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2.1: Matter 2.2: The Atomic Structure 2.3: Isotopes 2.4: The Electronic Structure of an Atom 2.

5 The Orderliness and Uniqueness of the Atomic Structure

Matter

can be defined as anything that occupies space and mass.


is made up of tiny and discrete particles. can be in the form of atoms, molecules and ions. exists in the type of element and compound. (??)

Matter

Particles

Matter

PARTICLES ATOM

CHARACTERISTICS 1. Smallest particle of an atom. 2. All matter is made up of atoms.

EXAMPLES 1. Iron (Fe) 2. Sodium (Na) 3. Hydrogen (H)

MOLECULES

1. Contains two or more atoms which 1. Tetrachlorometha are bonded chemically together. ne (CCl4) 2. Can be same kind or different kind 2. Hydrogen gas of elements. (H2)

IONS

1. Charged either positively or negatively. 2. Ions are formed in liquid state or in molten state.

1. Magnesium ions (Mg 2+ ) 2. Sodium Ions (Na+)

The theory based on 3 assumption: 1. All matter is made up of tiny and discrete

particles called atoms, molecules or ions. The particles are moving continuously and at random.
2.

When the particles are close together, there are attractive forces between them.

3. The movement of the particles of a substance

are affected by heat.

SOLID DENSITY COMPRESSIBILITY High None

LIQUID Moderate Almost impossible

GAS Low Possible

SHAPE

definite

Follow the shape of the container definite Moderately fast

None

VOLUME DIFFUSION

definite The slowest

Variable The fastest

A movement of particles from more concentrated place to the less concentrated places

Heat energy supplied Particles absorb heat kinetic energy increases particles move faster

AB = All the naphthalene is in the solid state. Point B = Melting of the naphthalene begins BC = A mixture of solid and liquid naphthalene Point C = All the naphthalene has melted CD = The temperature of liquid naphthalene increases

PQ = The temperature of liquid naphthalene decreases. Point Q = Cooling (solidification)of the naphthalene begins

QR = A mixture of solid and liquid naphthalene


Point R = All liquid naphthalene has solidified RS = The temperature of liquid naphthalene decreases

In

heating curves of naphthalene, C10H8, the heat energy is absorbed by the particles to overcome the attractive forces between particles so that the solid can turn into liquid. cooling curves of naphthalene, C10H8, the heat lost to the surroundings is balanced by the heat energy released as the particles attract to each other to form a solid.

In

Proposed that; a) All matter is composed of atoms


b) Atoms cannot be created or destroyed c) All the atoms of different elements are identical d) When chemical reaction takes place, atoms of different elements join together to form a compound.

1. First model of the atom.


2. Discovered the electron.

3. Described the atom as a sphere of positively charged which contains a few negatively charged particles called electron.

1. Discovered the proton. 2. Proposed that all the mass and all the positive charges are concentrated in a small region at the centre of the atom called nucleus. 3. The number of proton = the number of electron 4. The electrons orbit at different distance around the nucleus.

1. Rutherfords student. 2. Proposed that electrons are arranged in concentric circular paths or orbit around the nucleus of the atom. 3. Proposed that electron in a particular paths have a fixed energy. 4. The electrons can jump from one orbit to another orbit.

1.Discovered the neutron in 1932. 2.Proposed that nucleus has neutrons.

Nucleus (Consist of PROTON and NEUTRON)

Atoms is made up of 3 smaller particles: a) protons b) electrons c) neutrons

Subatomic PROTON Particles Symbol p Charge +1 Relative atomic 1 mass

ELECTRON e -1 ~ 0.0005

NEUTRON n 0 1

Proton

Number = number of protons in its atom.


Number = total number of protons and neutrons in its atom.

Nucleon

Proton

Number = number of electron in its atoms.

Number of neutrons

Number of protons

Nucleon number

Number of neutrons

Proton number

Nucleon number

ELEMENT

SYMBOL

ELEMENT

SYMBOL

Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Boron Oxygen Phosphorus Fluorine

H C N B O P F

Potassium Aluminium Calcium Silicon Bromine Potassium Zinc

K Al Ca Si Br K Zn

HYDROGEN ATOM
Number of Proton Number of Electron Nucleon Number 1 1 1+0 = 1

CARBON ATOM
6 6 6+6= 12

URANIUM ATOM
92 92 92+146= 238

NUCLEON NUMBER

A Z

ELEMENT

PROTON NUMBER

ELEMENT = Neon

20
10

PROTON NUMBER = 10

Ne

NUMBER OF ELECTRONS = 10 NUMBER OF NEUTRONS = 10 NUCLEON NUMBER = 20

What

is isotope??

Atoms of the same element with same number

of protons but different number of neutrons.

Uses of isotope in
MEDICINE

Explanation
1. Sodium-24 is used to detect the clotting blood in the patients body. 2. Iodine-131 used to detect tumour in the brain. 3. Cobalt-60 is used to treat and kill cancer cells.

AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY

1. Phosphorus-14 isotope is used to determine the rate of absorption by plants. 1. Sodium-24 isotope is used to detect leaks in underground petroleum piping. 1. Carbon-14 is used to determine the age of artifacts, antiques and archeological specimens.

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

GENERAL

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Potassium

ion Bromide ion Copper(II) ion Nitrate ion Iron (III) ion Magnesium ion Oxide ion Iodide ion Hydroxide ion

Chloride ion Sodium ion Carbonate ion Iron (II) ion Phosphate ion Calcium ion Zinc ion Ammonium ion Sulphate ion

Proton Number:: ???? Nucleon Number:: ????

Number of neutrons

Number of protons

Nucleon number

Number of neutrons

Proton number

Nucleon number

NUCLEON NUMBER

A Z

ELEMENT

PROTON NUMBER

1ST SHELL HOLDS 2 ELECTRONS

2ND SHELL HOLDS 8 ELECTRONS

NUCLEUS

3RD SHELL HOLDS 8 ELECTRONS

FIGURE OF ELECTRON SHELL

1st shell :: 2nd shell::

2 electrons (duplet) 8 electrons (octet) 3rd shell:: 8 electrons (octet)


For elements that have MORE than 20

electrons, 3rd shell can accommodate up to 18 electrons!!!

Example ::

Valence electrons = the electrons in the outermost occupied shell

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT

2.4

2.8.7

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT

2.6

2.8.4

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