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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.

1 Digital Image Processing Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithm to perform image proce ssing on digital images. As a subcategory or field of digital signal processing, digital image processing has many advantages over analog image processing. It a llows a much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can a void problems such as the build-up of noise and signal distortion during process ing. Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is a n image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of characteristics or parameters related to the im age. Most image-processing techniques involve treating the image as a two-dimens ional signal and applying standard signal-processing techniques to it. Digital i mage processing allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image process ing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple tasks, a nd the implementation of methods which would be impossible by analog means. In particular, digital image processing is the only practical technology for : Classification , Feature extraction , Pattern recognition , Projection, Multiscale signal analysis . Some techniques which are used in digital image processi ng include: Pixelization, Linear filtering, Principal components analysis, Ind ependent component analysis, Hidden Markov models, Anisotropic diffusion, Parti al differential equations, Self-organizing maps, Neural networks and Wavelets. T he applications of Image processing are in such fields as photography, satellite imaging, medical imaging, and image compression. The other applications are Ima ging, Computer vision, Optical sorting, Augmented Reality, Face detection, Featu re detection, Lane departure warning system, Non-photorealistic rendering, Medic al image processing, Microscope image processing, Morphological image processing , Remote sensing. Face recognition has received a great deal of attention from the scientific and industrial communities over the pasts several decades owing to its wide range of applications information security and access control, law enforcement, surveil lance and more generally image understanding .Numerous approaches have been prop osed, including (among many others) eigenfaces, fisherfaces, and laplacianfaces, nearest feature line-based subspace analysis, neural networks ,elastic bunch gr aph matching, wavelets, and kernel methods .Most of these methods were initially developed with face images collected under relatively well controlled condition s and in practice they Xiaoyang Tan is with the Department of Computer Science a nd Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, P.R. China. B ill Triggs is with the CNRS and Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann, BP 53, 38041 Grenobl e Cedex 9, France. The work was financed by the European Union research project Class and the National Science Foundation of China (60773060).Part of it was und ertaken at INRIA Grenoble. Corresponding author: Xiaoyang have difficulty in dea ling with the range of appearance variations that commonly occur in unconstraine d natural images due to illumination, pose, facial expression, ageing, partial o cclusions etc. This paper focuses mainly on the issue of robustness to lighting variations. For example, a face verification for a portable device shou ld be able to verify a client at any time (day or night) and in any place (indo ors or outdoors). Unfortunately, facial appearance depends strongly on the ambie nt lighting .FRVT and FRGC trials this remains one of the major challenges for cu rrent face recognition systems. Traditional approaches for dealing with this iss ue can be broadly classified in to three categories: appearance-based, normaliza tion based, and feature-based methods. In direct appearance-based approaches, tr aining examples are collected under different lighting conditions and directly ( i.e. without undergoing any lighting preprocessing) used to learn a global model of the possible illumination variations, for example a linear subspace or manif old model, which then generalizes to the variations seen in new images .Direct l earning of this kind makes few assumptions but it requires a large number of tra ining images and an expressive feature set.

CHAPTER 2 OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT Face Recognition is probably the most common biometric characteristic used by hu mans. It is a non-intrusive technique which people generally accept as a biometr ic characteristic. It is dependent on imaging devices. It has been subject of in tensive research for over 25 years. A facial recognition system is a computer-dr iven application for automatically identifying a person from a digital image. It does that by comparing selected facial features in the live image and a facial database. It is typically used for security systems. Popular recognition algorit hms include eigenface, fisherface, the Hidden Markov model and the neuronal moti vated Dynamic Link Matching. A newly emerging trend, claimed to achieve previous ly unseen accuracies, is three-dimensional face recognition. 2.1 Literature review 1 Sien. W. Chew, Patrick Lucey, Simon Luce, they present Person-Independen t Facial Expression Detection using Constrained Local Models In this method a system based on the Constrained Local Model (CLM) method which is a generic or person-independent face alignment algorithm which gains high acc uracy. The approach commonly adopted in developing these systems is to first tra ck the face and facial features, derive some feature representation from the fac e and then based on these features do some classification of facial expressions. If there is poor registration, this error would propagate through subsequent pr ocessing stages (i.e. feature extraction and classification), which ultimately d ictates the detection performance. 2.2 Literature review 2 Hamit Soyel and Hasan Demirel, they present a Improved SIFT Matching for Pose Robust Facial Expression Recognition. A major limitation of the previous facial expression recognition methods is that most of them focus on the frontal or nearly frontal view facial images . In gen eral the existing expression recognition algorithms can be classified into two c ategories: global and local feature based algorithms. Global feature based algor ithms aim at recognizing an expression image as a whole. In order to achieve the query expression image is sequentially pre-processed and segmented. Then, the g lobal features are extracted and finally statistical features classification tec hniques are used. Global feature based algorithms are simple and fast, but there are limitations on the reliability of recognition under changes in illumination and object pose [2]. In contrast, local feature based algorithms are more suita ble for expression images and are more robust with respect to variations in pose and illumination. In this paper, a new scheme called affine transform based discriminative pose invariant SIFT (-SIFT) is presented to reduce SIFT mismatches. We form a se t of linear combinations of the extracted sift matches from which the unknown tr anslation, rotation, and scale are eliminated. Region based approach allows us t o recover the keypoint depths in the face image using singular value decompositi on (SVD). 2.3 Literature review 3 Daniel McDuff, Rana el Kaliouby they present A New Visualization Tool for Unders tanding Facial Expression and Gesture Data This paper describes a new open-source tool that enables navigation of a nd interaction with dynamic face and gesture data across large groups of people, making it easy to see when multiple facial actions co-occur, and how these patt erns compare and cluster across groups of participants. Acume was used to answer existing, and new, research questions for two sets of ecologically valid data. We were able to 1) identify high-level patterns of facial responsiveness, 2) ide ntify the low-level AUs involved, 3) analyze specific patterns of co-occurrence and sequential occurrence of these AUs, and 4) reevaluate how labeling systems w ere performing. It was possible to make qualitative and quantitative judgments a bout the different clusters within the population of responses. 2.4 Literature review 4 Michel F. Valstar, Bihan Jiang, they present The First Facial Expression Recogni

tion and Analysis Challenge This paper describes the first such challenge, organized under the name of FERA2 001, which will be held in conjunction with the 9th IEEE International Conferenc e on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. The challenge will allow a fair com parison between systems vying for the title of state of the art. To do so, it uses a partition of the GEMEP corpus, developed by the Geneva Emotion Research Group (GERG) at the University of Geneva led by Klaus Scherer. The challenge is divid ed in two sub-challenges that reflect two popular approaches to facial expressio n recognition: an AU detection sub-challenge and an emotion detection sub-challe nge. The AU detection sub-challenge calls for researchers to attain the highest possible F1-measure for 12 frequently occurring AU. The emotion detection sub-ch allenge calls for systems to attain the highest possible classification rate for the detection of five discrete emotions: anger, fear, joy, relief, and sadness. 2.5 Literature review 5 R. Prema, Prof.K.ThirunadanaSikamani, Prof. R.Suguna, they present A Novel Featu re Extraction Scheme for face Recognition. Security and authentication of a person is a crucial part of any industry. There are many techniques used for this purpose. One of them is face recognition. Fac e recognition is an effective means of authenticating a person. The advantage of this approach is that, it enables us to detect changes in the face pattern of a n individual to an appreciable extent. The recognition system can tolerate local variations in the face expression of an individual. Hence face recognition can be used as a key factor in crime detection mainly to identify criminals. There a re several approaches to face recognition of which Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Gabor Wavelet Transform (GWT) have been incorporated in this paper. Th e system consists of a database of a set of facial patterns for each individual. The characteristic features called EigenFaces are extracted from the stored image s using which the system is trained for subsequent recognition of new images. CHAPTER 3 FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identify ing or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video sou rce. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from th e image and a facial database. It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition syst ems. Skin texture analysis is another emerging trend uses the visual details of the skin, as captured in standard digital or scanned images. This technique, cal led skin texture analysis, turns the unique lines, patterns, and spots apparent in a persons skin into a mathematical space. Tests have shown that with the addit ion of skin texture analysis, performance in recognizing faces can increase 20 t o 25 percent. As real-world applications for face recognition systems continue to increase, th e need for an accurate, easily trainable recognition system becomes more pressin g. Early work on face recognition involved methods such as principal component a nalysis, elastic bunch graph matching, and optical. flow based techniques . Curr ent systems have advanced to be fairly accurate in recognition under constrained scenarios, but extrinsic imaging parameters such as pose, illumination, and fac ial expression still cause much difficulty in correct recognition. The problem o f face recognition can be divided into two major areas: detection of the face re gion and identification of the detected region. Attempting recognition on an ina ccurate detected face region is hopeless. Face recognition techniques can be classified as holistic or component based. Ho listic or global approaches treat the entire face as one unit and are characteri zed by the lack of a priori decomposition of the image into semantically meaning ful facial parts. The component approach detects the facial parts first and then performs recognit ion. The justification behind the component-based approach is that the face has a strong configurationally appearance that can be exploited and the combination of multiple components will reduce the inaccuracy of an individual component det ector. However, the complexity of the system increases with the multiple detecti

on tasks, which need to be performed. Component-based methods are mainly charact erized by the use of a priori knowledge to represent the face in smaller parts a nd its constraints on the spatial configuration of parts. Object detection and recognition tasks such as face detection, person detection, and face recognition. The system in was a SVM based recognition system, which d ecomposed the face into a set of components that were interconnected by a flexib le geometrical model. The premise behind the system was that changes in the hea d pose mainly lead to changes in the position of the facial components which cou ld be accounted for by the flexibility of the geometrical model. In other words, the components themselves changed little compared to the change in position. The system consisted of a component-based face detection unit and a face recogni tion unit. In the face detection unit, fourteen component classifiers and a geom etrical classifier were used to detect the face and extract the components from an image. The component-based face recognition unit used the extracted component s to perform recognition. Their experiments showed that the component-based syst em consistently outperformed holistic recognition systems in which classificatio n was based on the whole face pattern. 3.1 Motivation and Goals The purpose is two-fold. Firstly, it aims to examine machine learning techniques to correlate 3D facial shape with its 3D pose, and use this correlation to esti mate the approximate pose of any face, given just the 3D shape information of th e face. The range of poses considered includes the entire view-sphere. Secondly, it surveys and critiques existing methods of facial recognition that make use o f purely 3D shape information. Furthermore, a new approach for pose-invariant fa ce recognition has been proposed, which combines two existing methods in cascade . In most face recognition systems, facial texture (i.e., 2D facial images) has been primarily used as the cue for recognition. However, facial texture is known to be sensitive to incident illumination, which can seriously hamper the perfor mance of a face recognition system. On the other hand, depth information is inhe rently unaffected by incident lighting. For these reasons, textural information has been ignored and only the depth information has been considered both for pos e estimation and face recognition. Most of the security applications are based on biometric personal features, whic h can help in preventing access to important data or secure places. With face id entification, we can recognize a person by the image of the person. The system c an check its database to recognize the person from this image. 3.2 Facial recognition system A facial recognition system is a computer-driven application for automatically i dentifying a person from a digital image. It does that by comparing selected fac ial features in the live image and a facial database.It is typically used for se curity systems. Popular recognition algorithms include eigenface, fisherface, th e Hidden Markov model and the neuronal motivated Dynamic Link Matching. A newly emerging trend, claimed to achieve previously unseen accuracies, is three-dimens ional face recognition. 3.2.1 Biometrics A biometric is a measure of identity based on a body part or behaviour of an ind ividual. The most well known biometrics are fingerprints, iris scans, facial ima ges, DNA and signatures. The face of the applicant would be scanned, and then co mpared with the biometric on the identity card which contains the biometrics in electronic form. The majority of face identification aims to recognize the person in all differen t conditions. The face recognition method includes: 1. Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Based Methods Eigenfaces 2. Linear Discriminant Methods Fisherfaces 3. Singular Value Decomposition Methods 4. Hidden Markov Model Based Methods 5. Neural Networks Approach 6. Template Based Matching 7. Feature Based Matching - Gabor Wavelet Decomposition Although human face recognition and identification systems have proven to be rel

iable in ideal environments, they can be very sensitive to real environmental co nditions. The effectiveness of the face recognition strongly depends on lighting conditions, expressions, occlusion such as wearing glasses or scarf, hairstyle, size of the image, rotation and tilt position of the face. For faces to be a us eful biometric signal, facial features used for face identification should remai n invariant to factors that modify face image appearance and are unrelated to pe rson identity. All of these problems affect the accuracy rates of the human face identification algorithms. Eigenface and fisherface algorithms are image-based methods. By reducing the dim ension of the face, they eliminate the unnecessary information for making recogn ition. While eigenface method uses principle component analysis, fisherface uses linear discriminate analysis. Both algorithms have two stages: training and tes ting. The complex task of face recognition was divided into several sub-steps of equal importance that need to be performed to actually identify someone. Our framewor k bases on four main tasks and is built around them Task 1 - Detection Prior to any other task, face detection has to take place. Face detection finds faces in an arbitrary image and ignores other image components like buildings, d oors, or any other background that does not resemble a face. A good facial detec tion defines itself by the accuracy of the located faces if they are found prope rly, the recognition task turns out to be a lot simpler Task 2 - Normalization Faces that were detected never look the same. The section varies in size, colors are different and the face could even be skewed. Normalization corrects most of these flaws. The position of both eyes is determined as a reference for resizin g and skew-correcting rotation. Also, the image is converted to grayscale and fa ded to black at the borders to get rid of background parts that were not elimina ted during detection Task 3 - Training To be able to recognize a face, a reference dataset of the to-be recognized face must be present. The creation of these datasets is the goal of the training-tas k. Normalized face images are combined in an algorithm-dependant way that they r epresent a good reference dataset, which can be used in subsequent recognition t asks Task 4 - Recognition When all prerequisites are achieved, the actual face recognition can take place. This task consists of comparing the normalized candidate face image with all th e known images from the reference face dataset. The algorithm-dependant comparis on results in a value indicating how similar two faces are. Depending on this, a face can be classified as identified or rejected as not known 3.3 Application With the framework wrapping these four tasks, several applications are implement ed. For example the first application allows calculating false acceptance- and f alse rejection rates on a large set of reference images (a facial recognition da tabase). The second application can acts as a surveillance system for a room and locates faces and possibly recognizes persons when they are passing through the monitored sector. This second application is equipped with an easy-to-use graph ical user interface. 3.3.1 Component-based Face Recognition Face recognition can be attempted once the face is detected in the image. The co mponent-based detector performs two tasks: the detection of the face in a given input image and the extraction of the facial components which are later needed t o recognize the face. The first level consists of fourteen independent component support vector machin e classifiers. The shape of the components was learned by an algorithm to achiev e optimal detection results. The components included the left and right eyebrows , left and right eyes, bridge of the nose, nose, left and right nostrils, left a nd right cheeks, mouth, lip, and left and right mouth corners.

On the second level, the geometrical classifier takes the first level outputs of the Component classifiers and performs the face detection. The first level outp uts consisted of the maximum continuous outputs of the component classifiers wit hin rectangular search regions around the expected positions of the components i n a 58 by 58 window. The rectangular search regions were determined from statist ical information about the location of the components in the training images. In addition, the geometrical classifier also used the maxima locations (x, y posit ions relative to the upper left corner of the 58 by 58 window). 3.3.2 3D Face Recognition It describes the methods that are to be implemented for the purpose of face reco gnition from 3D data. To perform recognition, an attempt is made to normalize th e probe image to a near frontal pose, where after a suitable similarity metric i s employed to compare the probe with a set of models from a database, so as to a scertain its correct identity. Methods are implemented for the purpose of normal ization of a facial range image to a frontal pose. The first is a feature-based technique, whereas the second follows a global approach to align the facial surf aces. 3.3.3 Feature-Based Method The aim of the face recognition system is to match the 3D scan of a face in any pose with a set of models of different individuals (in frontal pose) stored in a database. For accurate matching, it is important to normalize the images for ge ometric misalignments. This can be done by detecting a few salient facial featur es and making use of the knowledge ofspatial relationships between them. These f acial features include the two inner eye corners and the nasal tip. The latter i s located by making use of the fact that it is the highest point on the range ma p. Similarly, analysis of the curvature map of the facial range image facilitate s the location of the eye concavities at the base (top) of the nose. The inner eye corners lie within these concavities, but their exact location is difficult to ascertain easily. Hence, all points within the left and right eye c oncavities are paired as candidate eye corners. Anthropometrics constraints are em ployed to prune the number of possible candidate pairs. The facial range image i s normalized for pose by performing simple geometrical transformations, based on the position of the nasal tip and the position of each such pair of candidate ey e corners. The range image is appropriately cropped and compared with the models stored in the database by means of a simple pixel-by-pixel Euclidian distance fu nction. All these steps are repeated for every possible pair of eye corners. At the end, the model with the least distance value is taken as the correct identit y of the facial scan under test. 3.3.4 Facial Feature Detection This technique of facial feature detection involves calculation of second deriva tives (for curvature computation). Despite the susceptibility of curvature to no ise, prefers it here to other existing feature detection methods such as eigen-t emplates. This is owing to the following reasons: The eigen-templates method requires extensive training, which involves accurate m anual marking of feature templates such as the eyes or the nose from a set of fa cial range images. The eigen-templates method is extremely sensitive to facial scale changes, and er rors due to varying feature size or translation and head-rotation. The method us ing curvatures is invariant to changes in scale, rotation and translation. It is observed that there are distinct concavities at the eye corners near the base o f the nose on either side (i.e. the inner eye corners). A concavity occurs at re gions where both the mean curvature and the Gaussian curvature are greater than zero. 3.3.5 Facial Normalization and Recognition Next, the face is normalized and recognition is performed during the normalizati on process itself, as described in the sequence of steps given below: The line joining a pair of candidate eye corners is aligned with the X-axis usin g a simple 3D rotation matrix. The nasal ridge is located by first detecting the nasal tip (using the fact that

it is the highest point in the nasal region) and then employing a least-squares line fitting algorithm to predict the position of the nasal base (between the e yebrows). The nasal ridge is aligned with the Y-axis using a 3D transformation, and the face is given a reverse tilt of about 20 degrees to align it to a comple tely frontal view. Then, the translation normalization is applied. All facial points are interpolat ed onto a 150 by 150 grid taking into account aspect ratio and using the require d zero padding. The entire range image is translated such that the nasal tip alw ays coincides with the central pixel. If the Z value at the nasal tip is denoted as p, then the value of 100-p is added to all facial points so as to normalize for translation in the Z direction. Using the locations of the eye corners and the nasal tip in addition to knowledg e of facial anthropometry, a cropping function is applied to automatically disca rd the portions of the range image that lie outside the facial contour. The normalized image is compared (in terms of pixel by pixel Euclidian distance) with every gallery image from the database and the distances are recorded. The above five steps are repeated for every single candidate pair of points from the left and right eye concavities. The candidate pair, which gives the least E uclidian distance to any of the models is chosen to be the correct pair of inner eye corners, ideally giving the correct facial identity as well as the exact po se. 3.4 Architecture The component-based face recognition system consists of six people classifiers, one for each person in the database. Each classifier was trained in a one vs. al l approach. In other words, a SVM was trained from each subject in the database to separate her/him from all the other subjects. To determine the identity of a person at runtime, the component-based face detection and component-based recogn ition units are used. Figure below shows the progression from a novel image to r ecognition. First, the component-based face detector detects the face portion of the image and extracts the components. These components are used by the compone nt-based face recognizer to determine the identity of the person. The outputs of the different SVM face classifiers are compared. The identity associated with t he face classifier with the highest normalized output is taken to be the identit y of the face. The face detection unit extracts the face and components. The highest output of the recognition classifiers is used as the recognition result. 3.5 Training From the fourteen components extracted by the face detector, only nine component s were used for face recognition. Four components were eliminated because they s trongly overlapped with other components or contained few gray value structure(e .g. cheeks). The lip component was also eliminated because of its inaccuracy. Fi gure below shows the composite of the nine extracted components used for face re cognition for some example images. An extra histogram-equalized face region comp onent was added to improve recognition. Some examples of this face component ar e shown below.

The component-based face detection unit was applied to each synthetic face image in the modified training set, to detect the components and thereby the facial r egion. Histogram equalization was then preformed on the bounding box around the components. The gray pixel values of each component were then taken from the his togram equalized image and combined into a single feature vector. Feature vector s were constructed for each person, and corresponding classifiers were trained. CHAPTER 4 PREPROCESSING STAGES 4.1 Flows of the project

4.2 Facial expression database The experiments of the proposed algorithm on facial expression recognition are implemented in the Japanese Female Facial Expression database (JAFFE database). The database was planned and assembled by Miyuki Kamachi, Michael Lyons, and Jir o Gyoba. These photos were taken at the Psychology Department in Kyushu Universi ty. The database contains 213 images posed by 10 Japanese female models, which p osed 3 or 4 samples of each of the six basic facial expressions (happiness, sadn ess, surprise, anger, disgust, fear) and a neutral face. 4.3 Crop Image The first step of our experiment is tailoring process of the expression images. To eliminate the unwanted redundant information affecting on FER, after inputtin g the database of JAFFE, the images are registered using eye coordinates and cro pped with a mask to exclude non-face area, which including hair and clothes and some other area. The below figure exhibits the expression images after excluding the non-face area. Then, the images are resized to 32*32 pixels. After this ste p, we process the data with histogram equalization and unitization. 4.4 Histogram Equalization: Equalization method usually increases the global contrast of many images, especi ally when the usable data of the image is represented by close contrast values. Through this adjustment, the intensities can be better distributed on the histog ram. This allows for areas of lower local contrast to gain a higher contrast. Hi stogram equalization accomplishes this by effectively spreading out the most fre quent intensity values. The method is useful in images with backgrounds and fore grounds that are both bright or both dark. In particular, the method can lead to better views of bone structure in x-ray images, and to better detail in photogr aphs that are over or under-exposed. A key advantage of the method is that it is a fairly straightforward technique and an invertible operator. So in theory, if the histogram equalization function is known, then the original histogram can b e recovered. The calculation is not computationally intensive. A disadvantage of the method i s that it is indiscriminate. It may increase the contrast of background noise, w hile decreasing the usable signal. In scientific imaging where spatial correlati on is more important than intensity of signal (such as separating DNA fragments of quantized length), the small signal to noise ratio usually hampers visual det ection. Histogram equalization provides better detectability of fragment size di stributions, with savings in DNA replication, toxic fluorescent markers and stro ng UV source requirements, whilst improving chemical and radiation risks in labo ratory settings, and even allowing the use of otherwise unavailable techniques f or reclaiming those DNA fragments unaltered by the partial fluorescent marking p rocess. Histogram equalization often produces unrealistic effects in photographs ; however it is very useful for scientific images like thermal, satellite or x-r ay images, often the same class of images that user would apply false-color to. Also histogram equalization can produce undesirable effects (like visible image gradient) when applied to images with low color depth. For example, if applied t o 8-bit image displayed with 8-bit gray-scale palette it will further reduce col or depth (number of unique shades of gray) of the image. Histogram equalization will work the best when applied to images with much higher color depth than pale tte size, like continuous data or 16-bit gray-scale images. There are two ways t o think about and implement histogram equalization, either as image change or as palette change.

The operation can be expressed as P(M(I)) where I is the original im age, M is histogram equalization mapping operation and P is a palette. If we def ine new palette as P =P(M) and leave image I unchanged then histogram equalizati on is implemented as palette change. On the other hand if palette P remains unch anged and image is modified to I =M(I) then the implementation is by image chang e. In most cases palette change is better as it preserves the original data. Gen eralizations of this method use multiple histograms to emphasize local contrast, rather than overall contrast. Examples of such methods include adaptive histogr am equalization and contrast limiting adaptive histogram equalization or CLAHE. Histogram equalization also seems to be used in biological neural networks so as to maximize the output firing rate of the neuron as a function of the input sta tistics. This has been proved in particular in the fly retina. Histogram equaliz ation is a specific case of the more general class of histogram remapping method s. These methods seek to adjust the image to make it easier to analyze or improv e visual quality. Histogram equalization is a method in image processing of cont rast adjustment using the image s histogram. 4.4.1 Overview This method usually increases the global contrast of many images, especi ally when the usable data of the image is represented by close contrast values. Through this adjustment, the intensities can be better distributed on the histog ram. This allows for areas of lower local contrast to gain a higher contrast. Hi stogram equalization accomplishes this by effectively spreading out the most fre quent intensity values. The method is useful in images with backgrounds and fore grounds that are both bright or both dark. In particular, the method can lead to better views of bone structure in x-ray images, and to better detail in photogr aphs that are over or under-exposed. A key advantage of the method is that it is a fairly straightforward technique and an invertible operator. So in theory, if the histogram equalization function is known, then the original histogram can b e recovered. The calculation is not computationally intensive. A disadvantage of the method is that it is indiscriminate. It may increase the contrast of backgr ound noise, while decreasing the usable signal.In scientific imaging where spati al correlation is more important than intensity of signal (such as separating DN A fragments of quantized length), the small signal to noise ratio usually hamper s visual detection. Histogram equalization provides better detectability of frag ment size distributions, with savings in DNA replication, toxic fluorescent mark ers and strong UV source requirements, whilst improving chemical and radiation r isks in laboratory settings, and even allowing the use of otherwise unavailable techniques for reclaiming those DNA fragments unaltered by the partial fluoresce nt marking process. Histogram equalization often produces unrealistic effects in photographs ; however it is very useful for scientific images like thermal, satellite or x-r ay images, often the same class of images that user would apply false-color to. Also histogram equalization can produce undesirable effects (like visible image gradient) when applied to images with low color depth. For example, if applied t o 8-bit image displayed with 8-bit gray-scale palette it will further reduce col or depth (number of unique shades of gray) of the image. Histogram equalization will work the best when applied to images with much higher color depth than pale tte size, like continuous data or 16-bit gray-scale images. There are two ways to think about and implement histogram equalization, either a s image change or as palette change. The operation can be expressed as P(M(I)) w here I is the original image, M is histogram equalization mapping operation and P is a palette. If we define new palette as P =P(M) and leave image I unchanged then histogram equalization is implemented as palette change. On the other hand if palette P remains unchanged and image is modified to I =M(I) then the impleme ntation is by image change. In most cases palette change is better as it preserv es the original data. Generalizations of this method use multiple histograms to emphasize local contrast, rather than overall contrast. Examples of such methods include adaptive histogram equalization and contrast limiting adaptive histogra m equalization or CLAHE. Histogram equalization also seems to be used in biological neural networks so as

to maximize the output firing rate of the neuron as a function of the input sta tistics. This has been proved in particular in the fly retina. Histogram equaliz ation is a specific case of the more general class of histogram remapping method s. These methods seek to adjust the image to make it easier to analyze or improv e visual quality (e.g., retinex). Back projection The back projection (or "back project") of a histogrammed image is the re-application of the modified histogra m to the original image, functioning as a look-up table for pixel brightness val ues. For each group of pixels taken from the same position from all input single -channel images the function puts the histogram bin value to the destination ima ge, where the coordinates of the bin are determined by the values of pixels in t his input group. In terms of statistics, the value of each output image pixel ch aracterizes probability that the corresponding input pixel group belongs to the object whose histogram is used. 4.4.2 Implementation Consider a discrete grayscale image {x} and let ni be the number of occurrences of gray level i. The probability of an occurrence of a pixel of level i in the i mage isL being the total number of gray levels in the image, n being the total n umber of pixels in the image, and px(i) being in fact the image s histogram for pixel value i, normalized to [0,1].Let us also define the cumulative distributio n function corresponding to px which is also the image s accumulated normalized histogram. We would like to create a transformation of the form y = T(x) to prod uce a new image {y}, such that its CDF will be linearized across the value range , i.e. for some constant K. The properties of the CDF allow us to perform such a transform (see Cumulative distribution function#Inverse); it is defined asthe T maps the levels into the range [0,1]. In order to map the values back into thei r original range, the following simple transformation chain rescales the image i ntensities to standardize a robust measure of overall contrast or intensity vari ation. This paper proposes a new contrast enhancement scheme which integrates a global and a local contrast enhancement schemes to reduce the blocking and the w ashed-out effects at the same time. The proposed method executes a block-based h istogram equalization on the temporary images which are obtained by dividing an input image into sub-blocks so that the sub-block of each temporary image may ha ve a block size different from each other. In the next step, it calculates the c ontrast factors of all equalized temporary images and the temporary image having the largest contrast factor is selected to apply a global contrast enhancement algorithm. The global equalization function is extracted from the selected equal ized temporary image and it is applied to the original image. The experiments ha ve shown that the proposed algorithm produces a visually comfortable result imag e where the blocking and the washed-out effects cannot be detected. Histogram equalization is a technique for adjusting image intensities to enhance contrast. Let f be a given image represented as a mr by mc matrix of integer pixel intens ities ranging from 0 to L 1. L is the number of possible intensity values, often 256. Let p denote the normalized histogram of f with a bin for each possible in tensity. So The histogram equalized image g will be defined by Where floor() rounds down to the nearest integer. This is equivalent to transfor ming the pixel intensities, k, of f by the function The motivation for this transformation comes from thinking of the intensities of f and g as continuous random variables X, Y on [0, L 1] with Y defined by where Px is the probability density function of f. T is the cumulative distribut ive function of X multiplied by (L 1). Assume for simplicity that T is different iable and invertible. It can then be shown that Y defined by T(X) is uniformly d istributed on [0, L 1], namely that

Our discrete histogram is an approximation of pX(x) and the transformation in E quation 1 approximates the one in Equation 2. While the discrete version wont res ult in exactly flat histograms, it will flatten them and in doing so enhance the contrast in the image. The result of applying Equation 1 to the elvis low contr ast.bmp test image is shown in Figure 4.4. 4.5 Feature extraction In pattern recognition and in image processing, feature extraction is a special form of dimensionality reduction. When the input data to an algorithm is too large to be processed and it is suspe cted to be notoriously redundant (much data, but not much information) then the input data will be transformed into a reduced representation set of features (al so named features vector). Transforming the input data into the set of features is called feature extraction. If the features extracted are carefully chosen it is expected that the features set will extract the relevant information from the input data in order to perform the desired task using this reduced representati on instead of the full size input. Feature extraction involves simplifying the amount of resources required to describe a large set of data accurately. When performing analysis of complex data one of the major problems stems from the number of variables involved. Ana lysis with a large number of variables generally requires a large amount of memo ry and computation power or a classification algorithm which overfits the traini ng sample and generalizes poorly to new samples. Feature extraction is a general term for methods of constructing combinations of the variables to get around th ese problems while still describing the data with sufficient accuracy. It can be used in the area of image processing which involves using algorithms t o detect and isolate various desired portions or shapes (features) of a digitize d image or video stream. It is particularly important in the area of optical cha racter recognition 4.5.1 Local Texture Patterns (LTP) Textures are observed on both artificial and natural objects such as tho se on wood, plants, materials and skin.LTP shows dots per inch resolution of the color images in texture classification. Textural features of the image are extr acted using Local Texture Patterns (LTP). 4.6 Classification There are three types of classifications, they are 1. SVM 2. KNN 3. BAYES In this proposed system they are using SVM, here we are using KNN or BAYES 4.6.1 KNN: In pattern recognition, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN) is a method for classifying objects based on closest training examples in the feature space. KNN is a type of instance-based learning, or lazy learning where the function is on ly approximated locally and all computation is deferred until classification. Th e k-nearest neighbor algorithm is amongst the simplest of all machine learning a lgorithms: an object is classified by a majority vote of its neighbors, with the object being assigned to the class most common amongst its k nearest neighbors (k is a positive integer, typically small). If k = 1, then the object is simply assigned to the class of its nearest neighbor. The same method can be used for regression, by simply assigning the property val ue for the object to be the average of the values of its knearest neighbors. It can be useful to weight the contributions of the neighbors, so that the nearer n eighbors contribute more to the average than the more distant ones. (A common we ighting scheme is to give each neighbor a weight of 1/d, where d is the distance to the neighbor. This scheme is a generalization of linear interpolation.) The neighbors are taken from a set of objects for which the correct classificati on (or, in the case of regression, the value of the property) is known. This can be thought of as the training set for the algorithm, though no explicit trainin g step is required. The k-nearest neighbor algorithm is sensitive to the local s

tructure of the data. Nearest neighbor rules in effect compute the decision boundary in an implicit ma nner. It is also possible to compute the decision boundary itself explicitly, an d to do so in an efficient manner so that the computational complexity is a func tion of the boundary complexity. 4.6.2 Bayes In probability theory and applications, Bayes theorem (alternatively Bayes law o r Bayes rule) links a conditional probability to its inverse. That is, it provid es the relationship between P(A | B)and P(B | A). It is valid in all common inte rpretations of probability, and is commonly used inscience and engineering.[1] T he theorem is named for Thomas Bayes. Under the frequentist interpretation of probability, probability measures the pr oportion of trials in which an event occurs. On this view, Bayes theorem is a g eneral relationship between P(A),P(B), P(A | B) and P(B | A) for any events A an d B in the same event space. Under the Bayesian interpretation of probability, probability, or uncertainty, m easures confidence that something is true. On this view, Bayes theorem links th e uncertainty of a probability model before and after observing the modelled sys tem. For example, a probability model,A, is hypothesised to represent a die with an unknown bias. The die is thrown a number of times to collect evidence, B. P( A), the prior, is the initial uncertainty in the model. P(A | B), the posterior, is the uncertainty in the model having accounted for whether the evidence suppo rts or refutes the model. P(B | A) / P(B) represents the degree of support B pro vides for A. For more detail on the application of Bayes theorem under the Baye sian interpretation of probability, see Bayesian inference.

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CHAPTER 7 CONSLUSION AND FUTURE ENCHANCEMENT

CHAPTER 7 REFERENCES [1] Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Mapping a manifold of perceptual observations, NIPS 97 P roceedings of the 1997 conference on Advances in Neural Information Processing S ystems 10, MIT Press,1998 [2] G. Hinton and S. Roweis, Stochastic neighbor embedding, in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, vol. 15:833-840, MIT Press, 2003 [3] A. R. Jamieson et al., Exploring nonlinear feature space dimension reduction and datarepresentation in breast CADx with Laplacian eigenmaps and t-SNE, in Medi cal Physics, vol. 37(1): 339-351, 2010 [4] L. van der Maaten and G. Hinton, Visualizing Data using t-SNE, im Journal of M achine Learning Research 9 (2008), pp2579-2605, 2008 [5] C.J.C. Burges,Atutuorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition, D ata Mining and Knowledge Discovery, vol. 2, pp.121- 167, 1998 [6] Chih-Wei Hsu and Chih-Jen Lin, A Comparison of Methods for Muticlass Support Vector Machines, IEEE transactions on neural network,Vol 13, No 2, 2002 [7] Michael Lyons,Shigeru Akamatsu , Coding Facial Expressions with GaborWavelets , Proceedings, Third IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 200-205. 1998 [8] Ying Zilu, Zhang Guoyi, Facial Expression Recognition Based on NMF and SVM, In ternational Forum on Information Technology and Applications, May. 2009. [9] Liu Xiaomin, Zhang Yujin, Facial Expression Recognition Based on Gabor Histog ram Feature and MVBoost,J.Journal of Computer Research and Development, Vol. 44,N o.7 pp. 1089-1096, 2007