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BTL OF YARMURK (14 Aug - 20 Aug 636) Gen 1. Btl of Yarmurk the most decisive and greatest of the time was fought between the Crescent (the Muslim forces of Madina) and the cross (Byzantine forces of the eastern Roman Empire) in the year 636 AD from 14 Aug to 20 Aug. The Battle was fought in a place known as Yarmurk Plain north of river Yarmurk and the south western part of present Syria. 2. The Romans assisted by more than 12 nations prepared to fight against the Muslim But this battle coupled with lightening out flanking mnvr and offensive spirit was a hard punch to their ambitions of becoming unchallenged ruler of the Roman Empire. Historical Background/Causes of the Battle 3. The causes of the btl are as fol: a. Re-estb of Roman Empire into its Former Glory. Romans were badly defeated in many occasions by the Muslims who continued their victory and took almost all Palestine and Syria. After evaluating overall situation, Heraclius the Roman ruler decided to org a massive force to gain an overwhelming superiority. b. Killing of Prophets Envoy . Enmity between the Muslims and Byzantine started in 629 AD during the lifetime of prophet Mohammad (SM). Prophets envoy was killed by the Ghassan tribe of Syria under the union of Byzantine. c. Selection of the Successor of Prophet (SM) . When Hazrat Abu Bakar (R) was selected as Caliph of Islam after the death of prophet (SM) there were differences of opinion among Muhazireen, Ansar, prophets own clan Bani Hasim and other tribes. d. Div in Muslims. The Bedwins took prophets death as green signal for their self style wild life. Some tribes remained Muslim but denied to pay Zakat, some denied to collect taxes and some reverted to paganism. e. Riddah. The wide spread dissatisfaction known as Riddah was the age old tradition of Arab character. Almost the whole Arabian peninsula rose against Muslims. Abu Bakar (R) declared war against all of them.

f. Refusal to Pay Tax. Non Muslims thought that the Muslim state under Abu Bakar (R) would soon collapse. As a result some of the Arab Christians and Jews tribe refused to pay Jizya (tax for non Muslim) any more. 1 5411/Syeed/Arty RESTRICTED

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g. Strat Imp. Yarmurk was loc in south western part of Syria. The area being loc close to the junction pt of Asia, Europe and Africa had strat imp. h. Repeated Success of the Muslims. The Army of Emperor Heraclius was first defected at Ajnadain by great Khalid. Abu Obeida and Khalid foiled Romans attempt of recapturing Damascus and then Shurahabeel defeated Romans at Beisan and Hims. All these defeat of Romans made Heraclius furious and decided to crush the Muslim once for all. j. Expansion of Islam. As a result of expansion of Islam Muslim Army was deployed all over Syria and Palestine in small gps allured Roman leader to destroy Muslim in piecemeal. k. Financial Gain. Muslim empire was not rich and sound in financial aspect. On the other hand Byzantine empire was famous for its wealth and richness. In order to improve the weak economic position it was necessary for Muslims to conquer the north west of Arab. l. Death of Caliph Abu Bakar (R). When the first Caliph Hazrat Abu Bakar (RA) died. Thinking this to be the correct time the Roman empire decided to mobilize a large well trained force to destroy the Muslims. m. Geo - Political Sit of Byzantine Empire. Syria, Jordan and Palestine were mainly inhabited by the Christian Arabs, under the control of Byzantine empire. It became obvious for the Muslims to capture these lands for the defence and expansion of Islam.

Dev of the Btl/Conduct of the Btl 4. The imp incidents are as fol: a. 14 Aug 636. It started with traditional duel fight between offrs where most of the Romans were killed. At midday Romans launched formal offn frontally by Jabla but was repulsed under by Muslims archery.

b.

15 Aug 636. (1) Romans under Qunateer and Gregory attk on both the flanks. After no of attempts they could per somehow.

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(2)

Khalid launched his mob res and stabilized the sit.

(3) Khalid sent Jarrar at the cen to launch attk frontally who killed Deirjan. Qunateer took over Deirjan tps. c. 16 Aug 636. (1) Roman comd Qunateer launched an attk at the junc pt of Aamr and Shurahbeel. (2) Muslims were initially pushed back. But again Khalid came to rescue and restored the sit. d. 17 Aug 636. (1) (2) Romans attk both the flanks of Muslims with all their might. Rt and rt cen of Muslims were pushed back.

(3) Once again Khalid launched his res while Aamr and Shurahbeel contained frontally. (4) (5) e. En were beaten back with by cas. By evening both the forces went back to their orig posn.

18 Aug 636. (1) (2) Romans proposed to stop ftg but Muslims rejected the proposal. The rest of the day Khalid ut for the prep of a big counter offn.

f.

19 Aug 636. (1) Zarrar estb a blocking posn on the tr near Wadi-Ur-Raqqad to seal the Romans escape route. (2) Muslims went on offn. Abu Ubeida and Yazeed engaged the en frontally and Aamr and Shurahbeel attk from the lt. (3) Khalid led his cav at the en's rear and disorg the en totally.

(4) Mohan retreated with his cav, while most of the Romans started running blindly towards south and ultimately got sandwiched.

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g.

20 Aug 636. (1) Khalid set off a fresh pursuit.

(2)

He caught Roman rear gd and killed Mahan.

(3) Soon after the death of Mahan, the Roman army broke into gps and fled away to the north with their lives. Significance of the Btl 27. The historic btl was fought in 636 AD between the Romans and the Muslims. This btl is significant for the fol reasons: a. End of Roman Rule in Syria. After the death of holy prophet (SM) the enemies of Islam thought that the newly formed Islamic state under caliph Abu Bakar (RA) would soon collapse. As a result some of the christian and Jews tribe refused to pay Jizya (taxes for non Muslims) anymore when it became an open rebellion, the Caliph started sending his forces to restore law and order. About this time Hereclius the Roman Empire became the unchallenged ruler of Constantinople, Greece, North Africa and Persia. Some of the dissident of Arab Christian sought mil sp from the Roman Emperor against the Muslims rule. The Romans carr out lot of expedition against Muslim but failed and then finally with the assistance of 12 other nations prepared themselves to launch an offensive. The battle of Yarmurk was a glorious victory for Muslim but a humiliating defeat ever suffered by the Eastern Roman empire. This battle compelled the Romans to wind up their rule in Syria. b. Conquest of Syria by Muslims. The momentum against by the victory at Yarmurk did not subside until the conquest of the whole of Syria in less than six years time from that day. c. Significant Experience in Close and Mountainous Terrain. The Muslim army was particularly incapable of fighting a battle in close order and disciplined ranks. Muslims were nevertheless masters of movement in the desert and highly skilled at mobile cav operation in open plain. But the battle of Yarmurk was the first ever victory won by the Muslims in close and mountainous country. d. Enhance Confidence for the Subsequent Battle. Battle of Yarmurk was the first ever victory won by the Muslims in close and Mountainous country. This experience and confidence gained at Yarmurk inspired them in good stead in later campaigns.

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e. Superior Leadership of Khalid. Superior leadership demonstrated by Khalid-bin-Walid was the prime contributory towards such a decisive victory. His leadership traits outmatched the traits of counterpart generals. f. Example of Military Operation. The Battle of Yarmurk was a blind of many tactical for e.g. the frontal attk/penetration, frontal clash counter attk and repulse the flank attk, the attk from the rear, placement of blocking posn. mob def and the outflanking mnvr. The battle was unique in tactical mnvr, imaginative tactical pursuit. g. Emergence Muslim as Superior Military Might. Roman legion been maintaining their supremacy over Greeks and Persian phalanx for over four centuries. However, there also had been some depression in Roman supremacy for some pd of time. The supremacy retrieved when Heraclius came to Roman throne in 610 AD. This Roman after the death of prophet (SM) and during Abu Bakar (R) rejoin as Caliph of newly Islamic state misted with 12 other nations gathered averts confederacy against Muslim. The victory of the Battle of Yarmurk was a huge blow to the Romans and other 12 nations ambition which was to crush the Muslim once for all. h. Roman Suffered by Cas. Muslim lost 4,000 men where as Romans suffered about 70,000 dead. This material loss had a long effect on Romans. Achievement/ Outcome of the Btl 28. The achievement/outcome and effects of the btl are as fols : It was the first ever victory won by the Muslims in close and mountains

a. country.

b. It was a decisive victory on the part of Muslim and most humiliation defeat ever suffered by the eastern Roman Empire. c. It crushed the Romans ambition of becoming an unchallenged ruler.

d. It signalled the end of Roman ruler in Syria and emergence of Muslims force as a mil might. e. Experience and confidence gained at battle of Yarmurk inspired the Muslims in good stead in later campaign. f. Its victory a new momentum to Muslims which ultimately brought the entire Syria under Muslims rule in less than six years time from that day.

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g. Muslim lost about 4,000 men in this battle and majority of the survivors were wounded. On the contrary Roman suffered about 70,000 dead. h. This battle could experience the concept, strategy, mil attributes and other peripheral aspects of war of the great gen Khalid-bin-Walid.

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