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A Project Report Submitted to Rajiv Gandhi Prodyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal Towards Partial Fulfillment of the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in (Electronics & Communication Engineering) 2011-2012 Supervised by :Mr. Pradeep Jhala Submitted by:Ms. Priya Pandagre (0834EC081076)


Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering KCB Technical Academy, Indore (M.P.) May 2011

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering KCB Technical Academy, Indore (M.P.)


The project entitled Multichannel single wire transmission body control submitted by Praveen Parihar and Rachana Malviya is a satisfactory account of the bonafide work done under our supervision is recommended towards partial fulfillment for the award of the Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics and Communication Engineering) by Rajiv Gandhi Prodyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal.

Head of the Deptt. Prof. Harshanad Golghate

Supervisor Mr. Pradeep Jhala

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering KCB TECHNICAL ACADEMY, Indore (M.P.) Project Approval Sheet

The project entitled Multichannel single wire transmission body control submitted by Praveen Parihar and Rachana Malviya is approved as partial fulfillment for the award of the Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics & Communication Engineering) by Rajiv Gandhi Prodyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal.

Internal Examiner Date:

External Examiner Date:


It is a great pleasure and moment of immense satisfaction for us to express our profound gratitude to our esteemed Guide, Mr. Pradeep Jhala Department of Electronics and communication engineering whose constant encouragement enabled us to work enthusiastically. We are extremely thankful to Prof. Harshanand Golghate Head of Electronics &communication Engineering Department KCBTA Indore, as well as Mr.Imran beig, Mr. Azaz beig Mr.sourabh, Mr.Alok yadav and Miss Charu Sharma for their cooperation and motivation during these project. Last but not the least We would like to acknowledge all our friends those who have contributed directly or indirectly in these project. Finally, We wish to thank to our parents for their immense personal and emotional support throughout these project.

Praveen parihar Rachana malviya





1.1 Introduction of project 2. 3. CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 4.1 Circuit diagram 4.2 Circuit discription 4. 5. 6.
6.1 6.2 6.3


10 10 14 15




Modes of operation Pin configuration 18


CHAPTER 7 7.1 Pcb layout


23 23 25 26 31 31 31

7.2 Manufacturing techniques 7.3 Steps taken while preparing designs 8. CHAPTER 8 8.1 Advantage 8.2 Drawback 8.3 Future schope 9. CHAPTER 9 9.1 Result 9.2 Analysis 10.REFRANCE APPENDIX I & II RESULT AND ANALYSIS 32 ADVANTAGE AND DRAWBACK





This project is based on DARK DETECTOR USING 555 TIMER.. Various electrical or electronic devices which you want to control in a house or a working place are controlled through a single wire instead of using a network of wires. It is used to detect darkness all of the sudden.The LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR is used to detect light.Due to absence of light ,LDR get short and circuit reset. This circuit is totally based on digital electronics. In this we are transmitting the signal in the form of pulses that is in the digital format which is either 0 or 1, instead of using the analog signals. The major advantage of using digital signals is that it reduces the production of noise due to the transmission to almost negligible. Digital signals are transmitted in two levels which can be 1 that is maximum and 0 that is minimum level.



First we search different IC of our circuit.

We design the schematic of our circuit on Eagle Software and

Design our circuit on board for PCB layout.

Tracing of Layout of our circuit on PCB.

Etching and Drilling on our PCB. Mounting all the components on the PCB. Testing of PCB at different points. The testing is ok and run our Project



Figure 3.2.1

OPERATION:- : Put the timer in Stick the timer in the breadboard so that the notch and/or circle is facing to the left.: Stick the negative and positive rails in. If you haven't worked with circuits before, here comes the (semi) tricky part. Connect the 1st pin with the negative rail. Then, connect the 8th pin with the positive rail.

If you need help with the pinouts, see the Pin Diagram picture. : Connect pins 2 and 6....with a piece of wire. Again, if you need help identifying the pins, consult the pin chart. : Stick (yes stick) the 100k resistor in. Connect the 4th and 8th pin with it. : Put (not stick) the 1 megaohm resistor in it's place . It's place would be connecting the 2nd pin to the 3rd pin. : Stick the capacitor in. Put it in pins one and two. If you have an electrolytic capacitor, make sure that the polarity is correct. : Put the Cds cell in. Make sure that it connects pin 1 and pin 4. : The Hard Part (for some)




Component No. & Value One 1 megaohm resistor One 100K resistor One 100 ohm



A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor.



1000pf 3 Capacitor

The piezo buzzer produces sound based on reverse of the piezoelectric effect. The generation of pressure variation or strain by the application of electric potential across a piezoelectric material is the underlying principle. These buzzers can be used alert a user of an event corresponding to a switching action, counter signal or sensor input. They are also used in alarm circuits. A capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. In its simplest form, a capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulating material called the dielectric.

Light dependent resistor


A (LDR)a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor or CdS device, from "cadmium sulfide," which is the material from which the device is made and that actually exhibits the variation in resistance with light level. Note that although CdS is a semiconductor, it is not doped silicon.


CHAPTER 5 5.1 COMPONENT DISCRIPTION 5.1.1 Resistors A Resistor is a heat-dissipating element and in the electronic circuits it is mostly used for either controlling the current in the circuit or developing a voltage drop across it, which could be utilized for many applications. Basically the resistor can be split in to the following four parts from the construction viewpoint. Base Resistance element Terminals Protective means. The following characteristics are inherent in all resistors and may be controlled by design considerations and choice of material i.e. Temperature coefficient of resistance, Voltage co efficient of resistance, high frequency characteristics, power rating, tolerance & voltage rating of resistors. Resistors may be classified as Fixed Semi variable Variable resistor. our project carbon resistors are being used.


5.1.2 Capacitors The fundamental relation for the capacitance between two flat plates separated by a dielectric material is given by:C=0.08854KA/D Where: C= capacitance in pf. K= dielectric constant A=Area per plate in square cm. D=Distance between two plates in cm Design of capacitor depends on the proper dielectric material with particular type of application. The dielectric material used for capacitors may be grouped in various classes like Mica, Glass, air, ceramic, paper, Aluminum, electrolyte etc. The value of capacitance never remains constant. It changes with temperature, frequency and aging. The capacitance value marked on the capacitor strictly applies only at specified temperature and at low frequencies.




Figure 6.1.2 5.1.3 PIEZO BUZZER The piezo buzzer produces sound based on reverse of the piezoelectric effect. The generation of pressure variation or strain by the application of electric potential across a piezoelectric material is the underlying principle. These buzzers can be used alert a user of an event corresponding to a switching action, counter signal or sensor input. They are also used in alarm circuits.

The buzzer produces a same noisy sound irrespective of the voltage variation applied to it. It consists of piezo crystals between two conductors. When a potential is applied across these crystals, they push on one conductor and pull on the other. This, push and pull action, results in a sound wave. Most buzzers produce sound in the range of 2 to 4 kHz. The Red lead is connected to the Input and the Black lead is connected to Ground.

FIGURE 5.1.3



An LDR (Light dependent resistor), as its name suggests, offers resistance in response to the ambient light. The resistance decreases as the intensity of incident light increases, and vice versa. In the absence of light, LDR exhibits a resistance of the order of mega-ohms which decreases to few hundred ohms in the presence of light. It can act as a sensor, since a varying voltage drop can be obtained in accordance with the varying light. It is made up of cadmium sulphide (CdS). An LDR has a zigzag cadmium sulphide track. It is a bilateral device, i.e., conducts in both directions in same fashioN



555 TIMER 6.1 INTRODUCTION TO 555 TIMER The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flipflop element. Derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one package. Introduced in 1971 by Signetics, the 555 is still in widespread use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability, and is now made by many companies in the original bipolar and also in low-power CMOS types. As of 2003, it was estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year.[1]


The 555 has three operating modes: 6.2.1 Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch


switches,frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so

on. 6.2.2 Astable mode: free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation and so on. Selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature, linearize it and even provide calibration means.

6.2.3 Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce-free latched switches. In bistable mode,

the 555 timer acts as a basic flip-flop. The trigger and reset inputs (pins 2 and 4 respectively on a 555) are held high via Pull-up resistors while the threshold input (pin 6) is simply grounded. Thus configured, pulling the trigger momentarily to ground acts as a 'set' and transitions the output pin (pin 3) to Vcc (high state). Pulling the reset input to ground acts as a 'reset' and transitions the output pin to ground (low state). No capacitors are required in a bistable configuration. Pin 5 (control) is connected to ground via a small-value capacitor (usually 0.01 to 0.1 uF); pin 7 (discharge) is left floating.



Pin Name 1 2 3 GND TRIG OUT

Purpose Ground, low level (0 V) OUT rises, and interval starts, when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. This output is driven to +VCC or GND.

4 RESET A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND. 5 6 7 CTRL "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default, 2/3 VCC). THR DIS The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. Open collector output; may discharge a capacitor between intervals. Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V.

8 V+, VCC




It is an important process in the fabrication of electronic equipment. The design of PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) depends on circuit requirements like noise immunity, working frequency and voltage levels etc. High power PCBs requires a special design strategy. The fabrication process to the printed circuit board will determine to a large extent the price and reliability of the equipment. A common target aimed is the fabrication of small series of highly reliable professional quality PCBs with low investment. The target becomes especially important for customer tailored equipments in the area of industrial electronics. The layout of a PCB has to incorporate all the information of the board before one can go on the artwork preparation. This means that a concept which clearly defines all the details of the circuit and partly defines the final equipment, is prerequisite before the actual lay out can start. The detailed circuit diagram is very important for the layout designer but he must also be familiar with the design concept and with the philosophy behind the equipment.

The two most popular PCB types are: 1. Single Sided Boards The single sided PCBs are mostly used in entertainment electronics where manufacturing costs have to be kept at a minimum. However in industrial electronics cost factors cannot be neglected and single sided boards should be used wherever a particular circuit can be accommodated on such boards. 2. Double Sided Boards

Double-sided PCBs can be made with or without plated through holes. The production of boards with plated through holes is fairly expensive. Therefore plated through hole boards are only chosen where the circuit complexities and density of components does not leave any other choice.

7.3 STEPS TAKEN WHILE PREPARING DESIGN 7.3.1 PCB Design The main purpose of printed circuit is in the routing of electric currents and signal through a thin copper layer that is bounded firmly to an insulating base material sometimes called the substrate. This base is manufactured with an integrally bounded layer of thin copper foil which has to be partly etched or removed to arrive at a pre-designed pattern to suit the circuit connections or other applications as required. The term printed circuit board is derived from the original method where a printed pattern is used as the mask over wanted areas of copper. The PCB provides an ideal baseboard upon which to assemble and hold firmly most of the small components. From the constructors point of view, the main attraction of using PCB is its role as the mechanical support for small components. There is less need for complicated and time consuming metal work of chassis contraception except perhaps in providing the final enclosure. Most straight forward circuit designs can be easily converted in to printed wiring layer the thought required to carry out the inversion cab footed high light an possible error that would otherwise be missed in conventional point to point wiring .The finished project is usually neater and truly a work of art. Actual size PCB layout for the circuit shown is drawn on the copper board. The board is then immersed in FeCl3 solution for 12 hours. In this process only the exposed copper portion is etched out by the solution.


Now the petrol washes out the paint and the copper layout on PCB is rubbed with a smooth sand paper slowly and lightly such that only the oxide layers over the Cu are removed. Now the holes are drilled at the respective places according to component layout as shown in figure.

7.3.2 Layout Design When designing the layout one should observe the minimum size (component body length and weight). Before starting to design the layout we need all the required components in hand so that an accurate assessment of space can be made. Other space considerations might also be included from case to case of mounted components over the printed circuit board or to access path of present components. It might be necessary to turn some components around to a different angular position so that terminals are closer to the connections of the components. The scale can be checked by positioning the components on the squared paper. If any connection crosses, then one can reroute to avoid such condition. All common or earth lines should ideally be connected to a common line routed around the perimeter of the layout. This will act as the ground plane. If possible try to route the outer supply line to the ground plane. If possible try to route the other supply lines around the opposite edge of the layout through the center. The first set is tearing the circuit to eliminate the crossover without altering the circuit detail in any way. Plan the layout looking at the topside to this board. First this should be translated inversely; later for the etching pattern large areas are recommended to maintain good copper adhesion. It is important to bear in mind always that copper track width must be according to the recommended minimum dimensions and allowance must be made for increased width where termination holes are needed. From this aspect, it can become little tricky to negotiate the route to connect small transistors.

There are basically two ways of copper interconnection patterns under side the board. The first is the removal of only the amount of copper necessary to isolate the junctions of the components to one another. The second is to make the interconnection pattern looking more like conventional point wiring by routing uniform width of copper from component to component.

7.3.3 Etching Process Etching process requires the use of chemicals. Acid resistant dishes and running water supply. Ferric chloride is mostly used solution but other etching materials such as ammonium per sulphate can be used. Nitric acid can be used but in general it is not used due to poisonous fumes. The pattern prepared is glued to the copper surface of the board using a latex type of adhesive that can be cubed after use. The pattern is laid firmly on the copper using a very sharp knife to cut round the pattern carefully to remove the paper corresponding to the required copper pattern areas. Then apply the resistant solution, which can be a kind of ink solution for the purpose of maintaining smooth clean outlines as far as possible. While the board is drying, test all the components. Before going to next stage, check the whole pattern and cross check with the circuit diagram. Check for any free metal on the copper. The etching bath should be in a glass or enamel disc. If using crystal of ferric- chloride these should be thoroughly dissolved in water to the proportion suggested. There should be 0.5 lt. of water for 125 gm of crystal. To prevent particles of copper hindering further etching, agitate the solutions carefully by gently twisting or rocking the tray. The board should not be left in the bath a moment longer than is needed to remove just the right amount of copper. In spite of there being a resistive coating there is no protection against etching away through exposed copper edges. This leads to over etching. Have running water ready so that etched board can be removed properly and rinsed. This will halt etching immediately.

Drilling is one of those operations that call for great care. For most purposes a 0.5mm drill is used. Drill all holes with this size first those that need to be larger can be easily drilled again with the appropriate larger size.

3.4 Component Assembly From the greatest variety of electronic components available, which runs into thousands of different types it is often a perplexing task to know which is right for a given job. There could be damage such as hairline crack on PCB. If there are, then they can be repaired by soldering a short link of bare copper wire over the affected part. The most popular method of holding all the items is to bring the wires far apart after they have been inserted in the appropriate holes. This will hold the component in position ready for soldering. Some components will be considerably larger .So it is best to start mounting the smallest first and progressing through to the largest. Before starting, be certain that no further drilling is likely to be necessary because access may be impossible later. Next will probably be the resistor, small signal diodes or other similar size components. Some capacitors are also very small but it would be best to fit these afterwards. When fitting each group of components mark off each one on the circuit as it is fitted so that if we have to leave the job we know where to recommence. Although transistors and integrated circuits are small items there are good reasons for leaving the soldering of these until the last step. The main point is that these components are very sensitive to heat and if subjected to prolonged application of the soldering iron, they could be internally damaged.

All the components before mounting are rubbed with sand paper so that oxide layer is removed from the tips. Now they are mounted according to the component layout.

7.3.5 Soldering This is the operation of joining the components with PCB after this operation the circuit will be ready to use to avoid any damage or fault during this operation following care must be taken. A longer duration contact between soldering iron bit & components lead can exceed the temperature rating of device & cause partial or total damage of the device. Hence before soldering we must carefully read the maximum soldering temperature & soldering time for device. The wattage of soldering iron should be selected as minimum as permissible for that soldering place. To protect the devices by leakage current of iron its bit should be earthed properly. We should select the soldering wire with proper ratio of Pb & Tn to provide the suitable melting temperature. Proper amount of good quality flux must be applied on the soldering point to avoid dry soldering.




10.1 Advantage A circuit is extremely useful and versatile in a wide range of renewable energy projects from automatic lighting to security systems Can be made by using relay, transistor also. This circuit is based on the digital electronics circuitry. The cost of the circuit is very less.

10.2 Drawback

The main problem is that the automatic turn-on is not sharp - i.e. rather than switching the lamp on fully as soon as ambient levels of light fall to a fixed point, the lamp turns on slowly getting brighter and brighter as light levels fall. This is not a serious problem when controlling a lamp - in fact it may even be desirable - however when controlling other devices (such as a night vision camera) it is not.

10.3 Future Scope The circuit can be utilizing for high operating voltage device. Since the vast majority of people do not have the necessary expertise and equipment to put together one of these circuits, we are happy to put one together for you according to your exact needs.




9.1 Result As result of these unique circuit we will successfully usedf for security purpose and sensing purpose in many electrical and electronic field.

9.2 Analysis We have undergone various types of researched and taken various type of views rgarding the construction of these circuit. .