Sie sind auf Seite 1von 67

054410 Plant Design

LECTURES 4/5: FURNACE DESIGN


Alon Goldis and Daniel R. Lewin Department of Chemical Engineering Technion, Haifa, Israel

4/5 - 1

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Lecture Objectives
After this lecture, you should:
Be familiar with correct operating practice of industrial furnaces, with emphasis on: Operation principles Role of burners Air supply and flue gas removal Performance monitoring Be familiar with the principal control configurations implemented for furnace regulation Be able to design the radiant section of an industrial furnace

4/5 - 2

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Furnaces

Distillation furnace (sig. C6 verso) Author: Brunschwig, Hieronymus, ca. 1450-ca. 1512 Title: Kleines Distillierbuch
4/5 - 3 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Furnaces

4/5 - 4

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Applications
1. Vacuum charge heater
2. Reformer Furnace 3. Crude furnace 4. Pyrolysis furnace 5. Visbreaker furnace 6. Hydrocracker furnace 7. Air heater 8. Oil heater 9. Others
4/5 - 5 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Operation principles
Process Fluid: Fluid characteristics of the process fluids should be considered before designing a heater. For example, very high viscosity fluids have tendency to attain very high film temperature, as the fluid in the film does not readily mix with the bulk fluid. This results in uneven distribution of heat in the fluid and develops hot spots, where vaporization and degradation occurs. Heat Duty: Total furnace heat duty is the sum of heat transferred to all process streams, including auxiliary services such as steam super heaters. Amount of heat duty affects the selection of type and configuration of heater.
4/5 - 6 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Operation principles contd


Average Radiant Heat Flux: By making the design radiant flux as large as possible, we lower the heat transfer surface required, thus reducing both the heater size and its cost. However, this will result in higher maintenance cost due to shortened life of components and coke deposition. Allowable average radiant heat flux rate is a function of various factors such as heater type, feedstock, service, coil outlet temperature etc. and, therefore, established by experience. Mass Flow Velocity: To minimize coking and fouling in coils, fired heaters should be designed with high enough mass velocities. However, too high a mass velocity will cause a high coil pressure drop, resulting in high pumping or compressor costs, increased design pressure of the coils and upstream equipment. Design mass velocity is usually kept in the range of 250-350 lb/sec-ft2. Under turndown conditions, mass velocity should be kept above 150 lb/sec-ft2 in order to prevent excessive coking and fouling of the coils.
4/5 - 7 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Operation principles contd


Vaporization:
It is desirable to avoid a situation of 100% vaporized stream. Foreign material or polymer formed in tankage, which does not vaporize, may deposit on the tube and cause coking. Therefore, limit the maximum vaporization in limited in practice to about 80%.

Tube size, number of passes and fluid pressure drop:


A combination of the tube size and number of passes is selected to satisfy the mass flow velocity, throughput and fluid pressure drop requirements.

Turndown:
Set by process considerations. Turndown rates of 60% can be used without falling below mass velocity rates needed to prevent excessive coking rates. Burner turndown is a function of burner design and the type of fuel. Burner turndown does not normally affect furnace turndown.

4/5 - 8

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Operation principles contd


Stack temperature and optimum heater efficiency:
The economic stack temperature or the optimum efficiency of the heater is a function of fuel value, inlet oil temperature, investment cost of the incremental convection section and the required rate of return from incremental investment. Stack temperature usually ranges from 350F to 700F. However, a temperature of 250F can be achieved for low sulfur fuel using air preheater. Stack temperature must be high enough to prevent acid condensation on the convection section inlet tubes and air preheater. Tube/coil materials:

Usually made from carbon steel, alloy steel or stainless steel pipes. Tubing material is selected based on service life, corrosion resistance and cost. Allowable stresses in the tube material decrease with increasing temperatures, therefore, higher tube temperatures require thicker tubewalls or higher alloy-content. Carbon steel is the most widely used material for heater tubing where corrosion resistance is relatively mild.
4/5 - 9 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Burners
Burners start and maintain combustion in the firebox by mixing fuel and air due to fuel gas pressure and air draft.
The mixing of fuel and combustion air occurs in the gas phase, so, all liquid-fuel burners use atomizing devices to break up the liquid mass into micron-size droplets. When steam is not available for atomizing and oil is the only fuel available for firing then air atomization or mechanical atomization can be used

The number of burners depends on the size of the heater and the heat duty to be supplied.

4/5 - 10

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Burners
Oil Lance Assembly

Atomizer

4/5 - 11

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Burners Contd
Burners should be selected to provide stable combustion with the following characteristics: - Ability to handle wide range of fuels. - Predictable flame patterns for all fuels and firing rates. - Good turndown ratio between maximum and minimum firing rates.

- Low noise and NOx levels.


- Provision for safe ignition, easy maintenance. - Low excess air operation.

4/5 - 12

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Burners Take a look on the inside


Burners in action

The operator checks the quality of the fire


4/5 - 13 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Air Supply & Flue gas removal


The firebox has slightly negative pressure due to density difference of flue gases and outside cold air. To overcome the frictional losses and to maintain the negative pressure in the firebox sufficient stack

height is provided for exiting the flue gases to atmosphere.


Air supply is carried out using one of the following methods:

Natural Draft (NF)- air is drawn by the draft created by the stack
Forced Draft (FD) - air is supplied by a centrifugal fan (blower) Induced Draft (ID)- flue gases are driven out by a centrifugal fan

Balanced Draft - When both FD and ID fans are used


4/5 - 14 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Air Supply & Flue gas removal contd


Cold Flue gas Damper

Hot Flue gas

FD Fan
Cold Air Preheater
4/5 - 15 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

ID Fan
Furnace Design

Excess Air
Excess air is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical quantity of air required for complete combustion of the fuel. Typically, oil fired forced draft heaters and gas fired natural draft heaters need about 10-15% excess air where as oil/combination fire natural draft heaters need 15-20% excess air. Lowering the excess air helps in reducing NOx emissions from the fired heaters and also minimizes heat losses with the flue gases. On the other hand, low values of excess air cause heavy smoke

4/5 - 16

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Heat flow in furnace


Atmosphere
Convection section The tubes in this section usually have extended surfaces, such as fins or studs to improve heat transfer increasing the overall efficiency of the heater Shield (bridge-wall) section The first 2-3 bared tubes rows in the convection section which "shield" the remaining tubes from the direct radiation Radiation section Tubes are installed along the walls and roof of the combustion chamber
4/5 - 17 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Performance Monitoring
Most fired heater operations can be optimized to improve efficiency and save money. Some of the common problems observed with fired heater operations are uneven flow distribution in various passes, high excess air operation, high stack temperature, fouled convection section, flame impingement and over firing. Optimizing the performance of a fired heater requires close monitoring of key parameters on both process side as well as combustion side.

Some of these key parameters are:


1) 2) 3) Process stream flow and Temperature; Temperature measurement; Fuel firing;

4)
5) 6)
4/5 - 18

Tube skin temperature;


Flue gas temperature; Flue gas draft profile and analysis.
PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Performance Monitoring- contd


Process stream flow and temperature:
Poor flow distribution to the coils in multi-pass fired heaters leads to low flow to one or more passes causing overheating, coking and tube burnout in those passes. It is important to use flow controllers on each pass of heaters processing liquid hydrocarbons, where low flow in one pass can lead to excessive vaporization, increased pressure drop and further flow reduction. Also, keep a watch on the flow regime and the coil velocities at the outlet of heater coils, in vaporizing services. Slug flow and higher velocities could cause vibrations in tube and failure due to erosion.
4/5 - 19 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Performance Monitoring- contd


Temperature measurement:
Temperature measurement at the outlet of each pass is used as a guide for adjusting the flow rates of each pass as well as for calculating the process heat duty. It is also recommended to measure the temperature of process fluid at the outlet of each pass in the radiant and convection sections which helps in calculating the process heat duty split between the radiant and convection sections.

Tube skin temperature:


Tube skin temperature provides guidance in setting the maximum firing rates. Tube skin thermocouples are recommended for each pass.
4/5 - 20 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Performance Monitoring- contd


Fuel firing:
Fuel firing rate is used to calculate the heat release in firebox. In a simple fuel firing control scheme, process fluid outlet temperature controller provides the set point for the pressure controller on burner fuel supply.

Flue gas temperature:


Monitoring of the temperature of flue gases at outlet of radiant section, inlet of convection section and outlet of convection section is useful in establishing the maximum firing rate, heater efficiency and convection section fouling.

4/5 - 21

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Performance Monitoring- contd


Flue gas draft profile:
Measure the draft at various places such as burner level, radiant section outlet, convection section outlet and downstream of stack damper. An insufficient draft may lead to positive pressure inside the firebox, causing flue gas leakage from the openings. On the other hand, a high draft draws more combustion air into the firebox reducing the efficiency of the system.

Flue Gas Analysis:


Flue gas analysis helps in maximizing the combustion efficiency. Using oxygen analyzer in the flue gases, excess air can be controlled by varying furnace draft.
4/5 - 22 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

FYI - NOx
Since 1970, EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) has been tracking six principal pollutants: Carbon monoxide (CO) Lead Nitrogen oxides, Particulate matter Sulfur oxides Volatile organic compounds.
Two of the most common oxides of nitrogen are: NO and NO2. In stationary source, combustion approximately 90% of NOx formed is NO. After NO leaves a stack, in the presence of sunlight, ozone, and volatile organic compounds , it becomes NO2, which (in extreme cases) appears as a reddish-brown plume.
4/5 - 23 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

FYI - NOx
How is NOx formed? Thermal fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen in the combustion process. The formation rate of thermal NOx is dependent on the reaction temperature, the local stoichiometric, and the residence time. Thermal NOx is most readily influenced by the combustion system. Breakdown of CH portions of methane and other hydrocarbons in the fuel and their subsequent combination with nitrogen in the air. The rate of formation of NOx is dominated by combustion conditions and can be suppressed by modifying the combustion process. Both thermal and fuel NOx are promoted by rapid mixing of oxygen with the fuel. Thermal NOx is greatly increased by long residence time at high temperature.
4/5 - 24 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Furnace control and operation


The PFD on the right shows the proposed control system for a furnace as seen from the perspective of the process.

What has not been taken care of?

Ref: W. Driedger, Controlling Fired Heaters, Hydrocarbon Processing, April 1997


4/5 - 25 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

FUEL GAS FLOW CONTROL-OVERVIEW

4/5 - 26

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

FURNACE SAFETY SYSTEMS

4/5 - 27

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

SAFETY SYSTEM FOR PILOT GAS TRAIN Vent valve (FO)

PI

BSLL

Isolation valve (FC)

Isolation valve (FC)

i/o of Burner Management System (BMS)


4/5 - 28 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Flame detector
Furnace Design

SAFETY SYSTEM FOR MAIN GAS TRAIN Vent valve (FO) PSLL PSHH Fuel FC valve

TSHH

BSLL Isolation valve (FC)


4/5 - 29 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Isolation valve (FC)

PI

Furnace Design

PROCESS-RELATED SAFETY SYSTEMS It is not obvious that we should automatically shut off the process feed in the event of a failure. Depressurization valve (FL)

Why? TSHH Isolation valve (FL)


4/5 - 30 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Why?
Furnace Design

FSHH

LEAD/LAG COMBUSTION CONTROL


Required duty

Setpoint to air FC is highest of (required duty, ratio fuel flow)

Setpoint to fuel FC is lowest of (required duty, ratio air flow)

4/5 - 31

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

This control system ensures that the fuel/air ratio in the furnace is Furnace Design always below the explosion limit

Radiation Section Design


Ref.: Lobo & Evans, Heat Transfer, AICHE, Vol. 35, 1939 Direct radiation in the radiant section of a direct fired heater can be described by:

(1) Q r Acp F (Tg 4 Tw 4 )


Qr = Radiant heat transfer, Btu/hr s = Stefan-Boltzman constant, 0.173x10-8 Btu/ft2-hr-R4 a = Relative effectiveness factor of the tube bank Acp = Cold plane area of the tube bank, ft2 F = Exchange factor Tg = Effective gas temperature in firebox, R Tw = Average tube wall temperature, R
4/5 - 32 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Relative Effectiveness Factor, a

4/5 - 33

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Relative Effectiveness Factor, a

4/5 - 34

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Calculation of cold plane area-Acp


To simplify the calculations with respect to coils arrangement inside the heater, it is convenient to express the tube area as an equivalent plane area for heat transfer by radiation. The calculated cold plane area is the area of a plane through the tube center lines, whether they are in a curved plane, such as in a cylindrical pattern or in a row side-by-side.
For single sided firing: For double sided firing:

(2) Acp Ntubes Stube L tube

(3) Acp 2 Ntubes Stube L tube

Where, Ntube = Number of tubes Stube = Tube spacing, ft Ltube = Effective tube length, ft
4/5 - 35 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Calculation of exchange factor - F


Because the flue gas in the firebox is a poor radiator, the equation must be corrected using an exchange factor which is dependent on the emissivity of the gas and the ratio of refractory area to cold plane area. Since the radiant heat is reflected back into the firebox, by the refractory, a heater having a larger ratio of refractory surface relative to the tube surface, will absorb more heat. Since the tubes themselves are not perfect absorbers, the curves are based on a tube-surface absorptivity of 0.9. This is a value considered typical for oxidized metal surfaces. (Ref.: Mekler & Fairall in Petroleum Refiner, June 1952.)

4/5 - 36

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Calculation of exchange factor - F


Aw - Effective refractory area, ft2
aAcp - Equivalent cold plane area, ft2

4/5 - 37

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Calculation of exchange factor - F


Calculation of Aw/aAcp :

(4) Aw AR aAcp
Aw - Effective refractory area, ft2
AR - Total refractory area, ft2 aAcp - Equivalent cold plane area, ft2 The total refractory area, AR, is simply the total of the refractory area exposed to the radiant section of the heater.

4/5 - 38

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Calculation of exchange factor - F


Flue Gas Emissivity calculation :
The gas emissivity can be described by the curve presented on the next slide. The tube wall temperature has only a minor effect. Therefore, the emissivity can be correlated as a function of LP and the gas temperature, Tg. Variations in tube wall temperatures between 600 and 1200F cause less than 1% deviation from these curves.

4/5 - 39

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Calculation of exchange factor - F


LP product of the partial pressure (in atm) of the flue gas times the mean beam length, in ft. Thus LP has units atm-ft. Mean Beam Length is computed using a formula that depends on the furnace configuration. Dimension Ratio in furnace is the ratio of Wide : Height : Tube eff. Length
4/5 - 40 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Calculation of exchange factor - F

4/5 - 41

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Effective gas temperature in firebox, Tg:

Calculation of exchange factor - F

For a radiant section that is considered "well mixed", this temperature is assumed to be equal to the temperature leaving the radiant section, i.e., the bridgewall temperature. For most applications, this is an acceptable assumption. Still there are exceptions to be aware of.

Average tube wall temperature, Tw:

Tube wall temperature depends on the temperature of the process fluid and its transfer coefficient inside the tube, the thermal resistance of the tube wall, the heat flux, and the fouling. In purpose to simplify the calculations it is convenient to set this temperature ( as a constant ) prior to the calculations.
4/5 - 42 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Convective heat transfer in the radiant section


Even though most of the heat exchanged in the radiant section is from radiant heat transfer, the convective heat transfer cannot be ignored. The heat exchanged by convection can be described with the following equation:

(5) Qc hc At (Tg - Tw )
Where, Qc - Convection heat transfer, Btu/hr hc - Film heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2- R At - Area of the tubes in bank, ft2 Tg - Effective gas temperature in firebox, R Tw - Average tube wall temperature, R
4/5 - 43 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Film heat transfer coefficient, hc


This value cannot be calculated precisely, and is usually selected by experience or rule of thumb. The arrangement of the tubes as well as the firebox design contributes to this factor.

a. For horizontal tube heater: For small heaters , hc = 1.5 For multiple tube cells , hc = 2.8. b. Vertical heaters: For L/D < 2 , hc = 2 For L/D > 2, hc = 3
4/5 - 44 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Radiant heat transfer to shield ( bridge-wall) tubes


Another heat loss from the radiant section is a heat transferred to the shield tubes (if any), Qs. For the examples in this section, we will assume no shield tubes are present.

4/5 - 45

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Heat balance in the radiant section


There are three primary sources of heat input to the radiant section of the furnace: Q rls - heat release by burners Q air - heat of the combustion air Q other - heat of the fuel and any atomizing medium On the other hand, heat is also leaves the radiant section by: QR - heat absorbed by radiant tubes Qs - heat absorbed by shield tubes Qloss heat losses through the casing Qout - the sensible heat of the exiting flue gas Summarizing:

(6) Qrls Qair Qother QR QS Qloss Qout


PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

4/5 - 46

Heat balance in the radiant section contd


Qrls - Heat release by burners, Btu/hr
The heat released by burners can be calculated for defined fuel composition and the heating values of its various components. For liquid fuels, the heating values are obtained by a calorimeter test. From these values and by using the combustion equation, we can determine the composition of the flue gas. For example - the combustion of methane could be stated as:

(7) CH4 2O2 CO2 2H2O

But What happens when a fuel gases contain many more components and burning is carried out in air rather than in pure oxygen ?
4/5 - 47 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Heat balance in the radiant section contd

4/5 - 48

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Heat balance in the radiant section contd


Qair - Heat in combustion air, Btu/hr The heat available in the combustion air, such as from preheated air, or using Gas Turbine Exhaust, etc., is taken as the heat content above 60 F, since that is the design datum temperature for fired heaters. For the purpose of this discussion, radiant heat transfer (to air) can be neglected, i.e., consider the air at 60 F. Qother - Heat in other items, Btu/hr The heat available in other items would include such things as the fuel when it is above 60 F, atomizing air or steam, etc. These must be taken into account in heater design, however, for the purposes of discussions, those can be neglected .
4/5 - 49 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Heat balance in the radiant section contd


Qloss - Heat loss through setting, Btu/hr These losses, referred to as Setting Loss or Radiation Loss are usually not calculated during heater rating calculations. They are normally accounted for by allowances, such as a percent of burner release or a percent of heat absorbed.

Qout - Sensible heat in flue gas leaving radiant section, Btu/hr From the flue gas composition, the overall enthalpy of the flue gas at a specific temperature can be calculated. These enthalpies can be obtained from the curves.

4/5 - 50

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1


Design a radiant fired heater following the data below: (1) Process Conditions (specifications) : - Heat Absorbed - 9,500 KBtu/hr - Tube Wall Temperature- 600oF - Fuel- Gas - Excess Air - 15 % (2) Mechanical Conditions (proposed initial estimates): - Tube Diameter 4.5 in - Tube Spacing - 8 in - Tube Effective Length 26.0 ft - Number Of Tubes - 30 - Area Of Flue Gas Exit - 42 ft2 - Radiant Arrangement - Box

4/5 - 51

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1

4/5 - 52

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 1: Find a
Center to Center 8" 1.7778 Tube diameter 4.5"

a 0.915

4/5 - 53

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 2: Find Acp
For single sided firing:

Acp Ntubes Stube L tube

30

8inch 26ft 520 2 ft inch 12 ft

Therefore:

a Asp 0.915 520 475.8ft2

4/5 - 54

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 3: Calculation of radiant exchange factor - F
Recalling eq. (4):

Aw AR aAcp

Where: AR is total refractory area, i.e. the total of the refractory area exposed to the radiant section of the heater.

AR 2 WL 2 WH 2HL Exitarea 2 8ft 26ft 2 8ft (10ft 4 ") 2 (10ft 4 ") 26ft 42ft 2 1076.64ft 2

Aw AR aAcp 1076.6 475.8 600.84ft 2 Aw 600.84ft 2 1.2628 2 aAcp 475.8ft


4/5 - 55 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 4: Calculation of flue gas emissivity
Step 4a: Beam Length Calculation. Furnace dimension ratio W:H:L = 8:10.333:26= 1:1.33:3.3 ~ 1:1:3, So, the Mean Beam Length is: 2/3(Furnace volume) Step 4b: Partial pressures of flue gases Partial pressures of a gas (in atm) depends of their mole fractions in the flue gas mixture. It can be assumed to be the sum of the partial pressures of CO2 ( 0.085 atm ) and H20 (0.1722atm ), that is, 0.2572 atm
1/3

= 8.6ft

4/5 - 56

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 4: Calculation of flue gas emissivity
Summarizing: PL = 8.6ft x 0.2572 atm = 2.212 atm-ft Assumption: the flue gas temperature ( Tg) is 1400 oF

0.47

P L

4/5 - 57

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 5: Implementation of gas emissivity and the value of Aw/aAcp, calculate the Exchange factor F

0.73

4/5 - 58

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 6: Heat calculations
Recalling eq. 1 for calculating the heat absorbed in tubes by radiation:
0.173x10 -8 0.915 520 0.73 ((1400 460 ) 4 (600 460 ) 4 )

(1) Q r Acp F (Tg 4 Tw 4 ) 6128.9 KBtu/hr

Assuming a small heater with one tube cell, hc=1.5, heat absorbed by radiant tubes by convection can be calculated:
(5) Qc hc At (Tg - Tw ) 1.5 1102.7KBtu /hr

4.5" 26ft 30 (1400 600) 12"/ft

Therefore, the total heat absorbed by radiant tubes is:

QR Qr Qc 6128.9 1102.7 7321 .6 KBtu/hr


4/5 - 59 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 7: Discussion
The total heat absorbed in radiant tubes is far short of the 9,500 KBtu/hr heat transfer to satisfy process requirement. Possible reasons for this are: 1. The surface area of 30 tubes is to small 2. A bridgewall temperature of 1400 F is to low additional iteration need to be done ! 3. Introducing a new parameter- the Flux Rate, which is a measurement of how hard heat is being absorbed by the tubes using the following equation:
(8) FluxRad
4/5 - 60

QR ; ARad is total radiant tubes surface ,ft 2 ARad


Furnace Design

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 7: Discussion contd
(8) FluxRad

QR QR 9500KBtu/h r KBtu 10.34 ARad D Leff Ntubes ( 4.5 ) 26 30 hr ft 2


12

Note: for direct fired heaters, the average flux rate should be in the range 6-18 KBtu/hr-ft2.

4/5 - 61

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 8: The total heat balance
Recalling the total heat balance equation:
(6) Qrls Qair Qother QR QS Qloss Qout

For the given example, the combustion air is at 60 F, so Qair drops out of the equation. The fuel is gas at 60 F, so there is no atomization and Qother also drops out . The furnace has no shield tubes, so Qs drops out also, reducing eq. 6 to:

(9) Qrls QR Qloss Qout

4/5 - 62

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 8: The total heat balance, contd
Using the rule of thumb regarding the Heat loss and setting Qloss as 1% of heat released by the burners:

(10) Qloss 0.01 Qrls


The heat released by the burners, Qrls, can be calculated via:

(11) Qrls Wfuel LVfuel

Where :
W Fuel flowrate , lb / hr fuel LV Lower heating value of the fuel , Btu / lb fuel

4/5 - 63

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 8: The total heat balance, contd
The heat lost with the flue gases, Qout, can be calculated from:

(12) Qout (Wfuel Rair /fuel Wfuel ) Eflue gas

Where :
R Ai r to fuel rati o ai r /fuel
E Enthalpy of flue gas , Btu / lb flue gas

4/5 - 64

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution


Step 8: The total heat balance, contd
Rearranging eq. 9 in terms developed previously:

(9) Qrls QR Qloss Qout


Wfuel LVfuel QR 0.01Wfuel LVfuel (Wfuel Rair /fuel Wfuel ) Eflue gas Wfuel Wfuel LVfuel (0.01LVfuel

QR Rair /fuel Eflue gas Eflue gas ))

9500000 752.56 lb / hr 20345 (0.01 20345 18.79 379.88 379.88 ))

4/5 - 65

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design

Step 9: Furnace efficiency calculation


from burners :

Class Exercise No.1 - Solution

Finding the fuel rate consumption provides the heat flow released

Qrls Wfuel VLfuel 752.56

lb BTU KBTU 20345 15310.75 hr lb hr

The efficiency of the heater is:

KBTU Q hr Eff R x 100% x 100% 62.05% KBTU Qrls 15310.75 hr


9500
4/5 - 66 PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin Furnace Design

Lecture Summary
This lecture has covered:
Correct operating practice of industrial furnaces, with emphasis on: Operation principles Role of burners Air supply and removal Performance monitoring Principal control configurations implemented for furnace regulation Design of the radiant section of an industrial furnace

4/5 - 67

PLANT DESIGN - A.Goldis, D. R. Lewin

Furnace Design