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Ant ennas and Pr opagat ion Component s

September 2004
ii
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iii
Contents
1 Antennas and Propagation Components
Introduction............................................................................................................... 1-1
Multipath and Fading ................................................................................................ 1-5
Pathloss.................................................................................................................... 1-9
References ............................................................................................................... 1-10
AntArray.................................................................................................................... 1-11
AntBase.................................................................................................................... 1-14
AntMobile.................................................................................................................. 1-16
Fader ........................................................................................................................ 1-18
PropFlatEarth ........................................................................................................... 1-21
PropGSM.................................................................................................................. 1-24
PropNADCcdma....................................................................................................... 1-31
PropNADCtdma........................................................................................................ 1-35
PropWCDMA............................................................................................................ 1-39
UserDefChannel ....................................................................................................... 1-43
UserDefVectorChannel ............................................................................................. 1-46
3GPPFDD_Channel ................................................................................................. 1-48
TDSCDMA_FwdChannel.......................................................................................... 1-51
TDSCDMA_RevChannel .......................................................................................... 1-53
WCDMAVectorChannel ............................................................................................ 1-55
WLAN_ChannelModel .............................................................................................. 1-57
Index
iv
1-1
Chapter 1: Antennas and Propagation
Components
Introduction
Ant enna and pr opagat ion models simulat e t he effect s of r adio channel on t he
t r ansmit t ed signal. These effect s include signal fading and pat hloss. Bot h ant enna
and pr opagat ion channel models ar e TSDF component s wit h input and out put t imed
signals.
Ant enna models ar e ident ied by t heir coor dinat e and gain. For mobile ant ennas, t he
velocit y vect or is also included in t he par amet er s. The input of ant ennas ar e mult i t o
pr ovide exibilit y of adding t he cont r ibut ion fr om var ious noise or fading channels.
The pr opagat ion channel models ar e t ypically ident ied by t he t ype of fading, t he
specicat ion of power delay pr ole, and whet her pat hloss is t o be act ivat ed.
The input as well as out put impedance of ant ennas and channel models ar e left as
innit e and zer o, r espect ively. For t he inclusion of ant enna impedance, cosimulat ion
wit h Cir cuit Envelope is r ecommended (for det ails, r efer t o Int r oduct ion: Cir cuit
Cosimulat ion Component s). In t his applicat ion, S-par amet er block r epr esent ing
measur ement (le), funct ions or impedance component s can be placed on t he cir cuit
schemat ic page and co-simulat ed wit h signal pr ocessing designs. To access an
example t hat demonst r at es t his: fr om t he Main window, choose File > Example
Project > Antennas-Prop > RadioChannel_prj; fr om t he Schemat ic window, choose
File > Open Design, ANTLOAD.dsn.
The separ at e specicat ion of ant ennas and (pr opagat ion) channel component s is t o
pr ovide a mor e int uit ive and exible use model. Dur ing t he simulat ion, t he effect s of
bot h ant enna and channel models ar e mer ged and t he combined ant enna and
pr opagat ion channel component s ar e r eplaced wit h equivalent models in t he
pr e-pr ocessing phase of t he simulat ion.
Because of int er dependency of ant ennas and channel models, cer t ain r est r ict ions in
t opology must be consider ed by t he user : there should be at least one propagation
channel between a pair of transmit and receive antennas. Examples of common
ant enna and pr opagat ion channel connect ions ar e shown in Figur e 1-1 t hr ough
Figur e 1-4.
Figur e 1-1 depict s t he most common use model wher e a channel (Pr opGSM) is placed
bet ween a base st at ion (Ant Base) and mobile (Ant Mobile) ant ennas. (Not e t hat t he
1-2
Antennas and Propagation Components
channel t est por t can be left unconnect ed. This por t is supplied only if t he user is
int er est ed in t he behavior of t he channel models.)
Figur e 1-2 shows a t opology wher e t wo channels (Pr opNADCt dma) ar e placed in
par allel bet ween a base and mobile ant ennas. One of t hese channels could model a
line-of-sight scenar io (NoMult ipat h opt ion) while t he ot her one models a at fading
channel. The combined effect of t hese t wo channel t ypes ar e simulat ed in t his case.
Ant ennas (Ant Mobile and Ant Base) r equir e a single car r ier fr equency for mult iple
input por t s. If t he channel out put s have differ ent car r ier fr equencies, an RF
conver t er (Summer RF) can be used as shown in t his case. (Not e t hat any number of
par allel channels bet ween t wo ant ennas ar e allowed.)
Figur e 1-1. GSM Channel
1-3
Figur e 1-2. Two TDMA Channels
Figur e 1-3 is a t opology wher e a AWGN noise sour ce is added t o t he input of t he Rx
ant enna in addit ion t o t he fading channel (Pr opNADCcdma). The user can cr eat e and
add any ar bit r ar y channel bet ween a pair of ant ennas.
Figur e 1-4 shows a Tx ant enna out put ent er ing t wo channels, each connect ed t o an
Rx ant enna. This t opology is used for simulat ion of ant enna diver sit y or int er fer ence.
1-4
Antennas and Propagation Components
Figur e 1-3. AWGN Noise Sour ce
Figur e 1-4. Tx Ant enna Out put
Figur e 1-5 depict s t he t opologies t hat ar e not allowed; t hese include:
channel model wit hout Tx or Rx ant enna
channel model wit hout Tx and Rx ant enna
channel model wit h mor e t han one dist inguishable Rx (or Tx) ant enna.
1-5
Figur e 1-5. Disallowed Topologies
Multipath and Fading
This sect ion denes t er ms and r elat ions r elevant t o t he mult ipat h and fading in t he
pr opagat ion model t ypes.
Denit ions:
V = vehicle speed, in m/s
F
c
= pr opagat ion (car r ier ) fr equency, in Hz

c
= pr opagat ion (car r ier ) fr equency, in r adian/sec
= Doppler fr equency, in Hz

m
= maximum Doppler fr equency, in Hz
S(t ) = t r ansmit t ed (RF) signal
s(t ) = complex envelope of t r ansmit t ed signal
R(t ) = r eceived (RF) signal
r (t ) = complex envelope of r eceived signal

n
= r andom amplit ude of nt h signal echo
1-6
Antennas and Propagation Components

n
= phase r et ar dat ion of nt h signal echo

n
= t ime-delay of nt h signal echo
G
t
( , ) = dir ect ive gain of t r ansmit t ing ant enna as a funct ion of elevat ion and
azimut h angles
G
r
( , ) = dir ect ive gain of r eceiving ant enna as a funct ion of elevat ion and
azimut h angles
Radio waves ar e r eceived not only via dir ect pat h but oft en by scat t er ing off
numer ous object s. Delay, at t enuat ion and car r ier phase shift ar e some of t he
alt er at ions t he t r ansmit t ed signal exper iences. This pr ocess can be modeled as a
linear lt er wit h r andomly t ime-var ying impulse r esponse.
In a mult ipat h envir onment , a t r ansmit t ed RF signal
is r eceived in t he for m
wher e n is t he number of differ ent echoes, each having a delay.
The r eceived complex envelope is t her efor e
The (lowpass) impulse r esponse of t he discr et e channel h( ,t), is t her efor e
char act er ized by sever al discr et e pat hseach having a specic delay and
at t enuat ion.
Signal fading occur s due t o dest r uct ive or const r uct ive addit ion of a lar ge number of
phasor s. If h( ,t) is modeled as a zer o mean Gaussian pr ocess, t he envelope h( , t )
at any t ime is Rayleigh-dist r ibut ed. The t r ansfor m of h(,) wit h r espect t o t ime, gives
t he spect r um of t ime var iat ion S(,), gener ally r efer r ed t o as delay-Doppler spr ead
funct ion [1]. The var iable r epr esent s t he Doppler fr equency shift due t o changes in
t he elect r ical pat h lengt h as a r esult of mobile movement .
For t wo ver t ically polar ized t r ansmit and r eceive ant ennas and hor izont al
pr opagat ion of plane waves [2], t he Doppler spect r um is
S t ( ) s t ( )e
j w
c
t

' ;

=
R t ( ) G
t

n
,
n
( )G
r

n
,
n
( )
n
t ( )s t
n
( )e
j
c
t
n
[ ]
n
[ ]
n


' ;

=
r t ( ) G
t

n
,
n
( )G
r

n
,
n
( )
n
t ( )s t
n
( )e
j
c

n
+ [ ]
n

=
1-7
wher e
is t he maximum Doppler shift due t o vehicle speed. When a dir ect pat h exist s t he
spect r um is Rician and is given by
wit h k
1
, k
2
, k
3
const ant s r elat ed t o pr opor t ion of dir ect and scat t er ed signal and t he
dir ect wave angle of ar r ival. Assuming t he wide sense st at ionar y uncor r elat ed
scat t er ing (WSSUS) [3], t he aver age delay pr oles and Doppler spect r a infor mat ion
is needed for t he simulat ion of r adio channel. Delay pr oles [4] P( ) can be measur ed
(or appr oximat ed) as
wher e
is t he power associat ed wit h each pat h.
Assuming a unifor m dist r ibut ion of independent scat t er er s in t he hor izont al plane,
each wit h a Doppler shift r elat ive t o t he velocit y of t he mobile, t he delay-Doppler
spr ead funct ion S (, ) and t he impulse r esponse of t he channel can be const r uct ed. A
wide-band, frequency selective, mult ipat h fading model can t her efor e be const r uct ed
using a t apped-delay-line lt er. The t ypical t apped-delay-line lt er model for
simulat ion is illust r at ed in Figur e 1-6.
S ( )
1
2
m
1

m
-------
,
_
2

---------------------------------------------
m
=
0 =
m
>

m
V
c
---- f
c
=
S ( )
k
1
2
m
1

m
-------
,
_
2

--------------------------------------------- k
2
k
3

m
( )
m
+ =
P ( )
n
2

n
( )
n

n
2
1-8
Antennas and Propagation Components
Figur e 1-6. Tapped-Delay Line Model for a Wide-Band Channel
To gener at e a Rayleigh fading pr ole for each pat h, independent AWGN sour ces (in
cascade wit h a lt er r epr esent ing t he effect s of Doppler spr ead) can be used; see
Figur e 1-7.
J akes [5] pr oposes a mor e efcient alt er nat ive t o Figur e 1-7. In J akes model a
number of low-fr equency oscillat or s ar e used t o gener at e signals t hat ar e added
t oget her. The amplit ude and phases of t hese oscillat or s ar e chosen so t hat t he pdf of
t he r esult ant phase appr oximat es t o a unifor m dist r ibut ion. The spect r um of t he
r esult ing complex funct ion appr oximat es t he Doppler spect r um.
Figur e 1-7. Gener at ion of Rayleigh pdf wit h a Given PSD
Delay
Attenuator
Delay Delay Delay Delay
s(t)
Gain
Functions
(colored
Gaussian)

S
r(t)
Attenuator Attenuator Attenuator Attenuator
Gaussian #1
Gaussian #2
I
Q
Rayleigh
S ( )
S ( )
1-9
Pathloss
This sect ion denes t er ms and r elat ions r elevant t o t he pat hloss in t he pr opagat ion
model t ypes.
Denit ions:
L
FS
= pat hloss in fr ee-space envir onment , in dB
L
RA
= pat hloss in r ur al ar ea envir onment , in dB
L
HT
= pat hloss in hilly t er r ain envir onment , in dB
L
TU
= pat hloss in t ypical ur ban envir onment , in dB
L
TS
= pat hloss in t ypical subur ban envir onment , in dB
f
c
= pr opagat ion (car r ier ) fr equency, in MHz

c
= wavelengt h associat ed wit h pr opagat ion (car r ier ) fr equency
D = major ant enna dimension
H
BS
= base st at ion ant enna height , in met er s
H
MS
= mobile st at ion ant enna height , in met er s
R = dist ance bet ween t r ansmit and r eceive ant enna, in km
a = cor r ect ion fact or, in dB
Fr ee-space pat hloss opt ion pr ovides t he user wit h an opt imist ic model. This opt ion is
given (in dB) by
L
FS
= + 20log
10
f
c
+ 20log
10
R + 32.4
Ther e ar e a wide var iet y of pat hloss modelst he most widely used is Hat as. Hat as
pat hloss model [6] is based on an ext ensive dat a base der ived by Okumur a [7] fr om
measur ement s in and ar ound Tokyo. Hat as pat hloss models cover ur ban, r ur al, and
subur ban envir onment s and include t he t r ansmit and r eceive ant enna height s.
The typical urban Hata model is given by
L
TU
= 69.55 + 26.16log
10
f
c
13.82log
10
H
BS
a (H
MS
)
+ (44.9 6.55log
10
H
BS
)log
10
R
The cor r ect ion fact or for small- t o medium-size cit ies is given by
a = (1.1log
10
f
c
0.7)H
MS
(1.56 log
10
f
c
0.8)
Hat as ur ban model is equivalent t o Type=TU in pr opagat ion component s.
The typical suburban Hata model is given in t er ms of L
TU
wit h a cor r ect ion fact or :
1-10
Antennas and Propagation Components
L
TS
= L
TU
2[log
10
(f
c
/28)]
2
5.4
Similar ly, t he rural Hata model is a cor r ect ed for m of L
TU
as
L
RA
= L
TU
4.78(log
10
f
c
)
2
+ 18.33log
10
f
c
40.94
Hat as r ur al model is equivalent t o Type=RA in pr opagat ion component s.
For GSM Hilly Ter r ain (HT) envir onment , adjust ment s pr escr ibed in [5] ar e used.
All t he pat hloss for mulas ar e validassuming t hat t he r eceiving ant enna is in t he
far eld of t he t r ansmit ant enna. The common cr it er ion for ant ennas whose physical
size is in t he or der of wavelengt h is t hat pat h lengt h should exceed D
2
/
c
.
References
[1] J. D. Par sons, The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, Halst ed Pr ess, 1992.
[2] R. H. Clar ke, A St at ist ical Theor y of Mobile-Radio Recept ion, The Bell S ystem
Technical Journal, J uly-August 1968.
[3] Raymond St eele, Mobile Radio Communications, Pent ech Pr ess, 1992.
[4] GSM 05.05 Recommendat ion, Radio Transmission and Reception.
[5] W. C. J akes (Edit or ), Microwave Mobile Communications, J ohn Wiley & Sons,
1974.
[6] M. Hat a, Empir ical For mula for Pr opagat ion Loss in Land Mobile Radio,
IEEE Trans. VT-29, pp. 317-325, August 1980.
[7] Y. Okumur a, Field St r engt h and it s Var iabilit y in VHF and UHF Land Mobile
Ser vice, Review of Electrical Communication Laboratory, Vol 16, pp. 825-873,
Sep-Oct . 1968.
AntArray 1-11
AntArray
Description Antenna Array
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFAntArray
Derived From antenna
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Name Description Default Sym Unit Type Range
Gain Gain of antenna, in dB 0.0 g real
(-, )
X X-position coordinate of
antenna
0.0 km real
(-, )
Y Y-position coordinate of
antenna
0.0 km real
(-, )
Height base station height of
antenna array, measured
from average rooftop
15 km real
(0, )
AOA angle of arrival array
representing the multipath
wavefront azimuth angles
received by the array in the
uplink operation mode
75.0 45.0 15.0
-15.0 -45.0 -75.0

real array
(-, )
OperationMode operation mode of the
array: UpLink, DownLink
UpLink enum
NumberOfElements number of array elements 6 M int
(1, )
IntervalOfElements interval between two
antenna elements
0.075 d real
(0, )
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 inm Antenna input signals from channel multiple timed
1-12 AntArray
Antennas and Propagation Components
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. This component simulat es an ant enna ar r ay using gain of ant enna and t he
angle of ar r ival of each mult ipat h echo specied by t he AOA par amet er.
In t he uplink mode, set by t he Oper at ionMode par amet er, t he model r eceives L
input t imed signals fr om a mult ipat h channel, pr ocesses t hese signals and
out put s M t imed signal associat ed wit h an M-element ar r ay.
In t he downlink mode, it sums all r eceived input t imed signals and t r ansmit s M
t imed signals cor r esponding t o t he M-element ar r ay.
At each r ing, one t imed t oken is consumed, and one t oken is pr oduced.
2. Figur e 1-8 shows t he geomet r y of t he ar r ay and a r eceived mult ipat h wavefr ont .
Figur e 1-8.
As shown in Figur e 1-8 t he unifor m ar r ay is placed along t he X-axis wit h a
separ at ion d. The ar r ay r esponse vect or is descr ibed by t he angle measur ed
fr om t he br oadside dir ect ion per pendicular t o t he ar r ay in t he azimut h plane.
The ar r ay r esponse vect or for an ar r ay wit h M element s is given by
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 outm Output signals associated with array elements multiple timed
AntArray 1-13
wher e
2/ is t he wavenumber
The out put of element k of t he ar r ay can be expr essed as
wher e X
l
is t he lt h mult ipat h echo r eceived by t he ar r ay.

l
( )
1
j d
l
( ) sin ( ) exp
j 2d
l
( ) sin ( ) exp
...
j M 1 ( )d
l
( ) sin ( ) exp
=
y
k
g
k l
( ) X
l
l 1 =
L

=
1-14 AntBase
Antennas and Propagation Components
AntBase
Description Base Station Stationary Antenna Model
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFAntBase
Derived From antenna
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. Base (or xed) st at ion ant ennas ar e linear ly polar ized ant ennas used in mobile
communicat ion ser vice at t he base st at ion of a r adio r elay link. The
specicat ion EIA/TIA-329-B, Minimum St andar ds for Communicat ion
Ant ennas, Par t I-Base St at ion Ant ennas descr ibes t he st andar ds for t his class
of ant ennas.
Name Description Default Sym Unit Type Range
Gain Gain of antenna, in dB 0.0 g real
(-, )
X X-position coordinate 0.0 km real
Y Y-position coordinate 0.0 km real
Height antenna height above X-Y
plane
10 km real
(0, )
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input Antenna input signal multiple timed
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output Antenna output signal timed
AntBase 1-15
2. This component r adiat ion has a dominant ver t ical component of t he elect r ic
eld (E
z
).
3. The Gain unit is in dB and is dened wit h r efer ence t o an isot r opic sour ce (dBi).
To comply wit h communicat ion ant enna st andar ds, a dBd (gain wit h r espect t o
a half-wave dipole) should be used, which is 2.15 dB over isot r opic.
4. To accommodat e for specicat ion of input impedance ver sus fr equency, cir cuit
subnet wor ks can be cr eat ed and co-simulat ed wit h t he appr opr iat e cir cuit
simulat or.
5. The ant enna has a mult i-input pin t o r eceive mult iple channels when at Rx
mode. All input s t o Ant Base must have t he same car r ier fr equency.
6. For gener al infor mat ion, r efer t o Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
1-16 AntMobile
Antennas and Propagation Components
AntMobile
Description Cellular Mobile Antenna
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFAntMobile
Derived From antenna
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Pin Outputs
Name Description Default Sym Unit Type Range
Gain Gain of antenna, in dB 0.0 g real
(-, )
X X-position coordinate, in
distance units
100.0 km real
Y Y-position coordinate, in
distance units
0.0 km real
Height antenna height above X-Y
plane, in length units
2.0 km real
(0, )
SpeedType velocity unit: km/hr,
miles/hr
km/hr enum
Vx X component of velocity
vector
0.0 real
Vy Y component of velocity
vector
0.0 real
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input Antenna input signal multiple timed
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output Antenna output signal timed
AntMobile 1-17
Notes/Equations
1. Mobile ant ennas ar e mount ed on vehicles and used in t he land-mobile
communicat ions ser vices. The specicat ion EIA/TIA-329-B-1, Minimum
St andar ds for Communicat ion Ant ennas, Par t II-Vehicular Ant ennas descr ibes
t he st andar ds for t his class of ant ennas.
2. This component r adiat ion has a dominant ver t ical component of t he elect r ic
eld (E
z
).
3. The Gain unit is in dB and is an isot r opic sour ce (dBi). To comply wit h
st andar ds for communicat ion ant ennas, a dBd (gain wit h r espect t o a half-wave
dipole) should be used, which is 2.15 dB over isot r opic.
4. To accommodat e for specicat ion of input impedance ver sus fr equency, cir cuit
subnet wor ks can be cr eat ed and co-simulat ed wit h t he appr opr iat e cir cuit
simulat or.
5. The ant enna has a mult i-input pin t o r eceive mult iple channels when at Rx
mode. All input s t o Ant Mobile must have t he same car r ier fr equency.
6. The mobile ant enna posit ion changes fr om init ial locat ion along a st r aight line
dur ing simulat ion. The new coor dinat es ar e
X (t ) = X(t ) + Vx t
Y (t ) = Y(t ) + Vy t
7. Pr opagat ion pat hloss is updat ed based on changing dist ance bet ween t r ansmit
and r eceive ant ennas.
8. For gener al infor mat ion, r efer t o Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
1-18 Fader
Antennas and Propagation Components
Fader
Description Fading channel model
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFFader
Derived From channel
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
Name Description Default Type Range
GainArray path gain in terms of
decible
0dB -10dB real array
(-, )
DelayArray path delay in terms of ns 0ns 976ns int array
[0, )
RicianFactor ratio of specular power and
the fading power
0.0 real
[0, )
Algorithm the algorithm used:
SoS_Stochastic,
SoS_Deterministic,
Filter_AWGN_Noise
SoS_Stochastic enum
for each element of the array
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output output signal timed
3 outChM fading factor multiple timed
Fader 1-19
1. This model is t he fading channel emulat or. The input signal is faded by
mult iplying t he fading coefcient s gener at ed using t he select ed algor it hm. If
RicianFact or is 0.0, t he fading pr obabilit y densit y funct ion is Rayleigh
dist r ibut ed; ot her wise t he fading pr obabilit y densit y funct ion is Rician
dist r ibut ed.
2. GainAr r ay species t he gain of each fading pat h in t er ms of decibel, while t he
delay of each pat h is specied by DelayAr r ay in t er ms of nanosecond. The
number of fading pat hs t o be gener at ed is equal t o t he size of GainAr r ay and
DelayAr r ay. The gener at ed mult iple pat h fading coefcient s ar e out put fr om
pin 3 for t est pur poses. Pin 2 is t he out put of t he signal passing t hr ough a
mult ipat h fading channel.
3. The gain of t his model has been nor malized so t hat t he out put power is t he
same as t he input power r egar dless of t he channel congur at ion. RicainFact or
is t he r at io of dir ect signal power and fading power. Fading power is dist r ibut ed
t o t he mult iple pat h signal accor ding t o t he gain set t ing of each pat h. For
example, if t he input power is 1, RicianFact or is 2, and GainAr r ay is 0dB
-2dB, t hen t he dir ect signal power will be 2/(1+2)=2/3 and fading power will be
1/(1+2)=1/3. Fading power allocat ed t o pat h 1 will be
and power for pat h 2 will be
.
4. Thr ee algor it hms can be select ed t o gener at ed t he fading coefcient .
st ochast ic sum-of-sinusoid met hod in which t he number of oscillat or s ar e
select ed as 64[1];
J akes det er minist ic sum-of-sinusoid met hod [2];
t o pass an AWGN noise t hr ough a shaping lt er ; t his lt er is ident ical wit h
t he one used in CDMA2K_ClassicSpec which is available in CDMA2K design
libr ar y.
5. This model is used in conjunct ion wit h ant ennas. Eit her a base st at ion ant enna
or a mobile ant enna is connect ed wit h t he input and out put pins. This model
r eads velocit y infor mat ion fr om t he ant enna t o calculat e t he Doppler fr equency
shift .
1
3
---
0.0 10
10
10
0.0 10
10
2 10
+ ( )
1
3
---
2 10
10
10
0.0 10
10
2 10
+ ( )
1-20 Fader
Antennas and Propagation Components
6. If t he input t ime st ep is t oo lar ge, int er polat ion will be per for med t o up-sample
t he signal so t hat t he r esult ed t ime st ep will be less t han 1 nsec. Simulat ion
t ime in t he case of a lar ge int er polat ion r at e would incr ease; in ot her cases
when t he delay for a pat h is lar ger, t he signals t o be buffer ed and int er polat ed
would incr ease which would lead t o incr eased simulat ion t ime.
7. If Filt er _AWGN_Noise met hod is select ed, it s bet t er t o have t he t ime st ep less
t han 1 sec so t hat t he fading coefcient s will be mor e r easonable.
8. The fading coefcient s gener at ed by SoS_St ochast ic and Filt er _AWGN_Noise
met hods ar e independent for differ ent pat hs. However, caut ion must be given t o
pr oved [3] t hat t he J akes SoS Det er minist ic met hod doesnt have good
cor r elat ion bet ween differ ent pat hs.
9. For gener al infor mat ion, r efer t o Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
References
[1] Yahong R. Zheng and Chenshan Xiao, "Impr oved models for t he gener at ion of
mult iple un-cor r elat ed Rayleigh fading wavefor ms," IEEE Communicat ions
Let t er s, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 256-258, J une 2002.
[2] W. C. J akes, Micr owave Mobile Communicat ions: Wiley, 1974. Repr int ed by
IEEE Pr ess in 1994.
[3] P. Dent , G. E. Bot t omley, and T. Cr oft , "J akes fading model r evisit ed,"
Elect r onics Let t er, vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1162-1163, J une 1993.
PropFlatEarth 1-21
PropFlatEarth
Description Direct and Reected Ray Propagation Model
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFPropFlatEarth
Derived From channel
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. Pr opFlat Ear t h models t he sum of a dir ect and r eect ed r ay pr opagat ion
channel model based on polar izat ion and at ear t h pr oper t ies.
2. This component is based on t he t wo-r ay LOS model wher e t he r eceived signal is
t he sum of cont r ibut ions fr om t he dir ect and r eect ed r ays. By summing t he
Name Description Default Type
Polarization polarization type: Vertical,
Horizontal
Vertical enum
Permittivity earths average relative
permittivity
15 real
Conductivity earths average
conductivity
0.005 real
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output channel output signal timed
1-22 PropFlatEarth
Antennas and Propagation Components
cont r ibut ions fr om each r ay, t he r eceived signal at t he Rx end for a pair of
ant ennas can be expr essed as
wher e P
t
is t he t r ansmit t er power, r
1
is t he dir ect dist ance fr om t r ansmit t er t o
r eceiver, r
2
is t he dist ance t hr ough t he r eect ion on t he gr ound, and ( ) is t he
complex r eect ion coefcient as a funct ion of incident angle and complex
per mit t ivit y of t he gr ound e
r
:
wher e =90 and q1 or (e
r
)
-1
for ver t ical or hor izont al polar izat ion,
r espect ively.
3. The complex r elat ive per mit t ivit y is r elat ed t o mediums aver age per mit t ivit y
and conduct ivit y:
e
r
=
r
(aver age) j60
Typical values for per mit t ivit y and conduct ivit y of var ious ear t hs mediums ar e
given in Table 1-1.
Figur e 1-9 shows t he r eceived power as a funct ion of ant enna separ at ion using
Flat Ear t h channel [1].
Table 1-1. Typical Ear t hs Const ant s
Type of Surface
Average
Average (mho/meter)
Fresh water (lakes and rivers) 81 0.001
Sea water 81 5.0
Good ground 25 0.02
Average ground 15 0.005
Poor ground 4 0.001
Mountains 0.00075
P
r
P
t

4
------
,
_
2
1
r
1
-----e
j k r
1

( )
1
r
2
-----e
j k r
2

+
2
=
( )
q e
r
2
sin cos
cos q e
r
2
sin +
--------------------------------------------------- =

r
PropFlatEarth 1-23
Figur e 1-9. Received Power as a Funct ion of Ant enna
Separ at ion Using Flat ear t h Channel
4. For gener al infor mat ion, r efer t o Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
References
[1] H. Xia, H. Ber t oni, Radio Pr opagat ion Char act er ist ics for LOS Micr ocellular
and Per sonal Communicat ions, IEEE Trans, APS, Oct ober 1993.
1-24 PropGSM
Antennas and Propagation Components
PropGSM
Description GSM Propagation Model
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFPropGSM
Derived From channel
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Name Description Default Type
Type GSM type: NoMultipath,
RuralArea1, RuralArea2,
HillyTerrain6Tap1,
HillyTerrain6Tap2,
HillyTerrain12Tap1,
HillyTerrain12Tap2,
UrbanArea6Tap1,
UrbanArea6Tap2,
UrbanArea12Tap1,
UrbanArea12Tap2,
EqualizationTest
NoMultipath enum
Pathloss inclusion of large-scale
pathloss: No, Yes
No enum
Seed number to randomize
channel output
1234567 int
Test test port accessing single
path random gain
functions: Tap1, Tap2,
Tap3, Tap4, Tap5, Tap6,
Tap7, Tap8, Tap9, Tap10,
Tap11, Tap12
Tap1 enum
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
PropGSM 1-25
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. Pr opGSM models a dir ect ional mult ipat h channel based on GSM specicat ions.
The model is a mult i-t ap lt er, each t ap having a delay and power. And, each
t ap is modulat ed by a color ed noise sour ce (gain funct ion).
Including t he mult ipat h fading and pat hloss effect s, t he out put of t he channel
can be descr ibed as
wher e
= pat hloss at t enuat ion, 1

i
= r elat ive power of each echo, per specicat ion

i
= r elat ive delay of each echo, plus t he dir ect pat h delay
0
s(t) = complex envelope input signal
gi = r andom gain funct ion associat ed wit h each echo
For t he NoMult ipat h opt ion, M=1,
1
=
o
The gain funct ion can be descr ibed as a sum of non-over lapping sinusoids of
equal amplit udes and differ ent fr equency and phases.
The pat hloss at t enuat ion fact or =1 when Pat hloss=No. And, not e t hat when
Pat hloss=No, t he sum r(t) may add up t o be mor e t han t he input s(t), implying
t hat channel has a gain. For t his r eason, when Pat hloss=No, t he out put is
nor malized t o t he linear sum of echo power s wit h each opt ion.
For mor e det ails, r efer t o Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
2. The specicat ion GSM 05.05, Eur opean Digit al Cellular Telecommunicat ions
Syst em (Phase 1) Radio Tr ansmission and Recept ion, Annex 4 is t he basis for
t he Pr opGSM model. Wit h t he except ion of Type= NoMult ipat h, which is an
addit ion, GSM syst em denes eleven differ ent pr opagat ion pr oles descr ibed by
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output channel output signal timed
3 test Test port timed
r t ( )
i
s t
i
( )e
j
i

g
i
t ( )
i 1 =
M

,

_
=
1-26 PropGSM
Antennas and Propagation Components
t he Type par amet er : t wo for r ur al; four for hilly; four for ur ban; and one for
equalizer t est . Table 1-7 t hr ough Table 1-6 depict t he GSM delay pr oles
associat ed wit h each Type.
Table 1-2. Hilly Ter r ain 6-Tap Types
Tap Number
Relative Time
( )
Average Relative Power (dB)
Doppler
Spectrum Option 1 Option 2 Option 1 Option 2
1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Classical
2 0.1 0.2 -1.5 -2.0 Classical
3 0.3 0.4 -4.5 -4.0 Classical
4 0.5 0.6 -7.5 -7.0 Classical
5 15.0 15.0 -8.0 -6.0 Classical
6 17.2 17.2 -17.7 -12.0 Classical
Table 1-3. Hilly Ter r ain 12-Tap Types
Tap Number
Relative Time
( )
Average Relative Power (dB)
Doppler
Spectrum Option 1 Option 2 Option 1 Option 2
1 0.0 0.0 -10.0 -10.0 Classical
2 0.1 0.2 -8.0 -8.0 Classical
3 0.3 0.4 -6.0 -6.0 Classical
4 0.5 0.6 -4.0 -4.0 Classical
5 0.7 0.8 0.0 0.0 Classical
6 1.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 Classical
7 1.3 2.4 -4.0 -4.0 Classical
8 15.0 15.0 -8.0 -8.0 Classical
9 15.2 15.2 -9.0 -9.0 Classical
10 15.7 15.8 -10.0 -10.0 Classical
11 17.2 17.2 -12.0 -12.0 Classical
12 20.0 20.0 -14.0 -14.0 Classical
sec
sec
PropGSM 1-27
Table 1-4. Ur ban Ar ea 6-Tap Types
Tap Number
Relative Time
( )
Average Relative Power (dB)
Doppler
Spectrum Option 1 Option 2 Option 1 Option 2
1 0.0 0.0 -3.0 -3.0 Classical
2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 Classical
3 0.5 0.6 -2.0 -2.0 Classical
4 1.6 1.6 -6.0 -6.0 Classical
5 2.3 2.4 -8.0 -8.0 Classical
6 5.0 5.0 -10.0 -10.0 Classical
Table 1-5. Ur ban Ar ea 12-Tap Types
Tap Number
Relative Time
( )
Average Relative Power (dB)
Doppler
Spectrum Option 1 Option 2 Option 1 Option 2
1 0.0 0.0 -4.0 -4.0 Classical
2 0.1 0.2 -3.0 -3.0 Classical
3 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 Classical
4 0.5 0.6 -2.6 -2.0 Classical
5 0.8 0.8 -3.0 -3.0 Classical
6 1.1 1.2 -5.0 -5.0 Classical
7 1.3 1.4 -7.0 -7.0 Classical
8 1.7 1.8 -5.0 -5.0 Classical
9 2.3 2.4 -6.5 -6.0 Classical
10 3.1 3.0 -8.6 -9.0 Classical
11 3.2 3.2 -11.0 -11.0 Classical
12 5.0 5.0 -10.0 -10.0 Classical
Table 1-6. Equalizat ionTest Types
Tap Number
Relative Time ( )
Average Relative Power
(dB)
Doppler
Spectrum
1 0.0 0.0 Classical
2 3.2 0.0 Classical
3 6.4 0.0 Classical
4 9.6 0.0 Classical
sec
sec
sec
1-28 PropGSM
Antennas and Propagation Components
3. Type= NoMult ipat h simulat es a single line-of-sight (LOS) pat h wit h t he
fr ee-space pat hloss.
4. Each Type opt ion cont ains a unique set of par amet er s: t he envir onment (r ur al,
hilly, or ur ban), number of t aps, and t wo opt ions for 6- and 12-t ap set t ings. And,
a model (Type=Equalizat ionTest ) is ar t icially cr eat ed t o t est t he equalizer.
5. As an example, t he aver age delay pr ole of each Type is depict ed in Figur e 1-10.
As shown in t his gur e, t he r ur al envir onment is t he least host ile (r oughly a
one-pat h non-disper sive model), while hilly and ur ban envir onment s ar e
examples of mor e disper sive channels.
6. Type opt ions include a r efer ence delay of
wher e R is t he init ial dist ance bet ween t wo ant ennas and c is t he fr ee space
speed of light . If t her e is mor e t han one pat h in a pr opagat ion model, t he
r elat ive delay of each pat h is wit h r espect t o
0
.
7. For each Type opt ion (except Type= NoMult ipat h and Type=Rur alAr ea) t he
pat hs ar e assumed t o have a Rayleigh envelope dist r ibut ion wit h a (classical)
Doppler spect r um. For Type=NoMult ipat h a simple Doppler shift is assumed.
5 12.8 0.0 Classical
6 16.0 0.0 Classical
Table 1-7. Rur al Types
Tap Number
Relative Time
( )
Average Relative Power (dB)
Doppler
Spectrum Option 1 Option 2 Option 1 Option 2
1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 Rician
2 0.2 0.2 -4.0 -2.0 Classical
3 0.3 0.4 -8.0 -10.0 Classical
4 0.4 0.6 -12.0 -20.0 Classical
5 0.5 -16.0 Classical
6 0.6 -20.0 Classical
Table 1-6. Equalizat ionTest Types
Tap Number
Relative Time ( )
Average Relative Power
(dB)
Doppler
Spectrum
sec
sec

0
R
c
---- =
PropGSM 1-29
For Type=Rur alAr ea, t he r st t ap has a Rician envelope dist r ibut ion implying a
dir ect LOS in addit ion t o Rayleigh fading.
Figur e 1-10. Typical Aver age Delay Pr ole of GSM
Pr opagat ion Channels
8. The pat hloss comput at ion is dynamic, which means, dur ing simulat ion due t o
mobile t r avel t he dist ance bet ween t he t r ansmit and r eceive ant ennas is
changing and pat hloss is adjust ed accor dingly.
9. The par amet er Seed r andomizes t he out put of t he pr opagat ion model. A xed
Seed r esult s in t he same out put fr om simulat ion t o simulat ion and among
models in a mult i-channel design.
10. The t est por t is t he out put of a (user-select ed) single pat h wit hout pat hloss or
delay effect s. The out put is t he gain function, which is descr ibed in t he
int r oduct or y par t of t his chapt er.
11. Typical shor t -t er m fading signal (Rayleigh) envelope and RF Doppler spect r um
ar e depict ed in Figur es 1-11 and 1-12.
Rural Environment
0
-20
10 20
Relative Delay (microseconds)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
)
0.5 0
Hilly Environment
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
)
Relative Delay (microseconds)
0
-20
0 6 10 15 20
Equalizer Test Prole
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
)
Relative Delay (microseconds)
0 3.2 6.4 9.6 12.816.0 20
-20
0
Urban Environment
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
)
Relative Delay (microseconds)
0 5 10 15 20
-20
0
1-30 PropGSM
Antennas and Propagation Components
Figur e 1-11. Typical Fading Envelope of Pr opGSM
Figur e 1-12. Typical Doppler Spect r um of Pr opGSM
12. For gener al infor mat ion, r efer t o Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
PropNADCcdma 1-31
PropNADCcdma
Description Propagation Channel (CDMA) Model
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFPropNADCcdma
Derived From channel
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Pin Outputs
Name Description Default Type
Type propagation type:
NoMultipath, OnePath,
TwoPath, ThreePath
NoMultipath enum
Pathloss inclusion of large scale
pathloss: No, Yes
No enum
Env Environment Type Options:
TypicalUrban,
TypicalSuburban,
RuralArea, FreeSpace
TypicalUrban enum
Seed number to randomize
channel output
1234567 int
Test test port for single path
random function: Tap1,
Tap2, Tap3
Tap1 enum
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output channel output signal timed
3 test Test port timed
1-32 PropNADCcdma
Antennas and Propagation Components
Notes/Equations
1. Pr opNADCcdma models a mult ipat h channel based on IS-97 specicat ions. The
model is a mult i-t ap lt er, each t ap having a delay and power. And, each t ap is
modulat ed by a color ed noise sour ce.
Including t he mult ipat h fading and pat hloss effect s, t he out put of t he channel
can be descr ibed as
wher e
= pat hloss at t enuat ion, 1

i
= r elat ive power of each echo, per specicat ion

i
= r elat ive delay of each echo, plus t he dir ect pat h delay
0
s(t) = complex envelope input signal
gi = r andom gain funct ion associat ed wit h each echo
For t he NoMult ipat h opt ion, M=1,
1
=
o
The gain funct ion can be descr ibed as a sum of non-over lapping sinusoids of
equal amplit udes and differ ent fr equency and phases.
The pat hloss at t enuat ion fact or =1 when Pat hloss=No. And, not e t hat when
Pat hloss=No, t he sum r(t) may add up t o be mor e t han t he input s(t), implying
t hat channel has a gain. For t his r eason, when Pat hloss=No, t he out put is
nor malized t o t he linear sum of echo power s wit h each opt ion.
For mor e det ails, r efer t o t he Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
2. This component is based on t he Nor t h Amer ican Dual Model Cellular (NADC)
IS-97 specicat ion.
3. Except for Type=NoMult ipat h, wher e fr ee space pat hloss and a pur e Doppler
shift is assumed, ot her Type opt ions have a Rayleigh envelope dist r ibut ion wit h
a (classical) Doppler spect r um and pat hloss dened by t he Env par amet er.
4. Figur e 1-13 depict s t wo- and t hr ee-pat h power delay pr oles used in
Pr opNADCcdma.
r t ( )
i
s t
i
( )e
j
i

g
i
t ( )
i 1 =
M

,

_
=
PropNADCcdma 1-33
Figur e 1-13. Aver age Delay Pr oles of CDMA Pr opagat ion Channels
5. Type opt ions include a r efer ence delay of
wher e R is t he init ial dist ance bet ween t wo ant ennas and c is t he fr ee space
speed of light . If t her e is mor e t han one pat h in a pr opagat ion model, t he
r elat ive delay of each pat h is wit h r espect t o
0
.
6. The t wo- and t hr ee-pat h models have a Rayleigh envelope dist r ibut ion wit h a
(classical) Doppler spect r um.
7. The par amet er Seed r andomizes t he out put of t he pr opagat ion model. A xed
Seed r esult s in t he same out put fr om simulat ion t o simulat ion and among
models in a mult i-channel design.
8. The t est por t is t he out put of a (user-select ed) single pat h wit hout pat hloss or
delay effect s. The out put is t he gain function descr ibed in t he int r oduct or y par t
of t his chapt er.
9. Sufcient simulat ion t ime is r equir ed for accur at e pdf and cpdf. For evaluat ion
of envelope st at ist ics, it is pr efer able t o have independent samples (t hat is,
samples at a low r at e, which implies TSt ep is lar ge). The dur at ion of t he
simulat ion (St op par amet er of t he dat a collect ing sink) should be lar ge enough
t o cover 100 or mor e wavelengt hs of mobile t r avel.
This t r anslat es t o simulat ion t ime t hat is gr eat er t han
CDMA Three-path
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
)
Relative Delay (microseconds)
0 2 10.0 20
0
-3
14.5
CDMA Two-path
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
)
Relative Delay (microseconds)
0
-3
0 2 10.0 20

o
R
c
---- =
1-34 PropNADCcdma
Antennas and Propagation Components
wher e
is t he maximum doppler fr equency.
10. Typical pr obabilit y densit y funct ion (pdf) and cumulat ive pr obabilit y densit y
funct ion (cpdf) of t he signal envelope ar e depict ed in Figur es 1-14 and 1-15.
Sufcient simulat ion t ime is r equir ed for accur at e pdf and cpdf.
Figur e 1-14. Typical pdf of Signal Envelope
Figur e 1-15. Typical cpdf of Signal Envelope
100

---------

---- =
PropNADCtdma 1-35
PropNADCtdma
Description NADC Propagation (TDMA) Model, Directional
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFPropNADCtdma
Derived From channel
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Name Description Default Type
Type propagation type:
NoMultipath, FlatFade,
TwoPath
NoMultipath enum
Pathloss inclusion of large scale
pathloss: No, Yes
No enum
Env Environment Type Options:
TypicalUrban,
TypicalSuburban,
RuralArea, FreeSpace
TypicalUrban enum
Delay relative delay
(Type=TwoPath) with
respect to rst path, in
microseconds
0.0 real
Pwr relative power
(Type=TwoPath) with
respect to rst path, in dB
0.0 real
Seed integer number to
randomize channel output
1234567 int
Test test port for single path:
Tap1, Tap2
Tap1 enum
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
1-36 PropNADCtdma
Antennas and Propagation Components
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. Pr opNADCt dma models a unidir ect ional mult ipat h channel based on IS-55 and
IS-56 pr opagat ion specicat ions. The model is a mult i-t ap lt er, each t ap having
a delay and power. And, each t ap is modulat ed by a color ed noise sour ce gain
function descr ibed in t he int r oduct or y par t of t his chapt er.
Including t he mult ipat h fading and pat hloss effect s, t he out put of t he channel
can be descr ibed as
wher e
= pat hloss at t enuat ion, 1

i
= r elat ive power of each echo, per specicat ion

i
= r elat ive delay of each echo, plus t he dir ect pat h delay
0
s(t) = complex envelope input signal
gi = r andom gain funct ion associat ed wit h each echo
For t he NoMult ipat h opt ion, M=1,
1
=
0
.
The gain funct ion can be descr ibed as a sum of non-over lapping sinusoids of
equal amplit udes and differ ent fr equency and phases.
The pat hloss at t enuat ion fact or =1 when Pat hloss=No. And, not e t hat when
Pat hloss=No, t he sum r(t) may add up t o be mor e t han t he input s(t), implying
t hat channel has a gain. For t his r eason, when Pat hloss=No, t he out put is
nor malized t o t he linear sum of echo power s wit h each opt ion.
For mor e det ails, r efer t o t he Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
2. This component is based on t he Nor t h Amer ican Dual Model Cellular (NADC).
3. Flat fade is assumed t o be t he non-fr equency-select ive fading.
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output channel output signal timed
3 test Test port timed
r t ( )
i
s t
i
( )e
j
i

g
i
t ( )
i 1 =
M

,

_
=
PropNADCtdma 1-37
4. Except for Type=NoMult ipat h wher e fr ee space pat hloss and a pur e Doppler
shift is assumed, all ot her Type opt ions have a Rayleigh envelope dist r ibut ion
wit h a (classical) Doppler spect r um and pat hloss dened by t he Env par amet er.
5. Type opt ions include a r efer ence delay of
wher e R is t he init ial dist ance bet ween t wo ant ennas and c is t he fr ee space
speed of light .
Delay in t he t wo-r ay model is t he delay of t he second r ay wit h r espect t o t he
r st r ay, which is assumed t o be
0
.
Pwr in t he t wo-r ay model is t he power of t he second r ay below t he power of t he
r st r ay.
6. The par amet er Seed r andomizes t he out put of t he pr opagat ion model. A xed
Seed r esult s in t he same out put fr om simulat ion t o simulat ion and among
models in a mult i-channel design.
7. The t est por t is t he out put of a (user-select ed) single pat h wit hout pat hloss or
delay effect s. The out put is t he gain function descr ibed in t he int r oduct or y par t
of t his chapt er.
8. Typical envelope and envelope squar e spect r um of Pr opNADCt dma is shown in
Figur e 1-16. Also, pat hloss pr oles (no mult ipat h) for differ ent envir onment s
and differ ent set s of t r ansmit and r eceive ant enna height s ar e shown in
Figur e 1-17.

o
R
c
---- =
1-38 PropNADCtdma
Antennas and Propagation Components
Figur e 1-16. Typical Envelope and Envelope Squar e Spect r um
of Pr opNADCt dma
Figur e 1-17. Pat hloss Pr oles for Differ ent Envir onment s
Envelope
Freespace
Rural
Suburban
Urban
PropWCDMA 1-39
PropWCDMA
Description WCDMA Propagation Channel
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFPropWCDMA
Derived From channel
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Name Description Default Sym Type Range
ChannelType Indicate the test
environment ( Delay,
Power, and Doppler
Spectrum of each path ).:
NoMultipath, Indoor A,
Indoor B, Pedestrian A,
Pedestrian B, Vehicular A,
Vehicular B
Vehicular B enum
Pathloss option for inclusion of
large-scale pathloss: No,
Yes
No enum
Environment IMT2000 environment for
pathloss computation:
Indoor, Pedestrian,
Vehicular, FreeSpace
FreeSpace enum
NumberOfFloors number of oors for indoor
pathloss
4 int
(0, )
N 2N+1 is the number of sine
waves used in Jakes model
10 N int
(0, )
Seed integer number to
randomize the channel
output (Jakes model)
1234567 int
(0, )
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
1-40 PropWCDMA
Antennas and Propagation Components
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. This component models a fading channel based on t he IMT2000 st andar d
specicat ion. The specicat ion includes t he delay spr ead, doppler spr ead and
pat hloss for var ious envir onment s. In addit ion t o t hese, a line of sight (LOS)
opt ion called NoMult ipat h is available wher e t he doppler shift due t o mobilit y
and t he LOS delay ar e modeled. The r esult s ar e available at channel out put pin
mOut .
2. For doppler spr ead, J akes model [2] is used which pr ovides t he doppler
spect r um as well as t he st at ist ics of t he fading channel. An addit ional out put
pin t est Out is pr ovided t hat conveys t he complex gain mult iplier s of J akes
model.
3. The delay spr ead is modeled via a t ap delay line wher e t he number of t aps is
based on t he IMT2000 specicat ions for a given envir onment . Ther e ar e 6
opt ions (A and B for indoor, pedest r ian and vehicular envir onment s) t hat ar e
depict ed in Table 1-8 t hr ough Table 1-10. In each case t he input signal is
delayed and t he car r ier phase due t o t he delay signal is incor por at ed. However,
in t he nar r owband case (FLAT opt ion in t he indoor ofce t est envir onment ) only
t he car r ier phase change associat ed wit h t he mult ipat h delay is included.
The modeling pr ocess is depict ed in Figur e 1-18, which indicat es t hat t he
out put of complex mult iplier s ar e summed. This is t he case when Pr opWCDMA
channel is connect ed t o a simple ant enna. However, when t he channel is not
connect ed t o an ar r ay ant enna, t he out put of complex mult iplier s ar e not
summed but each mult ipat h (echo) act s like an independent wavefr ont
impinging on t he ar r ay element s (see WCDMAVect or Channel).
4. Unless st at ed ot her wise, t he use model is consist ent wit h t he guidelines
descr ibed in t he Int r oduct ion on page 1-1.
5. .The delay pr ole for t he var ious channel t ypes, summar ized in Table 1-8
t hr ough Table 1-10, r esult in t he fr equency select ive fading.
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 testOut complex gain of the channel complex
3 mout Antenna input signal multiple timed
PropWCDMA 1-41
Table 1-8. Indoor Ofce Test Envir onment Tapped-Delay-Line Par amet er s
Tap
Channel A Channel B
Doppler
Spectrum
Relative Delay
(nSec) Avg. Power (dB)
Relative Delay
(nSec) Avg. Power (dB)
1 0 0 0 0 FLAT
2 50 -3.0 100 -3.6 FLAT
3 110 -10.0 200 -7.2 FLAT
4 170 -18.0 300 -10.8 FLAT
5 290 -26.0 500 -18.0 FLAT
6 310 -32.0 700 -25.2 FLAT
Table 1-9. Out door t o Indoor and Pedest r ian Test Envir onment
Tapped-Delay-Line Par amet er s
Tap
Channel A Channel B
Doppler Spectrum
Relative Delay
(nSec) Avg. Power (dB)
Relative Delay
(nSec) Avg. Power (dB)
1 0 0 0 0 CLASSIC
2 110 -9.7 200 -0.9 CLASSIC
3 190 -19.2 800 -4.9 CLASSIC
4 410 -22.8 1200 -8.0 CLASSIC
5 2300 -7.8 CLASSIC
6 3700 -23.9 CLASSIC
Table 1-10. Vehicular Test Envir onment , High Ant enna,
Tapped-Delay-Line Par amet er s
Tap
Channel A Channel B
Doppler
Spectrum Relative Delay (nSec) Avg. Power (dB)
Relative Delay
(nSec) Avg. Power (dB)
1 0 0 0 -2.5 CLASSIC
2 310 -1.0 300 0 CLASSIC
3 710 -9.0 8900 -12.8 CLASSIC
4 1090 -10.0 12900 -10.0 CLASSIC
5 1730 -15.0 17100 -25.2 CLASSIC
6 2510 -20.0 20000 -16.0 CLASSIC
1-42 PropWCDMA
Antennas and Propagation Components
Figur e 1-18. Delay and Doppler Spr ead and Car r ier Phase Shift
References
[1] Dr aft New Recommendat ion ITU-R M.[FPLMT.REVAL], Guidelines for
Evaluat ion of Radio Tr ansmission Technologies for IMT-2000/FPLMTS
(Quest ion ITU-R 39/8).
[2] W. C. J akes, Microwave Mobile Communications, IEEE Pr ess, 1994.
Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay
Power
In
Out
Distribution
J akes
Model
UserDefChannel 1-43
UserDefChannel
Description User-Dened Channel
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFUserDefChannel
Derived From channel
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Name Description Default Sym Type Range
PathNumber number of multipath echos 2 L int
(0, )
AmpArray amplitude weight of path
array
1.0 0.5 real array
(-, )
DelayArray delays associated with
path array, in
microseconds
0.1 0.2 real array
(-, )
Seed integer number to
randomize channel output
(Jakes model)
1234567 int
(0, )
N 2N+1 is number of sine
waves used in Jakes model
10 N int
(0, )
Pathloss option for inclusion of
large-scale pathloss: No,
Yes
No enum
Env environment for pathloss
computation: TypicalUrban,
TypicalSuburban,
RuralArea, FreeSpace
TypicalUrban enum
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
1-44 UserDefChannel
Antennas and Propagation Components
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. This component models a fading channel based on user-specied mult ipat h
delay pr ole via t he DelayAr r ay and AmpAr r ay par amet er s. The r esult s ar e
available at t he channel out put por t .
2. For doppler spr ead, J akes model [1] is used, which pr ovides t he doppler
spect r um as well as t he st at ist ics of t he fading channel.
3. The delay spr ead is modeled via a t ap delay line wher e t he number of t aps is
based on t he size of DelayAr r ay and AmpAr r ay. In each case t he input signal is
delayed and t he car r ier phase due t o t he delay signal is incor por at ed.
Figur e 1-19 illust r at es t his modeling pr ocess when connect ed t o a simple
ant enna.
4. Unless st at ed ot her wise, t he use model is consist ent wit h t he guidelines
descr ibed in t he Int r oduct ion on page 1-1. The delay pr ole specied by t he
user det er mines t he fr equency select ive nat ur e of t he channel.
Figur e 1-19. Delay and Doppler Spr ead and Car r ier Phase Shift
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output channel output signal timed
Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay
Jakes
Model
Power
In
Out
Distribution

UserDefChannel 1-45
References
[1] W. C. J akes, Microwave Mobile Communications, IEEE Pr ess, 1994.
1-46 UserDefVectorChannel
Antennas and Propagation Components
UserDefVectorChannel
Description User-Dened Vector Channel
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFUserDefVectorChannel
Derived From channel
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Name Description Default Sym Type Range
PathNumber number of multipath echos 2 L int
(0, )
AmpArray amplitude weight of path
array
1.0 0.5 real array
(-, )
DelayArray delays associated with
path array, in
microseconds
0.1 0.2 real array
(-, )
Seed integer number to
randomize the channel
output (Jakes model)
1234567 int
(0, )
N 2N+1 is the number of sine
waves used in Jakes model
10 N int
(0, )
Pathloss option for inclusion of
large-scale pathloss: No,
Yes
No enum
Env environment for pathloss
computation: TypicalUrban,
TypicalSuburban,
RuralArea, FreeSpace
TypicalUrban enum
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
UserDefVectorChannel 1-47
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. User DefVect or Channel is ident ical t o User DefChannel, except t he out put of
t his model keeps t he mult ipat hs (echos) int act t hus allowing a vect or channel
simulat ion when an Ant Ar r ay component or any mult iple t imed input por t is
connect ed.
2. Figur e 1-20 illust r at es t he user-dened vect or channel model when it s out put is
connect ed t o an ar r ay ant enna.
Figur e 1-20. User-Dened Vect or Channel Model when
Connect ed t o an Ar r ay Ant enna
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 mout multiport channel output multiple timed
Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay
Jakes
Model
Power
In
Distribution
1-48 3GPPFDD_Channel
Antennas and Propagation Components
3GPPFDD_Channel
Description Fading channel model
Library Antennas & Propagation
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Name Description Default Unit Type Range
SpecVersion version of specications:
Version_03_00,
Version_12_00,
Version_03_02
Version_12_00 enum
Velocity mobile velocity in km/hour 100km km real
(0, )
GainArray path gain in terms of
decibel
0dB -10dB real array
(-, )
DelayArray path delay in terms of
nanosecond
0ns 976ns int array
[0, )
RicianFactor ratio of specular power and
the fading power
0.0 real
[0, )
Algorithm the algorithm used:
SoS_Stochastic,
SoS_Deterministic,
Filter_AWGN_Noise
SoS_Stochastic enum
ChProle channel prole:
UserDened, Case1,
Case2, Case3, Case4,
Case5
UserDened enum
for each array element; number of elements in arrays GainArray and DelayArray must be the same
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 in input timed signal timed
3GPPFDD_Channel 1-49
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. This subnet wor k model can be used t o simulat e t he mult ipat h fading channel:
accor ding t o 3GPP as dened in [1], when ChPr ole is set t o Case1, Case2,
Case3, Case4, or Case5.
accor ding t o user-dened fading channel pr ole, when ChPr ole is set t o
User Dened.
2. This subnet wor k is a hier ar chical model t hat includes t he Fader component ,
which is locat ed in t he Ant ennas & Pr opagat ion libr ar y; 3GPPFDD_Channel
pr ovides t he int er face t o Fader. The schemat ic for t his subnet wor k is shown in
Figur e 1-21.
Figur e 1-21. 3GPPFDD_Channel Schemat ic
3. When ChPr ole=User Dened, t he fading channel pr ole (r elat ive channel
delay spr ead and aver age power ) is det er mined by t he ext er nal input fr om t he
GainAr r ay and DelayAr r ay par amet er s.
When ChPr ole is set t o a pr e-dened fading channel pr ole dened for 3GPP,
t he r elat ive channel delay spr ead and aver age power ar e given in Table 1-11.
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 out output signal timed
3 outChM fading factor multiple timed
1-50 3GPPFDD_Channel
Antennas and Propagation Components
4. RicianFact or is t he r at io of dir ect signal power and fading power ; r efer t o Fader
document at ion for det ails.
References
[1] 3GPP Technical Specicat ion TS 25.101 V3.10.0, UE Radio t r ansmission and
r ecept ion (FDD) Mar ch 2003, Release 1999.
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/2002-03/R1999/25_series/25101-3a0.zip
Table 1-11. Channel Pr ole Congur at ions
Case 1,
3km/h
Case 2,
3 km/h
Case 3,
120 km/h
Case 4,
3 km/h
Case 5,
50 km/h
Relative
Delay
(nsec)
Average
Power
(dB)
Relative
Delay
(nsec)
Average
Power
(dB)
Relative
Delay
(nsec)
Average
Power
(dB)
Relative
Delay
(nsec)
Average
Power
(dB)
Relative
Delay
(nsec)
Average
Power
(dB)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
976 -10 976 0 260 -3 976 0 976 -10
20000 0 521 -6
781 -9
TDSCDMA_FwdChannel 1-51
TDSCDMA_FwdChannel
Description Multipath fading channel for forward link
Library Antennas & Propagation
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. This subnet wor k is used t o simulat e pr opagat ion condit ions for mult ipat h
fading envir onment s.
The schemat ic for t his subnet wor k is shown in Figur e 1-22.
Each r ing, 1 Out put t oken is pr oduced when 1 Input is consumed.
Name Description Default Type
Case propagation conditions for
multipath fading
environments: case_1,
case_2, case_3
case_1 enum
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 Input input data timed
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 Output data after fading channel timed
1-52 TDSCDMA_FwdChannel
Antennas and Propagation Components
Figur e 1-22. TDSCDMA_FwdChannel Schemat ic
Reference
[1] 3GPP TS 25.142, 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical S pecication
Group Radio Access Network; Base station conformance testing (TDD) (Release
4), ver sion 4.5.0, J un., 2002.
TDSCDMA_RevChannel 1-53
TDSCDMA_RevChannel
Description Multipath fading channel for reverse link
Library Antennas & Propagation
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. This subnet wor k is used t o simulat e pr opagat ion condit ions for mult ipat h
fading envir onment s.
The schemat ic for t his subnet wor k is shown in Figur e 1-23.
Each r ing, 1 Out put t oken is pr oduced when 1 Input is consumed.
Name Description Default Type
Case propagation conditions for
multipath fading
environments: case_1,
case_2, case_3
case_1 enum
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 Input input data timed
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 Output data after fading channel timed
1-54 TDSCDMA_RevChannel
Antennas and Propagation Components
Figur e 1-23. Schemat ic of TDSCDMA_RevChannel
References
[1] 3GPP TS 25.142, 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical S pecication
Group Radio Access Network; Base station conformance testing (TDD) (Release
4), ver sion 4.5.0, J une 2002.
WCDMAVectorChannel 1-55
WCDMAVectorChannel
Description WCDMA Vector Channel
Library Antennas & Propagation
Parameters
Pin Inputs
Name Description Default Sym Type Range
ChannelType type of Channel:
NoMultipath, Indoor A,
Indoor B, Pedestrian A,
Pedestrian B, Vehicular A,
Vehicular B
Vehicular B enum
Echos number of multipath echos 6 L int
(0, )
Pathloss option for inclusion of
large-scale pathloss: No,
Yes
No enum
Environment IMT2000 environment for
pathloss computation:
Indoor, Pedestrian,
Vehicular, FreeSpace
FreeSpace enum
NumberOfFloors number of oors for indoor
option
4 int
(0, )
N 2N+1 is the number of sine
waves used in Jakes model
10 N int
(0, )
Seed integer number to
randomize the channel
output(Jakes model)
1234567 int
(0, )
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input complex
1-56 WCDMAVectorChannel
Antennas and Propagation Components
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. WCDMAVect or Channel is a subcir cuit design consist ing of Pr opWCDMA and
Bus component s. The size of Bus must equal t he number of mult ipat h (echos) in
t he channel; ot her wise, WCDMAVect or Channel act s ident ical t o Pr opWCDMA.
The connect ing Bus allows each mult ipat h (echo) t o be int act when it is
connect ed t o an Ant Ar r ay component or any mult iple t imed input por t .
2. Figur e 1-24 illust r at es t he WCDMA vect or channel model out put when
connect ed t o an ar r ay ant enna.
Figur e 1-24. WCDMA Vect or Channel Model when
Connect ed t o an Ar r ay Ant enna
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output channel output multiple complex
Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay
Jakes
Model
Power
In
Distribution
WLAN_ChannelModel 1-57
WLAN_ChannelModel
Description channel model
Library Antennas & Propagation
Class TSDFWLAN_ChannelModel
Derived From channel
Parameters
Name Description Default Type Range
Algorithm fading algorithm: Jakes,
NoiseFilter
NoiseFilter enum
ModelType fading model: NoMultipath,
A, B, C, D, E, UserDened
A enum
PathNumber number of multipath
echoes, effective only
when ModelType is set as
UserDened
4 int [1, 150]
PowerArray average relative power of
path array, in dB, effective
only when ModelType is
set as UserDened
0.0 -14 -18 -20 real array
(-, )
DelayArray delays associated with
path array, in nsec,
effective only when
ModelType is set as
UserDened
0.0 56 106 185 real array
[0, )
FadingType fading type of rst path,
effective only when
ModelType is set as
UserDened: Rayleigh,
Ricean
Rayleigh enum
RiceanFactor Ricean factor, effective
only when ModelType is
set as UserDened and
FadingType is set as
Ricean
10 int
[1, )
Seed integer number to
randomize channel
output(Jakes model)
1234567 int
(-, )
1-58 WLAN_ChannelModel
Antennas and Propagation Components
Pin Inputs
Pin Outputs
Notes/Equations
1. This component is used t o simulat e a mult i-pat h fading channel based on a
t apped-delay line model. Each r ing, one t oken is consumed at t he input pin,
and one t oken is pr oduced at t he out put pin.
2. The mult ipat h delay pr ole det er mines t he fr equency select ive nat ur e of t he
channel. Delay pr ole is specied by t he user via t he ModelType, DelayAr r ay
and Power Ar r ay par amet er s.
3. The fading t ype of t he r st pat h can be Rayleigh or Ricean; if FadingType =
Ricean, RiceanFact or det er mines t he power r at io of t he dir ect signal t o all ot her
indir ect signals.
4. If ModelType = A, B, C, D or E, t he Pat hNumber, DelayAr r ay, FadingType, and
RiceanFact or par amet er s ar e aut omat ically set accor ding t o [2].
If ModelType = User Dened, t he user det er mines channel char act er ist ics by
set t ing t hese par amet er s.
If ModelType = NoMult ipat h, only Doppler fr equency shift is incor por at ed.
N number of oscillators in
Jakes model
80 int (PathNumber,
)
Pathloss option for inclusion of
large-scale pathloss: No,
Yes
No enum
Env environment type options:
TypicalUrban,
TypicalSuburban,
RuralArea, FreeSpace
TypicalUrban enum
Pin Name Description Signal Type
1 input channel input signal timed
Pin Name Description Signal Type
2 output channel output signal timed
Name Description Default Type Range
WLAN_ChannelModel 1-59
5. The delay spr ead is modeled via a t apped delay line wher e t he number of t aps is
based on t he size of DelayAr r ay and Power Ar r ay. In each case t he input signal
is delayed and t he car r ier phase due t o t he delay signal is incor por at ed.
Figur e 1-25 illust r at es t his modeling pr ocess when connect ed t o a simple
ant enna.
Figur e 1-25. Delay and Doppler Spr ead and Car r ier Phase Shift
6. If DelayAr r ay values ar e not t he t ime as Tst ep, t he int er polat ion is made t o
gain t his point of signal and a delay of 64 t okens is int r oduced.
7. For each t ap, J akes model or noise lt er model pr ovides Doppler spect r um as
well as t he fading channel specicat ions.
J akes model uses N
0
low-fr equency oscillat or s t o gener at e a fading
wavefor m.
wher e
.
Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay
J/NF
Model
Power
In
Out
Distribution

T t ( )
n
( ) cos i
n
( ) sin + [ ]
n
t
n
+ ( ) cos
n 1 =
N
0

m
2n N ( ) cos =
N 2 2 N
0
1 + ( ) =
1-60 WLAN_ChannelModel
Antennas and Propagation Components
The maximum Doppler fr equency offset
m
= 2V/, denot es wave-lengt h of
car r ier.
n
is set as
n
= 2/N
0
. Or iginal phase shift s
n
ar e r andomized and
unifor mly dist r ibut ed over [0, 2]. N
0
= 80 is used in t he component .
Det ails about J akes model can be found in r efer ence [1].
Noise lt er model feeds whit e Gaussian noise t o a digit al lt er mat ched t o
t he r espect ive fading spect r um, i.e., t he lt er fr equency r esponse must be a
good appr oximat ion t o t he squar e r oot of t he (nor malized) t ap power spect r al
densit y. An int er polat or wit h r at e conver sion fact or follows. Changing t ap
Doppler spr eads is done by simply changing t he int er polat ion fact or.
This implement at ion is illust r at ed in Figur e 1-26. The AWGN, lt er, and
int er polat or out put s ar e complex. The lt er and AWGN oper at e at t he signal
sampling r at e. An 8t h-or der IIR lt er is used for classic and at spect r ums
whose nor malized fading fr equencies ar e 0.05686. A simple linear
int er polat or oft en sufces for changing Doppler spr eads.
Figur e 1-26. Noise Filt er Model Implement at ion
8. If speed is zer o, t he channel is not a t ime-var iant . However, mult ipat h st ill
exist s so a st at ic channel is applied and each t ap is a complex const ant
value.The complex const ant value is r andomly gener at ed and can be changed by
changing t he Seed par amet er.
9. Five model t ypes have been designed based on r efer ence [2]:
Model A cor r esponds t o a t ypical ofce envir onment .
Model B cor r esponds t o a t ypical lar ge open-space envir onment wit h NLOS
condit ions or an ofce envir onment wit h a lar ge delay spr ead.
AWGN Filter Interpolator
Delay(
0
)
C
0
s(t)

AWGN Filter Interpolator


Delay(
n
)
C
n
.
.
.

n
WLAN_ChannelModel 1-61
Models C and E cor r espond t o t ypical lar ge open-space indoor and out door
envir onment s, r espect ively, wit h a lar ge delay spr ead.
Model D cor r esponds t o LOS condit ions in a lar ge open-space indoor or
out door envir onment .
Char act er ist ics of t hese models ar e list ed in Table 1-12 t hr ough Table 1-16.
Table 1-12. Model A: Typical Ofce Envir onment wit h
NLOS Condit ions and 50ns Aver age r ms Delay Spr ead
Tap Number Delay(ns) Average Relative Power Ricean K
Doppler
Spectrum
1 0 0.0 0 Class
2 10 -0.9 0 Class
3 20 -1.7 0 Class
4 30 -2.6 0 Class
5 40 -3.5 0 Class
6 50 -4.3 0 Class
7 60 -5.2 0 Class
8 70 -6.1 0 Class
9 80 -6.9 0 Class
10 90 -7.8 0 Class
11 110 -4.7 0 Class
12 140 -7.3 0 Class
13 170 -9.9 0 Class
14 200 -12.5 0 Class
15 240 -13.7 0 Class
16 290 -18.0 0 Class
17 340 -22.4 0 Class
18 390 -26.7 0 Class
Table 1-13. Model B: Typical Lar ge Open-Space and Ofce Envir onment s
wit h NLOS Condit ions and 100ns Aver age r ms Delay Spr ead
Tap Number Delay(ns) Average Relative Power Ricean K
Doppler
Spectrum
1 0 -2.6 0 Class
2 10 -3.0 0 Class
3 20 -3.5 0 Class
1-62 WLAN_ChannelModel
Antennas and Propagation Components
4 30 -3.9 0 Class
5 50 0.0 0 Class
6 80 -1.3 0 Class
7 110 -2.6 0 Class
8 140 -3.9 0 Class
9 180 -3.4 0 Class
10 230 -5.6 0 Class
11 280 -7.7 0 Class
12 330 -9.9 0 Class
13 380 -12.1 0 Class
14 430 -14.3 0 Class
15 490 -15.4 0 Class
16 560 -18.4 0 Class
17 640 -20.7 0 Class
18 730 -24.6 0 Class
Table 1-14. Model C: Typical Lar ge Open Space Envir onment wit h
NLOS Condit ions and 150ns Aver age r ms Delay Spr ead
Tap Number Delay(ns) Average Relative Power Ricean K
Doppler
Spectrum
1 0 -3.3 0 Class
2 10 -3.6 0 Class
3 20 -3.9 0 Class
4 30 -4.2 0 Class
5 50 0.0 0 Class
6 80 -0.9 0 Class
7 110 -1.7 0 Class
8 140 -2.6 0 Class
9 180 -1.5 0 Class
10 230 -3.0 0 Class
11 280 -4.4 0 Class
12 330 -5.9 0 Class
13 400 -5.3 0 Class
Table 1-13. Model B: Typical Lar ge Open-Space and Ofce Envir onment s
wit h NLOS Condit ions and 100ns Aver age r ms Delay Spr ead (cont inued)
Tap Number Delay(ns) Average Relative Power Ricean K
Doppler
Spectrum
WLAN_ChannelModel 1-63
14 490 -7.9 0 Class
15 600 -9.4 0 Class
16 730 -13.2 0 Class
17 880 -16.3 0 Class
18 1050 -21.2 0 Class
Table 1-15. Model D: Typical Lar ge Open Space Envir onment wit h
LOS Condit ions and 150ns Aver age r ms Delay Spr ead;
a 10 dB spike at zer o delay has been added r esult ing in an r ms delay spr ead of
appr oximat ely 140ns
Tap Number Delay(ns) Average Relative Power Ricean K
Doppler
Spectrum
1 0 0.0 10 Class+spike
2 10 -10.0 0 Class
3 20 -10.3 0 Class
4 30 -10.6 0 Class
5 50 -6.4 0 Class
6 80 -7.2 0 Class
7 110 -8.1 0 Class
8 140 -9.0 0 Class
9 180 -7.9 0 Class
10 230 -9.4 0 Class
11 280 -10.8 0 Class
12 330 -12.3 0 Class
13 400 -11.7 0 Class
14 490 -14.3 0 Class
15 600 -15.8 0 Class
16 730 -19.6 0 Class
17 880 -22.7 0 Class
18 1050 -27.6 0 Class
Table 1-14. Model C: Typical Lar ge Open Space Envir onment wit h
NLOS Condit ions and 150ns Aver age r ms Delay Spr ead (cont inued)
Tap Number Delay(ns) Average Relative Power Ricean K
Doppler
Spectrum
1-64 WLAN_ChannelModel
Antennas and Propagation Components
References
[1] W. C. J akes, Microwave Mobile Communications, IEEE Pr ess, 1994.
[2] Channel Models for HIPERLAN/2 in Differ ent Indoor Scenar ios, ETSI EP
BRAN 3ER1085B 30 Mar ch 1998.
Table 1-16. Model E: Typical Lar ge Open Space Envir onment wit h
NLOS Condit ions and 250ns Aver age r ms Delay Spr ead
Tap Number Delay(ns) Average Relative Power Ricean K
Doppler
Spectrum
1 0 -4.9 0 Class
2 10 -5.1 0 Class
3 20 -5.2 0 Class
4 40 -0.8 0 Class
5 70 -1.3 0 Class
6 100 -1.9 0 Class
7 140 -0.3 0 Class
8 190 -1.2 0 Class
9 240 -2.1 0 Class
10 320 0.0 0 Class
11 430 -1.9 0 Class
12 560 -2.8 0 Class
13 710 -5.4 0 Class
14 880 -7.3 0 Class
15 1070 -10.6 0 Class
16 1280 -13.4 0 Class
17 1510 -17.4 0 Class
18 1760 -20.9 0 Class
Index-1
Index
Numerics
3GPPFDD_Channel, 1-48
A
AntArray, 1-11
AntBase, 1-14
AntMobile, 1-16
F
Fader, 1-18
P
PropFlatEarth, 1-21
PropGSM, 1-24
PropNADCcdma, 1-31
PropNADCtdma, 1-35
PropWCDMA, 1-39
T
TDSCDMA_FwdChannel, 1-51
TDSCDMA_RevChannel, 1-53
U
UserDefChannel, 1-43
UserDefVectorChannel, 1-46
W
WCDMAVectorChannel, 1-55
WLAN_ChannelModel, 1-57
Index-2