0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

372 Aufrufe50 SeitenJul 16, 2012

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPT, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

372 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- BSR Notes ictad
- Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics 7th - Cap 02
- Metacentric Height
- Statics Chapter 5
- 32089360 Engineering Mechanics Question Bank
- Shear force and Bending Moment Diagram
- Ch.09 Center of Gravity and Centroid
- Problem Set 7 (Key) II
- Assignment 7
- Head Loss
- Problem Set 5 (Key)
- Backflush Accounting Fm May06 p43-44
- Calculation of Second Moment of Area
- Experiment on Linear Vibration Apparatus
- CRACKS IN BUILDINGS
- Recursion
- Centroids Integration
- Centroids & Moment of Inertia
- Tom Lab 01-12-2006 Latest Shamsu
- ENGN 36 Homework

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 50

and

MOMENT OF INERTIA

AMET UNIVERSITY

Centroids: The concept of the centroid is nearly the same as the center of mass of an object in

two dimensions, as in a very thin plate. The center of mass is obtained by breaking the object

into very small bits of mass dM, multiplying these bits of mass by the distance to the x (and y)

axis, summing over the entire object, and finally dividing by the total mass of the object to obtain

the Center of Mass which may be considered to be the point at which the entire mass of the

object may be considered to "act". See Diagram 1.

The only difference between the center

of mass and the centroid is that rather

than summing the product of each bit of

mass dM and the distance x

i

(and y

i

) to

an axis then dividing by the total mass,

we instead divided the object into small

bits of areas dA, and then take the sum

of the product of each bit of area dA and

the distance x

i

(and y

i

) to an axis then

divide by the total area of the object.

This results in an X

ct.

and Y

ct

location for

the Centroid (center of area) of the

object. See Diagram 2

We will assume all our beams have uniform density and will not consider the case of non-

uniform density beams. We will also point out that for any beam cross section (or object) which is

symmetry, the centroid will simply be at the geometric center of the cross section. Thus for

rectangular beam and I-beams, the centroid is located at the exact center of the beam. This is not

the case for T-beams.

Centroid of Composite Areas:

Some objects or beams may be formed from several simple areas, such as rectangles, triangles,

etc. (See Diagram 3) In this case the centroid of the compose area may be found by taking the

sum of the produce of each simple area and the distance it's centroid is from the axis, divided by

the sum of the areas. For the composite area shown in Diagram 3, the location of it's x - centroid

would be given by: X ct = (A1 * x1 + A2 * x2 + A3 * x3 + A4 * x4)/(A1 +A2 +A3 + A4)

where x1, x2, x3, and x4 are the distances from the centroid of each simple area to the y-axis as

shown in the Diagram 3. The location of the y - centroid would be given in like manner,

Y ct = (A1 * y1 + A2 * y2 + A3 * y3 + A4 * y4)/(A1 +A2 +A3 + A4)

Moment of Inertia

A second quantity which is of importance when considering beam stresses is the Moment of

Inertia. Once again, the Moment of Inertia as used in Physics involves the mass of the object.

The Moment of Inertia is obtained by breaking the object into very small bits of mass dM,

multiplying these bits of mass by the square of the distance to the x (and y) axis and summing

over the entire object. See Diagram 4. For use with beam stresses, rather than using the Moment

of Inertia as discussed above, we will once again use an Area Moment of Inertia. This Area

Moment of Inertia is obtained by breaking the object into very small bits of area dA,

multiplying these bits of area by the square of the distance to the x (and y) axis and summing

over the entire object. See Diagram 5. The actual value of the moment of inertia depends on the

axis chosen to calculate the moment of the inertia with respect to. Note that the moment of inertia

of any object has its smallest value when calculated with respect to an axis passing through the

centroid of the object.

That is, for a rectangular object, the moment of inertia about an axis passing through the centroid

of the rectangle is: I = 1/12 (base * depth

3

) with units of inches

4

., while the moment of inertia

with respect to an axis through the base of the rectangle is: I = 1/3 (base * depth

3

) in

4

.

Parallel Axis Theorem:

Moments of inertia about different axis may calculated using the Parallel Axis Theorem,

which may be written: I

xx

= I

cc

+ Ad

c-x

2

This says that the moment of inertia about any axis

(I

xx

) parallel to an axis through the centroid of the object is equal to the moment of inertia

about the axis passing through the centroid (I

cc

) plus the product of the area of the object and

the distance between the two parallel axis (Ad

c-x

2

).

We lastly take a moment to define several other concepts related to the Moment of Inertia.

Radius of Gyration: r

xx

= (I

xx

/A)

1/2

The radius of gyration is the distance from an axis which,

if the entire area of the object were located at that distance, it would result in the same

moment of inertia about the axis that the object has.

Polar Moment of Inertia J = r

2

dA The polar moment of inertia is the sum of the produce

of each bit of area dA and the radial distance to an origin squared. In a case as shown in fig. 7,

the polar moment of inertia in related to the x & y moments of inertia by: J = I

xx

+ I

yy

.

All the summations shown above become

integrations as we let the dM's and dA's

approach zero.

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

Center of Gravity

The center of gravity of a body is the point where the equivalent resultant force caused by gravity

is acting. Its coordinates are defined for an arbitrary set of axes as

where x, y, z are the coordinates of an element of weight dW, and W is the total weight of the

body. In the general case, where = specific weight of the material

and dV = elemental volume.

Centroids

If is a constant, the center of gravity coincides with the centroid, which is a geometrical

property of a body. Centroids of lines L, areas A, and volumes V are defined analogously to the

coordinates of the center of gravity,

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express answer in terms of a and h.

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the

area shown. Express answer in terms of a and h.

Determine by direct integration the

centroid of the area shown. Express

answer in terms of a and h.

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.

Determine by direct

Integration the centroid

of the area shown.

A homogeneous wire is bent into the shape shown.

Determine by direct integration the x coordinate of its centroid.

The horizontal x axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown and divides the area into

two component areas A1 and A2. Determine the first moment of each component area with respect

to the x axis, and explain the results obtained.

The horizontal x axis is drawn through the centroid C of the area shown and divides the area into

two component areas A1 and A2. Determine the first moment of each component area with respect

to the x axis, and explain the results obtained.

Continued

Continued

A bronze bushing is mounted inside a steel sleeve. Knowing that the density of bronze is 8800

kg/m3 and of steel is 7860 kg/m3, determine the center of gravity of the assembly.

Moment Of Inertia or Second Moment of Area or Area Moment of Inertia

The Area Moment Of Inertia of a beams cross-sectional area measures the beams ability to resist

bending. The larger the Moment of Inertia the less the beam will bend.

The moment of inertia is a geometrical property of a beam and depends on a reference axis.

The smallest Moment of Inertia about any axis passes through the centroid. The following are the

mathematical equations to calculate the Moment of Inertia:

Ix and Iy

Here y is the distance from the x axis to an infinitesimal area dA.

x is the distance from the y axis to an infinitesimal area dA.

Parallel Axis Theorem or Transfer of Axis Theorem For Area Moments of Inertia

where A is the Cross-sectional Area and

d is the perpendicular distance between the centroidal axis and the parallel axis.

For Area Radius of Gyration :

where k is the Radius of Gyration about an axis Parallel to the Centroidal axis.

: is the Radius of Gyration about the Centroidal axis.

: is the perpendicular distance between the centroidal axis and the parallel axis.

Parallel Axis Theorem

The moment of inertia of any object about an axis through its center of mass is the minimum

moment of inertia for an axis in that direction in space. The moment of inertia about any axis

parallel to that axis through the center of mass is given by

The expression added to the center of mass

moment of inertia will be recognised as

the moment of inertia of a point mass

the moment of inertia about a parallel axis

is the center of mass moment plus

the moment of inertia of the entire object

treated as a point mass at the center of mass.

Polar Moment Of Inertia or Moment of Inertia about the z axis

The Polar Area Moment Of Inertia of a beams cross-sectional area measures the beams ability to

resist torsion. The larger the Polar Moment of Inertia the less the beam will twist.

The following are the mathematical equations to calculate the Polar Moment of Inertia:

J

z

Here y is the distance from the x axis to an infinitesimal area dA.

x is the distance from the y axis to an infinitesimal area dA.

PERPENDICULAR AXIS THEOREM: The moment of inertia of a plane area about an axis

normal to the plane is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about any two mutually

perpendicular axes lying in the plane and passing through the given axis.

J

z

= I

x

+I

y

Find the moment of inertia about the x axis of the following figure:

Calculating Ix:

Perpendicular Axis Theorem

For a planar object, the moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular to the plane is the

sum of the moments of inertia of two perpendicular axes through the same point in the

plane of the object.

The utility of this theorem goes beyond that of calculating moments of strictly planar objects.

It is a valuable tool in the building up of the moments of inertia of three dimensional objects such

as cylinders by breaking them up into planar disks and summing the moments of inertia of the

composite disks.

Determine the moment of inertia and the radius of gyration of the shaded area with respect to the x axis.

Determine by direct integration the moment of inertia of the shaded area with respect to y axis.

At

Then

We know the M.I. about Y axis of a rectangle is (base x height

3

)

Determine by direct integration the

moment of inertia of the shaded

area with respect to the y axis.

Determine by direct integration the

moment of inertia of the shaded

area with respect to the y axis.

By observation

Then

Now

Determine by direct integration the

moment of inertia of the shaded

area with respect to the y axis.

Have

At

or

Then

At

or

Then

Determine by direct integration the

moment of inertia of the shaded

area with respect to the x axis.

Determine by direct integration the moment of

inertia of the shaded area with respect to the x axis.

At

Determine by direct integration the

moment of inertia of the shaded

area with respect to the x axis.

Center of Mass for Particles

The center of mass is the point at which all the mass can be considered to be "concentrated" for

the purpose for the purpose of calculating the "first moment", i.e., mass times distance.

For two masses this distance is calculated from

For the more general collection of N particles this becomes

and when extended to three dimensions:

This approach applies to discrete masses even if they are not point masses if the position x

i

is

taken to be the position of the center of mass of the i

th

mass.

The Mass Moment of Inertia of a solid measures the solid's ability to resist changes in

rotational speed about a specific axis.

The larger the Mass Moment of Inertia the smaller the angular acceleration about that axis for a

given torque.

The mass moment of inertia depends on a reference axis, and is usually specified with two

subscripts. This helps to provide clarity during three-dimensional motion where rotation can

occur about multiple axes.

Following are the mathematical equations to calculate the Mass Moment of Inertia:

x is the distance from the yz-plane to an infinitesimal area dA.

y is the distance from the zx-plane to an infinitesimal area dA.

z is the distance from the xy-plane to an infinitesimal area dA.

m

r

O

O

Mass moment of inertia for a particle: The mass moment of inertia is one measure of the

distribution of the mass of an object relative to a given axis. The mass moment of inertia is

denoted by I and is given for a single particle of mass m as

where O-O is the axis around which one is evaluating the mass moment of

inertia, and r is the perpendicular distance between the mass and the axis O-O.

As can be seen from the above equation, the mass moment of inertia has the

units of mass times length squared.

Mass moments of inertia naturally appear in the equations of motion, and

provide information on how difficult (how much inertia there is) it is rotate the

particle around given axis.

The mass moment of inertial should not be confused with the area moment

of inertia which has units of length to the power four.

Mass moment of inertia for a rigid body: When calculating the mass

moment of inertia for a rigid body, one thinks of the body as a sum of

particles, each having a mass of dm. Integration is used to sum the

moment of inertia of each dm to get the mass moment of inertia of body.

dm

m

r

O

O

The equation for the mass moment of inertia of the rigid body is the integration over mass can

be replaced by integration over volume, area, or length. For a fully three dimensional body using

the density one can relate the element of mass to the element of volume. In this case the

density has units of mass per length cubed and the relation is given as

and the equation for the mass moment of inertia becomes

The integral is actually a triple integral . If the coordinate system used is rectangular then

dV=dxdydz . If the coordinates uses are cylindrical coordinates then

For a two dimensional body like a plate or a shell one can use density per unit area (units

of mass per length squared) to change the integration using the relation where A is

the surface area and dA differential element of area.

For example, for rectangular coordinates dA=dxdy and for polar coordinates . After

this substitution one gets the equation to calculate the mass moment of inertia as .

If the body is a rod like object then one can use the relation to get

where l is a coordinate along the length of the rod and the density is in

units of mass per unit length.

dA rdrd = u

Sometime in place of the mass moment of inertia the radius of gyration k is provided. The mass

moment of inertia can be calculated from k using the relation where m is the total

mass of the body. One can interpret the radius of gyration as the distance from the axis that one

could put a single particle of mass m equal to the mass of the rigid body and have this particle

have the same mass moment of inertia as the original body.

O

O

CM

d

r

r

m

Parallel-axis theorem: The moment of inertia around any axis can be calculated from the

moment of inertia around parallel axis which passes through the center of mass. The equation to

calculate this is called the parallel axis theorem and is given as

where d is the distance between the original axis and the axis

passing through the center of mass, m is the total mass of the body,

and is the moment of inertia around the axis passing through the

center of mass.

Composite bodies: If a body is composed of several bodies, to calculate the moment of inertia

about a given axis

simply calculate the moment of inertia of each part around the given axis and then

add them to get the mass moment of inertia of the total body.

Calculate the mass moment of inertia of the triangular plate about the y-axis. Assume the plate is

made of a uniform material and has a mass of m.

The mass moment of inertia about the y-axis is given by

The element of area in rectangular coordinate system is given by

} }

= =

A

yy

dA r dm r I

2 2

B

x

y

h

a

dydx dxdy dA = =

s s

s s

y

h

a

x

h y

0

0

y

h

a

h

z

y

a

The domain of the triangle is defined by

The distance from the y-axis is x. Therefore, r=x.

The mass moment of inertia about the y-axis can

be written as

12

3

3

0

3

3

3

0 0

2 2

h a

dy y

h

a

dxdy x dA r I

h y

y

h y

y

y

h

a

x

x A

yy

=

=

= =

}

} } }

=

=

=

=

=

=

For a uniform plate the density can be calculated using the total mass and total area of the plate so

that

ah

m

A

m

2

1

= =

6 12

2 3

m a h a

I

yy

= =

Therefore, the moment of inertia in terms of the total mass of

the cone can be written as

a

h

z

y

x

Calculate the mass moment of inertia of the cone about the z-axis. Assume the cone is made of a

uniform material of density (mass per unit volume).

The mass moment of inertia about the z-axis is given by

} }

= =

V

zz

dV r dm r I

2 2

B

The element of volume in a cylindrical coordinate system is given

by

The domain of the cone in cylindrical coordinates is defined by

dz rdrd dV u =

z

h

a

h

z

z

a

r

z

u

s s

s s

s s

t u 2 0

0

0

z

h

a

r

h z

Therefore, the mass moment of inertia about

the z-axis can be written as

10

2

4

4

0

4

4

4

0

2

0

4

4

4

0

2

0 0

3 2

t

t

u

u

t u

u

t u

u

h a

dz z

h

a

dz d z

h

a

dz drd r dV r I

h z

z

h z

z

h z

z

z

h

a

r

r V

zz

}

} }

} } } }

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

= =

=

= =

h a

m

V

m

2

3

1

t

= =

10

3

10

2 4

m a h a

I

zz

= =

t

For a uniform cone the density can be calculated using the total mass and total volume of the

cone so that

Therefore, the moment of inertia in terms of the total mass of the cone can be written as

Moment of Inertia: Cylinder

The expression for the moment of inertia of a solid cylinder can be built up from the moment of

inertia of thin cylindrical shells. Using the general definition for moment of inertia:

The mass element can be expressed in terms of

an infinitesimal radial thickness dr by

Substituting gives a polynomial form integral:

Moment of Inertia: Hollow Cylinder

The expression for the moment of inertia of a hollow cylinder or hoop of finite thickness is

obtained by the same process as that for a solid cylinder. The process involves adding up the

moments of infinitesimally thin cylindrical shells. The only difference from the solid cylinder is

that the integration takes place from the inner radius a to the outer radius b:

Moment of Inertia: Cylinder About Perpendicular Axis

The development of the expression for the moment of inertia of a cylinder about a diameter at its

end (the x-axis in the diagram) makes use of both the parallel axis theorem and the perpendicular

axis theorem. The approach involves finding an expression for a thin disk at distance z from the

axis and summing over all such disks.

Obtaining the moment of inertia of the full cylinder about a diameter at its end involves summing

over an infinite number of thin disks at different distances from that axis. This involves an

integral from z=0 to z=L. For any given disk at distance z from the x axis, using the parallel axis

theorem gives the moment of inertia about the x axis.

Note that it is the sum of the expressions for a thin disk about a diameter plus the expression for a

thin rod about its end.

If you take the limiting case of R=0 you get the thin rod expression, and if you take the case

where L=0 you get the thin disk expression.

Now expressing the mass element dm in terms of z, we can integrate over the length of the

cylinder.

Moment of Inertia: Thin Disk

The moment of inertia of a thin circular disk is the same as that for a solid cylinder of any length,

but it deserves special consideration because it is often used as an element for building up the

moment of inertia expression for other geometries, such as the sphere or the cylinder about an

end diameter.

The moment of inertia about a diameter is the classic example of the perpendicular axis

theorem

For a planar object:

Moment of Inertia: Sphere

The expression for the moment of inertia of a sphere can be developed by summing the

moments of infinitesimally thin disks about the z axis.

The moment of inertia of a thin disk is

- BSR Notes ictadHochgeladen vonDavid Web
- Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics 7th - Cap 02Hochgeladen vonuntouchable8x
- Metacentric HeightHochgeladen vonanil chejara
- Statics Chapter 5Hochgeladen vonrbrackins
- 32089360 Engineering Mechanics Question BankHochgeladen vonvelavansu
- Shear force and Bending Moment DiagramHochgeladen vonumar naeem
- Ch.09 Center of Gravity and CentroidHochgeladen vonCK_85_3
- Problem Set 7 (Key) IIHochgeladen vonwheeler8921
- Assignment 7Hochgeladen vonbcanturkyilmaz
- Head LossHochgeladen vonАнтон Димов
- Problem Set 5 (Key)Hochgeladen vonwheeler8921
- Backflush Accounting Fm May06 p43-44Hochgeladen vonkhengmai
- Calculation of Second Moment of AreaHochgeladen vonsweetpou_04
- Experiment on Linear Vibration ApparatusHochgeladen vonanuradamudalige
- CRACKS IN BUILDINGSHochgeladen vonAbdisamed Ahmed
- RecursionHochgeladen vonmrbkiter
- Centroids IntegrationHochgeladen vondcasali
- Centroids & Moment of InertiaHochgeladen vonswenthomas
- Tom Lab 01-12-2006 Latest ShamsuHochgeladen vonsal_ssabri
- ENGN 36 HomeworkHochgeladen von082292fer
- CentroidHochgeladen vonragupathiindia
- 4. Moment of InertiaHochgeladen vonSneha Gadamsetty
- 1-s2.0-S026130690900034X-mainHochgeladen vonshamseena
- transientHochgeladen vonUzair Ali
- foundation designHochgeladen von2011kumar
- Free Surface EffectHochgeladen vonFarid Muhamad
- Load Bearing BrickworkHochgeladen vonIbnuyusoff77
- BIM NowandBeyondHochgeladen vonthouartu

- Near Shore Structures_pdfHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Validity of ToR.pdfHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Estimating Mixed Layer Depth from Oceanic Profile Data.pdfHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- BC PunmiaHochgeladen vonAssignment Uploader
- marine hydrodynamicsHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- JacketHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- CGPA to PercentageHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Matlab Random WavesHochgeladen vonAlexis Lopez
- Tsunami DMPHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- marine hydrodynamicsHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Mixed LayerHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Acoustic ImpedanceHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Chemmeen BiryaniHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- marine hydrodynamicsHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Groundwater and Ecosystems_Ribeiro (2013)Hochgeladen vonLuis Alonso SA
- Proposed ToR - RamcoHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- upsc2012Hochgeladen vonGuna
- Wave TableHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- tides tutorial.pdfHochgeladen vonrschrey
- tsunami_ency.pdfHochgeladen vonAzki Zainal Milach
- Introduction to Offshore Technology - (HE303)Hochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Gravity PlatformsHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Shore temples in IndiaHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Anchors 2010 ReadingHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- 8182473489Hochgeladen vonkabirakhan2007
- Pages 230 - 247 - Dynamics of Marine CraftHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- dynamics of floating bodiesHochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran
- Strength of Materials (HE 306)Hochgeladen vonAnu Parameswaran

- Errata Hecht Optics 4thEdition Chris MackHochgeladen vonasifula_1
- Limits of Sequences _ Brilliant Math & Science WikiHochgeladen vonKunal Ladhani
- List StudyHochgeladen vonJoseph Hayes
- VMD Visualization Scripting TopoToolsHochgeladen vonsatish lukka
- seq2sqlHochgeladen vonViswanath Gangavaram
- FEA All FormulaHochgeladen vonVickraman S
- Ad 0646719Hochgeladen vonDesarollo Organizacional
- (FOREX) MTPredictor Trading Course - Part2Hochgeladen vonlestercedes
- Motivations Which Influence Volunteers’ SatisfactionHochgeladen vonforjoe45
- Forces and Dynamics Physics IBHochgeladen vonsupergirl123
- OPTIMIZATION OF GEAR TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF GEARBOXHochgeladen vonijaert
- Trig Chapter 1Hochgeladen vonJia Hui Tan
- 4 - Assignment02Hochgeladen vonDawood Awan
- mape02.pdfHochgeladen vonAnonymous yPWi8p3KkA
- 1e doc 2Hochgeladen vonapi-458585959
- Marcelo Viana - Stochastic Dynamics of Deterministic SystemsHochgeladen vonGuga José Carlos
- __www.steelconstruction.info_Braced_frames.pdfHochgeladen vonNIE
- Physics Chapter 1bHochgeladen vonnikitad14
- 02 Chapter 2 – Force VectorHochgeladen vonShaun Kerouac
- azciftommproceedingsHochgeladen vonozymech
- Assignment No. 3 CIVL6785 Sp 2014Hochgeladen vonAhmad Sana
- GlaceyK Final 063011 LAHochgeladen vonCostab.
- Naruto Shippuden Utakata HanabiHochgeladen vonWaleed El-Sharkawy
- SQL PART-IHochgeladen vonapi-25919427
- The Application of Taguchi Method in Optimization of Tool Life in Turning Operation of High Carbon High Chromium Steel - by Er. Rahul DavisHochgeladen vonRahul Davis
- Set Axomatric TheoryHochgeladen vonrshegde
- 141373562-SigmaNESTReferenceManual-En.pdfHochgeladen vonAlejandro Hernandez
- 2dig_circ1Hochgeladen von1553
- Lecture 2 Decision Analysis QM 2 SlidesHochgeladen vonNella King
- Worksheet 5.1 - 5.2 math.pdfHochgeladen vonMega Ratnasari

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.