figure. Point A is in the freestream outside the
boundary layer and point B is on the surface.
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However, the actual process between A and B is not adiabatic.
This is because as the temperature rises as the plate is approached
there is a heat transfer towards the colder gas in the freestream.
This is shown in the following figure.
Heat Transfer in Boundary Layer Away From the Surface
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The value of r, for a given geometrical flow situation,
according to dimensionless analysis is a function of the Reynolds
number, the Mach number and the Prandtl number i.e.:
r = f (,,)Re M Pr
The Prandtl number is a property of the fluid involved being equal
to approximately 0.7 for air.
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However, experimental and analytical studies indicate that
for flow over a near flat surface, the Reynolds number only effects
the value of the recovery factor by determining whether the flow in
the boundary layer is laminar or turbulent and that the Mach
number has a negligible effect on the recovery factor. This is
illustrated by the results shown in the following two figures.
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Hence, experimental and numerical studies indicate that:
r = f (Pr)
the function being different in laminar and turbulent boundary
flow. Experimental and analytical studies indicate that:
1/2
For laminar Flow : r
= Pr
1/3
For turbulent Flow : r
= Pr
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Hence:
T
/
T ∞ −
1
w
r
= ⎛ − 1 ⎞
γ
2
M
⎜ ⎝
2
⎟ ⎠
i.e.,:
T
⎛ − 1 ⎞
γ
w
2
=
1
+ r
M
2
T ∞ ⎜ ⎝
⎟ ⎠
This allows the adiabatic surface temperature for a near flat
surface to be determined.
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Typical Effect of Mach
Number on the Recovery
Factor For a Laminar
Boundary Layer
Typical Effect of Reynolds
Number on the Recovery
Factor
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Now, it will be noted from the equation defining the
recovery factor that:
T
/
T
1
w
r =
T
/
T
1
0
but as mentioned above:
T
⎛ − 1 ⎞
γ
0
2
= 1
M
T
+ ⎜ ⎝
2
⎠ ⎟
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Consider air flowing at a temperature of -40 o C flowing
over an adiabatic flat plate. Assuming turbulent boundary layer
flow, the plate temperature variation with Mach number is as
shown in the graph.
Variation of
temperature
with flow Mach
number.
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Concorde
SR 71 BlackBird
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In high speed flow, however, it is to be expected that the
magnitude and direction of the heat transfer at the surface will
depend on the difference between the wall temperature and the
adiabatic wall temperature i.e. if T w is less than T wad there will be
heat transfer from the fluid to the surface while if if T w is greater
than T wad there will be heat transfer from surface to the fluid.
Hence it is usual in high speed gas flows to write:
Q = hA T
(
−T
)
W
W
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Now, equations for the heat transfer coefficient are usually
expressed in dimensionless form. For this purpose, the Nusselt
number, Nu, is introduced, this being defined by:
hL
Nu =
k
Here, L is some appropriate measure of the size of body being
considered. For example, in the case of a wide flat plate, L would
be the length of the plate.
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In low speed flow, i.e. M 1 , if the surface is not adiabatic
but is heated to a temperature, T w , the magnitude and direction of
the heat transfer from the surface will depend on the difference
between the wall temperature and the fluid temperature. The rate
of heat transfer is in such a case, therefore, expressed as:
Q = hA T
(
−T
)
W
f
where T f is the fluid temperature, A is the surface area and h is
the heat transfer coefficient. The fluid temperature T f is usually
taken as the temperature in the freestream outside the boundary
layer.
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HEAT TRANSFER AND SHEAR STRESS IN HIGH SPEED
FLOW: It was noted above that in high speed flow the heat
transfer rate is expressed as:
Q = hA T
(
−T
)
W
W
Thus in order to find the heat transfer rate, the value of h, the
heat transfer coefficient, has to be found.
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Now,
in
low
speed
flow,
i.e.,
flow
in
which
viscous
dissipation effects are negligible:
Nu = function ( Re, Pr)
The fluid properties in the dimensionless numbers, e.g. the
thermal conductivity k , are evaluated at the average of the surface
and the fluid temperatures.
In high speed gas flows it would be expected that:
Nu = function ( Re, Pr, M )
However, it has been found using both experimental and
theoretical results that provided the gas properties are evaluated
at a suitable mean temperature, the direct effect of the Mach
number can be neglected.
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The Mach number will have an indirect effect because it
will, in general, influence the mean temperature used to find the
gas properties. It has further been found that provided the correct
mean temperature is used to find the gas properties, the same
equation that gives the Nusselt number in low speed flow can be
used in high speed flow. For example, consider boundary layer
flow over a flat plate. Experimental and theoretical studies have
indicated that the following equations for the Nusselt number
applies in low speed flow:
1/2
1/3
Laminar boundary layer:
Nu
=
0.664
Re
Pr
L
L
0.8
1/ 3
Turbulent boundary layer:
Nu
=
0.037
Re
Pr
L
L
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OTHER GEOMETRICAL SITUATIONS: The discussion of heat
transfer in high speed flow given above was concerned with flow
over a flat or near flat surface. The equations given will give good
results, for example, for the flow over the blades in turbomachines
outside the area of the stagnation point and for flow over the
wings and fuselage of an aircraft outside the area of the stagnation
point. This is illustrated in the following figure.
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In other situations, related approaches can be used but the
value of the recovery factor may be different from that which
applies to flat plate flows and the equation for the Nusselt number
will normally be different from that for flat plate flow.
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In these equations Nu L is the Nusselt number based on L , i.e., h
L/ k , and Re L is the Reynolds number also based on the length of
the plate L. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs
approximately at Re L = 10 6 .
Theoretical and experimental results have shown that
these equations can be used in high speed flow provided the fluid
properties are evaluated at:
= T +0.5 (T
- T )+0.22 (T
- T
)
T prop
1
w
1
w
1
In low speed flow where T wad = T 1 the above equation gives:
T
= T +0.5 (T
- T
)
prop
1
w
1
Thus in low speed flow the properties are evaluated at the average
of the wall and fluid temperatures.
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Applicability of Flat Plate Equations
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For example, consider the heat transfer rate near the stagnation
point of a body placed in a supersonic gas flow. This situation is
shown in following figure.
Stagnation Point
Region in
Supersonic Flow.
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As shown in the above figure an effectively normal shock
forms ahead of the stagnation point. The flow through this shock
is adiabatic and the flow downstream of this shock is subsonic.
The flow outside the boundary layer in the stagnation point region
will, therefore, be near the stagnation temperature and the
increase in temperature across this boundary layer due to viscous
dissipation will be relatively small and so the heat transfer rate
across the boundary layer resulting from this temperature
increase will be small. This means that if the wall in the stagnation
point region is adiabatic, it will effectively be at the stagnation
temperature. Hence, for flow in the stagnation point region, the
recovery factor is effectively equal to 1.
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Here Nu D and Re D are the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers based on
the effective diameter of the body in the stagnation point region as
shown in the following figure. The Reynolds number is based on the
velocity behind the shock wave.
Stagnation Point Diameter
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CONCLUDINGCONCLUDING REMARKSREMARKS
As a result of viscosity, the velocity at the surface over
which a gas is flowing is zero. Therefore, the gas velocity decreases
as the surface is approached. As a consequence, the gas
temperature rises causing so-called aerodynamic heating of the
surface. An expression has been given which allows the
temperature of an adiabatic surface to be found, this expression
involving the recovery factor. When the surface is not adiabatic,
the heat transfer rate from the surface depends on the difference
between the surface temperature and the adiabatic surface
temperature.
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If the wall is not adiabatic but is kept at a temperature Tw,
this means that the heat transfer rate in the stagnation region per
unit area should be written as:
q = hT −T
(
)
w
0
The value of h can be obtained by using the equations for low
speed flow near a stagnation point and, because the flow outside
the boundary layer is subsonic, evaluating the gas properties at
the average of the wall and the temperature behind the normal
shock wave. If the boundary layer near the stagnation point is
two-dimensional and can be assumed to be laminar, the heat
transfer rate in this region is approximately given by:
0.5
0.4
Nu
=
1.14 Re
Pr
D
D
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The approach outlined above is very approximate but
should serve to illustrate some of the main features involved in
the analysis of stagnation point heat transfer.