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Why antibiotics should not be overused. Write a Short Note?

Every time we are ill, our doctors may prescribe antibiotics to stop the spread of infection in our body. Antibiotics, first used in the 1940s, are certainly one of the great advances in medicine. Antibiotics are important discovery in the medicine but overusing and misusing they will also lead to further health risks. When antibiotics are actually used correctly, antibiotics can do an amazing job of cleaning up the most lethal bacterial infections, and if you're sick enough to be hospitalized for an infectious illness, antibiotic might even save your life. Antibiotics are overused and over- prescribed-despite repeated pleas nowadays from infectious disease experts warning otherwise. Their crystal clear usage guidelines for antibiotics are often ignored by busy doctors eager to appease the many patients who show up demanding a quick fix for their illness. One of the most serious problems with antibiotic overuse is that too many strains of bacteria are becoming resistant to the drugs. Antibiotic resistance is a widespread problem, and one that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls "one of the world's most pressing public health problems." Infectious bacteria constantly multiply. All it takes are a few strong bacteria to actually defeat the antibiotic. And the constant fight against antibiotics teaches the bacteria to grow even stronger, making them much harder to kill. This not only creates the need for more antibiotics, but it can also be life-threatening if the right antibiotic isn't found in time. The huge problem with all of this is that most common upper respiratory tract infections and sore throats are caused by viruses --not by bacteria. Antibiotics are useless in these cases and they still promote resistant bacteria, jeopardizing your health without any clear benefit. The germ causing the infection can become resistant ("immune") to the antibiotic, and then it will basically make it useless in the fight against that germ. The more antibiotics are used, the more likely it is for antibiotic resistant/immune organisms/germs/bacteria to appear. When antibiotics are overused they kill even the essential bacteria too which makes our body prone to diseases. Body develops immunity to them and then when you really need them, they won't work. Plus, whenever you take antibiotics they run the risk of side-effects, such as stomach upset and diarrhea or even a possible allergic reaction.

Antibiotics are effective only against bacteria. If antibiotics are overused, the bacteria eventually mutate and become immune to the particular antibiotic that was overused, making the antibiotic ineffective. Because over time antibiotics kill off weaker bacteria, and the stronger bacteria still live, when the stronger bacteria live, they multiply, creating stronger bacteria, so if the bacteria are stronger, people get sicker, and the antibiotics no longer kill the strong bacteria, creating a superbug, that is a super illness. The dosage of selected antibiotic drugs prescribed for a disease, should never be shortened or prolonged. The continuous usage leads to collapsing of body immunity and the same drug will not be of any use for any future infections. It kills the healthy RBC count and affects the bone marrow adversely causing serious malfunctions of important organs/metabolism. Over-dosage / usage of antibiotic drugs may produce super mutant viruses/bacteria strains before developing epidemics that may cause apocalypse, which is a dreaded one. So it is advisable that, if any infection or disease does not respond or subside to a particular group / simple basic antibiotic drug, it is advised to go deeper into the investigations i.e. pathological, cell-cytology, biopsy, FNAC, clinical, biological, radiological, magnetic resonance, color Doppler, ultra sound, CT, PET investigations before hitting into bull's eye. But in certain unavoidable cases it may be prolonged to treat diseases under the supervision of specialist medico. The two major types of germs that can make people sick: bacteria and viruses. Although certain bacteria and viruses cause diseases with similar symptoms, the ways these two organisms multiply and spread illness are different. Antibiotics are used in treating infections, caused by living organisms/germs like bacteria, fungus and parasites. Germs/Bacteria are everywhere and most don't cause any harm, and in some cases may be beneficial. But some bacteria are harmful and can cause illness by invading the human body, multiplying, and interfering with normal bodily processes. Antibiotics don't cure diseases caused by viruses. Viruses are not alive and cannot exist on their own they are particles containing genetic material wrapped in a protein coat. Viruses "live," grow, and reproduce only after they've invaded other living cells. Some viruses may be fought off by the body's immune system before viruses cause illness, but others (for example colds/sore throat) must simply run their course. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics at all. Antibiotics do not stop viruses spreading. Antibiotic functions in two ways. It kills the bacteria and stops them from multiplying.

In recent years, health experts have noticed that antibiotics are becoming less and less effective as people use them more and more or encourage the spread of resistant/immune bacteria in the body and in the community. Frequent and inappropriate use of antibiotics can cause bacteria or other microbes to resist the effects of antibiotic treatment. This is called bacterial resistance or antibiotic resistance. Treating these resistant bacteria requires higher doses of medicine or stronger antibiotics. Because of antibiotic overuse, certain bacteria have become resistant to some of the most powerful antibiotics available today. The reason for this is that antibiotics, if overused and misused would lead to dangerous side effects in the body such as being resistant of bacteria, reducing RBC count, de-orienting organ functioning/metabolism. Due Overuse/misuse, the antibiotics will become less effective against that type of bacteria. The stronger antibiotics you take without any prescription will not help in treating your disease; rather the bacteria will just stay dormant and become more resistant. This would mean that you need to take the strongest antibiotics to kill that bacterium if in case you will experience that kind of bacterial infection again. Bacteria that were once highly responsive to antibiotics have become increasingly resistant. Among those that are becoming harder to treat are pneumococcal infections (which cause pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis), skin infections, and tuberculosis. Infections or diseases or viral infections in which antibiotics should not be used are as follows: Colds, Flu Cough, bronchitis Sore throat Ear infections Sinus infections etc. Popular Antibiotics Some 160 antibiotics are available. These include Tetracyclines, Aminoglycosides, Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolones, Streptogramins, Sulfonamides, Macrolides, Erythromycins, Polypeptides etc.

How many types of software are required to run computer system? Computer software is a program which enables computer hardware to do a specific task. This includes System Software and Application Software. System software helps in running the computer hardware and oversees functioning of computer system, as a whole. It interfaces with computer hardware and application software. This includes Operating System, Device Drivers, Diagnostics and Utility Programs. ` System Software is of two types: Operating System & Utility Programs. Operating system is hardware dependent or independent software that interfaces with computer hardware and application program and controls all the activities of computer system like: 1. Starting the Computer 2. Configuring the hardware devices 3. Controlling the hardware 4. Running the application software 5. Managing the Memory 6. Managing the Program 7. Managing the information 8. Scheduling Jobs 9. Accessing the Web Example: DOS, UNIX, LINUX, MS Windows Utility software program interfaces with Operating System to give user the feedback and status of hardware and other application programs. Example: Control Panel in MS Windows. Application Software allows doing one or more task for the user, at a time, at high level, without caring computer hardware. This includes Word processor, Drawing, Presentation, Database, and Spreadsheet etc programs. It has varied functional usage like: 1. Business Productivity Tools 2. Graphic and Multimedia Tools 3. Support household, personal business and education activities. 4. Communication Tools It comes in packaged, bundled, shareware and freeware form.

Find out the different types of soil conservation methods used in India?
The basic requirements of a human being are food, shelter, and clothing. For all these, the base is our soil. Soil is a precious gift of nature. It is a mixture of rocks, minerals, and the decayed matter of plants and animals. The solid soil particles are interspersed with air and water. It takes a long time to form a small layer of soil- say as long as a thousand years per inch. The formation of soil is due to physical weathering and chemical weathering. Soil is directly related to the health of an individual and indirectly to the health of a nation. Erosion is the detachment and transportation of soil. Soil erosion may be "natural" or "accelerated." The heat of the sun, rain drops, wind blasts, the roots of the plants and trees- all are acting upon the crust of the earth resulting in physical, chemical, and biological changes. This natural process has been going on for as long as the world has existed. The main agent for transportation is running water. To a certain extent wind, sea waves, and moving ice may also cause erosion. When man appeared on the scene and started abusing nature, the situation changed. He started to fell trees, cut grasses, and rip up the land for cultivation, all to meet his daily needs. This detachment and transportation of soil is called accelerated soil erosion. It is entirely a man-made condition. Soil conservation is the management of the soil to prevent soil erosion. Soil conservation not only increases crop yields, but also prevents further deterioration of land. Soil / land management practices such as tillage and cropping practices, directly affect the overall soil erosion/conservation problem. There are three major principles on conservation disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotations. agriculture: minimal soil

Types of conservation measures: Agronomic: Plant/soil cover, conservation tillage/farming methods, contour farming/bunding, bench terracing Vegetative: Planting barriers (vegetative strips), live fences, windbreaks Structural: Fanya Juus, terraces, banks, bunds, cut off drains, barriers Overall management: Area closures, selective clearing

How do early man and modern man satisfy their needs from their surrounding?
The human physical environment or surroundings is a vast natural process system consisting of four major components in the form of Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and Biosphere, interlinked with one another. Each of the components has its own process subsystems, which are closely inter-related through their own natural processes that determine the achievement of equilibrium through space and time. Interactions between the various subsystems are of vital importance to human beings. In fact, each individual component of the physical environment has the ability to fulfill/satisfy a variety of human requirements. The atmosphere supplies the most vital gas in the form of oxygen directly to human beings for respiration and there are also other gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen that are important to human life, indirectly. The atmosphere is also used for aviation. Lithosphere, which forms the surface of the earth, is not only important as a platform where human beings can build settlements and carry out their activities, but also forms a base for the growth and livelihood of various species of flora and fauna. It is also used as a base for agriculture and various other human activities and embedded in it, either on land or under water, are many natural resources such as minerals that can fulfill human needs. The hydrosphere supply water to support life and is used in various other forms such as for the purpose of navigation, to support agriculture, recreation and as a source of numerous varieties of aquatic foods. The biosphere, where human being is part of it, supplies them with food and other resources in the form of flora and fauna for energy building in their bodies. Therefore, it is very clear that the various physical components rely on each other to form a natural process system and in turn they are linked to the human use system. It is worth noting that the utilization of the natural environment through the ages has resulted in numerous changes where the earth has entered a period of hydrological, climatological, and biological change that differs from previous episodes of global change in the extent to which it is now partly human in origin. Originally human beings lived with the environment, but as their numbers grew human beings started to make changes to the environment to suit their needs. The establishment of human habitats, in which human beings live, work, play and move, initiated such development. Humans are nomads by nature. The basic human requirements for survival are air, water, food, clothing and shelter. Early human foraged/roamed the earth here and there and found places with fresh air, water, food and Shelter (for protection against weather (Shade, protection from heat, cold, wind, rain and Snow), wild animals and enemy attacks). Hence humankind started living in groups in close association of forests/rivers/seas for the purpose of catching, hunting, herding, gathering food and protection. Gradually people learned to cultivate and grow food. Once agriculture became important, people established villages of permanent houses due to increased food supply and population. The gregarious nature of human beings has led to socialization where they started building communities and settlements from simple housing to modern city settlements. Increase in population resulted in increase in human habitat to support them and that in turn also increased human activities that utilize environment resources which will result change in

environment. Human ability to change the environment increases along with increase in population, quest for and achievement of affluence, and its technological and institutional capabilities. The damage that society causes to the environment is a product of three factors: the total number of people, how much each person consumes to maintain his or her standard of living, and how much environmental damage is incurred in producing the goods consumed. In the beginning human beings were hunters and food gatherers not much impact incurred to the natural environment. When human beings started to plant vegetation plots of land were cleared, but the small number of people did not really have an impact on the environment. The society in transition especially fishermen and farmers introduced new technologies that have some impact on the environment. In modern times, increased urbanization led to greater challenges and utilization of natural resources food, materials are supplied, mostly from outside urban areas. The sheer number of people living in urban areas requires greater areas to be developed to ensure enough food and other types of goods and services are supplied to the urban population. Increasing number of people means more manufactured goods and services required to provide for their needs, which in turn means more waste material to be discharged into the environment. The concentration of human beings in urban areas compounds the problems. Eventually the dilutive capacity of the air, water, and land in major urban-industrial areas becomes greatly exceeded and a serious pollution problem results. As real income increases, people are able to buy and consume more goods and services, throw them away more quickly to buy something better, travel more miles per year using various forms of transportation, and expand their usage of energy. In the process much more waste material is generated for the society as a whole. Changes in technology have expanded the variety of products available for consumption, increased their quantity through increases in productivity, made products and packaging more complex, and raise the rate of obsolescence through rapid innovation. All of this has added to the waste disposal problem. In addition, the toxicity of many materials was originally unknown or not given much concern, with the result that procedure for the abatement of these pollution problems has lagged far behind the technology of manufacture. These intertwining factors, the product of decisions made by individuals and societies around the world, are the main forces driving change in the global environment. It may be argued that no matter what society does, it is unlikely that we could suppress the powerful physical and chemical forces that drive the earth system. Although society cannot completely disrupt the earth system, we do affect it significantly as we use energy and emit pollution in our quest to provide food, shelter, and a host of other products for the worlds growing population. The changes facing the planet today are distinguished from previous changes by the scale and pace with which they are occurring or are likely to occur. Over the geologic past, conditions in the atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere have for the most part followed natural cycles. There were no human beings then. Now, human activities are a significant force driving changes that lead to environmental quality deterioration. It is a question of number population concentration and their activities in mega settlements and the requirement to satisfy their daily needs have led to environmental change.

Prepare a Project file related on the Operating System Linux and BOSS? OPERATING SYSTEM LINUX All Linux Operating System distributions are built on principles known as the "Linux Way", derived from the philosophy of UNIX system (free and Open Source) and in 1991 Linus Benedict Torvalds wrote its initial kernel. The open-source (software with source code and without any license & limitation on distribution/modification) nature of Linux is its greatest strength. The Linux Way philosophy can be summarized as: Use programs that do only one task, but do it well. To accomplish complex tasks, use several programs linked together. Store information in human-readable plain text files whenever it is possible. There is no "one true way" to do anything. Prefer command line tools over graphical tools. Most traits of Linux are a consequence of these principles. Linux system is built out of small, replaceable components namely: the boot loader, the kernel, the shell, the X window server, the window manager, desktop environment and the file system. BOOT LOADER It is the first program which installs and configures automatically after completion of hardware power-on boot/reboot. If the computer has only one operating system installed, it simply loads the kernel. If computer have multiple operating systems or multiple versions of the Linux kernel installed, it allows you to choose which one you want to start. The most popular boot loader Are GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) and LILO (LInux LOader). KERNEL The kernel is the central component of the LINUX OS (heart & brain) that communicates directly with the hardware. It allows higher level programs to become hardware independent by ignoring the differences in computer hardware. The kernel allocates system resources like memory, processor time, hard disk space and external devices to the programs running on the computer. It separates each program from the others, so that when one of them encounters an error, others programs are not affected. SHELL The command shell is a textual interface that allows you to run programs and control the system by entering commands from the keyboard. Without a shell it would be hard to make your system actually do something. The shell is just a program - there are several different shells for Linux, like C, Korne, and Bourne each of them offering different features. Most Linux systems use the Bourne Again Shell (Bash). Linux shells support multitasking (running several programs at once). X WINDOW SERVER The X window server is a graphical replacement of the command shell. It is responsible for drawing graphics and processing input from the keyboard, mouse, tablets and other devices. The X server is network transparent, that is, it allows you to work in a graphical environment both on your own computer as well as on a remote computer that you connect to across a network. The X server that is most used today is X.Org. Most graphical programs will only need the X server to run, so you can use them under any window manager and desktop environment. WINDOW MANAGER The window manager is a program that communicates with the X server. Its task is managing windows. It is responsible for drawing the window borders, bringing a window to the front when you click it, moving it on the screen and hiding them when you minimize a program. Examples of popular window managers are: Metacity - GNOME Desktop Environment window manager

KWin - KDE window manager Xfwm - Xfce window manager, a lightweight manager designed to consume as little resources as possible without compromising usability Compiz Fusion - an advanced window manager with lots of eye candy like customizable window animations, multiple desktops placed on a cube that you can rotate with your mouse, transparent window borders, wobbling windows while dragging them, etc. DESKTOP ENVIRONMENTS Desktop environments, like GNOME Desktop Environment, KDE and Xfce, are collections of programs designed to present a consistent user interface for most common tasks. This is the thing most people think about when they say "operating system" even though it is only a piece of the larger operating system. FILE SYSTEMS Several file systems are used by Linux distributions use like BTRFS, EXT3/4, VFS, NILFS, and SquashFS. Different File systems have different benefits and losses in different application environment. Generally File System is a named area of disk storing some data/file uniquely without caring the hard drive interface and methodology of reading and storing data. In Linux, the top-level directory is called the root directory and denoted with a forward slash: "/". Every file and directory in the system must be a descendant of the root directory (it is common to talk about directories using the terminology of family relations, like "parent", "child", "descendant", "ancestor", "sibling", etc.). Directories are separated with "/". Names of directories and files can contain all characters except "/" and the null character. An example path would be: /var/logs/apache/error.log This path refers to a file called "error.log" which is found in a directory called "apache", which is a subdirectory of a directory called "logs", which is subdirectory of a directory called "var", which is a subdirectory of the root directory (/). DEVICE As data/files can be written to and read uniquely, all external devices in the computer system may send and receive data uniquely because in Linux all devices connected to the system are represented as files in the /dev directory. These files cannot be renamed or moved ( as they are not stored on any disk). This approach greatly simplifies application programming. DRIVE LETTERS Unlike Windows, there are no drive letters in Linux; root directory represents the drive on which the system is installed. Other drives can be "mounted" or "unmounted" in any directory (preferably, an empty one) in the file system. By mounting a disk, you attach the root directory of this disk to a directory in the file system. After that, you can access the disk like it was a part of your system disk. USERS The user is a metaphor for somebody or something interacting with the system. Users are identified by a user name and a password. Internally, each user has a unique number assigned, which is called a user ID, or UID for short. You only need to know your UID in some rare situations. Users can additionally be organized in groups. There is one special user in all Linux systems, which has the user name "root" and UID 0. It is also called the superuser. The superuser can do anything and is not controlled in any way by the security mechanisms. FILE PERMISSIONS Users exist to control the extent to which people and programs using the system can control it. This is accomplished by a system of file permissions. Each file belongs to one of the users that is, each file has an owner. Additionally, a file can be assigned to a group of users, but the owner must be a member of that group. Each file has three kinds of permissions: read, write and execute. These permissions can be assigned to three kinds of owner relations: owner, group and other. Other includes all users who are not the owner of the file and do not belong to the group which owns the file. Only the file owner or the superuser (root) can change the permissions or ownership of a file. File permissions are usually given as three octal digits (each from 0 to 7). The digits represent the permissions for, respectively, owner, group and other users. Each digit is the sum of permission codes: 1 for execute, 2 for write and 4 for read.

Linux support many programming languages, desktop software, utilities, libraries and tools from GNU/Linux Project collection, TUX is the mascot of Linux. Although Linux is a clone of the operating system UNIX, written from scratch. Linux distribution is for Desktop to Entry level server to Advanced servers. Although Linux kernel originally developed first for 32-bit x86-based PCs (386 or higher), today it supports the Alpha AXP, Sun SPARC, Motorola 68000, PowerPC, ARM, Hitachi SuperH, IBM S/390, MIPS, HP PARISC, Intel IA-64, AMD x86-64, AXIS CRIS, Renesas M32R, Atmel AVR32, Renesas H8/300, NEC V850, Tensilica Xtensa, and Analog Devices Blackfin architectures; for many of these architectures in both 32- and 64-bit variants. GNU/Linux server features Web server, proxy server, Database server, Mail server, Network server, File and Print server, SMS server, LDAP server with administration tool both GUI and web based. BOSS (Bharat Operating System solution) BOSS is GNU/Linux Operating System distribution developed by C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing) derived from Debian Linux distribution for enhancing the use of Free/ Open Source Software throughout India. BOSSGNU/Linux - a key deliverable of NRCFOSS (National Resource Centre for Free/Open Source Software)has upgraded from Desktop to Entry level server to Advanced server. It supports Intel and AMD x86/x86-64 architecture. BOSS GNU/Linux advanced server has unique features such as Web server, proxy server, Database server, Mail server, Network server, File and Print server, SMS server, LDAP server. BOSS GNU/Linux advanced server is comprised with administration tool such as webmin which is a web based interface, Gadmin, PHP myadmin, PHP LDAP admin, PG admin. The Beta Release of BOSS GNU/Linux Version 4.0 is coupled with GNOME Desktop Environment with wide Indian language support & packages, relevant for use in the Government domain. This release aims more at the security part and comes with an easy to use application to harden your Desktop. Currently BOSS GNU/Linux Desktop is available in all the Official Indian Languages such as Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Bodo, Urdu, Kashmiri, Maithili, Konkani, Manipuri which will enable the mainly non-English literate users in the country to be exposed to ICT and to use the computer more effectively. The accessibility of BOSS Linux will have a constructive impact on the digital divide in India as more people can now have access to software in their local language to use the Internet and other information and communications technology (ICT) facilities. Community Information centers (CICs) and internet cafes will also benefit from BOSS GNU/Linux as this software can be utilized to power these outlets and is affordable and easy to install, use and support. All the explanation on traits and working for OPERATING SYSTEM LINUX is also applicable to BOSS.