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Measures, Weights, Equivalents

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Units

Multiply
By:

To
Get:

Multiply
By:

To
Get:

Linear Measures
feet
inches
inches
miles
mils
yards

x 0.3048
x 2.54
x 25.4
x 1.6093
x 0.0254
x 0.9144

= meters
= centimeters
= millimeters
= kilometers
= millimeters
= meters

x 3.281
x 0.3937
x 0.03937
x 0.6214
x 39.37
x 1.0936

= feet
= inches
= inches
= miles
= mils
= yards

Area Measures
feet2
feet2
inches2
inches2
yards2
yards2
yards2

x 0.0929
x 144
x 6.452
x 645.16
x 0.8361
x9
x 1296

= meters2
= inches2
= centimeters2
= millimeters2
= meters 2
= feet2
= inches2

x 10.764
x 0.00695
x 0.155
x 0.00155
x 1.196
x 0.111
x 0.00077

= feet2
= feet2
= inches2
= inches2
= yards2
= yards2
= yards2

Volume
feet3
feet3
feet3
feet3
feet3
fluid ounces
fluid ounces
fluid ounces
fluid ounces
gallons
gallons
gallons
gallons
inches3
inches3
inches3
inches3
quarts (liquid)
quarts (liquid)
yards3
yards3
yards3
yards3

x 28.317
x 7.481
x 29.92
x 0.02832
x 1728
x 29.57
x 0.031
x 29.57
x 1.805
x 3.7854
x 128
x 3785.4
x 231
x 0.01639
x 0.01732
x 16.387
x 16387
x 0.94635
x 946.4
x 764.5
x 202
x 0.7646
x 27

= liters
= gallons
= quarts (liquid)
= meters3
= inches3
= milliliters
= quarts (liquid)
= centimeters3
= inches3
= liters
= fluid ounces
= centimeters3
= inches3
= liters
= quarts (liquid)
= centimeters3
= millimeters3
= liters
= centimeters3
= liters
= gallons
= meters3
= feet3

x 0.03531
x 0.1337
x 0.0334
x 35.315
x 0.00058
x 0.0338
x 32
x 0.0338
x 0.554
x 0.2642
x 0.0078
x 0.00026
x 0.00433
x 61.024
x 57.75
x 0.06102
x 0.000061
x 1.0567
x 0.00106
x 0.0013
x 0.00495
x 1.3080
x 0.037

= feet3
= feet3
= feet3
= feet3
= feet3
= fluid ounces
= fluid ounces
= fluid ounces
= fluid ounces
= gallons
= gallons
= gallons
= gallons
= inches3
= inches3
= inches3
= inches3
= quarts (liquid)
= quarts (liquid)
= yards3
= yards3
= yards3
= yards3

Measures, Weights, Equivalents (continued)


______________________________________________________________________________________
Units

Multiply
By:

To
Get:

Multiply
By:

To
Get:

Mass
grains
grains
ounces
pounds
pounds

x 0.0648
x 0.00229
x 28.35
x 0.4536
x 453.6

= grams
= ounces
= grams
= kilograms
= grams

x 15.43
x 436.7
x 0.0353
x 2.2046
x 0.0022

= grains
= grains
= ounces
= pounds
= pounds

Force
kilograms (mass)
kilograms-force
ounces-force
pounds-force

x 9.807
x 2.2046
x 0.278
x 4.448

= newtons
= pounds-force
= newtons
= newtons

x 0.10197
x 0.4536
x 3.597
x 0.2248

= kilograms (mass)
= kilograms-force
= ounces-force
= pounds-force

Energy or Work
Btu
Btu
calories
foot-pounds
watt-hours
watt-hours

x 1055
x 778
x 4.187
x 1.3558
x 3600
x 2655

= joules
= foot-pounds
= joules
= joules
= joules
= foot-pounds

x 0.000948
x 0.00129
x 0.2388
x 0.7376
x 0.0002778
x 0.0003766

= Btu
= Btu
= calories
= foot-pounds
= watt-hours
= watt-hours

Pressure or Stress
atmospheres
atmospheres
atmospheres
atmospheres
atmospheres
inches Hg (0 C)
inches Hg (0 C)
inches H2O (4 C)
inches H2O (4 C)
mm Hg (0 C)
mm Hg (0 C)
mm Hg (0 C)
mm Hg (0 C)
pounds per square inch
torrs

x 101.3
x 760
x 29.92
x 406.8
x 14.7
x 3.383
x 0.491
x 0.249
x 0.036
x 0.134
x 0.019
x 13.596
x 1.3596
x 6.895
x 1.0

= kilopascals
= mm Hg (0 C)
= inches Hg (0 C)
= inches H2O (4 C)
= pounds per square inch
= kilopascals
= pounds per square inch
= kilopascals
= pounds per square inch
= kilopascals
= pounds per square inch
= kilograms per square meter
= grams per square centimeter
= kilopascals
= mm Hg (0 C)

x 0.00987
x 0.00132
x 0.0334
x 0.00246
x 0.068
x 0.2956
x 2.037
x 4.016
x 27.78
x 7.46
x 52.6
x 0.073551
x 0.73551
x 0.145
x 1.0

= atmospheres
= atmospheres
= atmospheres
= atmospheres
= atmospheres
= inches Hg (0 C)
= inches Hg (0 C)
= inches H2O (4 C)
= inches H2O (4 C)
= mm Hg (0 C)
= mm Hg (0 C)
= mm Hg (0 C)
= mm Hg (0 C)
= pounds per square inch
= torrs

Power
horsepower
horsepower
ft-lbf/min

x 0.746
x 33000
x 0.0226

= kilowatts
= ft-lbf/min
= watts

x 1.34
x 0.00003
x 44.25

= horsepower
= horsepower
= ft-lbf/min

Yarn Number Conversion Formulas


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Yarn Number
System

Cotton
Count

Worsted
Count

Wool Count

Linen Lea

Woolen
Cut

5,315
c.c.

c.c x 1.50

c.c x 52.5

c.c. x 2.80

c.c x 2.80

Denier

___

Cotton Count
Denier

5,315
d

___

7,972
d

279,030
d

14,880
d

14,880
d

Worsted Count

w.c.
1.50
w
52.50

7,972
w.c
279,030
w

___

w.c x 35.0

w.c. x 1.867

w.c. x 1.867

w
35.0

___

w
18.75

w
18.75

Linen Lea

1.1.
2.80

14,880
l.l.

l.l
1.867

l.l x 18.75

___

same

Woolen Cut

w/c
2.80

14,880
w/c

w/c
1.867

w/c x 18.75

same

___

Woolen Run

w.r.
0.525

2,800
w.r.

w.r
0.350

w.r. x 100

w.r. x 5.33

w.r. x 5.33

Jute Count

17.14
j.c.

j.c. x 310

25.71
j.c.

900
j.c.

48.0
j.c

48.0
j.c.

m.c. x 0.5905

9,000
m.c.

m.c.
1.129

m.c. x 31.00

m.c.
0.605

m.c.
0.605

1000
gr/120 yd

gr/120 yd
0.1881

1,500
gr/120 yd

52,500
gr/120 yd

2,800
gr/120 yd

2,800
gr/120 yd

590.5
tex

tex
0.1111

885.8
tex

31,000
tex

1,654
tex

1,654
tex

Wool Count

Metric Count
Grains/120
Yards
Tex

Yarn Number Conversion Formulas (continued)


______________________________________________________
Yarn Number
System

Woolen
Run

Metric
Count

Grains/
120 Yards

Tex

Cotton Count

c.c. x 0.525

17.14
c.c

c.c x 1.693

1,000
c.c

590.5
c.c

2,800
d

d x 0.003225

9,000
d

d x 0.1881

d x 0.1111

w.c. x 0.350

25.71
w.c.

w.c. x 1.129

1,500
w.c.

885.8
w.c.

Wool Count

w
100

900
w

w
31.0

52,500
w

30,975
w

Linen Lea

l.l
5.33

48.0
l.l

l.l x 0.605

2,800
l.l

1,654
l.l.

Woolen Cut

w/c
5.33

48.0
w/c

w/c x 0.605

2,800
w/c

1,654
w/c

Woolen Run

___

9.0
w.r.

w.r.
0.31

525.0
w.r.

310.0
w.r.

Jute Count

9.0
j.c.

___

29.03
j.c.

j.c. x 58.33

j.c. x 34.45

m.c. x 0.310

29.03
m.c.

___

1,693
m.c.

1,000
m.c.

525.0
gr/120 yd

gr/120 yd
58.33

1,693
gr/120 yd

___

gr/120 yd x 0.5905

310.0
tex

tex
34.45

1,000
tex

tex
0.5905

___

Denier
Worsted Count

Metric Count
Grains/120
Yards
Tex

Jute Count

Calculations for Fabric Weight


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For Yards per Pound*:


(a)

Total yards
Net weight in pounds

(b)

16
Ounces per linear yard

(c)

Total Yards
Ounces

(d)

Square inch weighed


Weight in grams (width)

x 12.60

(e)

Square inch weighed


Weight in grams (width)

x 194.4

(f)

12-inch square sample weighed in grains =

(g)

8-inch square sample weighed in grains =

(h)

x 16

27,993.6
Grains x width
12,441.6
Grains x width

576
Width (ounces per square yard)

* yd/lb x 2.016 = m/kg

For Ounces per Square Yard:


(a)

Weight in pounds (16) (36)


Yards (width)

(b)

Weight in ounces (36)


Yards (width)

(c)

576
Width (yard per pound)

= Ounces per linear yard * (36 / width)

Calculations for Fabric Weight (continued)


___________________________________________________________________________________

(d)

Grams weight of sample


Square inch weighed

x 45.72

(e)

Grains weight of sample


Square inch weighed

x 2.9622

(f)

8-inch square used: Grain weight x 0.04628

(g)

12-inch square used: Grain weight x 0.02057

(h)

8-inch square used: Gram weight x 0.7144

(i)

12-inch square used: Gram weight x 0.3175

oz/yd2 x 0.03391 = kg/m2

For Ounces per Linear Yard:


(a)

Weight in ounces
Yards weighed

(b)

16
Yards per pound

(c)

Ounces per square yard (Width / 36)

(d)

Weight in grams (width)


Square inch weighed

x 1.270

(e)

Weight in grains (width)


Square inch weighed

x 0.0823

oz/lin yd x 0.031 = kg/m

Textile Moisture Calculations


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For moisture content:


Original wt. - dry wt.
Original wt.

x 100 = % moisture content

For moisture regain:


Original wt. - dry wt.
Dry wt.

x 100 = % moisture regain

To determine moisture regain of blends:


% Fiber A x Ra + (% Fiber B x Rb) + ...
% Fiber A + % Fiber B + ...

= % regain of blend

Where: Ra = commercial regain of Fiber A


Rb = commercial regain of Fiber B

Wet Processing Calculations


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To convert from grams per liter to percent on weight of fiber:


Liquor ratio
10

x g/l = % owf

To convert percent on weight of fiber to grams per liter:


% owf x 10
Liquor ratio

= g/l

For percent wet weight of fabric:


Wet wt. - dry wt.
Dry wt.

x 100 = % wet wt.

For percent wet pickup of fabric:


% Wet wt. - % dry wt. = % wet pickup
For percent dry solids add-on on fabric weight:
% Solids content of liquid x % wet pickup = % solids add-on

Weaving Guides
______________________________________________________
Diameters of Spun Yarns of Different Cotton Counts
Cotton Count
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
48
46
44
42
40
38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Diameter (in.) Diameter (mm.)


0.00427
0.108
0.00433
0.110
0.00456
0.116
0.00474
0.120
0.00495
0.126
0.00521
0.132
0.00540
0.137
0.00554
0.141
0.00565
0.144
0.00577
0.146
0.00588
0.149
0.00606
0.154
0.00616
0.156
0.00636
0.162
0.00657
0.167
0.00675
0.171
0.00700
0.178
0.00724
0.184
0.00751
0.190
0.00781
0.198
0.00813
0.206
0.00841
0.215
0.00876
0.222
0.00900
0.229
0.00926
0.235
0.00957
0.243
0.00990
0.251
0.0102
0.259
0.0106
0.269
0.0110
0.279
0.0115
0.292
0.0120
0.305
0.0126
0.320
0.0135
0.343
0.0145
0.368
0.0156
0.396
0.0171
0.434
0.0191
0.485
0.0221
0.561
0.0274
0.696
0.0382
0.970