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# Chapter 2

## Questions and Problems

1. Building a Balance Sheet Swedish Pucks AB has current assets of 35,000 kroner, net fixed assets of 161,000 kroner, current liabilities of 30,100 kroner, and long-term debt of 91,000 kroner. What is the value of the shareholders' equity account for this firm? How much is net working capital?

1.

To find owners equity, we must construct a balance sheet as follows: Balance Sheet CA NFA TA SEK 35,000 161,000 SEK 196,000 CL LTD OE SEK 30,100 91,000 ?? TL & OESEK 196,000

2. Building an Income Statement Papa Roach Exterminators, Inc., has sales of \$527,000, costs of \$280,000, depreciation expense of \$38,000, interest expense of \$15,000, and a tax rate of 35 percent. What is the net income for this firm?

2.

The income statement for the company is: Income Statement Sales Costs Depreciation EBIT Interest EBT Taxes(35%) Net income \$527,000 280,000 38,000 \$209,000 15,000 \$194,000 67,900 \$126,100

3. Dividends and Retained Earnings Suppose the firm in Problem 2 paid out \$48,000 in cash dividends. What is the addition to retained earnings?

3. One equation for net income is: Net income = Dividends + Addition to retained earnings Rearranging, we get: Addition to retained earnings = Net income Dividends = \$126,100 48,000 = \$78,100

4. Per-Share Earnings and Dividends Suppose the firm in Problem 3 had 30,000 shares of common stock outstanding. What is the earnings per share, or EPS, figure? What is the dividends per share figure?

4. EPS= Net income / Shares = \$126,100 / 30,000 = \$4.20 per share DPS= Dividends / Shares = \$48,000 / 30,000 = \$1.60 per share

5. Market Values and Book Values Taipei Widgets purchased new machinery three years ago for 7 million Taiwanese dollars. The machinery can be sold to an outside firm today for TWD 3.2 million. Taipei's current balance sheet shows net fixed assets of TWD 4,000,000, current liabilities of TWD 2,200,000, and net working capital of TWD 900,000. If all the current assets were liquidated today, the company would receive TWD 2.8 million cash. What is the book value of Taipei's assets today? What is the market value?

To find the book value of current assets, we use: NWC = CA CL. Rearranging to solve for current assets, we get:

CA = NWC + CL = TWD 900K + 2.2M = TWD 3.1M The market value of current assets and fixed assets is given, so:

Book value CA

= TWD 3.1M

## = TWD 2.8M = TWD 3.2M

Book value NFA = TWD 4.0M Book value assets Market value assets

= TWD 3.1M + 4.0M = TWD 7.1M = TWD 2.8M + 3.2M = TWD 6.0M

8. Calculating OCF Ranney NV has sales of 13,500, costs of 5,400, depreciation expense of 1,200, and interest expense of 680. If the tax rate is 35 percent, what is the operating cash flow, or OCF?

8.

To calculate OCF, we first need the income statement: Income Statement Sales Costs Depreciation EBIT Interest Taxable income Taxes (35%) Net income 13,500 5,400 1,200 6,900 680 6,220 2,177 4,043

## OCF = EBIT + Depreciation Taxes = 6,900 + 1,200 2,177 = 5,923

9. Calculating Net Capital Spending Gordon Driving School's 2004 balance sheet showed net fixed assets of \$4.2 million, and the 2005 balance sheet showed net fixed assets of \$4.7 million. The company's 2005 income statement showed a depreciation expense of \$925,000. What was Gordon's net capital spending for 2005 ?

9. Net capital spending = NFAend NFAbeg + Depreciation= \$4.7M 4.2M + 925K = \$1.425M

10. Calculating Additions to NWC The 2004 balance sheet of Cape Town Records, showed current assets of ZAR 9,400 and current liabilities of ZAR 5,600. The 2005 balance sheet showed current assets of ZAR 10,240 and current liabilities of ZAR 8,400. What was the company's 2005 change in net working capital, or NWC?

10. Change in NWC = NWCend NWCbeg Change in NWC = (CAend CLend) (CAbeg CLbeg) Change in NWC = (ZAR 10,240 8,400) (ZAR 9,400 5,600) Change in NWC = ZAR 1,840 3,800 = ZAR 1960

11. Cash Flow to Creditors The 2004 balance sheet of Anna's Tennis Shop showed long-term debt of 2.8 million rubles, and the 2005 balance sheet showed long-term debt of 3.1 million rubles. The 2005 income statement showed an interest expense of 340,000 rubles. What was the firm's cash flow to creditors during 2005 ?

11. Cash flow to creditors = Interest paid Net new borrowing = RUR 340K (LTDend LTDbeg) Cash flow to creditors = RUR 340K (RUR 3.1M 2.8M) = RUR 340K 300K = RUR 40K

12. Cash Flow to Stockholders The 2004 balance sheet of Anna's Tennis Shop showed 820,000 rubles in the common stock account and 6.8 million rubles in the additional paid-in surplus account. The 2005 balance sheet showed 855,000 rubles and 7.6 million rubles in the same two accounts, respectively. If the company paid out 600,000 rubles in cash dividends during 2005, what was the cash flow to stockholders for the year?

12. Cash flow to stockholders = Dividends paid Net new equity Cash flow to stockholders = RUR 600K [(Commonend + APISend) (Commonbeg + APISbeg)] Cash flow to stockholders = RUR 600K [(RUR 820K + 6.8M) (RUR 855K + 7.6M)] Cash flow to stockholders = RUR 600K [RUR 7.62M 8.455M] = RUR 235K Note, APIS is the additional paid-in surplus.

13. Calculating Total Cash Flows Given the information for Anna's Tennis Shop in Problems 11 and 12, suppose you also know that the firm's net capital spending for 2005 was 760,000 rubles, and that the firm reduced its net working capital investment by 165,000 rubles. What was the firm's 2005 operating cash flow, or OCF?

13. Cash flow from assets= Cash flow to creditors + Cash flow to stockholders= RUR 40K 235K = RUR 195K Cash flow from assets= RUR 195K = OCF Change in NWC Net capital spending= OCF (RUR 165K) 760K = RUR 195K Operating cash flow = RUR 195K 165K + 760K = RUR 400K

14. Calculating Total Cash Flows Bedrock Gravel Corp. shows the following information on its 2005 income statement: sales = \$145,000; costs == \$86,000; other expenses = \$4,900; depreciation expense = \$7,000; interest expense = \$15,000; taxes = \$12,840; dividends = \$8,700. In addition, you're told that the firm issued \$6,450 in new equity during 2005, and redeemed \$6,500 in outstanding long-term debt. a. What is the 2005 operating cash flow? b. What is the 2005 cash flow to creditors? c. What is the 2005 cash flow to stockholders? d. If net fixed assets increased by \$5,000 during the year, what was the addition to NWC?

14.

To find the OCF, we first calculate net income. Income Statement Sales Costs Depreciation Other expenses EBIT Interest Taxable income Taxes (34%) Net income Dividends Additions to RE \$10,560 \$145,000 86,000 7,000 4,900 \$47,100 15,000 \$32,100 12,840 \$19,260 \$8,700

a. OCF = EBIT + Depreciation Taxes = \$47,100 + 7,000 12,840 = \$41,260 b. CFC = Interest Net new LTD = \$15,000 \$6,500 = \$21,500. Note that the net new long-term debt is negative because the company repaid part of its long-term debt. c. CFS = Dividends Net new equity = \$8,700 6,450 = \$2,250

d. We know that CFA = CFC + CFS, so: CFA = \$21,500 + 2,250 = \$23,750 CFA is also equal to OCF Net capital spending Change in NWC. We already know OCF. Net capital spending is equal to: Net capital spending = Increase in NFA + Depreciation = \$5,000 + 7,000 = \$12,000.

Now we can use: CFA = OCF Net capital spending Change in NWC \$23,750 = \$41,260 12,000 Change in NWC. Solving for the change in NWC gives \$5,510, meaning the company increased its NWC by \$5,510.

16. Preparing a Balance Sheet Prepare a 2005 balance sheet for Tim's Couch Corp. based on the following information: cash = \$175,000; patents and copyrights =\$720,000; accounts payable = \$430,000; accounts receivable = \$140,000; tangible net fixed assets = \$2,900,000; inventory = \$265,000; notes payable = \$180,000; accumulated retained earnings = \$1,240,000; long-term debt = \$1,430,000.

16.

The balance sheet for the company looks like this: Balance Sheet Cash Accounts receivable Inventory Current assets Intangible net fixed assets Total assets \$175,000 140,000 265,000 \$580,000 720,000 \$4,200,000 Accounts payable Notes payable Current liabilities Long-term debt Total liabilities Common stock Accumulated ret. earnings Total liab. & owners equity \$430,000 80,000 \$610,000 1,430,000 \$2,040,000 ?? 1,240,000 \$4,200,000

Total liabilities and owners equity is: TL & OE = CL + LTD + Common stock Solving for this equation for equity gives us: Common stock = \$4,200,000 1,240,000 2,040,000 = \$920,000

19. Net Income and OCF During 2005, Sun Shade Partners, a Saudi Arabian firm, had sales of 1,950,000 riyals. Cost of goods sold, administrative and selling expenses, and depreciation expenses were SAR 1,430,000, SAR 920,000, and SAR 515,000, respectively. In addition, the company had an interest expense of SAR 500,000 and a tax rate of 35 percent. (Ignore any tax loss carry-back or carry-forward provisions.) a. What is Sun Shade's net income for? b. what is its operating cash flow? c. Explain your results in (a) and (b).

19. Sales

Income Statement SAR 1,950,000 1,430,000 920,000 515,000 (SAR 915,000) 500,000 0 (SAR 1,415,000) COGS A&S expenses Depreciation EBIT Interest Taxes (35%) a. Net income

## Taxable income(SAR 1,415,000)

b. OCF = EBIT + Depreciation Taxes = (SAR 915,000) + 515,000 0 = (SAR 400,000) c. Net income was negative 1.415 million riyals because of the tax deductibility of depreciation and interest expense. However, the actual cash flow from operations was just negative 400,000 riyals because depreciation is a non-cash expense and interest is a financing expense, not an operating expense.