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Using APA Style Running head: USING APA STYLE: A BRIEF GUIDE

Using APA Style: A Brief Guide to Formatting Papers Binghamton University

Using APA Style Using APA Style: A Brief Guide to Formatting Papers

Finding Information in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) APA TOPIC Abbreviations Appendixes Figures Font (typeface) Headings (levels of) Margins Numbers Order of Manuscript Pages Page Headers Page Numbers Punctuation Quotations Reference Citations (in text) Reference List References (elements & examples) Running Head Sample Paper in APA format Seriation Spaces Tables Title Page 103-111 205-207, 299-300 176-201, 302 285-286 111-115, 289-290 286-287 122-130 287-288 288 288 78-88, 290-291 117-122, 292-293 207-214 215-231, 299 231-281 10-12, 296 306-320 115-117, 292 290-291 147-176, 301-302 10-12, 296-298, 306 PAGE NUMBER(S)

American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Using APA Style Order of Manuscript: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Title page (separate page) Abstract (separate page) Text (start on a separate page) References (start on a separate page) Appendixes (start each on separate page)

Title Page: Title should be 10 - 12 words Byline = Author's Name + Institutional Affiliation Author First Name + Middle Initial + Last Name (Omit all titles and degrees) Institutional Affiliation "Binghamton University" Title & Byline title caps, double-space, center-aligned, center vertically Instructor's Name [NOTE: This information is NOT APA, but PLEASE include!] Header = Page Header + 5 spaces + Page Number Page Header First 2 or 3 words from the title Page Number Title Page = page 1 Header title caps, double-spaced Running Head = The words "Running head:" + ABBREVIATED TITLE Abbreviated title MAX 50 characters, all uppercase letters Running head top of page, left-aligned Subsequent Page Formatting: First Page of Text Begin on new page [if no abstract, then first page of text will be page 2] Same header as title page in top right hand corner Title top of page, center-aligned, double-spaced Text double-spaced, sections follow each other without a break Watch out for orphans!

Margins, Alignment, Lines, and Font: 1" margin at the top, bottom, right, and left of every page Text justification left-aligned (right margin uneven) Indent the first line of every paragraph 5 - 7 spaces (use tab key--set to 1/2 ") Do NOT use hyphenation function to break words at the end of lines Do NOT put more than 27 lines of text on a page Use a serif font (e.g., Times New Roman or Courier) Do NOT use condensed fonts

Using APA Style Font size should be 12 points Double-space between all lines (i.e., set the line spacing to 2) Do NOT use single-spacing or one-and-a-half spacing

Using APA Style Capitalization and Alignment: lower case no letters are capitalized Title Case (Title Caps) Only the Important Words are Capitalized Sentence case (Sentence caps) Only the first word is capitalized UPPER CASE ALL LETTERS ARE CAPITALIZED

Left Alignment

Center-Alignment

Right-Alignment

These lines are justified both left and right since the words on the page extend to both the left and right margins. For text within the body of your paper, use left alignment and NOT the left and right justification.

Headings: Level 1 Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Heading) Level 2 Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (important notes) Level 3 Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading Level 4 Indented, Italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Level 5 CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING

Using APA Style How to Determine Which Levels of Heading to Use: # OF HEADING LEVELS IN MANUSCRIPT 1 2 3 HEADING LEVELS (STYLES) USED AND ORDER OF USE Level 1 Level 1 Level 3 Level 1 Level 3 Level 4 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4

FOR EXAMPLE: Suppose you have an outline as follows: OUTLINE FORMAT Title of Paper I. Level 3 A. B. C. II. Level 3 A. B. C. III. Level 3 HEADING LEVEL (STYLE) USED Level 1 Topic 1

Subtopic 1A Level 4 Subtopic 1B Level 4 Subtopic 1C Level 4 Topic 2 Subtopic 2A Level 4 Subtopic 2B Level 4 Subtopic 2C Level 4 Topic 3

Using APA Style A. B. C. Subtopic 3A Level 4 Subtopic 3B Level 4 Subtopic 3C Level 4

Note that the paper actually has three levels of headings: (a) Title (b) Roman Numerals (Topic), and (c) Capital Letters (Subtopic). Refer to the table entitled "How to Determine Which Levels of Heading to Use." If a paper that has three levels of headings (left column), then the correct Heading Levels (Styles) used are 1, 3, and 4 (right column). Thus, if this paper was formatted using the above outline, the headings would appear in the paper as follows on the next page: Title of Paper Topic 1(italized) The purpose of this sample paper is to demonstrate the use of heading levels in a scholarly paper. Note that the title is the first level and is center-aligned, and uses upper and lower case letters (title capitalization). The next heading level is the first Roman numeral topic and uses the level-three heading style. This style is left aligned, underlined, and uses upper and lower case letters (title capitalization). Note that the paragraph then starts on the next line below the heading and is indented 5-7 spaces. Once an introductory paragraph is written, the author may transition to the first subtopic. Subtopic 1A.(Italized) The subtopics in this outline use the fourth level (style) of heading which is an indented, underlined, lower case (sentence capitalization) paragraph heading that ends with a period. Note that when using the fourth heading level (style), the paragraph continues on the same line as the heading level. In this paragraph the author would continue to discuss relevant information to subtopic 1A. Not all information need be contained within one paragraph, however. If more than one paragraph is needed to cover the relevant information in subtopic 1A, then the paragraphs

Using APA Style continue in the same manner as this one until all relevant information is discussed. Remember to avoid orphans that are just a few words or a single line of a paragraph that appears at the

very bottom or very top of a page. Always split your paragraphs so that at least two lines of the paragraph are on any given page. Subtopic 1B. For each subtopic in the paper, the format is consistent with other headings at the same level. Thus, subtopic 1B will appear similar to subtopic 1A. The heading is indented, underlined, uses sentence capitalization, ends with a period, and the paragraph continues on the same line. Subtopic 1C. Again, the same style heading is used for subtopic 1C as for subtopics 1A and 1B. When this section is complete and the author is ready to move onto the next section. Topic A Topic A would then continue in this manner . . .

NOTE:

For DSON papers, headings labeled the same as the sections in the paper are very helpful for faculty!

Seriation: TYPE OF SERIATION Simple series of three or more elements within a sentence Complex series within a paragraph + elements do not contain a comma Complex series within a paragraph + at least one element contains a comma Paragraphs in a series EXAMPLE height, width, or depth Stacy, Newcomb, and Bentler The participant's three choices were (a) working with one other participant, (b) working with a team, and (c) working alone. We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points; (b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high scorers, who scored more than 50 points. 1. Individuals who . . . [paragraph continues]

Using APA Style

2. Nondepressed persons exposed to . . . [paragraph continues] 3. Depressed persons exposed to . . . [paragraph continues] 4. Depressed and nondepressed participants in the no-noise groups . . . [paragraph continues] NOTE: Series MUST be syntactically and conceptually parallel. Pay particular attention to commas, semi-colons, and periods.

Using APA Style Spacing: Space once after: commas, colons, and semicolons punctuation marks at the end of sentences periods that separate elements of a reference citation periods after initials in personal names Do NOT space after: internal periods in abbreviations around colons in ratios Spacing after other punctuation: PUNCTUATION Hyphen Em Dash En Dash SPACING No space before or after To amplify or digress from the main clause Two hyphens with no space before or after Between words of equal weight in a compound adjective sinfge hypehen with no space before or after Subtraction one hyphen with a space on both sides One hyphen with a space before but not after EXAMPLE around-the-clock studies--published and unpublished--are Chicago-London flight

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Minus Negative Number Numbers:

a-b for example, if you used the number -5.25 in a sentence

Use figures to express: all numbers 10 and above all numbers below 10 that are grouped for comparison with numbers 10 and above numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, percentages, ratios, and percentiles and quartiles numbers that represent time; dates; ages; sample, sub-sample, or population size; specific numbers of subjects in an experiment; scores and points on a scale; exact sums of money; and numerals as numerals numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a list of four or more numbers all numbers in the abstract of a paper

Using APA Style Use words to express:

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numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements and that are grouped for comparison with numbers below 10 the numbers zero and one when the words would be easier to comprehend than the figures or when the words do not appear in context with numbers 10 and above any number that begins a sentence, title, or heading common fractions universally accepted usage Combine figures and words to express numbers for: rounded large numbers (e.g., 3 million people) back-to-back modifiers (e.g., ten 7-point scales, the first 10 items)

Decimals, decimal points and zeroes: Use a zero before the decimal point when numbers are less than 1 Do NOT use a zero before the decimal point when the number cannot be greater than 1 (e.g., probabilities) Plurals of numbers: Add "s" or "es" -- no apostrophe (e.g., fours and sixes, 1950s, 10s and 20s) Tables: Reserve for crucial data that are directly related to the content of the article Arrange the data so that the meaning is obvious at a glance Use to supplement, not duplicate, text Make self explanatory--tables should be intelligible without reference to the text Give every table a brief but explanatory title Number all tables with arabic numerals in the order in which the tables are first mentioned in the text In text, refer to tables by their number (e.g., as shown in Table 8, the responses were . . . ) Refer to every table in text and tell the reader what to look for--summarize the key points--discuss only the highlights in the text

Using APA Style Abbreviations: Use sparingly--use only those that will clarify communication with the reader Use if the abbreviation is accepted convention or if considerable space can be saved and cumbersome repetition avoided All acronyms and abbreviations MUST be explained First time term used write out term completely then enclose abbreviation in parentheses immediately after (e.g., a complete blood count (CBC) was drawn) Subsequently Use abbreviation in text without further explanation Do NOT switch between the abbreviated and written-out forms of a term Reference List: chap. = chapter ed. = edition Rev. ed. = revised edition 2nd ed. = second edition Ed. (Eds.) = Editor (Editors) n.d. = no date p. (pp.) = page (pages) Vol. = Volume Vols. = volumes No. = Number Pt. = Part Suppl. = Supplement Latin Abbreviations: cf. = compare e.g., = for example etc. = and so forth i.e., = that is viz., = namely vs. = versus, against Routes of Administration: im = intramuscular ip = intraperitoneal iv = intravenous sc = subcutaneous

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Appendixes: Used to provide reader with detailed information that would be distracting if included in the main body If only one appendix then label it Appendix (centered at the top of the page) If more than one appendix then label Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. (centered at the top of the page) Each appendix must have a title: Double-space and type the title of the appendix (centered, in uppercase and lowercase letters) below the label If a table constitutes an entire appendix, the centered appendix label and title replaces the table number and title Double-space indent the first line 5 - 7 spaces, and begin text Sequence appendixes in the order in which they are mentioned in the text Begin each appendix on a separate page

Using APA Style

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In text, refer to appendixes by their labels (e.g., Appendix A contains . . . )

Using APA Style Quotations: 118) Direct quotes MUST be accurate

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ALWAYS provide author, year, and specific page citation in the text (see p.

For electronic media, paragraph numbers may be used in place of page numbers When paraphrasing, authors are not required to provide a page number, but are encouraged to do so especially when it would help an interested reader locate the text If original source is incorrect insert the word sic underlined and in brackets immediately after the error (e.g., if a word is speled [sic] wrong within the quotes) Use single quotation marks within double quotation marks to set off material that was enclosed by double quotation marks in the original source Use double quotation marks within block quotes to set off material that was enclosed by double quotation marks in the original source Place commas and periods within closing single or double quotation marks Place other punctuation marks inside quotation marks only when part of quoted material The first letter of the first word of a quote may be changed to uppercase or lowercase The punctuation at the end of a sentence may be changed to fit the syntax Use three spaced ellipsis points (. . . ) within a sentence to indicate omitted material Use four spaced ellipsis points (. . . . ) to indicate any omission between sentences Use brackets, NOT parentheses, to enclose additions or explanations To add emphasis italicize words to be emphasized then immediately insert [italics added] Do NOT omit citations within quoted material. Do NOT include on the reference page unless they are cited elsewhere in your paper. Fair use of copyrighted material generally permits up to 500 words of quoted text without explicit permission of the copyright owner LENGTH Short # WORDS < 40 FORMAT Incorporate into text

Using APA Style Enclose with double quotation marks Block quote--double-spaced block of typewritten lines Start on a new line Indent block 5-7 spaces from left margin Do NOT indent first paragraph, but indent subsequent paragraphs 5-7 spaces No quotation marks

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Long

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Using APA Style Short Quotes Citation in Mid-sentence: She stated, The placebo effect . . . disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner (Miele, 1993, p. 276), but she did not clarify which behaviors were studied. Short Quote Citation at End of Sentence: Miele (1993) found that the placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first groups] behaviors were studied in this manner (p. 276). (author+ year + page number) Block Quote Citation After Final Punctuation (use block indent) Miele (1993) found the following: The placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again [italics added], even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies (e.g., Abdullah, 1984; Fox, 1979) were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276) NOTE: Pay particular attention to punctuation before and after the page citation.

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Reference List: All references cited in text MUST appear in the reference list Each entry in the reference list MUST be cited in the text Data must be complete and correct + MUST contain all information necessary for identification and library search Start the reference list on a new page Type the word "References" at the top of the page Format uppercase and lowercase letters, center-align Double-space each entry Start each entry with a hanging indent (NOTE: Format is a change from th the 4 ed.)

Using APA Style Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author Do NOT include personal communications

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ALPHABETIZING REFERENCES ON THE REFERENCE PAGE


SITUATION: RULE Alphabetize letter by letter Nothing precedes something M', Mc, Mac Disregard apostrophe Alphabetize prefixes literally Names with articles and prepositions If prefix is used as part of name If prefix is not used as part of name One-author entry by the same author Arrange by year of publication, earliest first One author + multiple author entries with same surname Single author precedes multiple author Same first author with different second or third authors Alphabetically be surname of subsequent authors Same authors in the same order Arrange by year of publication, earliest first Same authors in the same order with the same publication date Arrange alphabetically by title that follows date (exclude a or the) Lowercase letters are placed immediately after the year within the parentheses Different first authors with same surname Arranged alphabetically by first initial Group author Alphabetize by first significant word of name No author Title moves to the author position Alphabetize by first significant word of title Anonymous - No date Used if and only if work is signed anonymous EXAMPLE Brown, J. R. Browning, J. R. MacArthur MacNeil McAllister M'Carthy DeBase De Vries Helmholtz, H. von Kim, L. S. (1991). Kim, L. S. (1994). Kaufman, J. R. (1991). Kaufman, J. R., & Cochran, D. F. (1987). Kaufman, J. R., Jones, K., & Cochran, D. F. (1992). Kaufman, J. R., & Wong, D. F. (1989). Letterman, D., Hall, A., & Leno, J. (1993). Letterman, D., Hall, A., & Seinfeld, J. (1993). Kaufman, J. R., & Jones, K. (1987). Kaufman, J. R., & Jones, K. (1990). Kaufman, J. R. (1990a). Control . . . Kaufman, J. R. (1990b). Roles of . . . Elliot, A. L., & Wallston, J. (1983). Elliot, G. E., & Ahlers, R. J. (1980). American Psychological Association. (1994). Mosby's medical, nursing, and allied health dictionary (5th ed).

Anonymous. (n.d.).

FORMATTING REFERENCES ON THE REFERENCE PAGE SITUATION (NAME OF JOURNAL) Journal 1 Author Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), pages. Wendler, M. C. (1996). Understanding healing: A conceptual analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24, 836-842. 2 Authors (if 2 authors place &) 3 - 6 Authors Lazar, J. S., & O'Connor, B. B. (1997). Talking with patients about their use of alternative therapies. Primary Care, 24, 699-713. Cribb, A., Bignold, S., & Ball, S. J. (1994). Linking the parts: An exemplar of philosophical and practical issues in holistic nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20, 233-238. > 6 Authors list first 6 authors then et al. Continuous Pagination Pagination by Issue Wells-Federman, C. L., Stuart, E. M., Deckro, J. P., Mandle, C. L., Baim, M., & Medich, C. (1995). The mind-body connection: The psychophysiology of many traditional nursing interventions. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 9(1), 59-66. Ward, S. L. (1998). Caring and healing in the 21st century. Maternal Child Nursing, 23, 210-215. Keegan, L. (1998). Getting comfortable with alternative & complementary therapies. Nursing, 98(4), 50-53. EXAMPLE (FORMAT)

FORMATTING REFERENCES ON THE REFERENCE PAGE SITUATION Magazine Monthly - Discontinuous Pagination Book Edition EXAMPLE Author, A. (Year, Month). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume, pages. Yeager, S. (1998, February). A consumer's guide to alternative medicine. Prevention, 50, 86-91, 166-169. Author, A. (Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher. Dossey, B. M., Keegan, L., & Guzzetta, C. E. (2000). Holistic nursing: A handbook for nursing practice (3nd ed.). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen. Revised Edition Group Author Alphabetized under "B" Group Author as Publisher Edited Book Kunz, D. (Ed.). (1995). Spiritual healing (Rev. ed.). Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House. The Burton Goldberg Group. (1993). Alternative medicine: The definitive guide. Puyallup, WA: Future Medicine. American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Cant, S., & Sharma, U. (Eds.). (1996). Complementary and alternative medicines: Knowledge in practice. New York: Free Association Books. No Author or Editor Nursing 99 drug handbook. (1999). Springhouse, PA: Springhouse.(place name of book and publisher)

FORMATTING REFERENCES ON THE REFERENCE PAGE SITUATION Chapter in a Book Edited 1 Editor EXAMPLE Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In Title of book (pp. pages). Location: Publisher. Mulloney, S. S., & Wells-Federman, C. L. (1998). Therapeutic touch: A healing modality. In C. E. Guzetta (Ed.), Essential readings in holistic nursing (pp. 296-315). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen. 2 Editors Edition Egan, E. C. (1998). Therapeutic touch. In M. Snyder & R. Lindquist (Eds.), Complementary / alternative therapies in nursing (3rd ed., pp. 49-62). New York: Springer. 3 Editors Edition Dossey, B. M. (1995). The psychophysiology of bodymind healing. In B. M. Dossey, L. Keegan, C. E. Guzzetta, & L. G. Kolkmeier (Eds.), Holistic nursing: A handbook for practice (2nd ed., pp. 87-111). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen. Brochure Individual Author Author, A. A. (Year). Title of brochure [Brochure]. Location: Publisher. Eggleston, P. A. (1993). Childhood asthma: A guide for parents [Brochure]. San Ramon, CA: Health Information Network. Corporate Author Bard Access Systems. (1992). Patient guide: How to care for your Hickman or Broviac catheter [Brochure]. Salt Lake City, UT: Author.

FORMATTING REFERENCES ON THE REFERENCE PAGE SITUATION Internet Journal EXAMPLE Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from source. Internet Article based on a Lee, R. (1999). Survival of a species: Harvesting the real treasure of the Amazon [Electronic version]. print source - online format differs from print Article in an Internet-only journal - no volume or issue Internet article retrieved from a database Individual Work Book - Author Reprinted On-line Bragadottir, H. (1998). Every nurse can be an author: On writing for publication [Electronic version]. Nursing Forum 33(4). Retrieved September 19, 2001 from Infotrac database. Author, A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved Month Day, year, from source. Strunk, W. (1999, July). The elements of style (On-line ed.). Retrieved September 19, 2001, from http://www.bartleby.com/141/ Holistic Health Journal, 5(2). Retrieved September 16, 1999(kung kelan kinuha), from http://holistichealthjournal.com/text/rainforest.txt (place the link) Collins, M. S. (1997, August 13). Issues of accreditation: A dean's perspective. Online Journal of Nursing. Retrieved September 16, 1999, from http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/tpc4/tpc4_1.htm

FORMATTING REFERENCES ON THE REFERENCE PAGE SITUATION Online Web Page Individual Author No Date Corporate Author EXAMPLE Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of web page. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from source. Smith, C. (n.d.). Therapeutic touch. Retrieved September 16, 1999, from http://adultpain.nursing.uiowa.edu/Nonpharm/AROMATtt.htm American Holistic Nurses' Association. (1998). Standards of holistic nursing practice. Retrieved September 16, 1999 from http://ahna.org/standards.html No author/date - title in author position Document retrieved from a large complex Web site The Neumann systems model. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2001, from http://www.lemmus.demon.co.uk/neumodel.htm Lamos, S. (1998, April 28). Grammar handbook. Retrieved September 19, 2001 from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne Writers Workshop Web site: http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/index.htm

Considerations for citing Internet sources: Credit the author - intellectual property Provide sufficient information for the reader to locate the source Avoid division of electronic address at the end of a line If necessary: divide at a diagonal ( / ), period ( . ), or hyphen ( - ) Do NOT add hyphen or other punctuation Do NOT use a period after the address to indicate the end of the element

FORMATTING CITATIONS IN TEXT SITUATION One Work 1 Author First citation and subsequent citations are the same 2 Authors Cite both names every time 3 - 5 Authors First Citation--Cite all authors Subsequent Citations-Cite surname of first author followed by et al. 6 Authors First citation and subsequent citations-Cite surname of first author followed by et al. Two References Shorten to the Same Form Cite surnames of first authors and as many of subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references followed by et al. Electronic Sources If no page number provided use paragraph number Wendler (1996) discussed . . . . . . is the basis of all healing (Wendler, 1996). Author in Text Author in Parentheses

Lazar and O'Connor (1997) presented . . . Cribb, Bignold, and Ball (1994) described . . . Cribb et al. (1994) also delineated . . .

. . . is important for maintaining a patient's trust (Lazar & O'Connor, 1997). . . . is fundamental to holistic nursing (Cribb, Bignold, & Ball, 1994). . . . as the philosphical basis for nursing (Cribb et al., 1994).

Wells-Federman et al. (1994) also contrasted . . . . has both a psychologic and physiologic basis .. (Wells-Federman et al., 1994)

Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, et al. (1992) and Kosslyn, Koenig, Gabrieli, et al. (1992) found that . . .

. . . had similar results (Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, et al., 1992; Kosslyn, Koenig, Gabrieli, et al., 1992).

(Meyers, 2000, 5) using symbol OR (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1) using section heading and paragraph within section and abbreviation para.

. . . quoted text material (Meyers, 2000, 5). Beutler (2000) stated: Block quote greater than 40 words . . . end of quotation. (Conclusion section, para. 1).

FORMATTING CITATIONS IN TEXT SITUATION One Work Group as Author Group as Author with Recognized Abbreviation First Citation--give group author with abbreviation in brackets Subsequent Citations-use abbreviation only Work with No Author Authors with the Same Surname Two or More Works Same Author Order by year of publication Different Authors Alphabetical order by first author's surname Personal Communications NOTE: e-mail and other unretrievable electronic sources should be cited as personal communications Keegan (1996, 1998) states . . . Both Hoekstra (1994) and Boschma (1994) explore . . . Professor Johnston stated a need for more research in this area (personal communication, September 10, 1999). . . . in understanding hoslitic nursing practice (Keegan, 1996, 1998). . . . historical as well as scientifiic foundations (Boschma, 1994; Hoekstra, 1994) . . . as more research is needed in this area (Y. Johnston, personal communication, September 10, 1999). The Burton Goldberg Group (1993) stated . . . In 1998, the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and the budget was significantly increased as well. According to the NCCAM (1998), the most widely used alternative therapies are . . . According to the Nursing 99 Drug Handbook (1999), doses up to 40 mg / kg / day may be given. Both E. A. Schuster (1992) and J. Schuster (1997) believe caring for the environment . . . . . . are philosphically different (The Burton Goldberg Group, 1993). . . . has not been fully studied (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [NCCAM], 1998). . . . has been reconsidered in light of new research (NCCAM, 1998). . . . should not exceed the maximum daily dose (Nursing 99 Drug Handbook, 1999). NOTE: Alphabetically by first initial Author in Text Author in Parentheses

NOTE:

When writing papers within the Decker School of Nursing, be sure to maintain confidentiality GIVE INITIALS ONLY!!! ( e.g., Y. J. stated feeling . . . ) EXTREMELY IMPORTANT!!!